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Published by: osiris2112 on Dec 15, 2012
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kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1601 kkkkkkkkkk"Pseudomemorieskhavekbeenkacquiredkthroughkdreamsk(particularlykifk kkkkkkkkkkonekiskencouragedktok eepkakjournalkorkdreamkdiarykandktokregardk

kkkkkkkkkkdreamkcontentkask'clues'kaboutkthekpastkorkasksnippetskofkhistory),k kkkkkkkkkksubstance-inducedkalteredkstateskofkconsciousnessk(alcoholkorkotherk kkkkkkkkkkdrugs),kgroupkinfluencek(particularlykhearingkvividkaccountskofk kkkkkkkkkkeventskoccurringktokotherskwithkwhomkonekidentifieskemotionallyksuchk kkkkkkkkkkaskoccurskinkincestksurvivorkgroups),kreadingkvividkaccountskofk kkkkkkkkkkeventskoccurringktokotherskwithkwhomkonekidentifieskemotionally,k kkkkkkkkkkwatchingksuchkaccountskinkfilmskorkonktelevision,kandkhypnosis.kThe kkkkkkkkkkmostkefficientkmeanskofkinducingkpseudomemorieskiskhypnosis. kkkkkkkkkk"Itkiskcharacteristickofkpseudomemorieskthatkthekrecollectionskofk kkkkkkkkkkcomplexkeventsk(askopposedktokaksimplekunitkofkinformation,ksuchkask kkkkkkkkkkaktagknumber)karekincompletekandkwithoutkchronologicalksequence.k kkkkkkkkkkOftenkthekpersonkreportsksomekuncertaintykbecausekthekpseudomemoriesk kkkkkkkkkkarekexperiencedkinkakmannerktheykdescribekask'hazy',k'fuzzy',kork kkkkkkkkkk'vague'.kTheykarekoftenkperplexedkthatktheykrecallksomekdetailsk kkkkkkkkkkvividlykbutkotherskdimly. kkkkkkkkkk"Pseudomemorieskareknotkdelusions.kWhenkfirstktellingkotherskofk kkkkkkkkkkpseudomemories,kthesekindividualskdoknotkhavekthekunsha ablekbutk kkkkkkkkkkirrationalkconvictionkthatkdeludedksubjectskhave,kbutkwithksocialk kkkkkkkkkksupportktheykoftenkcomektokdefendkvigorouslykthektruthfulnesskofkthek kkkkkkkkkkpseudomemories. kkkkkkkkkk"Pseudomemorieskareknotkfantasies,kbutkmaykincorporatekelementskfromk kkkkkkkkkkfantasieskexperiencedkinkthekpast.kEvenkwherekthekeventskdescribedk kkkkkkkkkkarekimplausible,klistenerskmaykbelievekthemkbecausektheykarek kkkkkkkkkkreportedkwithksuchkintensekaffectk(i.e.kwithksokmuchkemotionk kkkkkkkkkkattachedktokthekstory)kthatktheklistenerkconcludeskthatkthekeventsk kkkkkkkkkkmustkhavekhappenedkbecauseknokonekcouldk'fa e'kthekemotionalkaspectsk kkkkkkkkkkofkthekretelling.kItkalsokoccurs,khowever,kthatkpersonskreportk kkkkkkkkkkpseudomemorieskinksuchkakmatter-of-factkandkemotionlesskmannerkthatk kkkkkkkkkkmentalkhealthkprofessionalskconcludekthatkthekpersonkhask kkkkkkkkkk'dissociated'kintellectualk nowledgekofkthekeventskfromkemotionalk kkkkkkkkkkappreciationkofktheirkimpact." kkkkkkkkkk--kb.kTRAUMATICkMEMORY. kkkkkkkkkkTheksecondkpossiblekanswerkisk*traumatickmemory*.kFearkandkseverek kkkkkkkkkktraumakcankcausekvictimsktokdistortkrealitykandkconfusekevents.kThisk kkkkkkkkkkiskakwell-documentedkfactkinkcaseskinvolvingkindividualskta enk kkkkkkkkkkhostagekorkinklife-and-deathksituations.kThekdistortionskmaykbekpartk kkkkkkkkkkofkankelaboratekdefensekmechanismkofkthekmindkcalledk"splitting"k-k kkkkkkkkkkThekvictimskcreatekakclear-cutkgood-and-evilkmanifestationkofktheirk kkkkkkkkkkcomplexkvictimizationkthatkiskthenkpsychologicallykmorekmanageable. kkkkkkkkkkThroughkthekdefensekmechanismkofkdissociation,kthekvictimkmaykescapek kkkkkkkkkkthekhorrorskofkrealitykbykinaccuratelykprocessingkthatkreality.kInkak kkkkkkkkkkdissociativekstatekakyoungkchildkwhokordinarilykwouldk nowkthek kkkkkkkkkkdifferencekmightkmisinterpretkakfilmkorkvideokaskreality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1602 kkkkkkkkkkAnotherkdefensekmechanismkmayktellkthekvictimkthatkitkcouldkhavek kkkkkkkkkkbeenkworse,kandksokhiskorkherkvictimizationkwasknotksokbad.kTheykarek kkkkkkkkkknotkalonekinktheirkvictimizationk-kotherkchildrenkwerekalsokabused.k kkkkkkkkkkTheirkfatherkwhokabusedkthemkisknokdifferentkfromkotherkprominentk kkkkkkkkkkpeoplekinkthekcommunityktheykclaimkalsokabusedkthem.kSatanismkmayk kkkkkkkkkkhelpktokexplainkwhyktheirkoutwardlykgoodkandkreligiouskparentskdidk kkkkkkkkkksuchkterriblekthingsktokthemkinkthekprivacykofktheirkhome.kTheirk kkkkkkkkkkreligiousktrainingkmaykconvincekthemkthatksuchkunspea ablekactskbyk kkkkkkkkkksupposedlyk"good"kpeoplekmustkbekthekwor kofkthekdevil.kThek kkkkkkkkkkdescribedkhumanksacrificekmaykbeksymbolickofkthek"death"kofktheirk kkkkkkkkkkchildhood. kkkkkkkkkkItkmaykbekthatkwekshouldkanticipatekthatkindividualskseverelykabusedk kkkkkkkkkkaskverykyoungkchildrenkbyk*multiple*koffenderskwithk*fear*kaskthek kkkkkkkkkkprimarykcontrollingktactickwillkdistortkandkembellishktheirk kkkkkkkkkkvictimization.kPerhapskakhorror-filledkyetkinaccuratekaccountkofk kkkkkkkkkkvictimizationkisknotkonlyknotkakcounterindicationkofkabuse,kbutkisk kkkkkkkkkkinkfactkakcorroborativekindicatorkofkextremekphysical,k kkkkkkkkkkpsychological,kand/orksexualkabuse.kIkdoknotkbelievekitkiskak kkkkkkkkkkcoincidenceknorkthekresultkofkdeliberatekplanningkbyksatanistskthatk kkkkkkkkkkinkalmostkallkthekcaseskofkritualkabusekthatkhavekcomektokmyk kkkkkkkkkkattention,kthekabusekiskallegedktokhavekbegunkpriorktokthekagekofk kkkkkkkkkksevenkandkperpetratedkbykmultiplekoffenders.kItkmaykwellkbekthat kkkkkkkkkksuchkabuse,katkyoungkagekbykmultiplekoffenders,kiskthekmostk kkkkkkkkkkdifficultktokaccuratelykrecallkwithkthekspecifickandkprecisekdetailk kkkkkkkkkkneededkbykthekcriminalkjusticeksystem,kandkthekmostkli elyktokbek kkkkkkkkkkdistortedkandkexaggeratedkwhenkitkiskrecalled.kInkherkboo k_Took kkkkkkkkkkScaredktokCry_k(1990),kchildkpsychiatristkLenorekTerr,kakleadingk kkkkkkkkkkexpertkonkpsychicktraumakinkchildhood,kstatesk"thatkakserieskofk kkkkkkkkkkearlykchildhoodkshoc skmightknotkbekfullykandkaccuratelyk kkkkkkkkkk'reconstructed'kfromkthekdreamskandkbehaviorskofkthekadult"k(p.k5). kkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkk--kc.kNORMALkCHILDHOODkFEARSkANDkFANTASY. kkkkkkkkkkThekthirdkpossiblekanswerkmaykbek*normalkchildhoodkfearskandk kkkkkkkkkkfantasy*.kMostkyoungkchildrenkarekafraidkofkghostskandkmonsters.k kkkkkkkkkkEvenkaskadults,kmanykpeoplekfeelkuncomfortable,kforkexample,kaboutk kkkkkkkkkkdanglingktheirkarmskoverktheksidekofktheirkbed.kTheykstillkrememberk kkkkkkkkkkthek"monster"kunderkthekbedkfromkchildhood.kWhilekyoungkchildrenkmayk kkkkkkkkkkrarelykinventkstorieskaboutksexualkactivity,ktheykmightkdescribek kkkkkkkkkktheirkvictimizationkinktermskofkevilkasktheykunderstandkit.kInk kkkkkkkkkkchurchkorkatkhome,kchildrenkmaykbektoldkofksatanickactivitykaskthek kkkkkkkkkksourcekofkevil.kThekchildrenkmaykbek"dumping"kallktheirkfearskandk kkkkkkkkkkworrieskuntokankattentivekandkencouragingklistener. kkkkkkkkkkChildrenkdokfantasize.kPerhapskwhateverkcauseskakchildktokallegek kkkkkkkkkksomethingkimpossiblek(suchkaskbeingkcutkupkandkputkbac ktogether)kisk kkkkkkkkkksimilarktokwhatkcauseskakchildktokallegeksomethingkpossiblekbutk kkkkkkkkkkimprobablek(suchkaskwitnessingkanotherkchildkbeingkchoppedkupkandk kkkkkkkkkkeaten).

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1603 kkkkkkkkkk--kd.kMISPERCEPTION,kCONFUSION,kANDkTRICKERY. kkkkkkkkkkMisperception,kconfusion,kandktric erykmaykbekakfourthkanswer.k kkkkkkkkkkExpectingkyoungkchildrenktokgivekaccuratekaccountskofksexualk kkkkkkkkkkactivitykforkwhichktheykhaveklittlekframekofkreferencekisk kkkkkkkkkkunreasonable.kThekBroadwaykplayk_MadamekButterfly_kiskthektruekstoryk kkkkkkkkkkofkakmankwhokhadkak15-yearkaffair,kincludingkthek"birth"kofkakbaby,k kkkkkkkkkkwithkak"woman"kwhokturnskoutktokhavekbeenkakmankallkalong.kIfkak kkkkkkkkkkgrownkmankdoesknotk nowkwhenkhekhaskhadkvaginalkintercoursekwithkak kkkkkkkkkkwoman,khowkcankwekexpectkyoungkchildrenknotktokbekconfused? kkkkkkkkkkFurthermoreksomekcleverkoffenderskmaykdeliberatelykintroducek kkkkkkkkkkelementskofksatanismkandkthekoccultkintoktheksexualkexploitationk kkkkkkkkkksimplyktokconfusekorkintimidatekthekvictims.kSimplekmagickandkotherk kkkkkkkkkktechniqueskmaykbekusedktoktric kthekchildren.kDrugskmaykalsokbek kkkkkkkkkkdeliberatelykusedktokconfusekthekvictimskandkdistortktheirk kkkkkkkkkkperceptions.kSuchkactskwouldkthenkbekM.O.,knotkritual. kkkkkkkkkkAskpreviouslykstated,kthekperceptionskofkyoungkvictimskmaykalsokbek kkkkkkkkkkinfluencedkbykanyktraumakbeingkexperienced.kThiskiskthekmostkpopulark kkkkkkkkkkalternativekexplanation,kandkevenkthekmorekzealouskbelieverskofk kkkkkkkkkkritualkabusekallegationskusekit,kbutkonlyktokexplainkobviouslyk kkkkkkkkkkimpossiblekevents. kkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkk--ke.kOVERZEALOUSkINTERVENORS. kkkkkkkkkk*Overzealouskintervenors*,kcausingkintervenorkcontagion,kmaykbekak kkkkkkkkkkfifthkanswer.kThesekintervenorskcankincludekparents,kfamilykmembers,k kkkkkkkkkkfosterkparents,kdoctors,ktherapists,ksocialkwor ers,klawkenforcementk kkkkkkkkkkofficers,kprosecutors,kandkanykcombinationkthereof.kVictimskhavek kkkkkkkkkkbeenksubtlykaskwellkaskovertlykrewardedkandkbribedkbykusuallykwellkkkkkkkkkkmeaningkintervenorskforkfurnishingkfurtherkdetails.kInkaddition,k kkkkkkkkkksomekofkwhatkappearsknotktokhavekhappenedkmaykhavekoriginatedkaskak kkkkkkkkkkresultkofkintervenorskma ingkassumptionskaboutkorkmisinterpretingk kkkkkkkkkkwhatkthekvictimskareksaying.kThekintervenorskthenkrepeat,kandk kkkkkkkkkkpossiblykembellish,kthesekassumptionskandkmisinterpretations,kandk kkkkkkkkkkeventuallykthekvictimskarek"forced"ktokagreekwithkorkcomektokacceptk kkkkkkkkkkthisk"official"kversionkofkwhatkhappened. kkkkkkkkkkThekjudgmentkofkintervenorskmaykbekaffectedkbyktheirkzealktokuncoverk kkkkkkkkkkchildksexualkabuse,ksatanickactivity,korkconspiracies.kHoweverk kkkkkkkkkk"well-intentioned",kthesekoverzealouskintervenorskmustkacceptk kkkkkkkkkkvaryingkdegreeskofkresponsibilitykforkthekunsuccessfulkprosecutionk kkkkkkkkkkofkthosekcaseskwherekcriminalkabusekdidkoccur.kThiskiskthekmostk kkkkkkkkkkcontroversialkandkleastkpopularkofkthekalternativekexplanations.

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1604 kkkkkkkkkk--kf.kURBANkLEGENDS. kkkkkkkkkkAllegationskofkandk nowledgekaboutkritualistickorksatanickabusekmayk kkkkkkkkkkalsokbekspreadkthroughk*urbanklegends*.kInk_ThekVanishingk kkkkkkkkkkHitchhi er_k(1981),kthekfirstkofkhiskfourkboo skonkthektopic,kDr.k kkkkkkkkkkJankHaroldkBrunvandkdefineskurbanklegendskask"realistickstoriesk kkkkkkkkkkconcerningkrecentkeventsk(orkallegedkevents)kwithkankironickork kkkkkkkkkksupernaturalktwist"k(p.kxi).kDr.kBrunvand'skboo skconvincinglyk kkkkkkkkkkexplainkthatkjustkbecausekindividualskthroughoutkthekcountrykwhok kkkkkkkkkkneverkmetkeachkotherktellktheksamekstorykdoesknotkmeankthatkitkisk kkkkkkkkkktrue.kAbsurdkurbanklegendskaboutkthekcorporateklogoskofkProctorkandk kkkkkkkkkkGamblekandkLizkClaibornekbeingksatanicksymbolskpersistkinkspitekofk kkkkkkkkkkallkeffortsktokrefutekthemkwithkreality.kSomekurbanklegendskaboutk kkkkkkkkkkchildk idnappingskandkotherkthreatsktokcitizenskhavekevenkbeenk kkkkkkkkkkdisseminatedkun nowinglykbyklawkenforcementkagencies.kSuchklegendsk kkkkkkkkkkhavekalwayskexisted,kbutktodaykthekmasskmediakaggressivelyk kkkkkkkkkkparticipatekinktheirkrapidkandkmorekefficientkdissemination.kManyk kkkkkkkkkkAmericanskmista enlykbelievekthatktabloidktelevisionkshowskchec koutk kkkkkkkkkkandkverifykthekdetailskofktheirkstorieskbeforekpullingkthemkonkthek kkkkkkkkkkair.kMasskhysteriakmaykpartiallykaccountkforklargeknumberskofk kkkkkkkkkkvictimskdescribingktheksameksymptomskorkexperiences. kkkkkkkkkkTrainingkconferenceskforkallkthekdisciplineskinvolvedkinkchildk kkkkkkkkkksexualkabusekmaykalsokplaykakrolekinkthekspreadkofkthiskcontagion.k kkkkkkkkkkAtkonekchildkabusekconferencekIkattended,kankexhibitorkwasksellingk kkkkkkkkkkmorekthank50kdifferentkboo skdealingkwithksatanismkandkthekoccult.k kkkkkkkkkkBykthekendkofkthekconference,khekhadksoldknearlykallkofkthem.kAtk kkkkkkkkkkanotherknationalkchildksexualkabusekconference,kIkwitnessedkmorek kkkkkkkkkkthank100kattendeeskcopyingkdownkthekwidelykdisseminatedk29k"Symptomsk kkkkkkkkkkCharacterizingkSatanickRitualkAbuse"kinkpreschool-agedkchildren.kIsk kkkkkkkkkkakfour-year-oldkchild'sk"preoccupationkwithkurinekandkfeces"kank kkkkkkkkkkindicationkofksatanickritualkabusekorkpartkofknormalkdevelopment? kkkkkkkkkk--kg.kCOMBINATION. kkkkkkkkkkMostkmultidimensionalkchildksexkringkcaseskprobablykinvolvekak kkkkkkkkkk*combination*kofkthekanswerskpreviouslyksetkforth,kaskwellkaskotherk kkkkkkkkkkpossiblekexplanationskun nownktokmekatkthisktime.kObviously,kcasesk kkkkkkkkkkwithkadultksurvivorskarekmorekli elyktokinvolveksomekofkthesek kkkkkkkkkkanswerskthankthosekwithkyoungkchildren.kEachkcasekofksexualk kkkkkkkkkkvictimizationkmustkbekindividuallykevaluatedkonkitskownkmeritsk kkkkkkkkkkwithoutkanykpreconceivedkexplanations.kAllkthekpossibilitieskmustkbek kkkkkkkkkkexploredkifkforknokotherkreasonkthankthekfactkthatkthekdefensek kkkkkkkkkkattorneyskforkanykaccusedksubjectskwillkalmostkcertainlykdokso. kkkkkkkkkkMostkpeoplekwouldkagreekthatkjustkbecausekakvictimktellskyoukonek kkkkkkkkkkdetailkthatkturnskoutktokbektrue,kthiskdoesknotkmeankthatkeveryk kkkkkkkkkkdetailkisktrue.kButkmanykpeoplekseemktokbelievekthatkifkyoukcank kkkkkkkkkkdisprovekonekpartkofkakvictim'skstory,kthenkthekentirekstorykisk kkkkkkkkkkfalse.kAskpreviouslykstated,konekofkmykmainkconcernskinkthesekcasesk kkkkkkkkkkiskthatkpeoplekarekgettingkawaykwithksexuallykabusingkchildrenkork kkkkkkkkkkcommittingkotherkcrimeskbecausekwekcannotkprovekthatktheykarek kkkkkkkkkkmemberskofkorganizedkcultskthatkmurderkandkeatkpeople.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1605 kkkkkkkkkkIkhavekdiscoveredkthatktheksubjectkofkmultidimensionalkchildksexk kkkkkkkkkkringskiskakverykemotionalkandkpolarizingkissue.kEveryonekseemsktok kkkkkkkkkkdemandkthatkonekchoosekakside.kOnkoneksidekofkthekissuekarekthosek kkkkkkkkkkwhoksaykthatknothingkreallykhappenedkandkitkiskallkakbigkwitchkhunt kkkkkkkkkkledkbykoverzealouskfanaticskandkincompetentk"experts".kThekotherk kkkkkkkkkksideksays,kinkessence,kthatkeverythingkhappened;kvictimskneverkliek kkkkkkkkkkaboutkchildksexualkabuse,kandksokitkmustkbektrue. kkkkkkkkkkTherekiskakmiddlekground.kItkiskthekjobkofkthekprofessionalk kkkkkkkkkkinvestigatorktoklistenktokallkthekvictimskandkconductkappropriatek kkkkkkkkkkinvestigationkinkankeffortktokfindkoutkwhatkhappened,kconsideringk kkkkkkkkkkallkpossibilities.kNotkallkchildhoodktraumakiskabuse.kNotkallkchildk kkkkkkkkkkabusekiskakcrime.kThekgreatkfrustrationkofkthesekcaseskiskthekfactk kkkkkkkkkkthatkyoukarekoftenkconvincedkthatksomethingktraumatickhappenedktok kkkkkkkkkkthekvictim,kbutkdoknotk nowkwithkanykdegreekofkcertaintykexactlyk kkkkkkkkkkwhatkhappened,kwhenkitkhappened,korkwhokdidkit.k kkkkkkkkkk7.kDOkVICTIMSkLIEkABOUTkSEXUALkABUSEkANDkEXPLOITATION? kkkkkkkkkkThekcrucialkcentralkissuekinkthekevaluationkofkakresponsektokcasesk kkkkkkkkkkofkmultidimensionalkchildksexkringskiskthekstatementk"Childrenkneverk kkkkkkkkkkliekaboutksexualkabusekorkexploitation.kIfktheykhavekdetails,kitk kkkkkkkkkkmustkhavekhappened."kThiskstatement,koversimplifiedkbykmany,kiskthek kkkkkkkkkkbasickpremisekuponkwhichksomekbelievekthekchildksexualkabusekandk kkkkkkkkkkexploitationkmovementkiskbased.kItkiskalmostkneverkquestionedkork kkkkkkkkkkdebatedkatktrainingkconferences.kInkfact,kduringkthek1970s,ktherek kkkkkkkkkkwaskaksuccessfulkcrusadektokeliminateklawskrequiringkcorroborationk kkkkkkkkkkofkchildkvictimkstatementskinkchildksexualkabusekcases.kThekbestkwayk kkkkkkkkkktokconvictkchildkmolesterskisktokhavekthekchildkvictimsktestifykink kkkkkkkkkkcourt.kIfkwekbelievekthem,kthekjurykwillkbelievekthem.kAnykchallengek kkkkkkkkkktokthiskbasickpremisekwaskviewedkaskakthreatktokthekmovementkandkak kkkkkkkkkkdenialkthatkthekproblemkexisted. kkkkkkkkkkIkbelievekthatkchildrenk*rarely*kliekaboutksexualkabusekork kkkkkkkkkkexploitation,kifkakliekiskdefinedkaskakstatementkdeliberatelykandk kkkkkkkkkkmaliciouslykintendedktokdeceive.kThekproblemkiskthek kkkkkkkkkkoversimplificationkofkthekstatement.kJustkbecausekakchildkisknotk kkkkkkkkkklyingkdoesknotknecessarilykmeankthekchildkisktellingkthektruth.kIk kkkkkkkkkkbelievekthatkinkthekmajoritykofkthesekcases,kthekvictimskareknotk kkkkkkkkkklying.kTheykarektellingkyoukwhatktheykhavekcomektokbelievekhask kkkkkkkkkkhappenedktokthem.kFurthermorekthekassumptionkthatkchildrenkrarelyk kkkkkkkkkkliekaboutksexualkabusekdoesknotknecessarilykapplyktokeverythingkak kkkkkkkkkkchildksayskduringkaksexualkabusekinvestigation.kStorieskofk kkkkkkkkkkmutilation,kmurder,kandkcannibalismkareknotkreallykaboutksexualk kkkkkkkkkkabuse. kkkkkkkkkkChildrenkrarelykliekaboutksexualkabusekorkexploitation.kbutktheykdok kkkkkkkkkkfantasize,kfurnishkfalsekinformation,kfurnishkmisleadingk kkkkkkkkkkinformation,kmisperceivekevents,ktryktokpleasekadults,krespondktok kkkkkkkkkkleadingkquestions,kandkrespondktokrewards.kChildrenkareknotkadultsk kkkkkkkkkkinklittlekbodieskandkdokgokthroughkdevelopmentalkstageskthatkmustkbek kkkkkkkkkkevaluatedkandkunderstood.kInkmanykways,khowever,kchildrenkareknok kkkkkkkkkkbetterkandknokworsekthankotherkvictimskorkwitnesseskofkakcrime.kTheyk kkkkkkkkkkshouldknotkbekautomaticallykbelieved,knorkshouldktheykbek kkkkkkkkkkautomaticallykdisbelieved.

