AP® Statistics

2011 Free-Response Questions
Form B

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Questions begin on page 6.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Formulas begin on page 3. -2- . Tables begin on page 12.

1) + (n2 .x n -1 sp = (n1 .1 Ë sx b1 = r sy sx (  yi .1) yˆ = b0 + b1 x ( )(  xi .1)s22 (n1 .b1 x r = Êx 1 ÂÁ i n .yˆi sb = 1 x ˆ Ê yi .x )2 )2 -3- .1)s21 + (n2 .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Formulas (I) Descriptive Statistics  xi n x = ( ) sx = 2 1  xi .y b1 = (  xi .x )2 ) b0 = y .x yi .y ˆ ˜Á s ˜ ¯Ë y ¯ ( n-2  xi .

then: Ê nˆ P ( X = k ) = Á ˜ p k (1 .p)n .p) μ pˆ = p p(1 . then: μx = μ sx = s n -4- .μ x ) 2 pi If X has a binomial distribution with parameters n and p.k Ë k¯ μ x = np s x = np(1 .P ( A « B ) P ( A B) = P ( A « B) P ( B) E ( X ) = μ x = Â xi pi ( Var( X ) = s 2x = Â xi .p) n s pˆ = If x is the mean of a random sample of size n from an infinite population with mean μ and standard deviation s .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) (II) Probability P ( A » B ) = P ( A) + P ( B ) .

p1 ) p2 (1 .p ) Chi-square test statistic = Â -5- 1 1 + n1 n2 (observed .p2 ) + n1 n2 Difference of sample proportions Special case when p1 = p2 p (1 .p) n Statistic Two-Sample Standard Deviation of Statistic Statistic Difference of sample means s12 s 22 + n1 n2 Special case when s1 = s 2 s 1 1 + n1 n2 p1 (1 .expected )2 expected .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) (III) Inferential Statistics Standardized test statistic: statistic .parameter standard deviation of statistic Confidence interval: statistic ± (critical value ) ∑ (standard deviation of statistic ) Single-Sample Sample Mean Standard Deviation of Statistic s n Sample Proportion p(1 .

1. explain how you think the mean P-T ratio during the 2001–2002 school year will compare for the two groups (west and east). (c) Using your answers in parts (a) and (b). (b) Write a few sentences comparing the distributions of P-T ratios for states in the two groups (west and east) during the 2001–2002 school year. because you will be scored on the correctness of your methods as well as on the accuracy and completeness of your results and explanations. Then use this procedure to estimate the median of the west group and the median of the east group. Percent of Section II score—75 Directions: Show all your work. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.org. and the histogram on the right displays the ratios for the 26 states that are east of the Mississippi River. the ratio of the number of pupils to the number of teachers (P-T ratio) can be calculated for each state. -6- .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) STATISTICS SECTION II Part A Questions 1-5 Spend about 65 minutes on this part of the exam. © 2011 The College Board. The histogram on the left displays the ratios for the 24 states that are west of the Mississippi River. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Records are kept by each state in the United States on the number of pupils enrolled in public schools and the number of teachers employed by public schools for each school year. The histograms below show the P-T ratio for every state during the 2001–2002 school year.collegeboard. (a) Describe how you would use the histograms to estimate the median P-T ratio for each group (west and east) of states. From these records. Indicate clearly the methods you use.

