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Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923

Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923

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Published by: KNOWLEDGE CREATORS on Feb 05, 2009
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05/10/2014

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Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 AFTERSCHO☻OL

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Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923
AFTERSCHO☺OL
Centre for social entrepreneurship Bikaner M: 9414430763 tkjainbkn@yahoo.co.in www.afterschool.tk, www.afterschoool.tk Dr. T.K. Jain.

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Objectives of the law…

• One of the oldest legislation of social security in India. • a workman who dies or suffers disablement (partial or total) due to accident is entitled to get compensation.

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Coverage – even if one worker is employed… • The act is applicable on factories etc. (where ESI Act is not applicable), however, this act is applicable even when only one worker is employed and it is not a not a factory‘ under Factories Act. Sunil Industries v. Ram Chander 2000 AIR SCW 4109 = 2001 LLR 64 = 2000(7) SCALE 415.
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Workmen under the act: • Section : 2(1)(n) • Workman‘ means * railway servant * crew of ship * Crew of aircraft * Driver, cleaner, helper or mechanic of motor vehicle * Person recruited abroad * Employed in capacity specified in Schedule II The central govt. or state govt. can add new class of workmen in schedule II after giving at least 3 month notice.
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Schedule II
• It includes manufacturing process, explosives, mine, ship, loading/unloading, construction, electricity generation and distribution, drivers, horticulture, circus etc. • Cultivation of land, fishing, rearing of live stock is covered if more than 25 persons are employed. • Persons employed outside are also covered. However, persons employed in clerical capacity are excluded.
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Mode of compensation…

• Mode of computation of compensation is given in section 4 of the Act. Compensation is payable to workmen. It is payable to dependents of workman in case of death.

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Coverage : all the workers in factories etc. are covered…
• Every employee, including those employed through contractor, but excluding casual employees who is engaged for purpose of employer‘s business is eligible. The Act does not cover employees employed in clerical capacity. However, workmen in manufacturing processes, mines, ships, construction, tractor or mechanical appliances in agriculture, circus etc. and also drivers, watchmen etc. are covered. The compensation is payable if accident arises out of and during the cause of employment, and such accident causes either death or disablement.
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Coverage…- employees covered under ESIC not to be covered by this law • Employee State Insurance Act is also similar law and therefore a worker cannot get compensation under two laws • Since a workman is entitled to get compensation from ESIC, a workman covered under ESI Act is not entitled to get compensation under Workmen‘s Compensation Act, as per section 53 of ESIC.
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Employer’s liability to pay compensation

• An employer is liable to pay compensation if personal injury is caused to a workman by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment. [section 3(1)]

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Exceptions – when compensation is not available :
• In case of Injury which does not result in total or partial disablement of workman for a period exceeding 3 days • Injury caused by an accident directly attributable to workman under influence of drinks or drugs willful disobedience of express orders for safety willful removal of safety guard or device. [Even if such case, if the workman dies or suffers permanent total disablement, the employer will be liable]. •
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Who are dependent persons?
• Sec. 2(1) (d) : • (1)widow, minor legitimate or adopted son, an unmarried legitimate or adopted daughter, or a widowed mother • (2) if wholly dependent, - son, daughter who has attained the age of 18 years, and who is infirm and • (3) if wholly / partly dependent : • Widower • a parent other than widowed mother • Minor illegitimate son, unmarried illegitimate daughter
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Continued… • Daughter legitimate or illegitimate or adopted if married and a minor or if widowed and a minor • Widowed daughter in law • A minor child of a pre=deceased son • A minor child of a pre-deceased daughter where no parent of the child is alive • A paternal grandparent, if no parent of the workman is alive
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What is partial disablement?
• Where disablement reduces the earning capacity of the workman in the employment in which is was working at the time of accident - it is called temporary partial disablement. • Where disablement reduces the earning capacity for all times in every employment in which he was capable earlier – it is called permanent partial disablement. • Schedule I gives list of diseases which causes permanent partial disablement.
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What is total disablement? • Whether temporary or permanent – which incapacitates a workman for all work which he was able to perform at the time of accident (mentioned in part I of schedule I or combination of injuries mentioned in Part II of schedule I, where the aggregate of such injuries is 100% or more)
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Example: • Pratap Narain Singh Deo Vs sriniwas Sabata : (1976) : a carpenter lost his left hand, it was held by the court that he suffered from total disablement – as he would not get any job of carpentry – as now he cannot do carpentry.

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Employment disease

• Employer is liable if a workman contracts any specified occupational disease, while he is in service of employer for at least 6 months. [section 3(2)].