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1606 kkkkkkkkkkTheksecondkpartkofkthekstatementk-kifkchildrenkcanksupplykdetails,k kkkkkkkkkkthekcrimekmustkhavekhappenedk-kmustkalsokbekcarefullykevaluated.kThek kkkkkkkkkkdetailskinkquestionkinkmostkofkthekcaseskofkmultidimensionalkchildk kkkkkkkkkksexkringskhaveklittlektokdokwithksexualkactivity.kLawkenforcementk kkkkkkkkkkandksocialkwor erskmustkdokmorekthankattemptktokdeterminekhowkak kkkkkkkkkkchildkcouldkhavek nownkaboutktheksexkacts.kThesekcaseskinvolvek kkkkkkkkkkdeterminingkhowkakvictimkcouldkhavek nownkaboutkakwidekvarietykofk kkkkkkkkkkbizarrekandkritualistickactivity.kYoungkchildrenkmayk nowklittlek kkkkkkkkkkaboutkspecificksexkacts,kbutktheykmayk nowkaklotkaboutkmonsters,k kkkkkkkkkktorture,k idnapping,kandkmurder. kkkkkkkkkkVictimskmayksupplykdetailskofksexualkandkotherkactskusingk kkkkkkkkkkinformationkfromksourceskotherkthanktheirkownkdirectkvictimization.k kkkkkkkkkkSuchksourceskmustkbekevaluatedkcarefullykbykthekinvestigatorkof kkkkkkkkkkmultidimensionalkchildksexkrings. kkkkkkkkkk--ka.kPERSONALkKNOWLEDGE. kkkkkkkkkkThekvictimkmaykhavekpersonalk nowledgekofktheksexualkorkritualkacts,k kkkkkkkkkkbutknotkaskakresultkofkthekallegedkvictimization.kThek nowledgek kkkkkkkkkkcouldkhavekcomekfromkviewingkpornography,ksexkeducation,korkoccultk kkkkkkkkkkmaterial;kwitnessingksexualkorkritualkactivitykinkthekhome;kork kkkkkkkkkkwitnessingktheksexualkabusekofkothers.kItkcouldkalsokhavekcomekfromk kkkkkkkkkkhavingkbeenksexuallykorkphysicallykabused,kbutkbykotherkthankthek kkkkkkkkkkallegedkoffenderskandkinkwayskotherkthankthekallegedkoffense. kkkkkkkkkk--kb.kOTHERkCHILDRENkORkVICTIMS. kkkkkkkkkkYoungkchildrenktodaykareksociallykinteractingkmorekoftenkandkatkak kkkkkkkkkkyoungerkagekthankeverkbefore.kManykparentskarekunablektokprovidek kkkkkkkkkkpossiblyksimplekexplanationskforktheirkchildren'skstorieskbecausek kkkkkkkkkktheykwereknotkwithkthekchildrenkwhenkthekeventskoccurred.kTheykdok kkkkkkkkkknotkevenk nowkwhatkvideotapesktheirkchildrenkmaykhavekseen,kwhatk kkkkkkkkkkgamesktheykmaykhavekplayed,korkwhatkstoriesktheykmaykhavekbeenktoldk kkkkkkkkkkorkoverheard.kChildrenkarekbeingkplacedkinkdaykcarekcenterskfork kkkkkkkkkkeight,kten,korktwelvekhourskakdaykstartingkaskyoungkasksixkwee skofk kkkkkkkkkkage.kThekchildrenksharekexperienceskbykplayingkhouse,kschool,kork kkkkkkkkkkdoctor.kBodilykfunctionsksuchkaskurinationkandkdefecationkarekak kkkkkkkkkkfocuskofkattentionkforkthesekyoungkchildren.kTokakcertainkextent,k kkkkkkkkkkeachkchildkshareskthekexperienceskofkallkthekotherkchildren.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1607 kkkkkkkkkkThekoddskarekfairlykhighkthatkinkanyktypicalkdaykcarekcenterktherek kkkkkkkkkkmightkbeksomekchildrenkwhokarekvictimskofkincest;kvictimskofk kkkkkkkkkkphysicalkabuse;kvictimskofkpsychologicalkabuse;kchildrenkofkcultk kkkkkkkkkkmembersk(evenksatanists);kchildrenkofksexuallykopenkparents;k kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkofksexuallykindiscriminatekparents;kchildrenkofkparentsk kkkkkkkkkkobsessedkwithkvictimization;kchildrenkofkparentskobsessedkwithkthek kkkkkkkkkkevilskofksatanism;kchildrenkwithoutkconscience;kchildrenkwithkak kkkkkkkkkkteenagekbrotherkorkpregnantkmother;kchildrenkwithkheavykmetalkmusick kkkkkkkkkkandkliteraturekinkthekhome;kchildrenkwithkbizarrektoys,kgames,k kkkkkkkkkkcomics,kandkmagazines;kchildrenkwithkakVCRkandkslasherkfilmskink kkkkkkkkkktheirkhome;kchildrenkwithkaccessktokdial-a-porn,kpartyklines,kork kkkkkkkkkkpornography;korkchildrenkvictimizedkbykakdaykcarekcenterkstaffk kkkkkkkkkkmember.kThekpossiblekeffectskofkthekinteractionkofksuchkchildrenk kkkkkkkkkkpriorktokthekdisclosurekofkthekallegedkabusekmustkbekevaluated,k kkkkkkkkkkAdultksurvivorskmaykobtainkdetailskfromkgroupktherapyksessions,k kkkkkkkkkksupportknetwor s,kchurchkgroups,korkself-helpkgroups.kThek kkkkkkkkkkwillingnesskandkabilitykofksiblingsktokcorroboratekadultksurvivork kkkkkkkkkkaccountskofkritualkabusekvaries.kSomekwillksupportkandkpartiallyk kkkkkkkkkkcorroboratekthekvictim'skallegations.kOtherskwillkvehementlykdenyk kkkkkkkkkkthemkandksupportktheirkaccusedkparentskorkrelatives. kkkkkkkkkk--kc.kMEDIA. kkkkkkkkkkThekamountkofksexuallykexplicit,koccult,kanti-occult,korkviolencekkkkkkkkkkorientedkmaterialkavailablektokadultskandkevenkchildrenkinkthek kkkkkkkkkkmodernkworldkiskoverwhelming.kThiskincludeskmovies,kvideotapes,k kkkkkkkkkktelevision,kmusic,ktoys,kandkboo s.kTherekarekalsokdocumentarieskonk kkkkkkkkkksatanism,kwitchcraft,kandkthekoccultkthatkarekavailablekonk kkkkkkkkkkvideotape.kMostkofkthektelevangelistskhavekvideotapeskonkthektopicsk kkkkkkkkkkthatktheykareksellingkonktheirkprograms. kkkkkkkkkkThekNationalkCoalitionkonkTelevisionkViolencekNewsk(1988)kestimatesk kkkkkkkkkkthatk12%kofkthekmovieskproducedkinkthekUnitedkStateskcankbek kkkkkkkkkkclassifiedkasksatanickhorrorkfilms.kCablektelevisionkandkthekhomek kkkkkkkkkkVCRkma ekallkthiskmaterialkreadilykavailablekevenktokyoungkchildren.k kkkkkkkkkkReligiouskbroadcasterskandkalmostkallkthektelevisionktabloidkandk kkkkkkkkkkmagazinekprogramskhavekdonekshowskonksatanismkandkthekoccult.kHeavyk kkkkkkkkkkmetalkandkblac kmetalkmusic,kwhichkoftenkhaskaksatanicktheme,kisk kkkkkkkkkkreadilykavailablekandkpopular.kInkadditionktokthekmuch-debated kkkkkkkkkkfantasykrole-playingkgames,ktherekareknumerouskpopularktoyskonkthek kkkkkkkkkkmar etkwithkankoccult-oriented,kbizarre,korkviolentktheme. kkkkkkkkkkBoo skonksatanismkandkthekoccult,kbothkfictionkandknonfiction,karek kkkkkkkkkkreadilykavailablekinkmostkboo stores,kespeciallykChristiank kkkkkkkkkkboo stores.kSeveralkrecentkboo skspecificallykdiscusskthekissuekofk kkkkkkkkkkritualkabusekofkchildren.kObviously,kverykyoungkchildrenkdoknotkreadk kkkkkkkkkkthiskmaterial,kbutktheirkparents,krelatives,kandktherapistskmightk kkkkkkkkkkandkthenkdiscusskitkinkfrontkofkorkwithkthem.kMuchkofkthekmaterialk kkkkkkkkkkintendedktokfightkthekproblemkactuallykfuelskthekproblemkandkdamagesk kkkkkkkkkkeffectivekprosecution.

 

   

   

 

     

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1608 kkkkkkkkkk--kd.kSUGGESTIONSkANDkLEADINGkQUESTIONS. kkkkkkkkkkThiskproblemkiskparticularlykimportantkinkcaseskstemmingkfromk kkkkkkkkkkcustody/visitationkdisputeskinvolvingkatkleastkonekchildkunderkthek kkkkkkkkkkagekofkseven.kItkiskmykopinionkthatkmostksuggestive,kleadingk kkkkkkkkkkquestioningkofkchildrenkbykintervenorskiskinadvertentlykdonekaskpartk kkkkkkkkkkofkakgood-faithkeffortktoklearnkthektruth.kNotkallkintervenorskarek kkkkkkkkkkinkequalkpositionsktokpotentiallykinfluencekvictimkallegations.k kkkkkkkkkkParentskandkrelativeskespeciallykarekinkakpositionktoksubtlyk kkkkkkkkkkinfluencektheirkyoungkchildrenktokdescribektheirkvictimizationkinkak kkkkkkkkkkcertainkway.kChildrenkmaykalsokoverhearktheirkparentskdiscussingkthek kkkkkkkkkkdetailskofkthekcase.kChildrenkoftenktellktheirkparentskwhatktheyk kkkkkkkkkkbelievektheirkparentskwantkorkneedktokhear.kSomekchildrenkmaykbek kkkkkkkkkkinstinctivelykattemptingktokprovidek"therapy"kforktheirkparentskbyk kkkkkkkkkktellingkthemkwhatkseemsktoksatisfykthemkandksomehowkma eskthemkfeelk kkkkkkkkkkbetter.kInkonekcasekakfatherkgavekthekpolicekaktapekrecordingktok kkkkkkkkkk"prove"kthatkhiskchild'skstatementskwerekspontaneouskdisclosureskandk kkkkkkkkkknotkthekresultkofkleading,ksuggestivekquestions.kThektapekrecordingk kkkkkkkkkkindicatedkjustkthekopposite.kWhykthenkdidkthekfatherkvoluntarilyk kkkkkkkkkkgivekitktokthekpolice?kProbablykbecausekhektrulykbelievedkthatkhek kkkkkkkkkkwasknotkinfluencingkhiskchild'skstatementsk-kbutkhekwas.k kkkkkkkkkkTherapistskarekprobablykinkthekbestkpositionktokinfluencekthek kkkkkkkkkkallegationskofkadultksurvivors.kThekaccuracykandkreliabilitykofkthek kkkkkkkkkkaccountskofkadultksurvivorskwhokhavekbeenkhypnotizedkduringktherapyk kkkkkkkkkkiskcertainlykopenktokquestion.kOneknationally- nownktherapistk kkkkkkkkkkpersonallyktoldkmekthatkthekreasonkpolicekcannotkfindkoutkaboutk kkkkkkkkkksatanickorkritualistickactivitykfromkchildkvictimskiskthatktheykdok kkkkkkkkkknotk nowkhowktokas kleadingkquestions.kHighlyksuggestivekboo skandk kkkkkkkkkkpictureskportrayingk"satanic"kactivitykhavekbeenkdevelopedkandk kkkkkkkkkkmar etedktoktherapistskforkusekduringkevaluationkandktreatment.k kkkkkkkkkkTypeskandkstyleskofkverbalkinteractionkusefulkinktherapykmaykcreatek kkkkkkkkkksignificantkproblemskinkakcriminalkinvestigation.kItkshouldkbek kkkkkkkkkknoted,khowever,kthatkwhenkaktherapistkdoeskakpoorkinvestigativek kkkkkkkkkkinterviewkaskpartkofkakcriminalkinvestigation,kthatkiskthekfaultkofk kkkkkkkkkkthekcriminalkjusticeksystemkthatkallowedkitkandknotkthektherapistk kkkkkkkkkkwhokdidkit. kkkkkkkkkkThekextremelyksensitive,kemotional,kandkreligiousknaturekofkthesek kkkkkkkkkkcaseskma eskproblemskwithkleadingkquestionskmorekli elykthankink kkkkkkkkkkotherk indskofkcases.kIntervenorskmotivatedkbykreligiouskfervork kkkkkkkkkkand/orkexaggeratedkconcernskaboutksexualkabusekofkchildrenkarekmorek kkkkkkkkkkli elyktoklosektheirkobjectivity. kkkkkkkkkk--ke.kMISPERCEPTIONkANDkCONFUSION. kkkkkkkkkkInkonekcase,kakchild'skdescriptionkofkthekapparentlykimpossiblekactk kkkkkkkkkkofkwal ingkthroughkakwallkturnedkoutktokbekthekverykpossiblekactkofk kkkkkkkkkkwal ingkbetweenkthekstudskofkankunfinishedkwallkinkakroomkunderk kkkkkkkkkkconstruction.kInkanotherkcase,kpennieskinkthekanuskturnedkoutktokbek kkkkkkkkkkcopper-foil-coveredksuppositories.kThekchildrenkmaykdescribekwhatk kkkkkkkkkktheykbelievekhappened.kItkisknotkaklie,kbutkneitherkiskitkank kkkkkkkkkkaccuratekaccountkofkwhatkhappened.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1609 kkkkkkkkkk--kf.kEDUCATIONkANDkAWARENESSkPROGRAMS. kkkkkkkkkkSomekwell-intentionedkawarenesskprogramskdesignedktokpreventkchildk kkkkkkkkkksetkabuse,kalertkprofessionals,korkfightksatanismkmaykinkfactkbek kkkkkkkkkkunrealisticallykincreasingkthekfearskofkprofessionals,kchildren,kandk kkkkkkkkkkparentskandkcreatingkself-fulfillingkprophesies.kSomekofkwhatk kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkandktheirkparentskarektellingkintervenorskmaykhavekbeenk kkkkkkkkkklearnedkinkorkfueledkbyksuchkprograms.kReligiouskprograms,kboo s,k kkkkkkkkkkandkpamphletskthatkemphasizekthekpowerkandkevilkforcekofkSatankmayk kkkkkkkkkkbekaddingktokthekproblem.kInkfactkmostkofkthekdaykcarekcenterskink kkkkkkkkkkwhichkritualistickabusekiskallegedktokhatekta enkplacekarekchurchkkkkkkkkkkaffiliatedkcenters,kandkmanykofkthekadultksurvivorskallegingkitkcomek kkkkkkkkkkfromkapparentlykreligiouskfamilies.k kkkkkkkkkk8.kLAWkENFORCEMENTkPERSPECTIVE. kkkkkkkkkkThekperspectivekwithkwhichkonekloo skatksatanic,koccult,kork kkkkkkkkkkritualistickcrimekiskextremelykimportant.kAskstated,ksociologists,k kkkkkkkkkktherapists,kreligiouskleaders,kparents,kandkjustkplainkcitizenskeachk kkkkkkkkkkhavektheirkownkvalidkconcernskandkviewskaboutkthiskissue.kThisk kkkkkkkkkkdiscussion,khowever,kdealskprimarilykwithktheklawkenforcementkork kkkkkkkkkkcriminalkjusticekperspective. kkkkkkkkkkWhenkyoukcombinekankemotionalkissueksuchkasktheksexualkabusekofk kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkwithkankevenkmorekemotionalkissueksuchkaskpeople'sk kkkkkkkkkkreligiouskbeliefs,kitkiskdifficultktokmaintainkobjectivitykandk kkkkkkkkkkrememberktheklawkenforcementkperspective.kSomekpolicekofficerskmayk kkkkkkkkkkevenkfeelkthatkallkcrimekiskcausedkbykevil,kallkevilkiskcausedkbyk kkkkkkkkkkSatan,kandktherefore,kallkcrimekisksatanickcrime.kThiskmaykbekak kkkkkkkkkkvalidkreligiouskperspective,kbutkitkiskofknokrelevancektokthek kkkkkkkkkkinvestigationkofkcrimekforkpurposeskofkprosecution. kkkkkkkkkkManykofkthekpolicekofficerskwhoklecturekonksatanickorkoccultkcrimek kkkkkkkkkkdoknotkevenkinvestigateksuchkcases.kTheirkpresentationskarekmorekak kkkkkkkkkkreflectionkofktheirkpersonalkreligiouskbeliefskthankdocumentedk kkkkkkkkkkinvestigativekinformation.kTheykarekabsolutelykentitledktoktheirk kkkkkkkkkkbeliefs,kbutkintroducingkthemselveskaskcurrentkorkformerkpolicek kkkkkkkkkkofficerskandkthenkspea ingkaskreligiouskadvocateskcauseskconfusion.k kkkkkkkkkkAskdifficultkaskitkmightkbe,kpolicekofficerskmustkseparatekthek kkkkkkkkkkreligiouskandklawkenforcementkperspectiveskwhenktheykareklecturingk kkkkkkkkkkorkinvestigatingkinktheirkofficialkcapacitieskasklawkenforcementk kkkkkkkkkkofficers.kManyklawkenforcementkofficerskbeginktheirkpresentationskbyk kkkkkkkkkkstatingkthatktheykareknotkaddressingkorkjudgingkanyone'skreligiousk kkkkkkkkkkbeliefs,kandkthenkproceedktokdokexactlykthat. kkkkkkkkkkSomekpolicekofficerskhavekresignedkratherkthankcurtailkorklimitk kkkkkkkkkktheirkinvolvementkinkthiskissuekaskorderedkbyktheirkdepartments.k kkkkkkkkkkPerhapsksuchkofficerskdeservekcreditkforkrecognizingkthatktheykcouldk kkkkkkkkkknoklongerk eepkthekperspectiveskseparate.

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1610 kkkkkkkkkkLawkenforcementkofficerskandkallkprofessionalskinkthiskfieldkshouldk kkkkkkkkkkavoidkthek"paranoia"kthatkhaskcreptkintokthiskissuekandkintoksomekofk kkkkkkkkkkthektrainingkconferences.kParanoidktypekbeliefksystemskarek kkkkkkkkkkcharacterizedkbykthekgradualkdevelopmentkofkintricate,kcomplex,kandk kkkkkkkkkkelaborateksystemskofkthin ingkbasedkonkandkoftenkproceedingk kkkkkkkkkklogicallykfromkmisinterpretationkofkactualkevents.kParanoiak kkkkkkkkkktypicallykinvolveskhypervigilancekoverkthekperceivedkthreat,kthek kkkkkkkkkkbeliefkthatkdangerkiskaroundkeverykcorner,kandkthekwillingnessktok kkkkkkkkkkta ekupkthekchallengekandkdoksomethingkaboutkit.kAnotherkveryk kkkkkkkkkkimportantkaspectkofkthiskparanoiakiskthekbeliefkthatkthosekwhokdok kkkkkkkkkknotkrecognizekthekthreatkarekevilkandkcorrupt.kInkthiskextremekview,k kkkkkkkkkkyoukarekeitherkwithkthemkorkagainstkthem.kYoukarekeitherkpartkofkthek kkkkkkkkkksolutionkorkpartkofkthekproblem. kkkkkkkkkkOverzealousnesskandkexaggerationkmotivatedkbykthektruekreligiousk kkkkkkkkkkfervorkofkthosekinvolvedkiskmorekacceptablekthankthatkmotivatedkby kkkkkkkkkkegokorkprofit.kTherekarekthosekwhokarekdeliberatelykdistortingkandk kkkkkkkkkkhypingkthiskissuekforkpersonalknotorietykandkprofit.kSatanickandk kkkkkkkkkkoccultkcrimekandkritualkabusekofkchildrenkhaskbecomekakgrowthk kkkkkkkkkkindustry.kSpea ingkfees,kboo s,kvideokandkaudioktapes,kpreventionk kkkkkkkkkkmaterial,ktelevisionkandkradiokappearanceskallkbringkegoistickandk kkkkkkkkkkfinancialkrewards. kkkkkkkkkkBizarrekcrimekandkevilkcankoccurkwithoutkorganizedksatanickactivity.k kkkkkkkkkkThekprofessionalkperspectivekrequireskthatkwekdistinguishkbetweenk kkkkkkkkkkwhatkwek nowkandkwhatkwe'reknotksurekof. kkkkkkkkkkThekfactskare: kkkkkkkkkk--ka.kSomekindividualskbelievekinkandkarekinvolvedkinksomethingk kkkkkkkkkkcommonlykcalledksatanismkandkthekoccult. kkkkkkkkkk--kb.kSomekofkthesekindividualskcommitkcrime. kkkkkkkkkk--kc.kSomekgroupskofkindividualsksharekthesekbeliefskandkinvolvementk kkkkkkkkkkinkthisksatanismkandkthekoccult. kkkkkkkkkk--kd.kSomekmemberskofkthesekgroupskcommitkcrimektogether. kkkkkkkkkkThekunansweredkquestionskare: kkkkkkkkkk--ka.kWhatkiskthekconnectionkbetweenkthekbeliefksystemkandkthek kkkkkkkkkkcrimeskcommitted? kkkkkkkkkk--kb.kIsktherekankorganizedkconspiracykofksatanickandkoccultk kkkkkkkkkkbelieverskresponsiblekforkinterrelatedkseriouskcrimek(e.g.,k kkkkkkkkkkmolestation,kmurder)? kkkkkkkkkkAfterkallkthekhypekandkhysteriakarekputkaside,kthekrealizationksetsk kkkkkkkkkkinkthatkmostksatanic/occultkactivitykinvolveskthekcommissionkofk*no*k kkkkkkkkkkcrimes,kandkthatkwhichkdoeskusuallykinvolveskthekcommissionkofk kkkkkkkkkkrelativelykminorkcrimesksuchkasktrespassing,kvandalism,kcrueltyktok kkkkkkkkkkanimals,korkpettykthievery.

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1611 kkkkkkkkkkTheklawkenforcementkproblemskmostkoftenklin edktoksatanickorkoccultk kkkkkkkkkkactivitykare: kkkkkkkkkk--ka.kVandalism. kkkkkkkkkk--kb.kDesecrationkofkchurcheskandkcemeteries. kkkkkkkkkk--kc.kTheftskfromkchurcheskandkcemeteries. kkkkkkkkkk--kd.kTeenagekgangs kkkkkkkkkk--ke.kAnimalkmutilations. kkkkkkkkkk--kf.kTeenageksuicide. kkkkkkkkkk--kg.kChildkabuse. kkkkkkkkkk--kh.kKidnapping. kkkkkkkkkk--ki.kMurderkandkhumanksacrifice kkkkkkkkkkValidkevidencekshowsksomek"connection"kbetweenksatanismkandkthek kkkkkkkkkkoccultkandkthekfirstksixkproblemsk(#a-f)ksetkforthkabove.kThek kkkkkkkkkk"connection"ktoktheklastkthreekproblemsk(#g-i)kiskfarkmorek kkkkkkkkkkuncertain. kkkkkkkkkkEvenkwherektherekseemsktokbekak"connection",ktheknaturekofkthek kkkkkkkkkkconnectionkneedsktokbekexplored.kItkiskeasyktokblamekinvolvementkin kkkkkkkkkksatanismkandkthekoccultkforkbehaviorskthatkhavekcomplexkmotivations.k kkkkkkkkkkAkteenager'skexcessivekinvolvementkinksatanismkandkthekoccultkisk kkkkkkkkkkusuallykaksymptomkofkakproblemkandknotkthekcausekofkakproblem.k kkkkkkkkkkBlamingksatanismkforkakteenager'skvandalism,ktheft,ksuicide,korkevenk kkkkkkkkkkactkofkmurderkiskli ekblamingkakcriminal'skoffenseskonkhisktattoos:k kkkkkkkkkkBothkarekoftenksignskofktheksamekrebelliousnesskandklac kofkselfkkkkkkkkkkesteemkthatkcontributektokthekcommissionkofkcrimes. kkkkkkkkkkThekroc kbandkJudaskPriestkwaskrecentlyksuedkforkallegedlykincitingk kkkkkkkkkktwokteenagersktoksuicidekthroughksubliminalkmessageskinktheirk kkkkkkkkkkrecordings.kInk1991kAnthonykPrat aniskofkthekUniversitykofk kkkkkkkkkkCaliforniakatkSantakCruz,kwhokservedkaskankexpertkwitnesskforkthek kkkkkkkkkkdefense,kstatedkthekboyskinkquestionk"livedktroubledklives,kliveskofk kkkkkkkkkkdrugkandkalcoholkabuse,krun-inskwithktheklawk...kfamilykviolence,k kkkkkkkkkkandkchronickunemployment.kWhatkissueskdidkthektrialkandkthek kkkkkkkkkksubsequentkmasskmediakcoveragekemphasize?kCertainlyknotkthekneedkfork kkkkkkkkkkdrugktreatmentkcenters;ktherekwasknokevaluationkofkthekproskandkconsk kkkkkkkkkkofkAmerica'skjuvenilekjusticeksystem,knokinvestigationkofkthek kkkkkkkkkkschools,knokinquirykintokhowktokpreventkfamilykviolence,knok kkkkkkkkkkdiscussionkofkthekeffectskofkunemploymentkonkakfamily.kInsteadkourk kkkkkkkkkkattentionkwaskmesmerizedkbykankattemptktokcountktheknumberkofk kkkkkkkkkksubliminalkdemonskthatkcankdancekonkthekendkofkakrecordkneedle"k(p.k kkkkkkkkkk1).