and no randomization was used. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. (c) A newspaper article that summarized the results of this study did not explain how it was determined which people received D-cycloserine and which received the placebo.10 probability that a coach-class ticket holder who flies frequently will be upgraded to first class on any flight. Explain why such a method of assignment might lead to an incorrect conclusion.org. People with acrophobia (fear of heights) sometimes enroll in therapy sessions to help them overcome this fear. and the remaining 10 people received a placebo. Three months after the administration of the pills and the two therapy sessions. none of the 27 people received additional pills or therapy. (a) Was this study an experiment or an observational study? Provide an explanation to support your answer. Seventeen of the 27 people were randomly assigned to receive a D-cycloserine pill. Sam is a frequent flier who always purchases coach-class tickets. the D-cycloserine group showed statistically significantly more improvement than the placebo group did. Each of 27 people who participated in the study received a pill before each of two therapy sessions. (b) When the data were analyzed. (a) What is the probability that Sam’s first upgrade will occur after the third flight? (b) What is the probability that Sam will be upgraded exactly 2 times in his next 20 flights? (c) Sam will take 104 flights next year.collegeboard. each of the 27 people was evaluated to see if he or she had improved.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 2. -7- . used in combination with fewer therapy sessions. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. This outcome is independent from flight to flight. © 2011 The College Board. Suppose the researchers allowed the therapists to choose which people received D-cycloserine and which received the placebo. would help people with acrophobia overcome this fear. Would you be surprised if Sam receives more than 20 upgrades to first class during the year? Justify your answer. Typically. seven or eight therapy sessions are needed before improvement is noticed. An airline claims that there is a 0. 3. After the two therapy sessions. Based on this result. A study was conducted to determine whether the drug D-cycloserine. would the researchers be justified in concluding that the D-cycloserine pill and two therapy sessions are as beneficial as eight therapy sessions without the pill? Justify your answer.

P-Value = 0. DF = 4. (c) Given the results from the chi-square test. To obtain some information. negative).700 60 97 64 39 200 Total Chi-Sq = 13. Computer output that resulted from performing this test is shown below.000 students attending the university. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.200 19 11. © 2011 The College Board. no effect.200 5 6.825 35 No effect 58 50. Average Time Spent on Part-Time Jobs Perception of the Effect of PartTime Work on Academic Achievement Less Than 11 Hours per Week 11 to 20 Hours per Week More Than 20 Hours per Week Positive Effect 21 9 5 No Effect 58 32 15 Negative Effect 18 23 19 A chi-square test was used to determine if there is an association between the effect of part-time work on academic achievement and the average number of hours per week that students work.org.600 15 20. The data in the table below summarize the students’ responses by average number of hours worked per week (less than 11. -8- . 11 to 20. CHI-SQUARE TEST Expected counts are printed below observed counts <11 11–20 >20 Total Positive 21 16.975 9 11.007 (a) State the null and alternative hypotheses for this test.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 4.collegeboard. what should the advisory board conclude? (d) Based on your conclusion in part (c).475 105 Negative 18 29. the advisory board surveyed a simple random sample of 200 of the more than 20. Each student reported the average number of hours spent working part-time each week and his or her perception of the effect of part-time work on academic achievement. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.925 32 33.938. A parent advisory board for a certain university was concerned about the effect of part-time jobs on the academic achievement of students attending the university. which type of error (Type I or Type II) might the advisory board have made? Describe this error in the context of the question. (b) Discuss whether the conditions for a chi-square inference procedure are met for these data. more than 20) and perception of the effect of part-time work on academic achievement (positive.100 23 19.

350 people had received flu vaccine. (a) Construct a 99 percent confidence interval for the proportion of vaccine-eligible people who had received flu vaccine. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. it was believed that 45 percent of vaccine-eligible people received flu vaccine.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 5.350 vaccine-eligible people indicated that 978 of the 2.02 ? © 2011 The College Board. (b) Suppose a similar survey will be given to vaccine-eligible people in Canada by Canadian health officials. What is the smallest sample size that can be used to guarantee that the margin of error will be less than or equal to 0. Use your confidence interval to comment on the belief that 45 percent of the vaccine-eligible people had received flu vaccine. During a flu vaccine shortage in the United States. A 99 percent confidence interval for the proportion of people who will have received flu vaccine is to be constructed. The results of a survey given to a random sample of 2.org.collegeboard. -9- . Visit the College Board on the Web: www.