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Compensation payable – even if no fault of employer • The compensation is payable even when there was no fault of employer. In New India Assurance Co. Ltd. v. Pennamna Kuriern - (1995) 84 Comp. Cas. 251 (Ker HC DB), claim of workmen for compensation under Motor Vehicle Act was rejected due to negligence of employee, but compensation was awarded under Workmen‘s Compensation Act on the principle of no fault‘.
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Quantum of compensation
• In case of death resulting from injury, minimum compensation is Rs. 80,000. Maximum compensation is an amount equal to 50% of monthly wages of deceased workman multiplied by factor depending on age (More the age, lower the compensation). If salary exceeds Rs 4,000, it will be considered as Rs 4,000 only for purpose of calculating the compensation. Maximum compensation is Rs. 4,57,080 if a person at the time of death was 16 years of age an. In addition, funeral expenses upto Rs 2,500 are payable. [section 4(3)].

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Quantum of compensation in case of disablement…
• In case of permanent total disablement, minimum compensation is Rs. 90,000. Maximum compensation is an amount equal to 60% of monthly wages of deceased workman multiplied by factor depending on age (More the age, lower the compensation). Maximum compensation payable is Rs. 5,48,496, if workman was 16 years of age at the time of accident. - - In case of permanent partial disablement, compensation is payable on basis of percentage of loss of earning capacity.
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Compensation – protected…

• The compensation paid under the Act is protected, i.e. it cannot be attached or assigned. [section 9].

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Compensation – liability of principal employer – even if employed through contractor…

• Principal Employer is liable to pay the amount of compensation for the injury suffered by workman employed through contractor, if the accident arises as a result of accident arising out of and during the course of employment. [section 12].

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Payment of compensation through commissioner…
• A Commissioner for Workmen‘s Compensation is appointed by Government. The compensation must be paid only through the Commissioner in case of death or total disablement. Any lump sum payment to workman under the Act must be made only through Commissioner. Direct payment to workman or his dependents is not recognised at all as compensation. However, in case of death, if employer has paid some compensation to dependent, that will be refunded to employer. [section 8(1)].
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Expenditure by employer is not compensation… • Expenditure made by employer for medical treatment of workman is not considered for purposes of the compensation.

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Punishment to employee for disobedience etc.
• Any punishment of suspension or dismissal can be imposed after conducting a Domestic Enquiry‘. Principles of natural justice have to be followed. Termination of an employee without following principles of natural justice is violative of Article 21 of Constitution - D K Yadavv. JMA Industries Ltd. 1993(67) FLR 111 (SC) = 1993 LLR 584 = 1993 AIR SCW 1995 = (1993) 3 SCC 259 = 1993(3) SCALE 39 = JT (1993) 3 SC 617 = 1993(2) LLN 575 (SC).
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Procedure of enquiry … • For proper conduct of enquiry (1) Employee should be informed of charges leveled against him (2) Witnesses should be ordinarily examined before him. (3) The employee should be given fair opportunity to cross examine the witnesses, including himself (4) The enquiry officer should record his findings with reasons. – Sur Enamel v. Workmen (1964) 3 SCR 616 = (1963) 2 LLJ 367 (SC)
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Compensation payable even if worker was careless…
• Compensation is payable even if it is found that the employee did not take proper precautions. An employee is not entitled to get compensation only if (a) he was drunk or had taken drugs (b) he wilfully disobeyed orders in respect of safety (c) he wilfully removed safety guards of machines. However, compensation cannot be denied on the ground that workman was negligent or careless. – Mar Themotheous v. Santosh Raj 2001 LLR 164 (Ker HC DB).
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About AFTERSCHO☺OL • PGPSE - World’s most comprehensive programme on social entrepreneurship – after class 12th • Flexible – fast changing to meet the requirements • Admission open throughout the year • Complete support from beginning to the end – from idea generation to making the project viable.
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Branches of AFTERSCHO☺OL • PGPSE programme is open all over the world as free online programme. • Those who complete PSPSE have the freedom to start branches of AFTERSCHO☺OL • A few branches have already started one such branch is at KOTA (Rajasthan).

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Workshop on social entrepreneurship

• We conduct workshop on social entrepreneurship – all over India and out of India also - in school, college, club, association or any such place - just send us a call and we will come to conduct the workshop on social entrepreeurship. • These workshops are great moments of learning, sharing, and commitments.
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FREE ONLINE PROGRAMME
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Pursue professional courses along with PGPSE

• AFTERSCHO☺OL permits you to pursue distance education based professional / vocational courses and gives you support for that also. Many students are doing CA / CS/ ICWA / CMA / FRM / CFP / CFA and other courses along with PGPSE. • Come and join AFTERSCHO☺OL

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