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1612 kkkkkkkkkkTheklawkenforcementkinvestigatorkmustkobjectivelykevaluatektheklegalk kkkkkkkkkksignificancekofkanykcriminal'skspiritualkbeliefs.kInkmostkcases,k kkkkkkkkkkincludingkthosekinvolvingksatanists,kitkwillkhaveklittlekorknoklegalk kkkkkkkkkksignificance.kIfkakcrimekiskcommittedkaskpartkofkakspiritualkbeliefk kkkkkkkkkksystem,kitkshouldkma eknokdifferencekwhichkbeliefksystemkitkis.kThek kkkkkkkkkkcrimekisktheksamekwhetherkakchildkiskabusedkorkmurderedkaskpartkofkak kkkkkkkkkkChristian,kHarekKrishna,kMoslem,korkanykotherkbeliefksystem.kWek kkkkkkkkkkgenerallykdon'tklabelkcrimeskwithktheknamekofkthekperpetrator'sk kkkkkkkkkkreligion.kWhykthenkarekthekcrimeskofkchildkmolesters,krapists,k kkkkkkkkkksadists,kandkmurdererskwhokhappenktokbekinvolvedkinksatanismkandkthek kkkkkkkkkkoccultklabeledkasksatanickorkoccultkcrimes?kIfkcriminalskusekak kkkkkkkkkkspiritualkbeliefksystemktokrationalizekandkjustifykorktokfacilitatek kkkkkkkkkkandkenhancektheirkcriminalkactivity,kshouldkthekfocuskofklawk kkkkkkkkkkenforcementkbekonkthekbeliefksystemkorkonkthekcriminalkactivity?k kkkkkkkkkkSeveralkdocumentedkmurderskhavekbeenkcommittedkbykindividualsk kkkkkkkkkkinvolvedkinkonekwaykorkanotherkinksatanismkorkthekoccult.kInksomekofk kkkkkkkkkkthesekmurderskthekperpetratorkhaskevenkintroducedkelementskofkthek kkkkkkkkkkoccultk(e.g.ksatanicksymbolskatkcrimekscene).kDoeskthatk kkkkkkkkkkautomaticallykma ektheseksatanickmurders?kItkiskmykopinionkthatkthek kkkkkkkkkkanswerkiskno.kRitualistickmurderskcommittedkbykserialk illerskork kkkkkkkkkksexualksadistskareknotknecessarilyksatanickorkoccultkmurders.k kkkkkkkkkkRitualistickmurderskcommittedkbykpsychotick illerskwhokhearkthek kkkkkkkkkkvoicekofkSatankareknokmoreksatanickmurderskthankmurderskcommittedkbyk kkkkkkkkkkpsychotick illerskwhokhearkthekvoicekofkJesuskarekChristiankmurders. kkkkkkkkkkRatherkaksatanickmurderkshouldkbekdefinedkaskonekcommittedkbyktwokork kkkkkkkkkkmorekindividualskwhokrationallykplankthekcrimekandkwhosek*primary*k kkkkkkkkkkmotivationkisktokfulfillkakprescribedksatanickritualkcallingkforkthek kkkkkkkkkkmurder.kBykthiskdefinitionkIkhavekbeenkunablektokidentifykevenkonek kkkkkkkkkkdocumentedksatanickmurderkinkthekUnitedkStates.kAlthoughksuchk kkkkkkkkkkmurderskmaykhavekandkcankoccur,ktheykappearktokbekfewkinknumber.kInk kkkkkkkkkkadditionkthekcommissionkofksuchk illingskwouldkprobablykbekthek kkkkkkkkkkbeginningkofkthekendkforksuchkakgroup.kItkiskhighlykunli elykthatk kkkkkkkkkktheykcouldkcontinuektok illkseveralkpeople,keverykyear,kyearkafterk kkkkkkkkkkyear,kandknotkbekdiscovered. kkkkkkkkkkAkbriefktypologykofksatanickandkoccultkpractitionerskiskhelpfulkink kkkkkkkkkkevaluatingkwhatkrelationship,kifkany,ksuchkpracticeskhavektokcrimesk kkkkkkkkkkunderkinvestigation.kThekfollowingktypologykiskadaptedkfromkthek kkkkkkkkkkinvestigativekexperiencekofkOfficerkSandikGallantkofkthekSank kkkkkkkkkkFranciscokPolicekDepartment,kwhokbeganktokstudykthekcriminalkaspects kkkkkkkkkkofkoccultkactivityklongkbeforekitkbecamekpopular.kNoktypologykisk kkkkkkkkkkperfect,kbutkIkusekthisktypologykbecausekitkisksimplekandkoffersk kkkkkkkkkkinvestigativekinsights.kMostkpractitionerskfallkintokonekofkthreek kkkkkkkkkkcategories,kanykofkwhichkcankbekpracticedkalonekorkinkgroups:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1613 kkkkkkkkkk--ka.k"YOUTHkSUBCULTURE. kkkkkkkkkk"Mostkteenagerskinvolvedkinkfantasykrole-playingkgames,kheavykmetalk kkkkkkkkkkmusic,korksatanismkandkthekoccultkarekgoingkthroughkakstagekofk kkkkkkkkkkadolescentkdevelopmentkandkcommitknoksignificantkcrimes.kThek kkkkkkkkkkteenagerskwhokhavekmorekseriouskproblemskarekusuallykthosekfromk kkkkkkkkkkdysfunctionalkfamilieskorkthosekwhokhavekpoorkcommunicationkwithink kkkkkkkkkktheirkfamilies.kThesektroubledkteenagerskturnktoksatanismkandkthek kkkkkkkkkkoccultktokovercomekaksensekofkalienation,ktokrebel,ktokobtainkpower,k kkkkkkkkkkorktokjustifyktheirkantisocialkbehavior.kForkthesekteenagerskitkisk kkkkkkkkkktheksymbolism,knotkthekspirituality,kthatkiskmorekimportant.kItkisk kkkkkkkkkkeitherkthekpsychopathickorkthekoddball,klonerkteenagerkwhokiskmostk kkkkkkkkkkli elyktokgetkintokseriousktrouble.kExtremekinvolvementkinkthek kkkkkkkkkkoccultkiskaksymptomkofkakproblem,knotkthekcause.kThiskisknotktok kkkkkkkkkkdeny,khowever,kthatksatanismkandkthekoccultkcankbeknegativek kkkkkkkkkkinfluenceskforkaktroubledkteenager.kButktokhystericallykwarnk kkkkkkkkkkteenagersktokavoidkthisk"mysterious,kpowerfulkandkdangerous"kthingk kkkkkkkkkkcalledksatanismkwillkdrivekmorekteenagerskrightktokit.kSomek kkkkkkkkkkrebelliouskteenagerskwillkdokwhateverkwillkmostkshoc kandkoutragek kkkkkkkkkksocietykinkorderktokflauntktheirkrejectionkofkadultknorms. kkkkkkkkkk--kb.k"DABBLERSk(SELF-STYLED). kkkkkkkkkk"Forkthesekpractitionersktherekisklittlekorknokspiritualkmotivation.k kkkkkkkkkkTheykmaykmixksatanism,kwitchcraft,kpaganism,kandkanykaspectskofkthek kkkkkkkkkkoccultktoksuitktheirkpurposes.kSymbolskmeankwhateverktheykwantkthemk kkkkkkkkkkorkbelievekthemktokmean.kMolesters,krapists,kdrugkdealers,kandk kkkkkkkkkkmurdererskmaykdabblekinkthekoccultkandkmaykevenkcommitktheirkcrimesk kkkkkkkkkkinkakceremonialkorkritualistickway.kThiskcategorykhaskthekpotentialk kkkkkkkkkktokbekthekmostkdangerous,kandkmostkofkthek"satanic"k illerskfallk kkkkkkkkkkintokthiskcategory.kTheirkinvolvementkinksatanismkandkthekoccultkisk kkkkkkkkkkaksymptomkofkakproblem,kandkakrationalizationkandkjustificationkofk kkkkkkkkkkantisocialkbehavior.kSatanic/occultkpracticesk(askwellkaskthosekofk kkkkkkkkkkotherkspiritualkbeliefksystems)kcankalsokbekusedkaskakmechanismktok kkkkkkkkkkfacilitatekcriminalkobjectives. kkkkkkkkkk--kc.k"TRADITIONALk(ORTHODOX). kkkkkkkkkk"Thesekarekthekso-calledktruekbelievers.kTheykarekoftenkwarykofk kkkkkkkkkkoutsiders.kBecausekofkthiskandkconstitutionalkissues,ksuchkgroupsk kkkkkkkkkkarekdifficultkforklawkenforcementktokpenetrate.kAlthoughktherekmayk kkkkkkkkkkbekmuchkwekdon'tk nowkaboutkthesekgroups,kaskofknowktherekisklittlek kkkkkkkkkkorknokhardkevidencekthatkaskakgroupktheykarekinvolvedkinkserious,k kkkkkkkkkkorganizedkcriminalkactivity.kInkaddition,kinsteadkofkbeingkselfkkkkkkkkkkperpetuatingkmasterkcrimekconspirators,k"truekbelievers"kprobablyk kkkkkkkkkkhavekaksimilarkproblemkwithktheirkteenagerskrebellingkagainstktheirk kkkkkkkkkkbeliefksystem.kToksomekextentkevenkthesekTraditionalksatanistskarek kkkkkkkkkkself-stylized.kTheykpracticekwhatktheykhavekcomektokbelievekisk kkkkkkkkkk"satanism".kTherekisklittlekorknokevidencekofkthekmuch-discussedk kkkkkkkkkkmultigenerationalksatanistskwhosekbeliefskandkpracticeskhavek kkkkkkkkkksupposedlykbeenkpassedkdownkthroughkthekcenturies.kManykadmittedk kkkkkkkkkkadultksatanistskwerekinkfactkraisedkinkconservativekChristiank kkkkkkkkkkhomes."

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1614 kkkkkkkkkk_WashingtonkPost_keditorkWaltkHarringtonkreportedkinkak1986kstorykonk kkkkkkkkkkAntonkLaVeykandkhiskChurchkofkSatankthatk"sociologistskwhokhavek kkkkkkkkkkstudiedkLaVey'skchurchksaykthatkitskmemberskoftenkhadkseriousk kkkkkkkkkkchildhoodkproblemskli ekalcoholickparentskorkbro enkhomes,korkthatk kkkkkkkkkktheykwerektraumatizedkbykguilt-riddenkfundamentalistkupbringings,k kkkkkkkkkkturningktokSatanismkaskakdramatickwayktokpurgektheirkdebilitatingk kkkkkkkkkkguilt"k(p.k14). kkkkkkkkkkSomekhavekclaimedkthatkthekaccountskofkritualkabusekvictimskcoincidek kkkkkkkkkkwithkhistoricalkrecordskofkwhatktraditionalkorkmultigenerationalk kkkkkkkkkksatanistskarek nownktokhavekpracticedkdownkthroughkthekages.kJeffreyk kkkkkkkkkkBurtonkRussell,kProfessorkofkHistorykatkthekUniversitykofkCaliforniak kkkkkkkkkkatkSantakBarbarakandkthekauthorkofknumerouskscholarlykboo skonkthek kkkkkkkkkkdevilkandksatanism,kbelieveskthatkthekuniversalkconsensuskofkmodernk kkkkkkkkkkhistorianskonksatanismkisk(personalkcommunication,kNov.k1991): kkkkkkkkkk"(1)kincidentskofkorgy,kinfanticide,kcannibalism,kandkotherksuchk kkkkkkkkkkconductkhavekoccurredkfromkthekancientkworldkdownktokthekpresent;k kkkkkkkkkk(2)ksuchkincidentskwerekisolatedkandklimitedktoklocalkantisocialk kkkkkkkkkkgroups;k(3)kduringkthekperiodkofkChristiankdominancekinkEuropeank kkkkkkkkkkculture,ksuchkgroupskwerekassociatedkwithkthekDevilkinkthekmindskofk kkkkkkkkkkthekauthorities;k(4)kinksomekcasesktheksectarieskbelievedkthatktheyk kkkkkkkkkkwerekworshipingkSatan;k(5)knokorganizedkcultkofkSatanistskexistedkink kkkkkkkkkkthekChristiankperiodkbeyondklocalities,kandkonknokaccountkwasktherek kkkkkkkkkkeverkanykwidespreadkSatanistkorganizationkorkconspiracy;k(6)knok kkkkkkkkkkreliablekhistoricalksourceskindicatekthatksuchkorganizationsk kkkkkkkkkkexisted;k(7)kthekblac kmasskappearskonlykoncekinktheksourceskbeforek kkkkkkkkkktheklateknineteenthkcentury." kkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkManykpolicekofficerskas kwhatktokloo kforkduringktheksearchkofkthek kkkkkkkkkkscenekofksuspectedksatanickactivity.kThekanswerkisksimple:kLoo kfork kkkkkkkkkkevidencekofkakcrime.kAkpentagramkisknokmorekcriminallyksignificantk kkkkkkkkkkthankakcrucifixkunlesskitkcorroborateskakcrimekorkakcriminalk kkkkkkkkkkconspiracy.kIfkakvictim'skdescriptionkofktheklocationkorkthek kkkkkkkkkkinstrumentskofkthekcrimekincludeskakpentagram,kthenkthekpentagramk kkkkkkkkkkwouldkbekevidence.kButktheksamekwouldkbektruekifkthekdescriptionk kkkkkkkkkkincludedkakcrucifix.kInkmanykcaseskofkallegedksatanickritualkabuse,k kkkkkkkkkkinvestigationkcankfindkevidencekthatkthekclaimedkoffenderskarek kkkkkkkkkkmemberskonlykofkmainstreamkchurcheskandkarekoftenkdescribedkaskveryk kkkkkkkkkkreligious. kkkkkkkkkkTherekisknokwaykanykoneklawkenforcementkofficerkcankbecomek kkkkkkkkkk nowledgeablekaboutkallktheksymbolskandkritualskofkeverykspiritualk kkkkkkkkkkbeliefksystemkthatkmightkbecomekpartkofkakcriminalkinvestigation.k kkkkkkkkkkThekofficerkneedskonlyktokbektrainedktokrecognizekthekpossiblek kkkkkkkkkkinvestigativeksignificancekofksuchksigns,ksymbols,kandkrituals.k kkkkkkkkkkKnowledgeablekreligiouskscholars,kacademics,kandkotherktruekexpertsk kkkkkkkkkkinkthekcommunitykcankbekconsultedkifkakmorekdetailedkanalysiskisk kkkkkkkkkknecessary. kkkkkkkkkkAnykanalysis,khowever,kmaykhavekonlyklimitedkapplication,kespeciallyk kkkkkkkkkktokcaseskinvolvingkteenagers,kdabblers,kandkotherkself-styledk kkkkkkkkkkpractitioners.kThekfactkisksigns,ksymbols,kandkritualskcankmeank kkkkkkkkkkanythingkthatkpractitionerskwantkthemktokmeankand/orkanythingkthatk kkkkkkkkkkobserverskinterpretkthemktokmean.

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1615 kkkkkkkkkkThekmeaningkofksymbolskcankalsokchangekoverktime,kplace,kandk kkkkkkkkkkcircumstance.kIskakswasti akspray-paintedkonkakwallkankancientk kkkkkkkkkksymbolkofkprosperitykandkgoodkfortune,kakrecentksymbolkofkNazismkandk kkkkkkkkkkanti-Semitism,korkakcurrentksymbolkofkhate,kparanoia,kandkadolescentk kkkkkkkkkkdefiance?kThekpeaceksignkwhichkinkthek1960skwaskakfamiliarkantiwark kkkkkkkkkksymbolkisknowksupposedktokbekaksatanicksymbol.kSomeksymbolskandk kkkkkkkkkkholidayskbecomek"satanic"konlykbecausekthekantisatanistsksayktheyk kkkkkkkkkkare.kThenkthosekwhokwantktokbek"satanists"kadoptkthem,kandknowkyouk kkkkkkkkkkhavek"proof"ktheykareksatanic. kkkkkkkkkkInkspitekofkwhatkisksometimesksaidkorksuggestedkatklawkenforcementk kkkkkkkkkktrainingkconferences,kpolicekhaveknokauthorityktokseizekanyksatanick kkkkkkkkkkorkoccultkparaphernaliaktheykmightkseekduringkaksearch.kAklegallykkkkkkkkkkvalidkreasonkmustkexistkforkdoingkso.kItkisknotkthekjobkofklawk kkkkkkkkkkenforcementktokpreventksatanistskfromkengagingkinknoncriminalk kkkkkkkkkkteaching,krituals,korkotherkactivities.k kkkkkkkkkk9.kINVESTIGATINGkMULTIDIMENSIONALkCHILDkSEXkRINGS. kkkkkkkkkkMultidimensionalkchildksexkringskcankbekamongkthekmostkdifficult,k kkkkkkkkkkfrustrating,kandkcomplexkcaseskthatkanyklawkenforcementkofficerkwillk kkkkkkkkkkeverkinvestigate.kThekinvestigationkofkallegationskofkrecentk kkkkkkkkkkactivitykfromkmultiplekyoungkchildrenkunderkthekagekofksevenk kkkkkkkkkkpresentskoneksetkofkproblemskandkmustkbeginkquic ly,kwithkinterviewsk kkkkkkkkkkofk*all*kpotentialkvictimskbeingkcompletedkasksoonkaskpossible.kThek kkkkkkkkkkinvestigationkofkallegationskofkactivityktenkorkmorekyearskearlierk kkkkkkkkkkfromkadultksurvivorskpresentskotherkproblemskandkshouldkproceed,k kkkkkkkkkkunlesskvictimskarekatkimmediatekris ,kmorekdeliberately,kwithk kkkkkkkkkkgradually-increasingkresourceskaskcorroboratedkfactskwarrant. kkkkkkkkkkInkspitekofkanyks epticism,kallegationskofkritualkabusekshouldkbek kkkkkkkkkkaggressivelykandkthoroughlykinvestigated,kThiskinvestigationkshouldk kkkkkkkkkkattemptktokcorroboratekthekallegationskofkritualkabuse.kbutkshouldk kkkkkkkkkk*simultaneously*kalsokattemptktokidentifykalternativekexplanations.k kkkkkkkkkkThekonlykdebatekiskoverkhowkmuchkinvestigationkiskenough.kAnyklawk kkkkkkkkkkenforcementkagencykmustkbekpreparedktokdefendkandkjustifykitsk kkkkkkkkkkactionskwhenkscrutinizedkbykthekpublic,kthekmedia,kelectedk kkkkkkkkkkofficials,korkthekcourts.kThiskdoesknotkmean,khowever,kthatkaklawk kkkkkkkkkkenforcementkagencykhaskankobligationktokprovekthatkthekallegedk kkkkkkkkkkcrimeskdidknotkoccur.kThiskiskalmostkalwayskimpossiblektokdokandk kkkkkkkkkkinvestigatorskshouldkbekalertkforkandkavoidkthisktrap. kkkkkkkkkkOnekmajorkproblemkinkthekinvestigationkofkmultidimensionalkchildksexk kkkkkkkkkkringskiskthekdilemmakofkrecognizingksoonkenoughkthatkyoukhavekone.k kkkkkkkkkkInvestigatorskmustkbekalertkforkcaseskwithkthekpotentialkforkthek kkkkkkkkkkfourkbasickdynamics:k(a)kmultiplekyoungkvictims,k(b)kmultiplek kkkkkkkkkkoffenders,k(c)kfearkaskthekcontrollingktactic,kandk(d)kbizarrekork kkkkkkkkkkritualistickactivity.kThekfollowingktechniqueskapplykprimarilyktok kkkkkkkkkkthekinvestigationkofksuchkmultidimensionalkchildksexkrings:

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1616 kkkkkkkkkk--ka.kMINIMIZEkSATANIC/OCCULTkASPECT. kkkkkkkkkkTherekarekthosekwhokclaimkthatkonekofkthekmajorkreasonskmorekofk kkkkkkkkkkthesekcaseskhaveknotkbeenksuccessfullykprosecutedkiskthatkthek kkkkkkkkkksatanic/occultkaspectkhasknotkbeenkaggressivelykpursued.kOnekstatek kkkkkkkkkkhaskevenkintroducedklegislationkcreatingkaddedkpenaltieskwhenk kkkkkkkkkkcertainkcrimeskarekcommittedkaskpartkofkakritualkorkceremony.kAkfewk kkkkkkkkkkstateskhavekpassedkspecialkritualkcrimeklaws.kIkstronglykdisagreek kkkkkkkkkkwithksuchkankapproach.kItkma esknokdifferencekwhatkspiritualkbeliefk kkkkkkkkkksystemkwaskusedktokenhancekandkfacilitatekorkrationalizekandkjustifyk kkkkkkkkkkcriminalkbehavior.kItkservesknokpurposektok"prove"ksomeonekiskak kkkkkkkkkksatanist.kAskakmatterkofkfact,kifkitkiskallegedkthatktheksubjectk kkkkkkkkkkcommittedkcertainkcriminalkactskunderkthekinfluencekofkorkinkorderk kkkkkkkkkktokconjurekupksupernaturalkspiritskorkforces,kthiskmaykverykwellkbek kkkkkkkkkkthekbasiskforkankinsanitykorkdiminishedkcapacitykdefense,korkmayk kkkkkkkkkkdamagekthekintentkaspectkofkaksexuallykmotivatedkcrime.kThekdefensek kkkkkkkkkkmaykverykwellkbekmorekinterestedkinkallkthek"evidencekofksatanick kkkkkkkkkkactivity".kSomekofktheksatanickcrimek"experts"kwhoktrainklawk kkkkkkkkkkenforcementkwindkupkwor ingkorktestifyingkforkthekdefensekinkthesek kkkkkkkkkkcases. kkkkkkkkkkItkiskbestktokfocuskonkthekcrimekandkallkthekevidencektokcorroboratek kkkkkkkkkkitskcommission.kInformationkaboutklocalksatanickorkoccultkactivityk kkkkkkkkkkiskonlykofkvaluekifkitkiskbasedkonkspecificklawkenforcementk kkkkkkkkkkintelligencekandknotkonksomekvague,kunsubstantiatedkgeneralitiesk kkkkkkkkkkfromkreligiouskgroups.kCaseskareknotksolvedkbykdecodingksigns,k kkkkkkkkkksymbols,kandkdateskusingkundocumentedksatanickcrimek"manuals".kInk kkkkkkkkkkonekcasekaklawkenforcementkagencykexecutingkaksearchkwarrantkseizedk kkkkkkkkkkonlyktheksatanickparaphernaliakandkleftkbehindkthekotherkevidencek kkkkkkkkkkthatkwouldkhavekcorroboratedkvictimkstatements.kCaseskareksolvedkbyk kkkkkkkkkkpeople-kandkbehavior-orientedkinvestigation.kEvidencekofksatanickork kkkkkkkkkkoccultkactivitykmaykhelpkexplainkcertainkaspectskofkthekcase,kbut kkkkkkkkkkevenkoffenderskwhokcommitkcrimeskinkakspiritualkcontextkarekusuallyk kkkkkkkkkkmotivatedkbykpower,ksex,kandkmoney. kkkkkkkkkk--kb.kKEEPkINVESTIGATIONkANDkRELIGIOUSkBELIEFSkSEPARATE. kkkkkkkkkkIkbelievekthatkonekofkthekbiggestkmista eskanykinvestigatorkofkthesek kkkkkkkkkkcaseskcankma ekisktokattributeksupernaturalkpowersktokthekoffenders.k kkkkkkkkkkDuringkankinvestigationkakgoodkinvestigatorkmayksometimeskbekablektok kkkkkkkkkkusekthekbeliefskandksuperstitionskofkthekoffendersktokhiskorkherk kkkkkkkkkkadvantage.kThekreversekhappenskifkthekinvestigatorkbelieveskthatkthek kkkkkkkkkkoffenderskpossessksupernaturalkpowers.kSatanic/occultkpractitionersk kkkkkkkkkkhaveknokmorekpowerkthankanykotherkhumankbeings.kLawkenforcementk kkkkkkkkkkofficerskwhokbelievekthatkthekinvestigationkofkthesekcaseskputskthemk kkkkkkkkkkinkconflictkwithktheksupernaturalkforceskofkevilkshouldkprobablyknotk kkkkkkkkkkbekassignedktokthem.kThekreligiouskbeliefskofkofficerskshouldk kkkkkkkkkkprovidekspiritualkstrengthkandksupportkforkthemkbutkshouldknotk kkkkkkkkkkaffectkthekobjectivitykandkprofessionalismkofkthekinvestigation.

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1617 kkkkkkkkkkItkiskeasyktokgetkcaughtkupkinkthesekcaseskandkbeginktokseek kkkkkkkkkk"satanism"keverywhere.kOversensitizationktokthiskperceivedkthreatk kkkkkkkkkkmaykcausekankinvestigatorktok"see"ksatanismkinkakcrimekwhenkitk kkkkkkkkkkreallykisknotktherek(quasi-satanism).kOftenkthekeyekseeskwhatkthek kkkkkkkkkkmindkperceives.kItkmaykalsokcausekankinvestigatorknotktokrecognizekak kkkkkkkkkkstagedkcrimekscenekdeliberatelykseededkwithk"satanickclues"kinkorderk kkkkkkkkkktokmisleadkthekpolicek(pseudo-satanism).kOnkrarekoccasionskank kkkkkkkkkkoverzealouskinvestigatorkorkintervenorkmaykevenkbektemptedktokplantk kkkkkkkkkk"evidencekofksatanism"kinkorderktokcorroborateksuchkallegationskandk kkkkkkkkkkbeliefs.kSupervisorskneedktokbekalertkforkandkmonitorkthesek kkkkkkkkkkreactionskinktheirkinvestigators. kkkkkkkkkk--kc.kLISTENkTOkTHEkVICTIMS. kkkkkkkkkkItkisknotkthekinvestigator'skdutyktokbelievekthekvictims;kitkiskhisk kkkkkkkkkkorkherkjobktoklistenkandkbekankobjectivekfactkfinder.kInterviewskofk kkkkkkkkkkyoungkchildrenkshouldkbekdonekbykinvestigatorsktrainedkandk kkkkkkkkkkexperiencedkinksuchkinterviews.kInvestigatorskmustkhavekdirectk kkkkkkkkkkaccessktokthekallegedkvictimskforkinterviewkpurposes.kTherapistskfork kkkkkkkkkkankadultksurvivorksometimeskwantktokactkaskintermediarieskinktheirk kkkkkkkkkkpatient'skinterview.kThiskshouldkbekavoidedkifkatkallkpossible.k kkkkkkkkkkAdultksurvivorkinterviewskarekoftenkconfusingkdifficultkandk kkkkkkkkkkextremelyktime-consuming.kThekinvestigatorkmustkrememberkhoweverk kkkkkkkkkkthatkalmostkanythingkiskpossible.kMostkimportantkthekinvestigatork kkkkkkkkkkmustkrememberkthatktherekiskmuchkmiddlekground.kJustkbecausekonek kkkkkkkkkkeventkdidkhappenkdoesknotkmeankthatkallkreportedkeventskhappened,k kkkkkkkkkkandkjustkbecausekonekeventkdidknotkhappenkdoesknotkmeankthatkallk kkkkkkkkkkotherkeventskdidknotkhappen.kDoknotkbecomeksuchkakzealotkthatkyouk kkkkkkkkkkbelievekitkallknorksuchkakcynickthatkyoukbelieveknothing.kVaryingk kkkkkkkkkkamountskandkpartskofkthekallegationkmaykbekfactual.kAttemptingktok kkkkkkkkkkfindkevidencekofkwhatkdidkhappenkiskthekgreatkchallengekofkthesek kkkkkkkkkkcases.k*All*kinvestigativekinteractionkwithkvictimskmustkbek kkkkkkkkkkcarefullykandkthoroughlykdocumented. kkkkkkkkkk--kd.kASSESSkANDkEVALUATEkVICTIMkSTATEMENTS. kkkkkkkkkkThiskiskthekpartkofkthekinvestigativekprocesskinkchildksexualk kkkkkkkkkkvictimizationkcaseskthatkseemsktokhavekbeenklost.kIskthekvictimk kkkkkkkkkkdescribingkeventskandkactivitieskthatkarekconsistentkwithklawk kkkkkkkkkkenforcementkdocumentedkcriminalkbehavior,korkthatkarekconsistentk kkkkkkkkkkwithkdistortedkmediakaccountskandkerroneouskpublickperceptionskofk kkkkkkkkkkcriminalkbehavior?kInvestigatorskshouldkapplykthek"templatekofk kkkkkkkkkkprobability".kAccountskofkchildksexualkvictimizationkthatkarekmorek kkkkkkkkkkli ekboo s,ktelevision,kandkmoviesk(e.g.kbigkconspiracies,kchildksexk kkkkkkkkkkslaves,korganizedkpornographykrings)kandklesskli ekdocumentedkcasesk kkkkkkkkkkshouldkbekviewedkwithks epticismkbutkthoroughlykinvestigated.k kkkkkkkkkkConsiderkandkinvestigatekallkpossiblekexplanationskofkevents.kItkisk kkkkkkkkkkthekinvestigator'skjob,kandkthekinformationklearnedkwillkbe kkkkkkkkkkinvaluablekinkcounteractingkthekdefensekattorneyskwhenktheykraisek kkkkkkkkkkthekalternativekexplanations.