2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) STATISTICS SECTION II Part B Question 6 Spend about 25 minutes on this part of the exam. -10- . in feet. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. organic material. from runoff water at each location. The study results indicated a linear relationship between the width of the grass strip (x).6 x (a) Interpret the slope of the regression line in the context of this question. nutrients. Indicate clearly the methods you use. © 2011 The College Board. The scientist wants to investigate which combination of widths will provide the best estimate of the slope of the regression line. Percent of Section II score—25 Directions: Show all your work. These strips are designed to filter out sediment. in parts per hundred.org. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.8 + 3. The following model was estimated. Each of the eight locations can accommodate a buffer strip between 6 feet and 13 feet in width. Grass buffer strips are grassy areas that are planted between bodies of water and agricultural fields. because you will be scored on the correctness of your methods as well as on the accuracy and completeness of your results and explanations. in parts per hundred.collegeboard. 6. and the amount of nitrogen removed from the runoff water (y). (b) Would you be willing to use this model to predict the amount of nitrogen removed for grass buffer strips with widths between 0 feet and 30 feet? Explain why or why not. she will place a grass buffer strip between a field and a nearby stream at each of eight different locations and measure the amount of nitrogen that the grass buffer strip removes. A study in Nebraska investigated the use of buffer strips of several widths between 5 feet and 15 feet. The figure below shows a cross-sectional view of a grass buffer strip that has been planted along the side of a stream. To investigate this. and chemicals carried in runoff water. A scientist in California wants to know if there is a similar relationship in her area. yˆ = 33.

-11- . STOP END OF EXAM © 2011 The College Board. If data are collected for the first study plan.collegeboard.95 of containing the sample mean of the four observations for buffer strips of width 6 feet and for buffer strips of width 13 feet. yˆ = 33. (e) Use the plots above to determine which study plan. A second possible study plan would use buffer strips of width 8 feet at four of the eight locations and buffer strips of width 10 feet at the other four locations.org. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. The estimated regression line for those eight observations will pass through the two sample means. a sample mean will be computed for the four observations from buffer strips of width 6 feet and a second sample mean will be computed for the four observations from buffer strips of width 13 feet. are shown in the graph on the right below. respectively. in parts per hundred. it may not be correct. If data are collected for the second study plan. Assume the model.8 + 3. Explain your reasoning.95 of containing the mean of the four observations for buffer strips of width 8 feet and for buffer strips of width 10 feet.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Suppose the scientist decides to use buffer strips of width 6 feet at each of four locations and buffer strips of width 13 feet at each of the other four locations. show how to construct an interval that has probability 0. (d) Using your result from part (c). Describe another way of choosing the widths of the buffer strips at eight locations that would enable the researchers to check the assumption of a straightline relationship. a similar method will be used.6 x . would provide a better estimator of the slope of the regression line. the graph on the left below displays intervals that each have probability 0. the first or the second.95 of containing the sample mean of the observations from four buffer strips with widths of 6 feet. For the study plan being implemented by the scientist in California. (c) Describe the sampling distribution of the sample mean of the observations on the amount of nitrogen removed by the four buffer strips with widths of 6 feet. Intervals that each have probability 0. (f) The previous parts of this question used the assumption of a straight-line relationship between the width of the buffer strip and the amount of nitrogen that is removed. estimated from the Nebraska study is the true regression line in California and the observations at the different locations are normally distributed with standard deviation of 5 parts per hundred. Although this assumption was motivated by prior experience. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