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1618 kkkkkkkkkkForkexample,kankadultksurvivor'skaccountkofkritualkvictimizationk kkkkkkkkkkmightkbekexplainedkbykanykonekofkatkleastkfourkpossibilities:kFirst,k kkkkkkkkkkthekallegationskmaykbekakfairlykaccuratekaccountkwhatkactuallyk kkkkkkkkkkhappened.kSecond,ktheykmaykbekdeliberatekliesk(malingering),ktoldk kkkkkkkkkkforkthekusualkreasonskpeoplekliek(e.g.kmoney,krevenge,kjealousy).k kkkkkkkkkkThird,ktheykmaykbekdeliberatekliesk(factitiouskdisorder)ktoldkfork kkkkkkkkkkatypicalkreasonsk(e.g.kattention,kforgiveness).kLiesksokmotivatedk kkkkkkkkkkareklesskli elyktokbekrecognizedkbykthekinvestigatorkandkmorekli elyk kkkkkkkkkktokbekrigidlykmaintainedkbykthekliarkunlesskandkuntilkconfrontedk kkkkkkkkkkwithkirrefutablekevidencektokthekcontrary.kFourth,kthekallegationsk kkkkkkkkkkmaykbekakhighlykinaccuratekaccountkofkwhatkactuallykhappened,kbutk kkkkkkkkkkthekvictimktrulykbelieveskitk(pseudomemory)kandkthereforekisknotk kkkkkkkkkklying.kAkpolygraphkexaminationkofksuchkakvictimkwouldkbekofklimitedk kkkkkkkkkkvalue.kOtherkexplanationskorkcombinationskofkthesekexplanationskarek kkkkkkkkkkalsokpossible.k*Only*kthoroughk*investigation*kwillkpointktokthek kkkkkkkkkkcorrectkorkmostkli elykexplanation.k kkkkkkkkkkInvestigatorskcannotkrelykonktherapistskorksatanickcrimekexpertskask kkkkkkkkkkakshortcutktokthekexplanation.kInkonekcase,kthek"experts"kconfirmedk kkkkkkkkkkandkvalidatedkthekaccountkofkakfemalekwhokclaimedktokbekak15-yearkkkkkkkkkkoldkdeaf-mutek idnappedkandkheldkforkthreekyearskbykaksatanickcultk kkkkkkkkkkandkforcedktokparticipatekinkbizarrekritualskbeforekrecentlyk kkkkkkkkkkescaping.kActivekinvestigation,khowever,kdeterminedkshekwaskak27kkkkkkkkkkyear-oldkwomankwhokcouldkhearkandkspea ,kwhokhadknotkbeenk idnappedk kkkkkkkkkkbykanyone,kandkwhokhadkaklengthykhistorykofkmentalkproblemskandkatk kkkkkkkkkkleastkthreekotherksimilarkreportskofkfalsekvictimization.kHerk kkkkkkkkkk"accurate"kaccountskofkwhatkthek"realksatanists"kdokwereksimplykthek kkkkkkkkkkresultkofkhavingkread,kwhilekinkmentalkhospitals,ktheksamekboo sk kkkkkkkkkkthatkthek"experts"khad.kAktherapistkmaykhavekimportantkinsightsk kkkkkkkkkkaboutkwhetherkankindividualkwasktraumatized,kbutk nowingkthekexactk kkkkkkkkkkcausekofkthatktraumakiskanotherkmatter.kTherekhavekbeenkcaseskwherek kkkkkkkkkkinvestigationkhaskdiscoveredkthatkindividualskdiagnosedkbyk kkkkkkkkkktherapistskasksufferingkfromkPost-VietnamkSyndromekwerekneverkink kkkkkkkkkkVietnamkorksawknokcombat. kkkkkkkkkkConversely,kinkanotherkcase,kaklawkenforcementk"expert"konksatanick kkkkkkkkkkcrimektoldkaktherapistkthatkakpatient'skaccountskofksatanickmurdersk kkkkkkkkkkinkakruralkPacifickNorthwestktownkwerekprobablyktruekbecausekthek kkkkkkkkkkcommunitykwaskakhotbedkofksuchksatanickactivity.kWhenkthektherapistk kkkkkkkkkkexplainedkthatktherekwaskalmostknokviolentkcrimekreportedkinkthek kkkkkkkkkkcommunity,kthekofficerkexplainedkthatkthatkiskhowkyouk nowkitkiskthek kkkkkkkkkksatanists.kIfkyouk newkaboutkthekmurderskorkfoundkthekbodies,kitk kkkkkkkkkkwouldknotkbeksatanists.kHowkdokyoukarguekwithkthatk indkofklogic? kkkkkkkkkkThekfirstkstepkinkthekassessmentkandkevaluationkofkvictimkstatementsk kkkkkkkkkkisktokdeterminekthekdisclosureksequence,kincludingkhowkmuchktimekhask kkkkkkkkkkelapsedksincekdisclosurekwaskfirstkmadekandkthekincidentkwask kkkkkkkkkkreportedktokthekpolicekorksocialkservices.kTheklongerkthekdelay,kthek kkkkkkkkkkbiggerkthekpotentialkforkproblems.kTheknextkstepkisktokdeterminekthek kkkkkkkkkknumberkandkpurposekofk*allkprior*kinterviewskofkthekvictimk kkkkkkkkkkconcerningkthekallegations.kThekmorekinterviewskconductedkbeforekthek kkkkkkkkkkinvestigativekinterview,ktheklargerkthekpotentialkforkproblems.k kkkkkkkkkkAlthoughktherekisknothingkwrongkwithkadmittingkshortcomingskandk kkkkkkkkkksee ingkhelp,klawkenforcementkshouldkneverkabdicatekitskcontrolkoverk kkkkkkkkkkthekinvestigativekinterview.kWhenkankinvestigativekinterviewkisk kkkkkkkkkkconductedkbykorkwithkaksocialkwor erkorktherapistkusingkakteamk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkapproach,klawkenforcementkmustkdirectkthekprocess.kProblemskcankalsok kkkkkkkkkkbekcreatedkbykinterviewskconductedkbykvariouskintervenorsk*after*k kkkkkkkkkkthekinvestigativekinterview(s).

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1619 kkkkkkkkkkThekinvestigatorkmustkcloselykandkcarefullykevaluatekeventskinkthek kkkkkkkkkkvictim'sklifekbefore,kduring,kandkafterkthekallegedkabuse. kkkkkkkkkkEventsktokbekevaluatedk*before*kthekallegedkabusekinclude: kkkkkkkkkk----k(1)kBac groundkofkvictim. kkkkkkkkkk----k(2)kAbusekofkdrugskinkhome. kkkkkkkkkk----k(3)kPornographykinkhome. kkkkkkkkkk----k(4)kPlay,ktelevision,kandkVCRkhabits. kkkkkkkkkk----k(5)kAttitudeskaboutksexualitykinkhome. kkkkkkkkkk----k(6)kExtentkofksexkeducationkinkhome. kkkkkkkkkk----k(7)kActivitieskofksiblings. kkkkkkkkkk----k(8)kNeedkorkcravingkforkattention. kkkkkkkkkk----k(9)kReligiouskbeliefskandktraining. kkkkkkkkkk----k(10)kChildhoodkfears. kkkkkkkkkk----k(11)kCustody/visitationkdisputes. kkkkkkkkkk----k(12)kVictimizationkofkorkbykfamilykmembers. kkkkkkkkkk----k(13)kInteractionkbetweenkvictims. kkkkkkkkkkEventsktokbekevaluatedk*during*kthekallegedkabusekinclude: kkkkkkkkkk----k(1)kUsekofkfearkorkscarektactics. kkkkkkkkkk----k(2)kDegreekofktrauma. kkkkkkkkkk----k(3)kUsekofkmagickdeceptionkorktric ery. kkkkkkkkkk----k(4)kUsekofkrituals. kkkkkkkkkk----k(5)kUsekofkdrugs. kkkkkkkkkk----k(6)kUsekofkpornography. kkkkkkkkkkEventsktokbekevaluatedk*after*kthekallegedkabusekinclude: kkkkkkkkkk----k(1)kDisclosureksequence. kkkkkkkkkk----k(2)kBac groundkofkpriorkinterviewers. kkkkkkkkkk----k(3)kBac groundkofkparents. kkkkkkkkkk----k(4)kCo-minglingkofkvictims. kkkkkkkkkk----k(5)kTypekofktherapykreceived. kkkkkkkkkk--ke.kEVALUATEkCONTAGION. kkkkkkkkkkConsistentkstatementskobtainedkfromkdifferentkmultiplekvictimskarek kkkkkkkkkkpowerfulkpieceskofkcorroborativekevidencek-kthatkiskasklongkaskthosek kkkkkkkkkkstatementskwereknotk"contaminated".kInvestigationkmustkcarefullyk kkkkkkkkkkevaluatekbothkpre-kandkpost-disclosurekcontagion,kandkbothkvictimk kkkkkkkkkkandkintervenorkcontagion.kArekthekdifferentkvictimkstatementsk kkkkkkkkkkconsistentkbecausektheykdescribekcommonkexperienceskorkevents,kork kkkkkkkkkkbecausektheykreflectkcontaminationkorkurbanklegends? kkkkkkkkkkTheksourceskofkpotentialkcontagionkarekwidespread.kVictimskcank kkkkkkkkkkcommunicatekwithkeachkotherkbothkpriorktokandkafterktheirk kkkkkkkkkkdisclosures.kIntervenorskcankcommunicatekwithkeachkotherkandkwithk kkkkkkkkkkvictims.kThekteamkorkcellkconceptskofkinvestigationkarekattemptsktok kkkkkkkkkkdealkwithkpotentialkinvestigatorkcontagion.kAllkthekvictimskareknotk kkkkkkkkkkinterviewedkbyktheksamekindividuals,kandkinterviewerskdoknotk kkkkkkkkkknecessarilyksharekinformationkdirectlykwithkeachkother.kTeamskreportk kkkkkkkkkktokakleaderkorksupervisorkwhokevaluateskthekinformationkandkdecidesk kkkkkkkkkkwhatkotherkinvestigatorskneedktok now.

 

 

     

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1620 kkkkkkkkkkDocumentingkexistingkcontagionkandkeliminatingkadditionalkcontagionk kkkkkkkkkkarekcrucialktoktheksuccessfulkinvestigationkandkprosecutionkofkthesek kkkkkkkkkkcases.kTherekisknokway,khowever,ktokerasekorkundokcontagion.kThek kkkkkkkkkkbestkyoukcankhopekforkisktokidentifykandkevaluatekitkandkattemptktok kkkkkkkkkkexplainkit.kMentalkhealthkprofessionalskrequestedktokevaluatek kkkkkkkkkksuspectedkvictimskmustkbekcarefullykselected.kHavingkakvictimk kkkkkkkkkkevaluatedkbykonekofkthekself-proclaimedkexpertskonksatanickritualk kkkkkkkkkkabusekorkbyksomekotherkoverzealouskintervenorkmaykresultkinkthek kkkkkkkkkkcredibilitykofkthatkvictim'sktestimonykbeingkseverelykdamaged. kkkkkkkkkkInkorderktokevaluatekthekcontagionkelement,kinvestigatorskmustk kkkkkkkkkkmeticulouslykandkaggressivelykinvestigatekthesekcases.kThekprecisek kkkkkkkkkkdisclosureksequencekofkthekvictimkmustkbekcarefullykidentifiedkand kkkkkkkkkkdocumented.kInvestigatorskmustkverifykthroughkactivekinvestigationk kkkkkkkkkkthekexactknaturekandkcontentkofkeachkdisclosurekoutcrykorkstatementk kkkkkkkkkkmadekbykthekvictim.kSecond-handkinformationkaboutkdisclosurekisknotk kkkkkkkkkkgoodkenough. kkkkkkkkkkWheneverkpossible,kpersonalkvisitskshouldkbekmadektokallklocationsk kkkkkkkkkkofkallegedkabusekandkthekvictim'skhomes.kEventskpriorktokthekallegedk kkkkkkkkkkabusekmustkbekcarefullykevaluated.kInvestigatorskmaykhavektokviewk kkkkkkkkkktelevisionkprograms,kfilms,kandkvideotapeskseenkbykthekvictims.kItk kkkkkkkkkkmaykbeknecessaryktokconductkakbac groundkinvestigationkandk kkkkkkkkkkevaluationkofkeveryone,kbothkprofessionalkandknonprofessional,kwhok kkkkkkkkkkinterviewedkthekvictimskaboutkthekallegationskpriorktokandkafterkthek kkkkkkkkkkinvestigativekinterview(s).kInvestigatorskmustkbekfamiliarkwithkthek kkkkkkkkkkinformationkaboutkritualkabusekofkchildrenkbeingkdisseminatedkink kkkkkkkkkkmagazines,kboo s,ktelevisionkprograms,kvideotapes,kandkconferences.k kkkkkkkkkkEverykpossiblekwaykthatkakvictimkcouldkhaveklearnedkaboutkthek kkkkkkkkkkdetailskofkthekabusekmustkbekexploredkifkforknokotherkreasonkthanktok kkkkkkkkkkeliminatekthemkandkcounterkthekdefense'skarguments. kkkkkkkkkkTherekmay,khowever,kbekvalidityktokthesekcontagionkfactors.k*Theyk kkkkkkkkkkmaykexplainksomekofkthek"unbelievable"kaspectskofkthekcasekandk kkkkkkkkkkresultkinktheksuccessfulkprosecutionkofktheksubstancekofkthekcase.*k kkkkkkkkkkConsistencykofkstatementskbecomeskmoreksignificantkifkcontagionkisk kkkkkkkkkkidentifiedkorkdisprovedkbykindependentkinvestigation.kThekeasierk kkkkkkkkkkcaseskarekthekoneskwherektherekiskaksingle,kidentifiableksourcekofk kkkkkkkkkkcontagion.kMostkcases,khowever,kseemktokinvolvekmultiplekcontagionk kkkkkkkkkkfactors. kkkkkkkkkkMunchausenkSyndromekandkMunchausenkSyndromekbykProxykarekcomplexkandk kkkkkkkkkkcontroversialkissueskinkthesekcases.kNokattemptkwillkbekmadektok kkkkkkkkkkdiscusskthemkinkdetail,kbutktheykarekdocumentedkfactsk(Rosenberg,k kkkkkkkkkk1987).kMostkofkthekliteraturekaboutkthemkfocuseskonktheirk kkkkkkkkkkmanifestationkinkthekmedicalksettingkaskfalsekorkself-inflictedk kkkkkkkkkkillnesskorkinjury.kTheykarekalsokmanifestedkinkthekcriminalkjusticek kkkkkkkkkksettingkaskfalsekorkself-inflictedkcrimekvictimization.kIfkparentsk kkkkkkkkkkwouldkpoisonktheirkchildrenktokprovekankillness,ktheykmightksexuallyk kkkkkkkkkkabusektheirkchildrenktokprovekakcrime.k"Victims"khavekbeenk nownktok kkkkkkkkkkdestroykproperty,kmanufacturekevidence,kandkmutilatekthemselveskink kkkkkkkkkkorderktokconvincekotherskofktheirkvictimization.kThekmotivationkisk kkkkkkkkkkpsychologicalkgaink(i.e.kattention,kforgiveness,ketc.)kandknotk kkkkkkkkkknecessarilykmoney,kjealousy,korkrevenge.kThesekarekthekunpopular,k kkkkkkkkkkbutkdocumented,krealitieskofkthekworld.kRecognizingktheirkexistencek

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkdoesknotkmeankthatkchildksexualkabusekandksexualkassaultkareknotk kkkkkkkkkkrealkandkseriouskproblems.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1621 kkkkkkkkkk--kf.kESTABLISHkCOMMUNICATIONkWITHkPARENTS. kkkkkkkkkkThekimportancekandkdifficultykofkthisktechniquekinkextrafamilialk kkkkkkkkkkcaseskinvolvingkyoungkchildrenkcannotkbekoveremphasized.kAnk kkkkkkkkkkinvestigatorkmustkmaintainkongoingkcommunicationkwithkthekparentskofk kkkkkkkkkkvictimskinkthesekabusekcases.kNotkallkparentskreactktheksamekwayktok kkkkkkkkkkthekallegedkabusekofktheirkchildren.kSomekarekveryksupportivekandk kkkkkkkkkkcooperative.kOtherskoverreactkandksomekevenkdenykthekvictimization.k kkkkkkkkkkSometimesktherekiskanimositykandkmistrustkamongkparentskwithk kkkkkkkkkkdifferentkreactions.kOncekthekparentsklosekfaithkinkthekpolicekork kkkkkkkkkkprosecutorkandkbeginktokinterrogatektheirkownkchildrenkandkconductk kkkkkkkkkktheirkownkinvestigation,kthekcasekmaykbeklostkforever.kParentskfromk kkkkkkkkkkonekcasekcommunicatekthekresultskofktheirk"investigation"kwithkeachk kkkkkkkkkkother,kandksomekhavekevenkcontactedkthekparentskinkotherkcases.kSuchk kkkkkkkkkkparentalkactivitykiskankobviousksourcekofkpotentialkcontamination. kkkkkkkkkkParentskmustkbekmadektokunderstandkthatktheirkchildren'skcredibilityk kkkkkkkkkkwillkbekjeopardizedkwhenkandkifkthekinformationkobtainedkturnskoutk kkkkkkkkkktokbekunsubstantiatedkorkfalse.kTokminimizekthiskproblem,kwithinkthek kkkkkkkkkklimitskofktheklawkandkwithoutkjeopardizingkinvestigativektechniques,k kkkkkkkkkkparentskmustkbektoldkonkakregularkbasiskhowkthekcasekiskprogressing. kkkkkkkkkkParentskcankalsokbekassignedkconstructivekthingsktokdok(e.g.k kkkkkkkkkklobbyingkforknewklegislation,kwor ingkonkawarenesskandkpreventionk kkkkkkkkkkprograms)kinkorderktokchannelktheirkenergy,kconcern,kandk"guilt". kkkkkkkkkk--kg.kDEVELOPkAkCONTINGENCYkPLAN. kkkkkkkkkkIfkakdepartmentkwaitskuntilkactuallykconfrontedkwithkakcasekbeforekak kkkkkkkkkkresponsekiskdeveloped,kitkmaykbektooklate.kInkcaseskinvolvingk kkkkkkkkkkongoingkabusekofkchildren,kdepartmentskmustkrespondkquic ly,kandk kkkkkkkkkkthiskrequireskadvancedkplanning.kTherekarekaddedkproblemskforksmall-k kkkkkkkkkktokmedium-sizedkdepartmentskwithklimitedkpersonnelkandkresources.k kkkkkkkkkkEffectivekinvestigationkofkthesekcaseskrequireskplanning,k kkkkkkkkkkidentificationkofkresources,kand,kinkmanykcases,kmutualkaidk kkkkkkkkkkagreementskbetweenkagencies.kThekU.S.kDepartmentkofkDefensekhask kkkkkkkkkkconductedkspecializedktrainingkandkhaskdevelopedksuchkakplankfork kkkkkkkkkkchildksexkringkcaseskinvolvingkmilitarykfacilitieskandkpersonnel.k kkkkkkkkkkOncekakcasekiskcontaminatedkandkoutkofkcontrol,kIkhaveklittlekadvicek kkkkkkkkkkonkhowktoksalvagekwhatkmaykoncekhavekbeenkakprosecutablekcriminalk kkkkkkkkkkviolation.kAkfewkofkthesekcaseskhavekevenkbeenklostkonkappealkafterk kkkkkkkkkkakconvictionkbecausekofkcontaminationkproblems. kkkkkkkkkk--kh.kMULTIDISCIPLINARYkTASKkFORCES. kkkkkkkkkkSergeantkBethkDic inson,kLoskAngeleskCountykSheriff'skDepartment,k kkkkkkkkkkwaskthekchairpersonkofkthekMulti-Victim,kMulti-SuspectkChildkSexualk kkkkkkkkkkAbusekSubcommittee.kSergeantkDic insonkstatesk(personalk kkkkkkkkkkcommunication,kNov.k1989): kkkkkkkkkk"Onekofkthekbiggestkobstacleskforkinvestigatorsktokovercomekiskthek kkkkkkkkkkreluctancekofklawkenforcementkadministratorsktokcommitksufficientk kkkkkkkkkkresourceskearlykonktokankinvestigationkthatkhaskthekpotentialktokbek kkkkkkkkkkakmultidimensionalkchildksexkring.kItkiskimportantktokgetkinkandkgetk kkkkkkkkkkonktopkofkthekinvestigationkinkaktimelykmannerk-ktokgetkitk kkkkkkkkkkinvestigatedkinkaktimelykmannerkinkorderktokassesskthekris ktok kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkandktokavoidkhysteria,kmediaksensationalism,kandkcross-

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkcontaminationkofkinformation.kThekteamkapproachkreduceskstresskonk kkkkkkkkkkindividualkinvestigators,kallowingkforkpeerksupportkandkminimizingk kkkkkkkkkkfeelingskofkbeingkoverwhelmed."

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1622 kkkkkkkkkkThekteamkapproachkandkwor ingktogetherkdoesknotkmean,khowever,kthatk kkkkkkkkkkeachkdisciplinekforgetskitskrolekandkstartskdoingkthekother'skjob. kkkkkkkkkk--ki.kSUMMARY. kkkkkkkkkkThekinvestigationkofkchildksexkringskcankbekdifficultkandktimek kkkkkkkkkkconsuming.kThekli elihood,khowever,kofkakgreatkdealkofkcorroborativek kkkkkkkkkkevidencekinkakmultivictim/multioffenderkcasekincreaseskthekchancesk kkkkkkkkkkofkaksuccessfulkprosecutionkifkthekcrimekoccurred.kBecausektherekisk kkkkkkkkkkstillksokmuchkwekdoknotk nowkorkunderstandkaboutkthekdynamicskofk kkkkkkkkkkmultidimensionalkchildksexkrings,kinvestigativektechniqueskareklessk kkkkkkkkkkcertain.kEachknewkcasekmustkbekcarefullykevaluatedkinkorderktok kkkkkkkkkkimprovekinvestigativekprocedures. kkkkkkkkkkBecausekmentalkhealthkprofessionalskseemktokbekunablektokdetermine,k kkkkkkkkkkwithkanykdegreekofkcertainty,kthekaccuracykofkvictimkstatementskink kkkkkkkkkkthesekcases,klawkenforcementkmustkproceedkusingkthekcorroborationk kkkkkkkkkkprocess.kIfksomekofkwhatkthekvictimkdescribeskiskaccurate,ksomek kkkkkkkkkkmisperceived,ksomekdistorted,kandksomekcontaminated,kwhatkiskthek kkkkkkkkkkjuryksupposedktokbelieve?kUntilkmentalkhealthkprofessionalskcankcomek kkkkkkkkkkupkwithkbetterkanswers,kthekjurykshouldkbekas edktokbelievekwhatkthek kkkkkkkkkk*investigation*kcankcorroborate.kEvenkifkonlykakportionkofkwhatk kkkkkkkkkkthesekvictimskallegekiskfactual,kthatkmaykstillkconstitutek kkkkkkkkkksignificantkcriminalkactivity.k kkkkkkkkkk10.kCONCLUSION. kkkkkkkkkkTherekarekmanykpossiblekalternativekanswersktokthekquestionkofkwhyk kkkkkkkkkkvictimskarekallegingkthingskthatkdon'tkseemktokbektrue.kThekfirstk kkkkkkkkkkstepkinkfindingkthosekanswerskisktokadmitkthekpossibilitykthatksomek kkkkkkkkkkofkwhatkthekvictimskdescribekmayknotkhavekhappened.kSomekexpertsk kkkkkkkkkkseemkunwillingktokevenkconsiderkthis.kMostkofkthesekvictimskarekalsok kkkkkkkkkkprobablyknotklyingkandkhavekcomektokbelievekthatkwhichktheykarek kkkkkkkkkkallegingkactuallykhappened.kTherekarekalternativekexplanationskfork kkkkkkkkkkwhykpeoplekwhokneverkmetkeachkotherkcanktellktheksamekstory. kkkkkkkkkkIkbelievekthatktherekiskakmiddlekgroundk-kakcontinuumkofkpossiblek kkkkkkkkkkactivity.kSomekofkwhatkthekvictimskallegekmaykbektruekandkaccurate,k kkkkkkkkkksomekmaykbekmisperceivedkorkdistorted,ksomekmaykbekscreenedkork kkkkkkkkkksymbolic,kandksomekmaykbek"contaminated"korkfalse.kThekproblemkandk kkkkkkkkkkchallenge,kespeciallykforklawkenforcement,kisktokdeterminekwhichkisk kkkkkkkkkkwhich.kThiskcankonlykbekdonekthroughkactivekinvestigation.kIkbelievek kkkkkkkkkkthatkthekmajoritykofkvictimskallegingk"ritual"kabusekarekinkfactk kkkkkkkkkkvictimskofksomekformkofkabusekorktrauma.kThatkabusekorktraumakmaykork kkkkkkkkkkmayknotkbekcriminalkinknature.kAfterkaklengthykdiscussionkaboutk kkkkkkkkkkvariouskalternativekexplanationskandkthekcontinuumkofkpossiblek kkkkkkkkkkactivity,konekmotherktoldkmekthatkforkthekfirstktimeksincekthek kkkkkkkkkkvictimizationkofkherkyoungksonkshekfeltkaklittlekbetter.kShekhadk kkkkkkkkkkthoughtkherkonlykchoiceskwerekthatkeitherkherksonkwaskakpathologicalk kkkkkkkkkkliarkor,konkthekotherkhand,ksheklivedkinkakcommunitykcontrolledkbyk kkkkkkkkkksatanists. kkkkkkkkkkLawkenforcementkhaskthekobviouskproblemkofkattemptingktokdeterminek kkkkkkkkkkwhatkactuallykhappenedkforkcriminalkjusticekpurposes.kTherapists,k kkkkkkkkkkhowever,kmightkalsokbekinterestedkinkwhatkreallykhappenedkinkorderk kkkkkkkkkktokproperlykevaluatekandktreatktheirkpatients.kHowkandkwhenktok

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkconfrontkpatientskwithks epticismkiskakdifficultkandksensitivek kkkkkkkkkkproblemkforktherapists.

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1623 kkkkkkkkkkAnykprofessionalkevaluatingkvictims'kallegationskofk"ritual"kabusek kkkkkkkkkkcannotkignorekorkroutinelykdismissktheklac kofkphysicalkevidencek(nok kkkkkkkkkkbodieskorkphysicalkevidencekleftkbykviolentkmurders);kthekdifficultyk kkkkkkkkkkinksuccessfullykcommittingkaklarge-scalekconspiracykcrimek(thekmorek kkkkkkkkkkpeoplekinvolvedkinkanykcrimekconspiracy,kthekharderkitkisktokgetk kkkkkkkkkkawaykwithkit);kandkhumanknaturek(intragroupkconflictskresultingkink kkkkkkkkkkindividualkself-servingkdisclosureskarekli elyktokoccurkinkanykgroupk kkkkkkkkkkinvolvedkinkorganizedk idnapping,kbabykbreeding,kandkhumank kkkkkkkkkksacrifice).kIfkandkwhenkmemberskofkakdestructivekcultkcommitk kkkkkkkkkkmurders,ktheykarekboundktokma ekmista es,kleavekevidence,kandk kkkkkkkkkkeventuallykma ekadmissionskinkorderktokbragkaboutktheirkcrimeskorktok kkkkkkkkkkreducektheirklegalkliability.kThekdiscoverykofkthekmurderskink kkkkkkkkkkMatamoros,kMexicokink1989kandkthekresultskofktheksubsequentk kkkkkkkkkkinvestigationkarekgoodkexampleskofkthesekdynamics. kkkkkkkkkkOverzealouskintervenorskmustkacceptkthekfactkthatksomekofktheirk kkkkkkkkkkwell-intentionedkactivitykiskcontaminatingkandkdamagingkthek kkkkkkkkkkprosecutivekpotentialkofkthekcaseskwherekcriminalkactskdidkoccur.kWek kkkkkkkkkkmustkallk(i.e.,kthekmedia,kchurches,ktherapists,kvictimkadvocates,k kkkkkkkkkklawkenforcement,kandkthekgeneralkpublic)kas kourselveskifkwekhavek kkkkkkkkkkcreatedkankenvironmentkwherekvictimskarekrewarded,klistenedkto,k kkkkkkkkkkcomforted,kandkforgivenkinkdirectkproportionktokthekseveritykofk kkkkkkkkkktheirkabuse.kArekwekencouragingkneedykorktraumatizedkindividualsktok kkkkkkkkkktellkmorekandkmorekoutrageousktaleskofktheirkvictimization?kArekwek kkkkkkkkkkma ingkupkforkcenturieskofkdenialkbyknowkblindlykacceptingkanyk kkkkkkkkkkallegationkofkchildkabuseknokmatterkhowkabsurdkorkunli ely?kArekwek kkkkkkkkkkincreasingkthekli elihoodkthatkrebellious,kantisocial,korkattentionkkkkkkkkkksee ingkindividualskwillkgravitatektowardk"satanism"kbykpublicizingk kkkkkkkkkkitkandkoverreactingktokit?kThekoverreactionktokthekproblemkcankbek kkkkkkkkkkworsekthankthekproblem. kkkkkkkkkkThekamountkofk"ritual"kchildkabusekgoingkonkinkthiskcountrykdependsk kkkkkkkkkkonkhowkyoukdefinekthekterm.kOnekdocumentedkexamplekofkwhatkIkmightk kkkkkkkkkkcallk"ritual"kchildkabusekwaskthekhorrorkchronicledkinkthekboo k_A kkkkkkkkkkDeathkinkWhitekBearkLa e_k(Siegal,k1990).kThekabusekinkthiskcase,k kkkkkkkkkkhowever,khadklittlektokdokwithkanyone'skspiritualkbeliefksystem.k kkkkkkkkkkTherekarekmanykchildrenkinkthekUnitedkStateskwho,kstartingkearlykink kkkkkkkkkktheirklives,karekseverelykpsychologically,kphysically,kandksexuallyk kkkkkkkkkktraumatizedkbykangry,ksadistickparentskorkotherkadults.kSuchkabuse,k kkkkkkkkkkhowever,kisknotkperpetratedkonlykorkprimarilykbyksatanists.kThek kkkkkkkkkkstatisticalkoddskarekthatksuchkabuserskarekmemberskofkmainstreamk kkkkkkkkkkreligions.kIfk99.9%kofksatanistskandk0.1%kofkChristianskabusek kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkaskpartkofktheirkspiritualkbeliefksystem,kthatkstillkmeansk kkkkkkkkkkthatkthekvastkmajoritykofkchildrenksokabusedkwerekabusedkbyk kkkkkkkkkkChristians. kkkkkkkkkkUntilkhardkevidencekiskobtainedkandkcorroborated,kthekpublickshouldk kkkkkkkkkknotkbekfrightenedkintokbelievingkthatkbabieskarekbeingkbredkandk kkkkkkkkkkeaten,kthatk50,000kmissingkchildrenkarekbeingkmurderedkinkhumank kkkkkkkkkksacrifices,korkthatksatanistskarekta ingkoverkAmerica'skdaykcarek kkkkkkkkkkcenterskorkinstitutions.kNokonekcankprovekwithkabsolutekcertaintyk kkkkkkkkkkthatksuchkactivitykhask*not*koccurred.kThekburdenkofkproof,khowever,k kkkkkkkkkkaskitkwouldkbekinkakcriminalkprosecution,kiskonkthosekwhokclaimkthatk kkkkkkkkkkitkhaskoccurred.

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1624 kkkkkkkkkkThekexplanationkthatktheksatanistskarektookorganizedkandklawk kkkkkkkkkkenforcementkisktookincompetentkonlykgoesksokfarkinkexplainingkthek kkkkkkkkkklac kofkevidence.kForkatkleastkeightkyearskAmericanklawkenforcementk kkkkkkkkkkhaskbeenkaggressivelykinvestigatingkthekallegationskofkvictimskofk kkkkkkkkkkritualkabuse.kTherekisklittlekorknokevidencekforkthekportionkofk kkkkkkkkkktheirkallegationskthatkdealskwithklarge-scalekbabykbreeding,khumank kkkkkkkkkksacrifice,kandkorganizedksatanickconspiracies.kNowkitkiskupktok kkkkkkkkkkmentalkhealthkprofessionals,knotklawkenforcement,ktokexplainkwhyk kkkkkkkkkkvictimskarekallegingkthingskthatkdon'tkseemktokhavekhappened.k kkkkkkkkkkProfessionalskinkthiskfieldkmustkacceptkthekfactkthatktherekiskstillk kkkkkkkkkkmuchkwekdoknotk nowkaboutktheksexualkvictimizationkofkchildren,kandk kkkkkkkkkkthatkthiskareakdesperatelykneedskstudykandkresearchkbykrational,k kkkkkkkkkkobjectiveksocialkscientists. kkkkkkkkkkIfkthekguiltykarektokbeksuccessfullykprosecuted,kifkthekinnocentkarek kkkkkkkkkktokbekexonerated,kandkifkthekvictimskarektokbekprotectedkandk kkkkkkkkkktreated,kbetterkmethodsktokevaluatekandkexplainkallegationskofk kkkkkkkkkk"ritual"kchildkabusekmustkbekdevelopedkorkidentified.kUntilkthiskisk kkkkkkkkkkdone,kthekcontroversykwillkcontinuektokcastkakshadowkoverkandkfuelk kkkkkkkkkkthekbac lashkagainstkthekvaliditykandkrealitykofkchildksexualkabuse.k kkkkkkkkkkXI.kREFERENCES. kkkkkkkkkkAmericankPsychiatrickAssociation,k_DiagnostickandkStatisticalkManualk kkkkkkkkkkofkMentalkDisorders_k(3rdkEd.,kRev.).kWashington,kDC:k1987. kkkkkkkkkkBreiner,kS.J.,k_SlaughterkofkthekInnocents:kChildkAbusekThroughkthek kkkkkkkkkkAgeskandkToday_.kNewkYor :kPlenumkPress,k1990. kkkkkkkkkkBrown,kR.,k_PreparekforkWar_.kChino,kCA:kChic kPublications,k1987. kkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkBrunvand,kJ.H.,k_ThekVanishingkHitchhi er_.kNewkYor :kNorton,k1981. kkkkkkkkkkHarrington,kWalt,k"ThekDevilkinkAntonkLaVey".kWashington,kD.C.:k_Thek kkkkkkkkkkWashingtonkPostkMagazine_,kFebruaryk23,k1986,kpagesk#6-17. kkkkkkkkkkLanning,kK.V.,k_ChildkMolesters:kAkBehavioralkAnalysis_k(2ndkEd.).k kkkkkkkkkkWashington,kD.C.:kNationalkCenterkforkMissingkandkExploitedk kkkkkkkkkkChildren,k1987. kkkkkkkkkkLanning,kK.V.k(1989).kChildksexkrings:kAkbehavioralkanalysis.k kkkkkkkkkkWashington,kDC:kNationalkCenterkforkMissingkandkExploitedkChildren. kkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkLaVey,kAnton,k_ThekSatanickBible_.kNewkYor :kAvonkBoo s,k1969. kkkkkkkkkkMayer,kR.S.,k_Satan'skChildren_.kNewkYor :kPutnam,k1991. kkkkkkkkkkMichigankDepartmentkofkStatekPolice,k_OccultkSurvey_.kEastkLansing,k kkkkkkkkkkMichigan,k1990. kkkkkkkkkk_NationalkCoalitionkonkTelevisionkViolencek(NCTV)kNews_,kJunekkkkkkkkkkOctoberk1988,kpagek#3. kkkkkkkkkk_NationalkIncidencekStudieskonkMissing,kAbducted,kRunaway,kandk kkkkkkkkkkThrownawaykChildrenkinkAmerica_.kWashington,kD.C.:kU.S.kDepartmentk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkofkJustice,k1990. kkkkkkkkkkPrattanis,kA.,k"Hiddenkmessages",k_WellnesskLetter_.kkBer eley,k kkkkkkkkkkCalifornia:kUniversitykofkCalifornia,kJanuaryk1991,kpagesk#1-2.

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1625 kkkkkkkkkkRosenberg,kD.A.,k"WebkofkDeceit:kAkLiteraturekReviewkofkMunchausenk kkkkkkkkkkSyndromekbykProxy",k_ChildkAbusekandkNeglect_k#2,k1987,kpagesk#547kkkkkkkkkk563. kkkkkkkkkkRush,kE.,k_ThekBestkKeptkSecret:kSexualkAbusekofkChildren_.kNewk kkkkkkkkkkYor :kMcGraw-Hill,k1980. kkkkkkkkkkSmith,kM.,k&kPazder,kL.,k_MichellekRemembers_.kNewkYor :kCongdonkandk kkkkkkkkkkLattis,k1980. kkkkkkkkkkSiegal,kB.,k_AkDeathkinkWhitekBearkLa e_.kNewkYor :kBantam,k1990. kkkkkkkkkk"Stranger-AbductionkHomicideskofkChildren",k_JuvenilekJusticek kkkkkkkkkkBulletin_.kWashington,kD.C.:kU.kS.kDepartmentkofkJustice,k1989. kkkkkkkkkkStratford.kL.,k_Satan'skUnderground_.kEugene,kOregon:kHarvestkHouse,k kkkkkkkkkk1988. kkkkkkkkkkTerr,kL.,k_TookScaredktokCry_.kNewkYor :kHarperk&kRow,k1990. kkkkkkkkkkTimni ,kL.,k"ThekTimeskPoll",k_LoskAngeleskTimes_,kAugustk25-26,k kkkkkkkkkk1985. kkkkkkkkkkVirginiakCrimekCommissionkTas kForce,k_FinalkReportkofkthekTas k kkkkkkkkkkForcekStudyingkRitualkCrime_.kRichmond,kVirginia. kkkkkkkkkk12.kSUGGESTEDkREADING. kkkkkkkkkk--ka.kCooper,kJohnkCharles,k_ThekBlac kMas :kSatanismkinkAmericak kkkkkkkkkkToday_.kOldkTappen,kN.J.:kFlemingkH.kRevellkCompany,k1990. kkkkkkkkkkProbablykthekbestkofktheklargeknumberkofkboo skavailablekprimarilyk kkkkkkkkkkinkChristiankboo storeskandkwrittenkfromkthekChristiankperspective.k kkkkkkkkkkThiskone,khowever,kiskwrittenkwithoutkthekhysteriakandk kkkkkkkkkksensationalismkofkmost.kRecommendedkforkinvestigatorskwhokwantk kkkkkkkkkkinformationkfromkthiskperspective. kkkkkkkkkk--kb.kHic s,kRobertkD.,k_InkPursuitkofkSatan:kThekPolicekandkthek kkkkkkkkkkOccult_.kBuffalo,kNY:kPrometheuskBoo s,k1991. kkkkkkkkkkUndoubtedlykthekbestkboo kwrittenktokdatekonkthektopickofksatanismk kkkkkkkkkkandkthekoccultkfromktheklawkenforcementkperspective.kRobertkD.kHic sk kkkkkkkkkkiskakformerkpolicekofficerkwhokiskcurrentlykemployedkaskakcriminalk kkkkkkkkkkjusticekanalystkforkthekstatekofkVirginia.kMustkreadingkforkanyk kkkkkkkkkkcriminalkjusticekprofessionalkinvolvedkinkthiskissue.kUnfortunately,k kkkkkkkkkkinkthekchapterkonk"SatanickAbusekofkChildren",kthekauthorkappearsktok kkkkkkkkkkhavekbeenkoverlykinfluencedkbykextremeks epticskwithkminimalkork kkkkkkkkkkquestionablekcredentialskinkthiskarea.kThekboo kiskeasyktokread,k kkkkkkkkkklogical,kandkhighlykrecommended.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1626 kkkkkkkkkk--kc.kRichardson,kJameskT.;kBest,kJoel;k&kBromley,kDavidkG.;kEds,k kkkkkkkkkk_ThekSatanismkScare_.kNY:kAldinekdekGruyter,k1991. kkkkkkkkkkThekbestkboo knowkavailablekonkthekcurrentkcontroversykoverksatanismk kkkkkkkkkkwrittenkfromkthekacademickperspective,kThekeditorskandkmanykofkthek kkkkkkkkkkchapterkauthorskarekcollegekprofessorskandkhavekwrittenkank kkkkkkkkkkobjective,kwell-researchedkboo .kOnekofkthekgreatkstrengthskofkthisk kkkkkkkkkkboo kiskthekfactkthatkthekeditorskaddresskakvarietykofkthek kkkkkkkkkkcontroversialkissueskfromkakvarietykofkdisciplinesk(i.e.,ksociology,k kkkkkkkkkkhistory,kfol lore,kanthropology,kcriminalkjustice).kBecausekofkitsk kkkkkkkkkkacademickperspectivekitkisksometimeskharderktokreadkbutkiskwellk kkkkkkkkkkworthkthekeffort.kThekchapterkonk"LawkEnforcementkandkthekSatanick kkkkkkkkkkCrimekConnection"kcontainskthekresultskofkaksurveykofk"CultkCops"k kkkkkkkkkkandkiskmustkreadingkforklawkenforcementkofficers.kThekchapterkonk kkkkkkkkkk"SatanismkandkChildkMolestation:kConstructingkthekRitualkAbusek kkkkkkkkkkScare"kwaskwritten,khowever,kbykakfree-lancekjournalistkwhokseemsktok kkkkkkkkkkta ekthekpositionkthatkthesekcaseskinvolveklittlekorknokrealkchildk kkkkkkkkkkabuse. kkkkkkkkkk--kd.kTerr,kLenore,k_TookScaredktokCry:kPsychickTraumakink kkkkkkkkkkChildhood_.kNewkYor :kHarperkandkRow,k1990. kkkkkkkkkkAnkexcellentkboo kwrittenkbykakpsychiatristkthatkprovideskimportantk kkkkkkkkkkinsightskintoktheknaturekandkrecallabilitykofkearlykpsychicktrauma.k kkkkkkkkkkForkme,kDr.kTerr'skresearchkandkfindingskinkthekinfamouskChowchillak kkkkkkkkkk idnappingkcasekshedkconsiderableklightkonkthek"ritual"kabusek kkkkkkkkkkcontroversy.

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1627 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPERSECUTION:kANCIENTkANDkMODERNkk kkkkkkkkkkThiskiskthekktextkofkaktal kentitledkkPERSECUTION:kANCIENTkANDkMODERN. kkkkkkkkkkWrittenkkbykkJuliakPhillips,kkitkwaskkpresentedkkbykJuliakkandkMatthew kkkkkkkkkkSandowkatkkthekWiccankkConference,kCanberra,kkSeptemberk1992,kkandkwas kkkkkkkkkkillustratedkwithkslideskofkmedievalkwoodcuts,kpaintingskandkdocuments. kkkkkkkkkkTokbegin,kankexamplekofkreligiouskpersecution: kkkkkkkkkkIkkamktoldkkthat,kkmovedkbykksomekfoolishkkurge,kktheykconsecratekkand kkkkkkkkkkworshipkthekheadkofkakdon ey,kthatkkmostkabjectkofkallkanimals.kkkThis kkkkkkkkkkiskakcultkworthykofkthekcustomskfromkwhichkitksprang!kOthersksaykkthat kkkkkkkkkktheykreverencekthekgenitalskofkthekpresidingkpriestkhimself,kandkadore kkkkkkkkkkthemkaskkthoughktheykwerektheirkkfather's...kAskforkkthekinitiationkof kkkkkkkkkknewkkmembers,kthekdetailskarekaskdisgustingkkasktheykarekwell- nown.kA kkkkkkkkkkchild,kkcoveredkinkkdoughktokkdeceivekthekkunwary,kiskksetkbeforekkthe kkkkkkkkkkwould-bekknovice.kTheknovicekstabskkthekchildktokkdeathkwithkinvisible kkkkkkkkkkblows;kkindeed,khekhimself,kdeceivedkkbykthekcoatingkkofkdough,kthin s kkkkkkkkkkhiskkstabskharmless.kThenk-kkit'skhorrible!k-kktheykhungrilykdrin kthe kkkkkkkkkkchild'skblood,kandkkcompetekwithkonekanotherkasktheykdividekhisklimbs. kkkkkkkkkkThroughkthiskkvictimktheykarekboundkktogether;kandkthekfactkkthatkthey kkkkkkkkkkallksharekthek nowledgekofkthekcrimekpledgeskthemkallktoksilence.kSuch kkkkkkkkkkholykriteskarekmorekkdisgracefulkthanksacrilege.kItkiskkwell- nownktoo kkkkkkkkkkwhatkhappenskatktheirkfeasts....kOnkthekfeastkdayktheykforgatherkkwith kkkkkkkkkkallktheirkchildren,kksisters,kmothers,kkpeoplekofkeitherkksexkandkkall kkkkkkkkkkages.kWhenkthekcompanykiskallkaglowkfromkfeasting,kandkimpureklustkhas kkkkkkkkkkbeenksetkkafirekbykkdrun enness,kpieceskkofkmeatkarekkthrownktokkakdog kkkkkkkkkkfastenedktokkakklamp.kThekklamp,kkwhichkwouldkkhavekbeenkkakkbetraying kkkkkkkkkkwitness,kiskoverturnedkandkgoeskout.kNow,kinkthekdar ksokfavourablekto kkkkkkkkkkshamelesskbehaviour,kktheyktwinekthekkbondskofkunnameablekkpassion,kas kkkkkkkkkkchancekkdecides.kAndkksokallkkali ekarekkincestuous,kifknotkkalwayskin kkkkkkkkkkdeed,katkleastkbykcomplicity;kforkkeverythingkthatkiskperformedkbykone kkkkkkkkkkofkthemkcorrespondsktokthekwisheskofkthemkall...kPreciselyktheksecrecy kkkkkkkkkkofkthiskevilkkreligionkproveskkthatkallkthesekkthings,korkkpractically kkkkkkkkkkall,karektrue.k(MinuciuskFelix:kOctavius)k kkkkkkkkkkAlthoughkktheklanguagekisknotkmodern,kthekdescriptionkofkthekpractices kkkkkkkkkkcouldkhavekcomekstraightkfromklastkwee 'sk"Picture"kmagazine!kAndkthis kkkkkkkkkkiskthekpointkkthatkIkwishktokkma e;kthekfactskofkkpersecutionkhaveknot kkkkkkkkkkchangedkinkalmostk2,000kyears,kkforkthatkpiecekwaskwrittenkinkkthek2nd kkkkkkkkkkcenturykAD.kMoreover,kkthekreligionkitkkcondemnskiskChristianity,kknot kkkkkkkkkkPaganism,kforkPaganismkatkkthatktimekwaskthekdominantkkstatekreligion. kkkkkkkkkkInkfactkkthekauthorkkiskakkChristiankapologist,kkandkiskkattemptingkto kkkkkkkkkkrebu ekwhatkhekkseeskaskkunfairkcriticism,kbykkparodyingkthekkoffences kkkkkkkkkkwhichkPaganskaccusekChristianskofkperpetrating. kkkkkkkkkkPersecutionkkofkreligiouskkminoritieskkiskkquitekksimplykthat;kkitkkis kkkkkkkkkkpersecutionkbykaklargekkbodykofkpeoplek-kgenerallykthosekwhokrepresent kkkkkkkkkk"society"kk-kagainstkaksmallerkkone;kgenerallykcomprisedkkofkthosekwho kkkkkkkkkkhavekkeitherkrejected,korkkforkonekreasonkorkkanother,kfallkoutsidekof kkkkkkkkkktheksocialk"norm".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1628 kkkkkkkkkkLetkuskloo katkthekmedievalkpicturekofkthekkwitch;ksociety'skscapegoat kkkkkkkkkkparkexcellence:kherekwekseekherk-kforkitkiskmostkoftenk"her"k-kankold, kkkkkkkkkkuglykwoman,kkmostkli elykpoor,kkandkmostkli elykkonkthekfringekkofkthe kkkkkkkkkksocietykinkkwhichksheklives.kThiskkiskthekstereotypekofkkthekwitch.kWe kkkkkkkkkk nowkitkiskfalse;kwek nowkitkhasknokbasiskinkfact;kkhowever,kitkbecame kkkkkkkkkkankintegralkpartkofkthekmindsetkofkmedievalkkEurope,kandkthroughkfairy kkkkkkkkkktales,kkdramakandkliterature,kandkmoreklatterly,kcinema,kthekmediakand kkkkkkkkkktelevision,kitkhaskremainedkkankintegralkimagekinkmodernkksociety.kOne kkkkkkkkkkhaskonlyktokloo ktokRoaldkDahl'sk"Witches",korkFran kBaum'sk"Wizardkof kkkkkkkkkkOz",kforkkproofkofkthis.kkkItkcamekaskakksurprisektokmekktoklearnkthat kkkkkkkkkk"ThekkWizardkkofkOz"kkwaskinkkfactkkakdeliberatekkpropagandakexercise, kkkkkkkkkkreleasedkjustkatkkthekbeginningkofkWorldkWarkII.kkIfkyoukremember,kthe kkkkkkkkkkmagickwordskare:k"There'sknokplacekli ekhome";kandkwherekwask"home"? kkkkkkkkkkKansas!kthatkepitomekofkthekWASPkculture. kkkkkkkkkkWhenkloo ingkatkmedievalkpersecutionkofkheresy,kthekwaterskarekmuddied kkkkkkkkkkbykkthekmanykkdifferentkcauseskkandkeffectskkwhichkpermeatekkthekwhole kkkkkkkkkkmatter.kTherekwasknoksinglekcause,kandknoksinglekvictim.kkItkiskakfact kkkkkkkkkkthatkfarkkmorekwomenkthankmenkkwerekpersecuted;ktherekarekkaknumberkof kkkkkkkkkkreasonskkforkthis,knotkleastkkthatkthroughoutkthiskkperiod,kEuropekwas kkkkkkkkkkengagedkinkonekwarkafterkanotherk-kmostknotablykThekCrusadesk-kandkmen kkkkkkkkkkwerekinkratherkshortksupply.kkTherekwerekalsokseveralkepidemicskofkthe kkkkkkkkkkplague,knotktokmentionkkotherkdiseasesksuchkaskdysenterykkandkcholera, kkkkkkkkkkwhichkinkkthekMiddlekkAgeskwereksurekk illers.kAnotherkkreasonkiskkthe kkkkkkkkkkrampantkkmisogynykkwhich,kkbegunkkwithkthekkearliestkkChristians,kkhas kkkkkkkkkkpermeatedktheirktheologykeverksince: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"Whatkelsekkiskwomankbutkkakfoektokkfriendship,kan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinescapablekkpunishment,kaknecessarykkevil,kaknatkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkuralkktemptation,kakdesirablekcalamity,kakdomestic kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdanger,kakdelectablekdetriment,kankevilkofknature, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpaintedkinkfairkcolours...kkThekwordkwomankiskused kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktokmeankktheklustkofkthekkflesh,kaskitkiskksaid:kI kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhavekkfoundkakwomankmorekbitterkkthankdeath,kandka kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkgoodkwomankmoreksubjectktokkcarnalklust...k[Women] kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkarekmorekcredulous;kandksincekthekchiefkaimkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdevilkiskktokkcorruptkfaith,kkthereforekhekkrather kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkattac skthemkk[thankkmen]...kWomenkkarekknaturally kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmorekimpressionable...kTheykhavekslipperyktongues, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkarekunablektokkconcealkfromktheirkfellow-women kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthosekkthingskkwhichkbykkevilkkartsktheykk now.... kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWomenkarekintellectuallykkli ekchildren...kShekkis kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmorekkcarnalkthankakman,kaskiskclearkfromkherkmany kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcarnalkabominations...kShekiskankimperfectkanimal, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkshekalwayskdeceives....kkThereforekakwic edkkwoman kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkiskbykkherknaturekquic erkktokwaverkinkkherkfaith, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkkconsequentlykkquic erkktokkabjurekkthekfaith, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhichkiskkthekrootkkofkwitchcraft....kJustkkaskthkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkroughkthekfirstkdefectkinkktheirkintelligencekthey kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkarekkmorekpronekktokabjurekkthekfaith;kksokthrough kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheirksecondkdefectkofkinordinatekaffectionskand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpassionsktheyksearchkfor,kkbroodkover,kandkinflict kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkvariouskvengeances,kkeitherkkbykwitchcraftkkorkkby kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksomekkotherkmeans....kkWomenkalsokkhavekwea kkmemkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkories;kandkitkiskaknaturalkvicekinkthemknotktokbe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdisciplined,kkbutkktokkfollowkktheirkkownkimpulses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwithoutkkanyksensekofkwhatkiskdue...kShekiskakliar kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbyknature...k(MalleuskMaleficarum,keditedkby kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJeffreykRussell).