0436 .2 – 0.0222 .0010 .1056 .0059 .0749 .4168 .0375 .3783 .0116 .2843 .1131 .1151 .0401 .0 .0778 .0047 .0110 .0287 .0392 .7 – 0.0011 .0475 .2546 .2327 .2514 .0526 .4761 .0793 .1949 .0004 .1711 .0007 .4443 .1977 .2206 .0006 .0901 .0274 .1469 .0107 .4840 .2061 .2810 .3859 .2266 .1 – 1.1 – 3.4129 .0007 .0721 .0146 .0262 .3156 .0039 .1314 .0010 .0618 .0174 .0087 .0281 .2389 .0250 .0344 .0853 .3821 .0018 .2 – 1.5 – 1.0004 .0016 .0571 .3707 .4522 .0017 . z Table A Standard normal probabilities z .0003 .0119 .07 .0465 .0708 .0183 .0606 .2912 .0006 .0294 .0027 .0019 .0041 .0021 .0228 .1894 .0455 .0089 .2005 .0136 .9 – 0.2643 .1492 .3557 .1038 .0011 .0 – 1.0069 .3085 .1423 .0009 .0038 .3228 .0003 .1 – 0.0096 .0003 .1251 .3050 .0694 .0143 .4052 .0359 .4090 .0179 .0062 .0212 .00 .0003 .2611 .0239 .0040 .0002 .0188 .2451 .1660 .4920 .3015 .0035 .0005 .0026 .0007 .3264 .0202 .0003 .4 – 3.0446 .0033 .1190 .4 – 2.0192 .3 – 3.0427 .0166 .1401 .0322 .0045 .04 .0643 .0003 .0010 .0014 .0495 .1093 .0048 .3 – 1.4247 .0008 .1788 .0075 .4286 .3745 .5000 .3594 .0150 .0084 .1112 .0154 .08 .0004 .0023 .0094 .0409 .0885 .0013 .0934 .0207 .4207 .0582 .0764 .4364 .0016 .0032 .0020 .2177 .0057 .0060 .0869 .4013 .4325 .0516 .2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Probability Table entry for z is the probability lying below z.7 – 2.2148 .0031 .2236 .0009 .0021 .09 – 3.0162 .0268 .4602 .3483 .1170 .0003 .0102 .3936 .0091 .3372 .05 .4483 .2296 .0 – 2.0367 .0838 .0018 .0023 .0244 .0012 .0418 .3409 .02 .4681 .3897 .0007 .4721 .0655 .0233 .1003 .1922 .1587 .0197 .0013 .1271 .0314 .0014 .0068 .0630 .3974 .1446 .2119 .0006 .2676 .0013 .2743 .0808 .1635 .0028 .0049 .0139 .3121 .2358 .0004 .0029 .1611 .0122 .0329 .1379 .0005 .0113 .0985 .1230 .2709 .8 – 0.0170 .3520 .1335 .0026 .0351 .0003 .0005 .1210 .0003 .0008 .0823 .0104 .5 – 0.0099 .0548 .0078 .1562 .2090 .1539 .8 – 2.1867 .9 – 2.0006 .0011 .9 – 1.4880 .0051 .0559 .0043 .4 – 0.01 .2033 .1736 .0015 .4562 .0037 .0132 .0005 .4960 .1357 .0485 .0968 .2 – 3.3300 .0735 .0005 .0301 .6 – 1.6 – 2.3 – 2.2946 .0158 .0009 .2483 .3669 .0044 .0006 .06 .4641 -12- .0030 .0505 .1 – 2.0004 .1515 .2981 .4404 .6 – 0.0012 .0024 .1762 .1685 .0384 .2776 .0064 .0019 .1075 .3192 .3 – 0.0008 .3632 .0003 .1841 .0052 .0055 .03 .0129 .0034 .1020 .3336 .0008 .2 – 2.4801 .5 – 2.0073 .0036 .0025 .0951 .4 – 1.0080 .0336 .0015 .0668 .0022 .0 – 0.2420 .0307 .0537 .0217 .0005 .2877 .0066 .0594 .0071 .0004 .0054 .0256 .1814 .7 – 1.3446 .0082 .0918 .2578 .0681 .1292 .8 – 1.0125 .