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1629 kkkkkkkkkkItkkiskeasyktokkcomprehendkthekpersecutionkkofkwomenkwhenkkonekiskconkkkkkkkkkkfrontedkwithksuchkobviouskhatredkandkfearkofktheksex.kkButkperhapskthe kkkkkkkkkkmostkpowerfulkimpetuskofkthekwitchktrialskerakiskonekwhichkisksubtlykkkkkkkkkkkandkksometimesknotksoksubtly!kk-kpresentkinkallkthekktrials;kthatkofka kkkkkkkkkkpursuitkofkpowerkkorkwealth.kForkankkexamplekwekcankloo kktokGilleskde kkkkkkkkkkRais,kwhokkaskthekwealthiestkmankinkkEuropek(askwellkaskkJoankofkArc's kkkkkkkkkkmilitarykCaptain),kwaskkakprimekvictimkkforkakchargekofkkheresy.kFound kkkkkkkkkkguilty,kkhiskklands,kpropertieskkandkkwealthkwerekkconfiscatedkkbykhis kkkkkkkkkkaccusers.kkCuriouslykthoughkhekwaskburiedkonkconsecratedkgroundkinkthe kkkkkkkkkkChurchyard;knormallykforbiddenktokheretics.kkInkk"ThekEncyclopaediakof kkkkkkkkkkWitchcraftkandkDemonology",kRussellkHopekRobbinsksays: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"Atkkfirst,kGilleskdismissedkktheirkaccusationskas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"frivolouskkandkklac ingkcredit",kkbutkksokcertain kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwerekthekprincipalskofkkfindingkhimkguiltykthatkon kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSeptemberk3,kfifteenkdayskkbeforekthektrialkbegan, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekDu ekdisposedkofkkhiskanticipatedksharekofkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkRaiskklands.kkkUnderkkthesekkcircumstances,kitkkis kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdifficultkktokplacekkanykcredencekinkkthekevidence kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkagainstkhim,kamongkthekmostkfantastickandkobscene kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpresentedkinkthiskEncyclopaedia." kkkkkkkkkkChargeskincludedktheknowkobligatorykconjurationskkofkdevilskandkdemons kkkkkkkkkk-kSatan,kBeelzebub,kkOrionkandkBelialkarekmentionedkbykknamek-kandkthe kkkkkkkkkkpracticekofkthatkkdreadfulkart:kkgeomancy!kAndkofkkcoursekthekkcharges kkkkkkkkkkincludedkhumanksacrificekandkpaedophilia;knokself-respectingkChristian kkkkkkkkkkcouldkexcludekthesekcrimeskfromkchargeskagainstkakconfirmedkheretic! kkkkkkkkkkTherekwereknotkmanykwhokhadkthekwealthkofkGilleskdekRais,kbutkin kkkkkkkkkkaksmallkparish,kevenkthekmeanestkpropertykwaskeagerlykseized,kand kkkkkkkkkkthekkwitchkhuntskbecamekakkprofitablekbusiness.kThekkvictimskwerekeven kkkkkkkkkkrequiredktokpaykforkthekfuelkuponkwhichktheykwerekburnt.kkButktheklaws kkkkkkkkkkwerekknotkkconsistentkthroughoutkkEurope,kandkkinkksomekareas,kkifkthe kkkkkkkkkkvictimkconfessed,kthenkhiskkorkherkpropertykcouldknotkkbekconfiscated, kkkkkkkkkkbutkkwaskinheritedkbyktheknextkofkk in.kHowever,kmanykofkthesekvictims kkkkkkkkkkwerekkinkfactkkdevoutkChristians,kkwhokwouldkkbekkloathktokkconfesskto kkkkkkkkkkheresykkjustksokthatktheirkfamilykcouldkkinheritktheirkland!kOfkcourse kkkkkkkkkkmanykwerekktorturedktokthekpointkkwerektheykwouldkadmitkktokbeingkanykkkkkkkkkkthingkdemandedkofkthem,kkalthoughktechnically,ktheykwerekonlykkallowed kkkkkkkkkktokbektorturedkonce.kThiskiskwhykyoukwillkreadkinktrialskkrecordskthat kkkkkkkkkkthekktorturekwask"continued",kwhich,kofkcourse,kgetskroundkthekproblem kkkkkkkkkkofkthekpoorktorturerkmissingkoutkonkhisklunchkandkdinner. kkkkkkkkkkAlthoughkmostkhereticskwerekkwomen,kakgreatkmanykmenkwerekkalsokta en, kkkkkkkkkktortured,kkandkputktokdeath.kThiskiskakkletterkfromkoneksuchkvictimkat kkkkkkkkkktheknotoriouskBambergkinkkGermany;kakpoignantkkepitaphktokonekofkkEurkkkkkkkkkkope'skmostkhideouskcrimes: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkManykhundredkthousandkgood-nights,kkdearlykbeloved kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdaughterkVeronica.kInnocentkhavekIkcomekintokpriskkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkon,kinnocentkhavekIkbeenktortured,kinnocentkmustkI kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdie.kForkwhoeverkcomeskkintokthekwitchkprisonkmust kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbecomekkakwitchkkorkbekktorturedkuntilkkhekinvents kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksomethingkoutkofkkhiskheadkk-kandkGodkkpitykhimkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbethin skhimkofksomething.

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkIkksaid:k"IkkhavekkneverkrenouncedkkGod,kandkkwill kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkneverkdokitk-kGodkgraciouslyk eepkmekfromkit.kI'll kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkratherkbearkwhateverkIkmust."

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1630 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAndkthenkkcamekalsok-kkGodkinkhighestkkheavenkhave kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmercykk-kthekexecutioner,kkandkputkthekthumbscrews kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkonkkme,kbothkkhandskkboundktogether,kksokthatkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbloodkspurtedkfromktheknailskandkeverywhere, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksokthatkforkfourkkwee skIkcouldknotkusekkmykhands, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkaskyoukkcankseekkfromkmykwriting.kkThereafterkthey kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkstrippedkme,kboundkmykhandskbehindkme,kandkdrewkme kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkupkkonkthekladder.kThenkIkthoughtkheavenkandkearth kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwerekkatkankend.kEightkktimeskdidktheykkdrawkmekup kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkletkmekfallkagain,ksokthatkIksufferedkterrible kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkagony. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAllkkthiskhappenedkkonkFridaykkJunek30thkkandkwith kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGod'skhelpkIkhadktokbearkthektorture.kWhenkatklast kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekexecutionerkledkmekbac kintokthekcell,kheksaid kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktokme:k"Sir,kIkbegkyou,kforkGod'sksa e,kconfess kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksomething,kwhetherkitkbektruekorknot.kInventksomekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthing,kforkkyoukcannotkbearkthekktorturekwhichkyou kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwillkbekputkto;kand,kevenkifkyoukbearkitkkall,kyet kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkyoukwillknotkescape,knotkevenkifkyoukwerekankearl, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbutkonektorturekwillkkfollowkanotherkuntilkyouksay kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkyoukarekakwitch." kkkkkkkkkkThekkauthorkofkkthiskletter,kkJohanneskJunius,kkdidkindeedkkconfesskto kkkkkkkkkkbeingkakkwitch,kandkinkkAugustkofk1628,kwaskkburnedkatkthekksta e.kkHe kkkkkkkkkkmanagedkktoksendkkhiskfinalkkletterktokkhiskkdaughter,kwhichkkendedkby kkkkkkkkkksaying: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDearkchild,k eepkthiskkletterksecret,ksokthatkpeokkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkplekkdoknotkfindkit,kelsekIkshallkbektorturedkmost kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpiteouslykandkkthekjailerskkwillkbekbeheaded.kkkSo kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkstrictlykiskkitkforbidden...kDearkkchild,kpaykthis kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmankakthaler...kIkhavekta enkseveralkdaysktokwrite kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthisk-kmykhandskarekbothkkcrippled.kkIkamkinkaksad kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkplight.kGoodknight,kforkyourkkfatherkJohanneskJunkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkiuskwillkneverkseekyoukmore. kkkkkkkkkkThiskkletterkdescribeskkmorekaccuratelykkthankanykkhistoricalktreatise kkkkkkkkkkjustkhowkuncompromisingkthekecclesiasticalkcourtskwerekinktheir kkkkkkkkkkhuntkforkheretics.kWitches,kofkcourse,kwerekonlykonek indkofkheretic. kkkkkkkkkkIkmentionedkearlierkthatkktherekarekmanykcauses,kandkkmanykeffects,kto kkkkkkkkkkthekperiodkwhichkkiskcommonlykreferredktokkask"ThekBurningkkTimes",kor kkkkkkkkkkthekGreatkkWitchkHunt.kItkiskkoftenkassumedkbykmanykkpeoplektodaykthat kkkkkkkkkkChristianitykkhaskbeenkthekdominantkkwesternkreligionkfork2,000kyears. kkkkkkkkkkThiskiskknotkso.kThekdeathkkofkChrist,kwhichkprobablykkoccurredkinkthe kkkkkkkkkkyearkADkk30,kmaykhavekheraldedkktheknewkreligion,kbutkktherekwaskcertkkkkkkkkkkainlykknotkankimmediatekconversionkofkthekworldktokChristianity.kParts kkkkkkkkkkofkScandinaviakremainedkwhollykkPagankuntilkasklatekkaskthek12thkkcenkkkkkkkkkktury.kThekBritishkIsleskkandkmainlandkEuropekwerekconvertedkktokChriskkkkkkkkkktianitykkoverkaklengthykkperiodkcoveringkkmainlykthekk4thktokk9thkcenkkkkkkkkkkturies.kkSomekkpartskhavekkneverktrulykkbeenkkconverted,kandkkwithkthe kkkkkkkkkkopeningkkupkofkthekEasternkblockcountries,kwekareknowkre-discoveringka kkkkkkkkkkwealthkkofkPagankktraditionkkandkfol lorekkthatkkhaskbeenkkhiddenkkfor kkkkkkkkkkhundredskofkkyears:kkkinitiallykfromkkthekinvadingkkChristiankmissionkkkkkkkkkkaries,kandkthenklaterkfromkthekvariouskcommunistkregimes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1631 kkkkkkkkkkAsktheknewkreligionkofkChristianitykbeganktokspread,kmanykdifferent kkkkkkkkkksectskandkkcultskappearedkwithinkitskkran s.kThekPopekinkkRomekwaskthe kkkkkkkkkknominalkhead,kbutkrarelykwaskthekPopekakpersonkofkspiritualkpuritykand kkkkkkkkkkasceticktastes;kthekpoliticalkscenekinkRomekhaskalwayskbeenkcut-throat kkkkkkkkkkandkdevious.kAktrulykspiritualkpersonkkwouldkhaveklastedkapproximately kkkkkkkkkktwoksecondskkamongstkthekcleverkkandkcalculatingkkpoliticianskwhokkinkkkkkkkkkkfestedkthekPapalkSee!kThekenormouskwealthkandkpowerkcontrolledkkbykthe kkkkkkkkkkPopekwaskankincentivektokthekmostkgraspingkkandkcorruptkofkmenkatkthat kkkkkkkkkktimektokaspirektokthekPapacy.kPopekAlexanderkVIk(1492)kiskaksuperbkexkkkkkkkkkkamplekofkthektypekwhokkmadekitktokEurope'skforemostkpoliticalkkseatkof kkkkkkkkkkpower:kkotherwisek nownkaskRodrigokBorgia;kfatherk(yes,kwekallk now kkkkkkkkkkCatholicskpractisekcelibacy!)kofkCesare,kJuan,kLucreziakandkJofre, kkkkkkkkkkandksupremekcommanderkkofkakprivatekarmykofkkwhichkanykmodernkdictator kkkkkkkkkkwouldkbekproud. kkkkkkkkkkBecausekofktheirksumptuousklifestyle,ktheirkobviouskdisregardkand kkkkkkkkkkcontemptkforkvowskofkpovertykandkchastity,kandktheirkabusekofkthe kkkkkkkkkkspiritualkauthoritykinvestedkinkthem,kmanykspirituallykinclined kkkkkkkkkkChristianskrejectedkthekCatholickChurch,kandkinsteadkfollowed kkkkkkkkkkleaderskwhoklivedksimple,kascetickliveskinkaccordancekwithkthe kkkkkkkkkkteachingskofkChrist.kSomekofktheseksectskbecamekverykpopular, kkkkkkkkkkandkwereksoonkperceivedkbykthekPopekaskakthreatktokhiskstatuskand kkkkkkkkkkpower.kItkhaskbeenksuggestedkthatkthekwitchktrialskwerekakdirect kkkkkkkkkkresultkfromkthekpersecutionkofktheseksects.kRatherkthankincorporateka kkkkkkkkkkdiscussionkofkthekdifferentksectskwithinkthisktal ,khandoutskare kkkkkkkkkkavailablekwhichkverykbrieflykdescribekthekmainkones. kkkkkkkkkkThekmainkthrustkwaskagainstkthekCatharskorkAlbigensians,kandkthe kkkkkkkkkkWaldensiansk(Vaudois),kandkitkwasktheirkpersecutionkwhichkgavekrisekto kkkkkkkkkktheklegalkkmachinerykwhichkkdevelopedkintokkthekkInquisition,kandkkthe kkkkkkkkkkso-calledkwitchkhunts.kkItkbegankwithkPopekLuciuskIIIkandkthekemperor, kkkkkkkkkkFrederic kIkkBarbarossa;ktheykmetkkatkVeronakkink1184,kandkkissuedkthe kkkkkkkkkkdecreek"Adkabolendam",kwhichkexcommunicatedksectskli ekthekCatharskand kkkkkkkkkkWaldensians,kandkklaidkdownkkthekprocedureskforkkecclesiasticalktrial, kkkkkkkkkkafterkwhichkthekaccusedkkwouldkbekhandedkkoverktoktheksecularkkauthorkkkkkkkkkkitieskkforkkpunishment.kThekkpunishmentkkdecreedkkwaskconfiscationkkof kkkkkkkkkkproperty,kkexile,korkdeath.kkBykthekk12thkcentury,kburningkhadkalready kkkkkkkkkkbecomekkthekestablishedkmeanskofkkexecutionkforkheretics,kkandksokthis kkkkkkkkkkbecamekenshrinedkinklaw. kkkkkkkkkkAtkkthekbeginningkofkthekk13thkcentury,kthekkDominicankOrderkofkFriars kkkkkkkkkkwaskkestablished,kandkkitskkmemberskwerekkinstructedkkbykthekkPopekkto kkkkkkkkkkinvestigatekkandkprosecutekheresy.kFromkthisksimplekbeginningkgrewkthe kkkkkkkkkkawesomekkmachinerykkofkthekkInquisition,kkwhichkkalthoughkneverkkaimed kkkkkkkkkkparticularlykkatkwitches,kkbecamekkakbywordkkforkkterrorkinkkpartskkof kkkkkkkkkkEurope. kkkkkkkkkkAskyoukkcanksee,kthekmotiveskkforkthekheresykpersecutionskkwereknotkto kkkkkkkkkkstampkoutkPaganismk-kalthoughkthatkwaskcertainlykakby-productk-kbut kkkkkkkkkktokremovekthekthreatkofkanykcompetitionktokthekpowerkofkthekChurch kkkkkkkkkk(andkthusktokthekPope),kinkRome.kAndkthekgreatestkthreatkcamekfrom kkkkkkkkkkotherk"Christian"ksects,knotkthekPagans.kThekchangekfromkankaccusatory kkkkkkkkkktokankinquisitorialkkprocesskbecamekestablished,kkandktheklegalkkmachkkkkkkkkkkinerykwhichkallowedkk-kindeedkencouragedk-kkindividualkpsychopathskand kkkkkkkkkkreligiouskmaniacsktokpersecutekatkwill,kwaskinkplace.

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1632 kkkkkkkkkkHavekyoukkgotkakneighbourkkwhokannoyskkyou?kplayskloudkkmusic,korkkwho kkkkkkkkkk eepsktheirksmellykrefuseknextktokyourkgardenkfence?kNowkyourkrecourse kkkkkkkkkkisktoktheklocalkcouncilkorkthekpolice;kinkkthekMiddlekAges,kyouksimply kkkkkkkkkkdenouncedkthekkoffenderkaskakwitchkorkheretic,kandkletkthekChurchkdeal kkkkkkkkkkwithkthemkkforkyou.kkNotkonlykkdidkitkkcostkyoukknothing,kifkkyoukwere kkkkkkkkkkluc y,kyoukmightkalsokinheritktheirkproperty! kkkkkkkkkkForkoncekyoukkwerekta enkkaskakwitchkkorkakheretic,kktherekwaskklittle kkkkkkkkkkchancekofkescape.kkCertainlyksomekvictimskwerekkpardonedkandkreleased, kkkkkkkkkkbutkthekvastkmajoritykwerekknotksokluc y.kWhenkyoukconsiderkkthekstyle kkkkkkkkkkofkquestioning,kthiskisknotksurprising: kkkkkkkkkk1kkkkkHowklongkhavekyoukbeenkakwitch? kkkkkkkkkk2kkkkkWhykdidkyoukbecomekakwitch? kkkkkkkkkk3kkkkkHowkdidkyoukbecomekakwitchkandkwhatkhappenedkonkthatkoccasion? kkkkkkkkkk4kkkkkWhokiskthekonekyoukchosektokbekyourkincubus?kWhatkwaskhiskname? kkkkkkkkkk5kkkkkWhatkwasktheknamekofkyourkmasterkamongkthekevilkdemons? kkkkkkkkkk6kkkkkWhatkwaskthekoathkyoukwerekforcedktokrenderktokhim? kkkkkkkkkk21kkkkWhatkanimalskhavekyoukbewitchedktoksic nesskandkdeath,kand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhykdidkyoukcommitksuchkacts? kkkkkkkkkk22kkkkWhokarekyourkaccompliceskinkevil...?

kkkkkkkkkkThiskksetkofkquestionskcamekkfromkLorraine,kandkkwaskusedkconsistently kkkkkkkkkkthroughoutkthekthreekcenturieskkofkthekmainkpersecutions.kkkBearingkin kkkkkkkkkkmindkthatkkthekaccusedkHADktokanswerk-knokkanswerkatkall,korkakdenial, kkkkkkkkkkwasktantamountktokguiltk-kyoukcankseekhowkeasilykthekcompositekpicture kkkkkkkkkkofkthekwitchkevolved.kkAskRossellkHopekRobbinsksays:kk"Thekconfessions kkkkkkkkkkofkwitcheskauthenticatedkthekexperts,kandkthekdenunciationskensuredkka kkkkkkkkkkcontinuingkksupplykkofkvictims.kkThroughoutkkFrancekkandkGermanykkthis kkkkkkkkkkprocedurekbecamekkstandardised;krepeatedkyearkkafterkyear,kinkktimekit kkkkkkkkkkbuiltkkupkakkhugekmasskkofk"evidence",kallkkdulykauthorised,kkfromkthe kkkkkkkkkkmouthskofkthekaccused.kOnkthesekconfessions,klaterkdemonologistskbased kkkkkkkkkktheirkcompendiumskandksokformulatedkthekclassickconceptionskofkwitchckkkkkkkkkkraft,kwhichkneverkexistedksavekinktheirkownkminds." kkkkkkkkkkAsktheknewkreligionkofkChristianitykbeganktokspread,kmanykdifferent kkkkkkkkkksectskandkkcultskappearedkwithinkitskkran s.kThekPopekinkkRomekwaskthe kkkkkkkkkknominalkhead,kbutkrarelykwaskthekPopekakpersonkofkspiritualkpuritykand kkkkkkkkkkasceticktastes;kthekpoliticalkscenekinkRomekhaskalwayskbeenkcut-throat kkkkkkkkkkandkdevious.kAktrulykspiritualkpersonkkwouldkhaveklastedkapproximately kkkkkkkkkktwoksecondskkamongstkthekcleverkkandkcalculatingkkpoliticianskwhokkinkkkkkkkkkkfestedkkthekPapalkSee!kThekenormouskwealthkandkpowerkcontrolledkbykthe kkkkkkkkkkPopekwaskankincentivektokthekmostkgraspingkandkcorruptkofkmenkkatkthat kkkkkkkkkktimektokaspirektokthekPapacy.kPopekAlexanderkVIk(1492)kiskaksuperbkexkkkkkkkkkkamplekofkthektypekwhokkmadekitktokEurope'skforemostkpoliticalkkseatkof

 

kkkkkkkkkk24kkkkWhatkiskthekointmentkwithkwhichkyoukrubkyourkbroomstic kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmadekof...?

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkpower:kkotherwisek nownkaskRodrigokBorgia;kfatherk(yes,kwekallk now kkkkkkkkkkCatholicskpractisekcelibacy!)kofkCesare,kJuan,kLucreziakandkJofre, kkkkkkkkkkandksupremekcommanderkofkakkprivatekarmykofkwhichkanykkmodernkdictator kkkkkkkkkkwouldkbekproud.

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1633 kkkkkkkkkkItkiskalsokratherkdisturbingktokdiscoverkjustkhowkimportantkindividual kkkkkkkkkkreligiouskmaniacskappearktokhavekbeenkinkthekpersecutions.kRatherkli e kkkkkkkkkktoday,kwherekkakcrusadingkktele-journalist,korkevangelicalkkvicar,kcan kkkkkkkkkkcausekuntoldkkharmktokinnocentkpeople.kWithoutkexception,kthesekaccuskkkkkkkkkkationskkarekkbykthosekkwithkankkunhealthykkmaniakagainstkkanyonekwhose kkkkkkkkkktheologykkorkpracticeskkdifferkfromkktheirkown.kkInkthekkwordskofkkone kkkkkkkkkkmodernkevangelist:kk"ifkyou'reknotkkfightingkandkwinning,kkyou'rekloskkkkkkkkkking.". kkkkkkkkkkConradkofkMarburg,kdescribedkbykNormankCohnkas,k"akblindkfanatic",kwas kkkkkkkkkkakkseverekkandkformidablekkpersecutor.kAskkconfessorkktokthekkyoungk21 kkkkkkkkkkyear-oldkkCountesskofkThuringia,khekwouldktric kherkintok"somektrivial kkkkkkkkkkandkunwittingkdisobedience,kandkthenkhavekherkandkherkmaidskfloggedkso kkkkkkkkkkseverelykkthatkthekkscarskwerekkvisiblekwee skklater".k(Cohn).kkConrad kkkkkkkkkkbecamekGermany'skfirstkofficialkInquisitor,kandkhiskzealkinkdenouncing kkkkkkkkkkhereticskwaskkunsurpassed.kAnotherkConrad,kakklay-DominicankFriar,kand kkkkkkkkkkhiskside ic kJohannes,kkwerekalsokvigorouskinkdenouncingkkheretics.kAs kkkkkkkkkktheykkmovedkfromkvillagektokvillage,ktheykkclaimedktokbekablektokidenkkkkkkkkkktifykakkheretickbykhiskorkkherkappearance,kbasedkonkknothingkbutktheir kkkkkkkkkkownkkintuition.kTheykwerekresponsiblekforkthekburningskofkmanykpeople, kkkkkkkkkkandksaid,k"wekwouldkgladlykburnkakhundredkifkjustkonekamongkthemkwere kkkkkkkkkkguilty".k(AnnaleskWormantiensis). kkkkkkkkkkTheirkcommentkaboutkappearancekiskankimportantkone;kaskweksawkearlier, kkkkkkkkkkthekstereotypekofkthekwitchkhasn'tkchangedkmuchkinkhundredskofkkyears. kkkkkkkkkkWek nowkitkiskfalse;kwek nowkthatkitkexistskonlykinkthekimaginationkof kkkkkkkkkkthekpersecutors,kandkyetkhowkpowerfulkandkenduringkthiskstereotypekhas kkkkkkkkkkprovenktokbe. kkkkkkkkkkIfkwekthin kaboutkthiskstereotype,kkwhatkimageskdokwekconjurekup?kkkAn kkkkkkkkkkoldkwomank-kkoccasionallykankoldkman;korkperhapskkakyoungkandkalluring kkkkkkkkkktemptress?kkFlyingkthroughkkthekkairkonkkakkbroomstic ;kworshippingkka kkkkkkkkkkdevil,koftenkinkthekformkofkakgoat;ktramplingkuponkktheksacredksymbols kkkkkkkkkkofkChristianity;kandkkofkcoursekourkkoldkfriendkkthekSabbat,kwithkkits kkkkkkkkkkpracticeskkofkksexualkklicense,kkdebauchery,kkdrun ennesskkandkkritual kkkkkkkkkkmurder;ktheklatterkoftenkofkchildren. kkkkkkkkkkButkpersecutionkdoesknotkrestrictkitselfktokwitches;ktheksimilarities kkkkkkkkkkbetweenkthiskstereotypekandkthatkofkthekJewkarekobvious:kJewskhave kkkkkkkkkkbeenkpersecutedkthroughoutktheirkhistory,kbutkitkiskinterestingkto kkkkkkkkkkcompareksomekaspectskofktheirkpersecutionkwithkthatkofkwitches. kkkkkkkkkkInkthek12thkcentury,kthekwordkk"Synagogue"kwaskusedkforkthekfirstktime kkkkkkkkkktokkdescribekthekkmeetingkplacekkofkkheretics.kProfessorkkRussellksays kkkkkkkkkkthat:kk"Thiskusage,kobviouslykdesignedkktokspitekthekkJews,kwaskcommon kkkkkkkkkkthroughoutkthekMiddlekAges,kbeingkreplacedkonlyktowardskthekendkofkthe kkkkkkkkkk15thkcenturykbykthekequallykanti-Jewishktermk'sabbat'. kkkkkkkkkkThekEncyclopaediakBritannicaksayskonktheksubjectkofkJewishkpersecution kkkkkkkkkkthat:k"Tokkreinforcekracialkandkreligiouskkprejudice,kthekpreposterous kkkkkkkkkkritualkmurderkaccusationkkbecamekcommonkkfromkthekk12thkcentury."kkThe kkkkkkkkkkthirdkandkfourthkLaterankCouncilskhadkalreadykprohibitedkgentileskfrom kkkkkkkkkkenteringkkJewishkkservice,korkkbeingkkemployedkkbykkJews,kandkkfurther kkkkkkkkkkorderedkthatkJewskkshouldkwearkakdistinctivekkbadge,kandklivekkonlykin kkkkkkkkkkJewishkksettlementkkareas.kThiskkofkcoursekkwaskkthekbeginningkkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkghetto.