2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Probability Table entry for z is the probability lying below z.8944 .8186 .8925 .6915 .5319 .9898 .9931 .5 2.9992 .9988 .9788 .9049 .9964 .5793 .9826 .5279 .9265 .9993 .7881 .5359 .9099 .9599 .6480 .9946 .5080 .8686 .9535 .00 .9817 .9868 .8708 .9015 .9962 .9608 .9972 .9032 .9772 .7088 .7704 .7324 .9884 .9989 .9975 .7054 .9554 .9881 .3 3.9564 .9986 .9996 .9641 .7 2.9985 .9846 .7611 .9582 .9984 .8389 .9929 .7019 .7910 .7422 .8212 .9986 .8980 .5517 .9957 .6406 .7486 .9649 .2 0.5987 .9830 .9968 .9418 .8849 .9936 .9997 .6664 .5239 .9977 .9394 .9066 .9750 .9906 .9997 .9452 .9982 .4 1.9345 .9699 .9996 .9997 .9938 .9970 .8413 .9864 .5438 .9952 .9 2.8997 .9971 .9382 .8531 .9890 .7257 .2 3.7549 .6293 .9871 .5557 .6064 .9319 .9909 .6103 .9992 .9920 .9192 .09 0.6443 .4 .8665 .9995 .7291 .9940 .1 1.8729 .9732 .9441 .9988 .9821 .9693 .6772 .3 0.9147 .9913 .9756 .9989 .9974 .9808 .9875 .9082 .7967 .9834 .7764 .3 2.7357 .9981 .9484 .5 1.6 1.7123 .9977 .6808 .9778 .9525 .8365 .8133 .9726 .8888 .8051 .9961 .9969 .4 2.6879 .5 0.9251 .9941 .9987 .9998 -13- .9115 .9857 .9987 .9812 .9719 .9616 .5714 .8340 .9904 .8106 .8485 .0 0.6591 .9887 .5000 .8 0.9591 .7794 .9222 .7157 .9505 .8023 .9934 .6628 .9901 .8962 .02 .9 1.0 3.5478 .9982 .8577 .9995 .6217 .9994 .9783 .8 1.9306 .9985 .9966 .9993 .9932 .6736 .6255 .6368 .8869 .9997 .8749 .1 2.9967 .7939 .9983 .9990 .9979 .9463 .9955 .9996 .9236 .04 .9625 .9842 .9429 .01 .7580 .9995 .08 .5160 .9978 .9798 .5675 .9706 .06 .9997 .9515 .9738 .9997 .9990 .6844 .6517 .8461 .8554 .9996 .9656 .9686 .9761 .9332 .7 1.9994 .9838 .9992 .4 0.9713 .9545 .9664 .9 3.9995 .9671 .9994 .7517 .2 2.9996 .8238 .5040 .7823 .9997 .6554 .9495 .7190 .9878 .9989 .9987 .9922 .9949 .8 2.8810 .9803 .9893 .6 0.9911 .9974 .8599 .6179 .9279 .9994 .5832 .1 0.9996 .5199 .5636 .9474 .9357 .9976 .9207 .6950 .2 1.9951 .9993 .9991 .9959 .9980 .8770 .1 3.05 .6985 .9945 .5398 .5871 .9177 .0 2.9943 .9979 .6700 .8289 .9995 .7389 .9927 .5753 .9162 .9292 .7734 .9997 .8508 .9633 .8643 .9984 .9370 .07 .9793 .3 1.7 0.5120 .8315 .8621 .9994 .9990 .9896 .7454 .6331 .9991 .9991 .6 2.9678 .9956 .9973 .9131 .0 1.9997 .9916 .9965 .9953 .9861 .9767 .6026 .8438 .5596 .9992 .9960 .9573 .9854 .5948 .9963 .9850 .8830 .8078 .9995 .9981 . z Table A (Continued) z .9406 .8907 .7852 .9925 .5910 .03 .9997 .9918 .9948 .7642 .8264 .7673 .9744 .7995 .8159 .9993 .7224 .6141 .8790 .