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1634 kkkkkkkkkkAskwekhavekseenkthough,kthekritualkmurderkaccusationkkwaskalreadykover kkkkkkkkkkakthousandkkyearskold,kbeforekitkkwaskusedkagainstkeitherkkthekJewskor kkkkkkkkkkthekhereticskkandkwitches.kMostkpeoplekk nowkofkthekkexpulsionkofkJews kkkkkkkkkkfromkSpainkinkthek15thkkcentury,kbutkperhapsknotksokcommonlykk nownkis kkkkkkkkkkthatkforkaboutkk200kyearskpriorkktokthekexpulsion,kkthekJewskhadkkbeen kkkkkkkkkkmassacredkandkpersecuted.kkIndeed,kitkkwaskagainstkthekkJewskthatkkthe kkkkkkkkkkinfamouskSpanishkkInquisitionkofkkthek15thkcenturykkwaskdirected.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkpersecutionkkofkJewskkinkk20thkcenturykkEuropekkisktookkwell- nownkkto kkkkkkkkkkrequirekfurtherkcommentkkhere,kbutkkperhapskakfewkkcommentskaboutkkits kkkkkkkkkkencouragementkwouldkbekuseful. kkkkkkkkkkWekarekdiscussingkkpersecutionkinkkthisktal ,kandkkhowkpersecutionkkis kkkkkkkkkkmanifested.kThroughoutkkhistory,kthekwrittenkwordkkhaskbeenkinvaluable kkkkkkkkkkaskakkmeanskofkkspreadingkkpropaganda.kEvenkkinkkthekMiddlekkAgeskkthe kkkkkkkkkk"crimes"kkofkthekheretickwerekkpublicisedkbykrecordskkofktrials,kwhere kkkkkkkkkkthekk"confessions"kwerekmadek nownktokthekgeneralkpublic.kThekinfamous kkkkkkkkkk"MalleuskkMaleficarum"kkbecamekkhighlykkinfluentialkkinkkEuropekmainly kkkkkkkkkkbecausekkitskkpublicationkkcoincidedkkwithkthekkintroductionkkofkkmass kkkkkkkkkkprinting.kkItkhadklittlekeffectkinkEnglandkbecauseknokEnglishktranslakkkkkkkkkktionkkwaskavailablekuntilk1928.kThiskfactkalonekdemonstrateskthekpower kkkkkkkkkkofkthekwrittenkword. kkkkkkkkkkInkkmedievalkEurope,kakpamphletkkdescribingkthekcrimeskkofkakconvicted kkkkkkkkkkheretickkwouldkbekpinnedktokakkpostkinkthektownkksquare,kandkthosekwho kkkkkkkkkkcouldknotkkreadkhadkitkreadktokthem.kInk20thkcenturykEurope,kpamphlets kkkkkkkkkkwerekkstillkusedkkbykonekkgroupktokkspreadklieskkaboutkanother.kkAskwe kkkkkkkkkkapproachkkthek21stkkcentury,kthiskktechniquekiskkstillkusedkkwithkvery kkkkkkkkkkgreatksuccess;kforkthekpersecutorkneedsktokma ekonlykakglancingknodkto kkkkkkkkkkthektruth,kandktheklieskwhichkarekpublishedk(orkmorekfrequentlykbroadkkkkkkkkkkcast)karekfarkmorekscandalouskthankthekreality! kkkkkkkkkkAnkexample:ksoonkafterktheklaunchkkofkthekPagankAlliance,kSydneykradio kkkkkkkkkk2MMMkbroadcastedkakknewskstorykaboutkthekksexualkabusekofkchildrenkkby kkkkkkkkkkoccultistskandkwitches.kkMatthewkrespondedkkimmediately,kandkkprovided kkkkkkkkkkthekkstationkkwithkcopykkdocumentskkandknewskkclippingskkfromkBritain, kkkkkkkkkkprovingkthekstoryktokbekwithoutkfoundation,kandkakschemekbykthekChriskkkkkkkkkktiankkfundamentalistsktokdiscreditkkPagans.kTheknewskkeditorkandkchief kkkkkkkkkkjournalistkkwerekimpressedkbykthekkmaterial,kandkagreedkkthatktheykhad kkkkkkkkkkbeenkusedkbykthekfundies.kHowever,ktheykrefusedktokbroadcastkakretrackkkkkkkkkktionkbecausekitkkwouldkbek"oldknews".kkkSo,kthekdamagekhadkkbeenkdone, kkkkkkkkkkandkthekfundamentalistskachievedktheirkobjective. kkkkkkkkkkThisktechniquekwaskusedkwithkverykgreatkeffectkinkthekearlykpartkof kkkkkkkkkkthek20thkcentury,kwithkthekcirculationkofkakpamphletkcalled,k"The kkkkkkkkkkProtocolskofkthekElderskofkZion".kThiskpurportedktokbe,k"ankaccount kkkkkkkkkkofkkthekWorldkCongresskkofkJewrykheldkkinkBasel,kSwitzerlandkkink1897, kkkkkkkkkkduringkwhichkkakconspiracykkwaskkplannedkbykkthekinternationalkkJewish kkkkkkkkkkmovementkandkthekFreemasonsktokachievekworldkdomination."k(MkHoward). kkkkkkkkkkGermanknationalistskmadekverykgreatkusekofkthekProtocols,kwhichkit kkkkkkkkkkwaskkclaimedkwerek"smuggledkoutkofkSwitzerlandkbykakRussiankjournalist kkkkkkkkkkwhokkhadkplacedkthekkdocumentskinkthekksafek eepingkofkkthekRisingkSun kkkkkkkkkkMasonickLodgekinkFran furt."k(ibid)kTheykwerekwidelykdisseminated,kand kkkkkkkkkkwritingkinkk"MeinkKampf",kHitlerk"denouncedkkthekJewskaskagentskkofkan kkkkkkkkkkinternationalkconspiracykdevotedkktokworldkkdomination...".k(ibid)kkWe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkallk nowkwhatkhappenedknext.kk

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1635 kkkkkkkkkkThekpointkkiskthatkalthoughkthekProtocolskwerekconfirmedkaskakfraudkin kkkkkkkkkk1921,ktheykcontinuedktokhavekankeffect,kandkoncekpublished,kcouldkknot kkkkkkkkkkeffectivelykbekkretracted.kThiskiskkthekaimkofkktoday'skfundamentalist kkkkkkkkkkChristian,kwhokkbelieveskthatkifkhekorkshekthrowskenoughkdirtkatktheir kkkkkkkkkkopponentsk(basicallykanyonekwhokkdoesknotkagreekwithkktheirkuncompromkkkkkkkkkkisingkversionkofkChristianity),kkthenksomekwillkstic ,kandkkthekbattle kkkkkkkkkkwillkbekwon.kThiskiskthekstrategykwhichkhaskbeenkusedkforkthousandskof kkkkkkkkkkyearskktokpersecutekminorities,kandkkhaskalwayskbeenkksuccessful.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkformulakkiskksimple:kdiscoverkkwhatkmostkkpeoplekkfearkmost,kkandkthen kkkkkkkkkkaccusekyourkenemieskofkpractisingkit.kkItkiskankinterestingkcommentkon kkkkkkkkkkhumanitykthatkthosekthingskwhichkoccurktimekandktimekagainkarekconsiskkkkkkkkkktent:kconspiracy,kbuggery,kkpaedophilia,ksacrificek(humankkandkanimal) kkkkkkkkkksexualkklicense,kkdrun ennesskandkkfeasting.kkkkMorekspecifickkcharges kkkkkkkkkkrelatingktokkakpactkkwithkakkdevilkorkdesecratingkksacredkobjectskkare kkkkkkkkkkadditionsktokthesekcorekaccusations. kkkkkkkkkkAkfurtherkinterestingkaspectkiskthatkmanykofkthekaccusationskwere kkkkkkkkkkmadekbykchildren;kinterestingkparallelskcankbekdrawnktokmodernkaccusakkkkkkkkkktionskbykkchildrenk"encouraged"ktokrevealkkinformationkaboutkoccultism kkkkkkkkkkandkkwitches.kItkhaskbeenkkwidelykrecordedkthatkkHitler'sk"YouthkArmy" kkkkkkkkkkrequiredkkchildrenktokspykuponktheirkparents,kandkreportkanykindiscrekkkkkkkkkktions;kmodernksocialkwor erskusekkankidenticalkprocesskforkidentifying kkkkkkkkkkPagankparentskk-kchildrenkarekkas edkaboutkwhatktheirkkparentskdo,kand kkkkkkkkkkleadingkquestionskarekcommonlykused.kkAndkofkcoursektherekhavekkalways kkkkkkkkkkbeenkchildrenkkwho,kforkonekreasonkorkanother,ktellkthekmostkfantastic kkkkkkkkkktales.kItkiskunli elykktodaykthatkthekvictimskofkthesekchildkfantasies kkkkkkkkkkwillkbekburnedkatktheksta e,kkbutktherekhavekbeenkfamiliesktornkapart, kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkkplacedkinkdetentionkkcentres,kandkuntoldkkmiserykforkparents kkkkkkkkkkandkchildrenkali e,kkbasedkuponknokkmorekthankthekkverbalkreportkofkka kkkkkkkkkkchild. kkkkkkkkkkCommentatorskonkthiskkaspectkofkkpersecutionkhavekksuggestedkthatkkthe kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkwishktokbekthekcentrekofkattention;korktokdirectkpunishment kkkkkkkkkkforktheirkownkmisdeedskelsewhere;korkareksimplykreactingkinkakhyperackkkkkkkkkktivekmannerktokkthekonsetkofkpuberty.kWhateverkkthekcause,kthekeffects kkkkkkkkkkarekkdramatic,kandkkhavekcausedkksevereksuffering,kkandkinkkthekmiddle kkkkkkkkkkages,klosskofklife,konkmanykoccasions. kkkkkkkkkkInkmedievalkEngland,ktherekwerekmanykoccasionskwherekchildren'sk"evidkkkkkkkkkkence"k(sic)kwaskkusedktokkconvictkwitches.k"ThekkLeicesterkBoy",kk"The kkkkkkkkkkBurtonkkBoy"kandk"ThekBilsonkBoy"kwerekakfewkofkmanykwhokclaimedktokbe kkkkkkkkkkbewitchedkbykwitches.kkEventuallykprovenktokbekkakfraud,katkkleastkten kkkkkkkkkkwomenkdiedkkaskakresultkofkkthekaccusationskofkThekkLeicesterkBoy,kand kkkkkkkkkkthekBurtonkBoykkcausedkthekdeathkofkatkleastkonekkofkthekwomenkwhomkhe kkkkkkkkkkaccused.kInkkthek17thkcenturykakknumberkofkwomenkwerekkexecutedkonkthe kkkkkkkkkkallegationskkofkkhystericalkkchildren,kkevenkthoughkkfraudkkwaskkoften kkkkkkkkkkdiscoveredkkduringkthekkcoursekofkkthektrial.kkItkiskkakfactkkthatkthe kkkkkkkkkkdelusionskkofkdelinquentkkorkkdisturbedkchildrenkkwerekkoftenkusedkkby kkkkkkkkkkjudgeskktokconfirmktheirkownkprejudices;khowklittlekthingskhavekchangkkkkkkkkkked!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1636 kkkkkkkkkkSalemk(1692)kkiskprobablykthekbestk nownkofkallkthekcaseskwherekchildkkkkkkkkkkrenkwerekthekkchiefkaccusers.kkAlthoughkinkfact,kkthek"children"kkwere kkkkkkkkkkmorekli ekyoungkadults,kwithkonlykkonekunderkthekagekofkten,kkandkmost kkkkkkkkkkinktheirklatekteenskorkkearlyktwenties.kHowever,kaskthekpanickkgrew,ka kkkkkkkkkkgreatkkmanykmorekwereksuc edkintokthekkwebkofklies,kandkMarthakCarrier kkkkkkkkkkwaskhangedkonkthek"evidence"k(sic)kkofkherk7kyear-oldkdaughter.kAtkthe kkkkkkkkkkheightkofkkthekhysteriakkalmostk150kpeoplekkwerekarrested;kkthirty-one kkkkkkkkkkwerekconvicted,kandknineteenkhung.kkSomekdiedkinkjail,kandkotherskwere kkkkkkkkkkreprieved.kAskwaskcommonkinkEurope,kkthekaccusedkwerekrequiredktokkpay kkkkkkkkkktheirkkexpenseskwhilstkinkjail,kkevenkifktheykkwereksubsequentlykfound kkkkkkkkkkinnocent.kSarahkOsbornekandkAnnkFosterkbothkdiedkinkjail,kandkcostskof kkkkkkkkkk 1k3skk5dkandk 2k16skk0dkrespectivelykwerekdemandedkkbeforekthekbodies kkkkkkkkkkwouldkbekreleasedkforkburial. kkkkkkkkkkThekkchiefkofkthekaccusers,kAnnkPutnam,kconfessedkfourteenkyearsklater kkkkkkkkkkthatkkthekwholekthingkkwaskakfraud.kkInk1697kthekkjurorskpubliclykconkkkkkkkkkkfessedktheykkhadkmadekankerrorkkofkjudgement,kandktenkkyearskafterkthe kkkkkkkkkkexecutions,kJudgekkSamuelkSewallkk"confessedkthekkguiltkofkkthekcourt, kkkkkkkkkkdesiringkktokta ekthekblamekandkshamekofkkit...".kBykthenkofkcoursekit kkkkkkkkkkwasktooklatekkforkthosekwhokwerekkdead,korkwhosekliveskhadkkbeenkdestkkkkkkkkkkroyedkbykthekaccusations. kkkkkkkkkkButkwekkarekgettingkaheadkofkourselveskhere,kkforkSalemkisktheklastkof kkkkkkkkkkthekgreatkwitchktrials,kcomingkaskitkdoesktowardskthekendkofkthek17th kkkkkkkkkkcentury. kkkkkkkkkkWekmentionedkearlierkthatkinkContinentalkEurope,kthekheresyktrials kkkkkkkkkkappearedktokarisekfromkthekpersecutionkofkthekChristianksectskofkthe kkkkkkkkkkBogomils,kCathars,kAlbigensians,kandkothersksuchkaskthekJews,kkWaldenkkkkkkkkkksians,kkandkevenkthekKnightskTemplars.kThekstereotypekofkthekwitchkwas kkkkkkkkkkcompoundedkkfromkkmanykdifferentkksources,kkandkkgraduallykbecamekkthe kkkkkkkkkkcompositekfigurekofkthekkshape-shiftingkhag,kwhokflewkthroughkkthekair kkkkkkkkkkonkakbroom,kandkflungkherkcurseskatkallkandksundry. kkkkkkkkkkThekconceptkofkthekpactkwithkthekdevilkexistedkaskearlykaskthek8th kkkkkkkkkkcentury,kandkaskwekhavekseen,ksexualklicense,kbuggerykandkritual kkkkkkkkkksacrificekhaveklongkbeenkseenkaskactivitiesksupposedktokbekpractised kkkkkkkkkkbykthosekoutsidekofksociety'sknorm,kwhetherktheykbekChristiankor kkkkkkkkkkPagan.kDuringkthek9thkcentury,kshape-shifting,kmaleficiakandkthe kkkkkkkkkkincubus/succubuskbecamekmorekkcommonlykreported,kandkbykkthek10thkcenkkkkkkkkkktury,kthekideakofknocturnalkflightkwaskestablished.kkPublishedkink906, kkkkkkkkkkthekCanonkEpiscopikdescribedkhowksomekwomenkwerekdeludedkinkthekbelief kkkkkkkkkkthatkatkknightktheykcouldkkflykbehindkktheirkGoddess,kDianakk(Holdakor kkkkkkkkkkHerodias): kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"Somekwic edkwomenkarekkpervertedkbykthekDevilkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkledkastraykbykkillusionskandkfantasieskkinducedkby kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdemons,kksokthatkktheykkbelievektheykkridekoutkkat kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknightkonkbeastskwithkDiana,kthekpagankgoddess,kand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkakhordekofkwomen.kkTheykbelievekthatkinkktheknight kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheykcrosskhugekdistances.kTheyksaykthatktheykobey kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDiana'skcommandskandkonkcertainknightskarekkcalled kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkoutkinkherkservice..."

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1637 kkkkkkkkkkEchoeskherektokMaddalena'skstorykrecountedkbykLelandkinkAradia:kGospel kkkkkkkkkkofkthekWitches: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"Onceinkthekmonth,kandkwhenkthekmoonkiskfull,kye kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkshallkassemblekinksomekdesertkplace,kkorkinkakforkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkestkallkktogetherkjoinktokadorekkthekpotentkspirit kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofkyourkQueen,kmykmother,kgreatkDiana".k kkkkkkkkkkCarlokGinzburgkhaskalsokpublishedkakremar ablekboo kaboutkthekWitches' kkkkkkkkkkSabbath,kandkktheknightkflight,kkwherekhekksuggestskthatkthesekkarekin kkkkkkkkkkfactkkbasedkonkkgenuinelykancientkshamanickkpractices;knothingkknewkin kkkkkkkkkkthiskkconceptktokmodernkWitches,kbutkkaknovelkobservationkinkthekacadkkkkkkkkkkemickcircleskinkwhichkGinzburgkmoves. kkkkkkkkkkInkk1012,kBurchard'skCollectariumkwaskpublished:kkthekfirstkattemptkto kkkkkkkkkkassemblekakkboo kofkCanonicalkLaw.kBoo knumberk19kofkthiskvastkcolleckkkkkkkkkktionkwaskcalledkkthekCorrector,kkandkchapterkfivekkdealskwithkkvarious kkkkkkkkkksins,kandktheirkrespectivekpenances.kAskwekmightksuppose,kMaleficiakis kkkkkkkkkkprominentkinkkthiskchapter!kItkkenshrineskinklawkktheknotionkofkknight kkkkkkkkkkflight,kktogetherkwithkkmurder,kandkkthekcoo ingkkandkeatingkkofkhuman kkkkkkkkkkflesh.kAlthoughkbothkthekkCanonkEpiscopikandkBurchard'skCorrectorkkare kkkkkkkkkkspecifickinkattributingkkthekpowerskofkkflightktokkWitches,kitkiskknot kkkkkkkkkkuntilkk1280kthatkkthekfirstkkpicturekofkkakwitchkkridingkuponkkakbroom kkkkkkkkkkappears.kThiskiskfoundkinkSchleswigkCathedral. kkkkkkkkkkInk1022,kthekfirstkburningkoccurred:katkOrleans,kthekvictimskwere kkkkkkkkkkaccusedkof,k"holdingksexkorgieskatknightkinkaksecretkplace,keither kkkkkkkkkkundergroundkkorkinkkankabandonedkkbuilding.kThekkmemberskofkkthekgroup kkkkkkkkkkappearedkbearingktorches.kHoldingkthektorches,ktheykchantedkthekknames kkkkkkkkkkofkkdemonskuntilkankevilkkspiritkappeared.kNowkktheklightskwerekextinkkkkkkkkkkguished,kandkkeveryonekseizedkkthekpersonkclosestkktokhimkinkkaksexual kkkkkkkkkkembrace,kkwhetherkmother,ksisterkorknun.kThekchildrenkconceivedkatkthe kkkkkkkkkkorgieskkwerekburnedkkeightkkdayskafterkkbirth,kkandktheirkkasheskkwere kkkkkkkkkkconfectedkinkaksubstancekthatkwaskthenkusedkinkakblasphemouskparodykof kkkkkkkkkkholykcommunion." kkkkkkkkkkStrangekhowkkthesekchargeskappearktokhavekchangedksoklittlekinksokmany kkkkkkkkkkyears!kkComparedkwithkourkfirstkkexample,kandkindeedkkwithkthekaccusakkkkkkkkkktionskofkmodernkdaykfundamentalists,konekwouldkbekforgivenkforkbelievkkkkkkkkkkingkthatktimekiskakkfigmentkofkourkimagination,kandkthatkknothingkever kkkkkkkkkkreallykchanges;kcertainlyknotkhumanknature. kkkkkkkkkkThek14thkkcenturyksawkaksteadykgrowthkinktheknumberkofkaccusationskand kkkkkkkkkktrials,kandkbykthek15thkcentury,kthekideakofkthekkDevil'sk(orkWitch's) kkkkkkkkkkmar khadkbecomekestablished.kSoktookwaskthekideakofkakflyingkointment, kkkkkkkkkkandkkakconsistentkimagekkofkThekDevilkkbecamekcommonkinkktrialskliterkkkkkkkkkkature. kkkkkkkkkkThekPapalkBullkofkk1484,kSummiskDesideranteskAffectibus,kandkkthenktwo kkkkkkkkkkyearsklater,kpublicationkofkthekMalleuskMaleficarum,kfurtherkestabliskkkkkkkkkkhedkthek"crime"kofkwitchcraftkaskakheresy,kandkconfirmedkPapalksupport kkkkkkkkkkforkitskkeradication.kThiskinfamouskwor k-kThekHammerkofkthekWitcheskkkkkkkkkkkwaskincrediblykinfluentialkinkestablishingkakcodekofkpracticekbykwhich kkkkkkkkkkwitcheskwerektokbekdenounced,ktried,kconvictedkandkexecuted.kTherekwas kkkkkkkkkknokescapekkfromkthiskdreadfulkfate.kkThekthirdkpartkofkkthekboo kdesc-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkribeskhowktokdealkwithkonekwhokwillknotkconfessktokthekcharges: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"Butkifkthekaccused,kafterkkakyearkorkotherklonger kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkperiodkwhichkhaskbeenkdeemedksufficient,kcontinues

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1638 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktokmaintainkhiskdenials,kkandktheklegitimatekkwitkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknesseskabidekbyktheirkevidence,kthekBishopkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJudgeskshallkpreparektokabandonkhimktoktheksecular kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCourt;ksendingkktokhimkcertainkkhonestkmenkzealous kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkforkthekkfaith,kespeciallykreligious,ktokktellkhim kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthatkhekcannotkescapektemporalkdeathkwhilekhekthus kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpersistskinkkhiskdenial,kbutkwillkkbekdeliveredkup kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkaskkankimpenitentkhereticktokthekpowerkofkthekseckkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkularkCourt. kkkkkkkkkkItkiskalsokinkthisksectionkthatkourkfriendlykDominicankmon skreferkto, kkkkkkkkkk"witchkkmidwives,kwhoksurpasskallkotherkwitcheskinktheirkcrimes...kAnd kkkkkkkkkktheknumberkofkthemkisksokgreatkthat,kaskhaskbeenkfoundkfromktheirkconkkkkkkkkkkfessions,kitkkiskthoughtkkthatktherekiskkscarcelykanykktinykhamletkkin kkkkkkkkkkwhichkatkleastkonekisknotktokbekfound." kkkkkkkkkkDespitekitskkincrediblekinfluencekkinkEurope,kthekkMalleuskhadkklittle kkkkkkkkkkeffectkinkEngland,kWaleskorkIreland,kwherekwitchcraftkaccusations kkkkkkkkkkandktrialskwerekverykdifferentktokthosekofkthekcontinentkandkScotland. kkkkkkkkkkInkfactkWaleskandkIrelandkseemedktokescapekfromkthekwitchkpersecutions kkkkkkkkkkalmostkentirely,kwithkverykfewktrials,kandkevenkfewerkexecutions. kkkkkkkkkkAlthoughkmanykklawskhavekbeenkkenactedkinkEnglandkkagainstkwitchcraft, kkkkkkkkkktherekhaskneverkbeenkkanythingkli ekthekhysteriakaboutkkwitcheskcommon kkkkkkkkkkinkkmainlandkEurope.kThekearliestkk nownkpersonkaccusedkkofksorcerykin kkkkkkkkkkEnglandkwaskAgnes,kwifekofkkOdo,kwhokink1209kwaskfreedkkafterkchoosing kkkkkkkkkktrialkbykordealkofkgraspingkakred-hotkiron. kkkkkkkkkkUntilk1563,kcommonerskaccusedkkofkwitchcraftkinkEnglandkmetkklightk(if kkkkkkkkkkany)kpunishment.kThosekofknoblekbirthkwerektreatedkratherkmorekseverekkkkkkkkkkly,kkaskthekcrimekcouldkeasilykbekonekofktreason,kandkanykactionkwhich kkkkkkkkkkimpliedkakthreatkktokthekkmonarchkwasktreatedkkverykseriouslykkindeed. kkkkkkkkkkThiskresultedkinkthekchargekofkkwitchcraftkbeingkusedktokremovekpolitkkkkkkkkkkicalkkopponentskkwithkkgreatkkexpediency.kTherekkwerekkcertainlykklaws kkkkkkkkkkagainstkkthekkpracticekofkkwitchcraftkkorkksorcery:kkAlfredkthekkGreat kkkkkkkkkk(849-899kkAD),kKingkkofkWessexkkandkoverlordkkofkEngland,kkdecreedkthe kkkkkkkkkkdeathkpenaltykkforkWiccansk(thatkwaskkthekwordkhekkactuallykused),kand kkkkkkkkkkAethelstank-kperhapskkonekofkkthekmostkcompassionatekkofkSaxonkkKings, kkkkkkkkkkorderedkkthosekwhokpractisedkWiccecraeftkktokbekexecuted,kkbutkonlykif kkkkkkkkkktheirkactivitieskresultedkinkmurder. kkkkkkkkkkUnderkHenrykVIII'skActkofk1546,kthekpenaltykforkconjurationkofkevil kkkkkkkkkkspiritskwaskdeath,kandkthekpropertykofkthekaccusedkwaskconfiscated kkkkkkkkkkbykthekKing.kHowever,kthiskwaskinkeffectkforkonlykonekyear,kbeing kkkkkkkkkkrepealedkbykEdwardkVIkink1547,kandkonlykonekconvictionkunderkthis kkkkkkkkkkActkiskkrecorded.kInk1563,kkthekstatutekofkkQueenkElizabethkIkkwaskeskkkkkkkkkktablished,kwhichkalsokmadekdeathkthekpenaltykforkinvo ingkorkconjuring kkkkkkkkkkankevilkspirit,kbutkthosekwhokpractisedkdivination,korkwhokcausedkharm kkkkkkkkkk(otherkkthankdeath)kkbyktheirkksorceries,kwerekksentencedktokkakyear's kkkkkkkkkkimprisonmentkforkakfirstkoffence.kSubsequentkoffenceskcouldkbekpunishkkkkkkkkkkablekkbykdeath,kandkkinksomekkcases,kthekkconfiscationkofkkpropertykas kkkkkkkkkkwell.