650 2.069 2.069 1.887 2.960 15.659 3.757 2.71 4.999 2.000 1.984 1.646 1.091 3.690 3.689 .328 1.690 .646 3.567 2.021 2.684 .764 2.706 .857 .025 .015 3.190 1.071 1.297 4.005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 50 60 80 100 1000 ⬁ 1.330 2.052 2.695 .385 3.030 2.711 .047 3.311 1.066 1.306 2.372 3.025 3.042 2.313 1.282 1.047 1.350 1.060 2.325 1.252 3.110 2.224 2.140 4.10 .108 1.450 3.889 .093 1.290 1.221 4.533 1.032 3.050 1.20 .708 1.423 2.684 .282 2.858 .819 3.541 3.978 .660 1.639 2.496 3.848 .842 .064 1.056 2.307 3.681 2.741 .345 1.878 2.796 1.676 1.057 3.076 1.042 1.845 .518 2.314 2.679 .694 .792 3.671 1.690 3.871 2.372 1.943 1.602 2.296 1.374 2.061 1.675 .145 2.316 1.197 2.363 1.041 4.173 5.056 2.106 3.054 31.314 1.841 1.930 3.158 2.467 3.262 2.687 .703 .8% 99.000 .849 3.286 3.440 1.587 4.447 2.059 1.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Table entry for p and C is the point t* with probability p lying above it and probability C lying between −t * and t*.074 1.697 1.376 1.500 2.745 3.686 3.937 2.201 2.753 1.467 2.971 2.055 3.740 1.421 3.604 4.093 2.282 6.365 2.337 1.883 .678 .119 1.807 318.552 2.408 3.012 2.624 2.868 .01 .086 2.638 1.250 3.390 2.291 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 95% 96% 98% 99% 99.977 2.706 1.82 6.214 2.078 3.25 .144 4.088 2.922 3.898 2.813 2.397 1.697 .768 3.965 3.733 3.831 2.473 2.460 3.797 2.153 3.501 4.120 2.856 .5% 99.962 1.539 2.734 1.883 3.167 2.729 1.850 3.921 2.183 2.725 1.9% Confidence level C -14- .492 2.508 2.896 2.043 1.684 .779 2.845 2.761 1.727 .177 2.264 2.499 3.852 3.701 1.063 1.056 1.036 3.328 2.055 1.073 4.123 2.321 1.711 1.886 1.66 9.896 .143 2.860 .856 .610 6.228 2.685 .527 3.718 2.453 5.3 22.356 1.197 3.576 127.681 .088 1.396 3.415 1.045 2.437 4.208 4.408 5.92 8.326 3.89 4.485 3.174 3.674 1.135 3.685 .861 .870 .688 .403 2.858 .038 3.920 .15 .300 3.353 2.692 .6 31.851 .756 2.517 2.318 4.704 2.807 2.476 1.482 2.189 2.364 2.091 636.299 1.179 2.317 4.058 1.390 3.677 .078 1.862 .0005 .099 2.081 2.09 7.132 2.785 4.998 2.771 1.009 2.893 5.449 2.079 1.3 14.947 2.725 3.684 1.854 .174 3.067 1.319 1.386 1.855 .303 3.169 3.182 2.718 .001 .812 1.292 1.150 2.249 2.232 3.330 1.485 2.134 1.497 3.333 1.612 2.235 2.683 .833 3. Probability p t* Table B t distribution critical values Tail probability p df .02 .479 2.581 2.959 5.598 4.683 .925 5.750 2.581 3.819 2.859 .365 3.686 .315 1.074 2.318 1.048 2.782 1.855 .261 3.686 .05 .765 .645 12.963 1.866 .061 .0025 .457 2.583 2.746 1.571 2.674 3.660 2.771 2.162 2.854 .699 1.664 1.781 4.879 .626 2.104 3.101 2.895 1.714 1.326 63.700 .683 .416 3.849 .920 2.646 3.383 1.310 1.080 2.990 1.015 1.029 3.222 3.679 .841 4.119 3.861 2.250 1.691 .398 2.551 3.915 2.058 1.172 2.359 2.083 1.579 3.906 .147 2.863 .303 1.205 2.355 3.763 2.060 1.154 2.303 2.462 2.064 2.552 3.787 2.60 12.747 3.787 3.045 1.33 10.100 1.067 3.21 7.773 4.776 2.941 .505 3.860 1.833 1.865 .341 1.195 3.057 1.707 3.965 4.323 1.816 .717 1.703 1.821 2.678 2.873 .037 1.156 1.109 2.707 3.435 3.688 .846 .869 5.876 .055 1.428 3.131 2.528 2.611 3.160 2.098 3.721 1.

66 28.84 11.45 10.27 58.99 49.76 67.82 45.79 32.25 7.41 111.0005 9.59 14.00 26.04 27.00 22.30 28.13 32.88 33.34 37.72 23.63 15.1 131.39 6.8 7.92 23.70 73.97 90.43 34.26 29.07 12.36 40.93 26.17 74.3 .57 42.68 21.92 35.83 13.42 40.11 28.51 22.84 5.46 37.27 35.81 63.42 18.88 42.24 13.14 30. (χ2 ) Table C c 2 critical values Tail probability p df 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 50 60 80 100 .82 16.15 .98 17.43 45.50 27.68 21.74 37.65 41.20 19.3 10.85 30.88 29.43 31.02 .67 66.17 36.24 29.42 37.31 45.98 14.98 88.43 34.59 25.42 83.14 31.40 86.03 12.25 47.73 20.42 33.74 8.025 5.81 18.61 22.53 15.12 27.50 49.34 43.03 16.92 43.61 6.62 56.95 56.04 10.16 25.38 9.42 46.82 31.63 7.51 16.96 48.73 62.51 52.06 22.35 11.81 21.41 29.3 140.0025 .31 46.57 38.41 57.16 76.34 93.39 20.85 37.00 33.72 37.03 35.85 34.26 51.77 4.27 49.33 26.02 36.73 51.09 40.34 42.66 38.89 40.80 48.64 5.89 63.30 29.15 19.39 15.01 50.03 22.78 45.67 33.07 15.35 71.90 25.58 32.95 36.76 23.61 84.40 42.50 79.001 .49 21.28 49.57 35.59 50.16 38.31 19.68 25.63 31.60 12.98 31.30 106.34 71.1 .05 55.64 3.98 24.91 34.37 20.60 21.69 76.83 14.68 31.1 144.47 21.14 11.2011 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Probability p Table entry for p is the point ( χ 2 ) with probability p lying above it.87 29.22 53.32 31.31 43.75 18.86 44.64 46.24 60.28 21.47 26.46 45.99 27.89 58.7 .58 108.25 19.32 6.30 60.03 13.40 96.93 48.2 .18 45.82 36.35 33.84 9.56 46.25 22.60 22.67 31.45 16.91 34.21 24.66 95.49 28.92 18.53 19.29 41.79 42.72 41.14 28.66 99.77 55.59 54.11 5.44 72.97 56.21 11.87 28.41 20.78 9.80 44.81 16.11 24.31 23.55 13.62 33.99 7.78 38.03 49.33 66.34 53.30 27.88 10.49 91.1 6.34 24.4 12.80 34.01 .81 32.12 27.17 19.71 34.29 14.09 16.6 129.36 23.48 36.58 118.09 89.13 109.63 9.17 27.48 56.17 35.12 9.48 38.11 114.64 42.24 10.99 18.81 9.07 3.25 40.08 101.95 39.70 82.01 33.00 41.19 31.38 35.02 27.16 22.32 26.10 26.48 20.28 15.15 88.96 60.77 16.95 23.62 48.31 20.82 29.59 31.46 24.04 23.65 38.22 4.18 52.2 .58 40.86 59.62 30.08 39.48 21.70 39.53 32.28 18.12 18.77 79.43 29.79 5.97 40.80 45.20 28.99 52.14 34.69 47.8 149.82 9.6 -15- .02 7.04 26.62 18.53 36.55 30.83 24.7 2.73 30.27 41.34 30.55 20.48 54.09 21.79 22.20 34.28 33.84 14.30 59.14 45.00 32.76 28.70 14.59 28.33 69.005 5.64 50.29 8.85 15.26 32.20 46.99 17.69 35.19 44.38 112.01 17.32 2.67 13.29 49.80 11.62 54.97 47.22 27.88 44.71 36.9 124.20 17.14 36.61 124.41 7.99 7.93 40.86 16.19 37.71 4.81 36.69 29.64 12.75 12.34 13.55 19.92 39.22 11.11 41.31 42.12 37.39 12.98 44.98 59.56 36.41 32.44 14.32 32.25 1.56 9.27 18.72 46.62 24.47 20.68 15.54 24.95 116.72 26.56 43.49 11.74 26.19 26.05 25.34 120.3 135.20 1.77 25.56 102.11 39.98 18.46 27.7 128.3 153.02 20.02 13.32 16.00 53.10 2.36 14.05 3.5 .14 12.67 23.83 52.16 68.44 50.87 30.53 32.12 15.41 34.77 25.

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