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1639 kkkkkkkkkkHowever,kevenkthoughklawskagainstkthekpracticekofkwitchcraftkhad kkkkkkkkkkbeenkestablishedkforkhundredskofkyears,kthekfirstkmajorktrialkwasknot kkkkkkkkkkuntilk1566,katkChelmsford,kandkwasktypicalkofkthekEnglishkstylekof kkkkkkkkkkwitchcraft:knokpactkwithkthekdevil,knokgatheringkatkSabbats,kbut kkkkkkkkkksimplekandkdirectkactskofkmaleficia,kandkthekintroductionkofkwitches' kkkkkkkkkkfamiliars.kItkwaskankimportantktrial,kforkitksetkthekprecedentkin kkkkkkkkkkEnglishklawkforkacceptingkunsupported,kandkhighlykimaginative,kstories kkkkkkkkkkfromkkchildrenkaskevidence.kItkkalsokacceptedkspectralkevidencek(sic), kkkkkkkkkkwitch'skmar s,kandkthekconfessionkofkthekaccused. kkkkkkkkkkTherekarekksomekverykdistinctivekaspectsktokkEnglishkwitchcraft,kwhich kkkkkkkkkksetkitkapartkfromkitskContinentalkandkScottishkcounterparts,kandkwhich kkkkkkkkkkarekworthkknoting.kTherekwaskakrelativeklac kofktorture,kand,kthiskmay kkkkkkkkkkcomekaskkaksurprisektoksomekkpeople,kbutkwitcheskwerekkneverkburnedkin kkkkkkkkkkEngland.kTraitorskkandkmurdererskwerekkburned;kwitcheskkwerekhung.kkOf kkkkkkkkkkcourse,kaktraitorkorkakkmurdererkcouldkalsokbekkakwitch,kbutkthiskkwas kkkkkkkkkkactuallykquitekrare.kThektorturekusedkinkEnglandk-kwhenkitkwaskusedkat kkkkkkkkkkallk-kwasktypicallykswimming,kpric ing,kenforcedkwa ing,kandkakdietkof kkkkkkkkkkbreadkkandkwater.kkUnpleasant,kbutkwhenkcomparedktoksquassation,kbeing kkkkkkkkkks innedkkalive,kkthekstrappado,kkthekrac ,kkandkksuchkdelightskkaskthe kkkkkkkkkkthumbscrewskandkthekkironkmaiden,khardlykinktheksamekkclass.kThekfocus kkkkkkkkkkofkkEnglishkwitchcraftkkwaskkmorektowardskksimple,kkpersonal,kactskkof kkkkkkkkkkmaleficiakkthankakperceivedkconspiracykagainstkthekpowerkofkthekChriskkkkkkkkkktiankChurch.kkAskonekofkkBritain'skforemostkkfol loristsksays:kk"Tradkkkkkkkkkkitionskkofkankorganised,kpagankwitch-cultkwerekneverkverykplentifulkin kkkkkkkkkkEngland,kalthoughktheykdidkexistkoccasionally,kespeciallykinktheklater kkkkkkkkkkyearskofkkthekwitchkbelief.kTheykkwerekneverkreallykstrong,kkandkafter kkkkkkkkkkthekendkofkthekpersecutionkinkthekearlyk18thkcentury,ktheykdisappeared kkkkkkkkkkaltogether."kkk(ChristinakkHole)kThiskiskkinteresting,kbecausekkitkhas kkkkkkkkkkbeenksuggestedkthatkthekwitchktrialskphenomenakwasklargelykinspiredkby kkkkkkkkkkthekhereticalkChristianksects;kthiskkwouldkseemktokbekbornkoutkkbykthe kkkkkkkkkktypekkofkkaccusationskmadekkinkEngland,kkwhichkwerekklargelykneighbour kkkkkkkkkkagainstkneighbourkkratherkthankChurchkkandkStatekagainstkkankorganised kkkkkkkkkkconspiracykofkheretics. kkkkkkkkkkWhatkiskalsokinterestingkiskkthatkitkwaskcommonlykbelievedkkinkEngland kkkkkkkkkkthatkifkthekkbewitchedkvictimkkcouldkdrawkbloodkkfromkthekwitch,kkthen kkkkkkkkkktheykkwouldkbekkcured,kandkkthekwitch'skkpowerkmadekkineffective.kThis kkkkkkkkkkbeliefkhaskpersistedkinkfol kktraditionsktokmodernktimes.kInk1875,kkat kkkkkkkkkkLongkCompton,kkthekbodykofkankkoldkwoman,konekAnnkkTurner,kwaskdiscovkkkkkkkkkkered.kShekhadkkbeenkpinnedktokkthekgroundkbykkakpitchfor kthroughkkher kkkkkkkkkkthroat,kandkacrosskherkfacekkandkchestkhadkbeenkkcarvedktheksignkofkka kkkkkkkkkkcrucifix.kJameskHeywood,kakklocalkfarmer,khadkoncekclaimed:kk"It'skshe kkkkkkkkkkwhokkbringskthekfloodskandkdrought.kkkHerkspellskwitheredkthekcropskin kkkkkkkkkkthekfield.kkHerkcursekdrovekkmykfatherkktokankkearlykgrave!".kkHeywood kkkkkkkkkkmaintainedkkthatkthekonlykkwayktokdestroykkherkpowerkwaskktokspillkher kkkkkkkkkkblood,kandksokafterkherkmurder,khekwaskkta enkandktriedkforkthekcrime. kkkkkkkkkkHekwaskconvicted,kandksentencedktoklifekimprisonment.kLongkComptonkhas kkkkkkkkkkalwayskbeenkassociatedkwithkthekpracticekofkwitchcraft,kandkisklocated kkkkkkkkkkonlykakshortkdistancekfromkkthekmagicalkRollrightkStones,kandknearkkto kkkkkkkkkkthekaptlykknamedkWychwoodkForest.kThekderivationkkofkthisknamekiskfrom kkkkkkkkkkthekcuriouslyknamedktribekofkTHEkHWICCE,kkwhoklivedkinkthekareakatkthe kkkkkkkkkktimekofkKingkPendakofkMercia,kandkwhokseemedkalwaysktokbekruledkbyktwo kkkkkkkkkkbrothers.kButkbac ktokLongkCompton:kkkkkkkkkkkkkk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1640 kkkkkkkkkkInk1945,kCharleskWalton,kakklocalklabourer,ksetkoutkonekmorningkktokdo kkkkkkkkkksomekhedgingkonknearbykMeonkHill.kThatkevening,khiskmutilatedkbodykwas kkkkkkkkkkfoundkinkakfieldk-kkpinnedktokthekgroundkkbykhiskpitchfor ,kwhichkkhad kkkkkkkkkkbeenkstuc kthroughkhiskthroat.kkTherekwerekcutsktokhiskarmskkandklegs, kkkkkkkkkkandklocalkpolicekwerekbaffledkasktokkthekmotivekforkthekcrime,kandkwho kkkkkkkkkkthekli elykculpritkmightkhavekbeen.kButkgraduallyklocalskbeganktoktal kkkkkkkkkkaboutkMrkWalton;ktheyksaidkkhekwaskaksolitarykandkvindictivekkoldkman, kkkkkkkkkkwhokwaskconcernedkmorekkwithksearchingkoutktheksecretskkofknaturekthan kkkkkkkkkkinkta ingkcompanykkwithkhiskkneighbours.kTheyksaidkkthatkhekkharnessed kkkkkkkkkktoads,kusingkreedskandkpieceskofkram'skhorn,kandkthenksentkthemkacross kkkkkkkkkkfieldskktokkblightkthekkcrops.kkTheykalsokkrememberedkthatkkhekk eptka kkkkkkkkkkwitch'skmirrork-kakpiecekofkkblac kstonekpolishedkinkakmountainkstream kkkkkkkkkk-kconcealedkinkhiskpoc et-watch,kwhichkhekusedkforkweavingkspellskkand kkkkkkkkkkseeingkintokthekfuture.kkThekpolicekneverkdiscoveredkthekkculprit,kbut kkkkkkkkkkitkwaskacceptedklocallykthatkMrkWaltonkwaskmurderedkbecausekhekwaska kkkkkkkkkkwitch.kHiskwoundskwerekakresultkofkthekbeliefkthatkakvictimkcouldkbe kkkkkkkkkkfreedkfromkenchantmentkifkhekorkshekwerekablektokdrawkthekbloodkof kkkkkkkkkkthekwitch. kkkkkkkkkkWekcouldknotkleavekEnglishkwitchcraftkwithoutkmentionkofkthatkinfamous kkkkkkkkkkgentleman,kMatthewkHop ins;kself-styledkkWitchfinderkGeneral.kForkkall kkkkkkkkkkhiskfame,khiskactivitieskkwerekrestrictedktokakrelativelykksmallkarea, kkkkkkkkkkandkakrelativelykshortkperiodkofktime.kkHowever,khiskboundlesskenergy, kkkkkkkkkkandkboundlesskenthusiasmkforkthekcollectionkofklargekamountskofkmoney, kkkkkkkkkkensuredkthatkhisknamekhasknotkbeenkforgotten. kkkkkkkkkkMatthewkHop inskkusedkthekkunrestkofkkthekCivilkWarkktokpreykkuponkthe kkkkkkkkkkfearskofkkthekcommonkpeople.kLittlekisk nownkofkhiskearlyklife,kexcept kkkkkkkkkkthatkhekbecamekaklawyerk"ofklittleknote",kandkfailingktokma ekakliving kkkkkkkkkkatkIpswichkkinkSuffol ,kkmovedktokkManningtreekinkEssexkk-kankkareakof kkkkkkkkkkCivilkWarktension. kkkkkkkkkkWithkvirtuallyknok nowledgekofkwitchcraft,kbutkkarmedkwithkakcouplekof kkkkkkkkkkcontemporarykdocumentsk(includingkJameskI'sk"Demonology"),kHop inskset kkkkkkkkkkhimselfkupkinkbusinesskkaskakwitchfinder.kkAndkakverykprofitablekkbuskkkkkkkkkkinesskkitkwaskktoo.kAtkkaktimekkwhenkthekkaveragekdailykkwagekkwask6d, kkkkkkkkkkHop inskreceivedkk 23kforkaksinglekkvisitktokStowmar et,kandkk 6kforka kkkkkkkkkkvisitktokAldeburgh. kkkkkkkkkkHiskkapproachkkwaskconsistent:kkJameskkIkkmentionedkthatkkwitcheskkhad kkkkkkkkkkfamiliars,kandksuc ledkimps;ktherefore,kanyonekwhok eptkakfamiliar kkkkkkkkkkspiritkorkimpkmustkbekakkwitch!kBearingkinkmindkthekEnglishkpartiality kkkkkkkkkktok eepingkkpets,kandkyoukbeginkktokseekjustkhowkkveryksuccessfulkthis kkkkkkkkkktechniquekkcouldkbe.kkForkexample,kkBridgetkMayerskkwaskkcondemnedkfor kkkkkkkkkkentertainingkankkevilkspiritkinkkthekli enesskkofkakkmouse,kwhichkkshe kkkkkkkkkkcalledk"Pric ears";kanotherk(unnamed)kwomankwaskrescuedkkbykherkneighkkkkkkkkkkbourskfromkkakduc ing,kkwherekshekkconfessedktokhavingkkankimpkkcalled kkkkkkkkkk"Nan".kWhenkkshekrecoveredksheksaid:kk"shek newknotkwhatkkshekhadkconkkkkkkkkkkfessed,kkandkshekkhadknothingkkshekcalledkkNankbutkkakpulletkkthatkshe kkkkkkkkkksometimeskcalledkbykthatkname...". kkkkkkkkkkHop inskkmovedkfromkEssexktokNorfol kandkSuffol ,kandkbykthekfollowing kkkkkkkkkkyear,khadkkoperationskinkkCambridge,kNorthampton,kHuntingdonkkandkBedkkkkkkkkkkford,kwithkakteamkofksixkkwitchkfinderskunderkhiskcontrol.k"InkSuffol kkkkkkkkkkalonekitkiskestimatedkkthatkhekwaskresponsiblekforkarrestingkkatkleast

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

kkkkkkkkkk124kpersonskkforkwitchcraft,kofkkwhomkatkleastk68kkwerekhanged."k(RHR) kkkkkkkkkkHowever,kHop inskmovedktookkfarktookquic ly,kandkpublickkopinionkbegan kkkkkkkkkktokgokagainstkhim.kInk1646,kakclergymankinkHuntingdonkpreachedkagainst kkkkkkkkkkhim,kandkjudgeskbegankktokquestionkbothkhiskkmethodskofklocatingkkwit-

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1641 kkkkkkkkkkches,kandkkthekfeeskthatkhekkchargedkforkthekservice.kkInk1647kHop ins kkkkkkkkkkpublishedkakpamphletkcalledkk"DiscoverykofkWitches",kinkwhichkkheksupkkkkkkkkkkportedkhiskmethodskinksanctimoniouskandkpseudoklegalklanguage.kkHowevkkkkkkkkkker,kitkkwasktoknokkavail,kforklaterkthatkkyearkhekdied,kk"inksomekdiskkkkkkkkkkgrace"kaccordingktokmostkauthorities.kWitchcraftklegendkhaskitkthatkhe kkkkkkkkkkwaskdrownedkkbykiratekvillagerskinkkonekofkhiskownkkduc ingkponds,kbut kkkkkkkkkkthiskhasknokrecordedkevidencektoksupportkit.kHowever,kitkwouldkbeka kkkkkkkkkkfittingkendktoksuchkankevilkman,kandkIkhopekitkwasktrue. kkkkkkkkkkMovingkawaykfromkEngland;kScottishkandkContinentalkwitchcraftksharedka kkkkkkkkkkgreatkmanyksimilarities;kkMarykQueenkofkScots,kandkherkkson,kJameskVI, kkkkkkkkkkwerekkbothkeducatedkkinkkFrance,kkandkkthiskensuredkkthatkkcontinental kkkkkkkkkkattitudeskktowardskkwitcheskkwerekenshrinedkkinkkScottishkklawkkatkthe kkkkkkkkkkhighestklevel.kInkfactkthekconceptskofkwitchcraftkwerekintroducedkinto kkkkkkkkkkScotlandkbykMarykinkaboutk1563.kBeforekthen,ktrialskforkwitchcraftkhad kkkkkkkkkkbeenkfew,kkandktherekkwereknokkrecordedkburningskkofkwitches.kInkk"The kkkkkkkkkkEncyclopaediakofkWitchcraftkandkDemonology"kRossellkHopekRobbinsksays: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"ScotlandkiskksecondkonlykktokGermanykinkkthekbarkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbaritykofkitskwitchktrials.kThekPresbyteriankclerkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkgykactedkli ekinquisitors,kandkthekChurchksessions kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkoftenksharedkthekprosecutionkwithktheksecularklaw kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcourts.kThekScottishklawskwere,kifkkanything,kmore kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkheavilykloadedkagainstkkthekaccused.kFinally,kkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdevilishnesskofkkthektorturekwaskklimitedkonlykkby kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkScotland'skbac wardktechnologykinkthekconstruction kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofkmechanicalkdevices." kkkkkkkkkkItkiskkwellk nownkthatkJameskkVIkwaskankardentkkprosecutorkofkwitches, kkkkkkkkkkandkkitkkwaskunderkkhiskkauthoritykthatkkthekkBiblekwaskktranslatedkto kkkkkkkkkkincludekthekwordk"witch"kk(Exodusk22:18)ktokprovidekBiblicalkksanction kkkkkkkkkkforkthekdeathkkpenaltykforkwitches.kThekoriginalkHebrewkwordk-k ashaph kkkkkkkkkk-kmeantkeitherkakmagician,kdivinerkorksorcerer,kbutkwaskdefinitelyknot kkkkkkkkkkakwitch.kInkkthekLatinkVulgatek(4thkcenturykversionkkofkthekBible)kthe kkkkkkkkkkwordkhadkbeenktranslatedkask"maleficos",kwhichkcouldkmeankkanyk indkof kkkkkkkkkkcriminal,kalthoughkinkpracticekoftenkreferredktokmalevolentksorcerers. kkkkkkkkkkSimilarly,kthekkso-calledkWitchkofkkEndor,kconsultedkbykkKingkSolomon: kkkkkkkkkkthekkoriginalkHebrewkwask"ba'alathkkob":k"mistresskofkkaktalisman".kIn kkkkkkkkkkthekLatinkVulgatekshekkbecamekak"mulieremkhabentemkpythonem":kkakwomen kkkkkkkkkkpossessingkankoracularkspirit.kItkwaskonlykinkthekversionkofkthekBible kkkkkkkkkkauthorisedkbykKingkJameskthatkshekbecamekakwitch. kkkkkkkkkkBykthektimekthatkJameskaccededktokthekEnglishkthronekink1603,khis kkkkkkkkkkattitudektowardskwitcheskhadkundergonekaksubtlektransformation.kIn kkkkkkkkkkfact,kkhekwaskkdirectlykkresponsiblekforkkthekkreleasekandkkpardonkkof kkkkkkkkkkseveralkaccusedk"witches",kandkpersonallykinterferedkinktrialskwhere kkkkkkkkkkhekbelievedkthatkfraudkorkdeceptionkwaskbeingkpractised.kkHowever, kkkkkkkkkkLynnkLintonkwritingkink1861ksayskofkhim: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"Whateverkofkblood-stainedkfollykbelongedkspecialkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkklyktokthekScottishktrialskofkthisktimek-kandkherekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkafterk-kkowedkitskkoriginalkimpulsektokkhim;kevery kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkgroankkofkthekktorturedkkwretcheskdrivenkktoktheir kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfearfulkdoom,kandkeveryktearkofktheksurvivorskleft kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkblightedkandkdesolatektokdragkoutktheirkwearykdays kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinkkmingledkgriefkkandkterror,kkliekonkkhiskmemory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwithkshamekandkkcondemnationkineffaceablekforkkall kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktime."

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1642 kkkkkkkkkkButkitkwaskunderkCharleskIIkthatkperhapskthekmostkfamousk-kkandkendurkkkkkkkkkkingkk-kofkkScottishkkwitcheskwaskktried,kkandkmostkkprobablykkexecuted kkkkkkkkkk(althoughkrecordskkofkherkpunishmentkhaveknotksurvived).kIsobelkGowdie kkkkkkkkkkofkAuldearne,kkonkfourkseparatekkoccasionskduringk1662kktestifiedkthat kkkkkkkkkkshekkwaskakwitch,kandkgavekwhatkkRussellkHopekRobbinskdescribeskas:k"a kkkkkkkkkkresum kofkpopularkbeliefskaboutkwitchcraftkinkScotland.".kHeksayskthat kkkkkkkkkkGowdiek"appearedkclearlykdemented",kbutkthatk"itkiskplainkshekbelieved kkkkkkkkkkwhatkshekconfessed,knokmatterkhowkimpossible...". kkkkkkkkkkFromkGowdiekarekkderivedksomekofkthekconceptskofkktoday'skWicca,kinclkkkkkkkkkkudingkthekideakofkakcoven,kcomprisedkofk13kpeople.kkGowdieksaidkthatka kkkkkkkkkkcovenkwaskkruledkbykakk"MankinkBlac ",kkoftenkcalledk"Blac kkJohn".kHe kkkkkkkkkkwouldkoftenkbeatkthekwitcheskseverely,kandkitkseemedktheirkmainkktas s kkkkkkkkkkwerekktokraisekstorms,kchangekkthemselveskintokanimals,kkandkshootkelf kkkkkkkkkkarrowskktokinjurekork illkpeople.kComingkkaskshekdoeskrightkatkthekend kkkkkkkkkkofkkthekwitchcraftkpersecutions,kitkiskdifficultktokestablishkhowkmuch kkkkkkkkkkofkGowdie'skconfessionkkiskbasedkuponkreal,ktraditionalkfol kpractices kkkkkkkkkkofkkAuldearne,kandkkhowkkmuchkshekkiskksimplykrepeatingkkthekkstandard kkkkkkkkkkaccusationskagainstkwitches.kkkThekCovenkofk13kiskkprobablyktheksingle kkkkkkkkkkaspectkofkherkconfessionskkwhichkdoesknotkappearkelsewherekkinkrecords kkkkkkkkkkofkwitchcraftktrials,kandkmykownkfeelingskarekthatkshekwaskprobablykas kkkkkkkkkkgenuinekakwitchkaskwaskeverkta enkandktried. kkkkkkkkkkWekhavekalreadykcommentedkhowkterrifyingkitkisktokconsiderkthekkimpact kkkkkkkkkkthatkaksinglekpersonkkcankhavekuponkkthekliveskofkksokmanykpeople.kkWe kkkkkkkkkkhavekloo edkkatkaknumberkofkkthesek-kKingkJames,kkKramerkandkSprenger, kkkkkkkkkkMatthewkHop ins,kConradkofkkMarburgk-kandktheirklatterkkdayksuccessors kkkkkkkkkkareknokklesskkdangerous.kLetkkuskkconsiderksomekkofkthekk20thkkcentury kkkkkkkkkkpersecutors.kkWekkhavekkalreadykkmentionedkAdolfkkHitler;kkwhatkkabout kkkkkkkkkkStalin?kkhiskgreatkpurgekinkkthekperiodkfollowingkk1936ksawkchargeskof kkkkkkkkkktreason,kespionagekandkterrorismkbroughtkagainstkanyonekwhokshowedkthe kkkkkkkkkkleastkinclinationktokopposekhim.kUsingktechniqueskwhichkwouldknotkhave kkkkkkkkkkbeenkkoutkofkkplacekduringkkthekgreatkkwitchkhunts,kkStalin'skhenchmen kkkkkkkkkkenforcedk"confessions",kandkeffectivelykexterminatedkanykthreatktokhis kkkkkkkkkkpoliticalkpower. kkkkkkkkkkWekcouldkloo kktookatkkMcCarthy,kwhosekfamekkforkpersecutionkwaskksuch kkkkkkkkkkthatkhisknamekisknowkusedktokdescribek"thekusekkofkunsupportedkaccusakkkkkkkkkktionskkforkanykpurpose".kkItkisknokkaccidentkthatkkhiskactivitieskwere kkkkkkkkkkreferredktokaskak"witchkhunt",knorkthatkArthurkMiller'skplaykaboutkthe kkkkkkkkkkSalemkkwitchktrials,k"ThekCrucible",kkwaskmorekakkcommentkaboutkMcCarkkkkkkkkkkthyismkthankakcommentkaboutk17thkcenturykAmericanklife. kkkkkkkkkkInk20thkcenturykAustraliakwekarekheirsktokakEuropeankhistory,kwhich kkkkkkkkkkmaintainskkthatkwitcheskkarekkservantskofkkthekkdevil,kandkkshouldkkbe kkkkkkkkkkprosecutedkforktheirkcrimeskagainstkhumanity.kInksomekStateskthese kkkkkkkkkklawskactuallykremainkuponkthekStatutekBoo s;kinkothers,ktheklegal kkkkkkkkkkmachinerykhaskbeenkremoved,kbutkoftenkpublickopinionkhoverskaroundkthe kkkkkkkkkkmiddlekages,kbelievingkthatkthekonlykgoodkwitchkiskakdeadkwitch. kkkkkkkkkkOurklatter-daykinquisitorskplaykuponkthesekfears,kinkmuchktheksame kkkkkkkkkkwaykaskkMatthewkHop inskplayedkuponkthekfearskofkthekpeoplekduringkthe kkkkkkkkkkCivilkWar.kChristiankFundamentalistskhaveknokhesitationkinkusingkevery kkkkkkkkkkdirtyktric kinkthekboo ktokkensurekthatkpublickopinionkremainskopposed kkkkkkkkkktokwitchcraft.kIfkthiskmeanskkthatksomekofkthemkkhavektokstandkupkkand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkksay:k"Yes,kIkkwaskakwitch:kkIksacrificedkmykkbabiesktokthekkdevil,kand kkkkkkkkkkcopulatedkwithkkakgoat;kIktoo kkpartkinkdrun enkorgies,kkandkdran kthe kkkkkkkkkkbloodkofktheksacrifice";kbutkkthenkIkfoundkJesus,kandkwaskkbornkagain,

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1643 kkkkkkkkkkandknowkI'mkkakreallyknicekperson;kwellksokbekkit.kSomekofkthemkarekso kkkkkkkkkkpsychiatricallykunbalancedktheykmaykevenkbelievekitkthemselves. kkkkkkkkkkListenktokakksamplekofkthekclaimskmadekbykkAudreykHarper,kwhokachieved kkkkkkkkkknotorietykinkBritainkaskankkex-HPSkofkakWitches'kCoven.kkkThiskextract kkkkkkkkkkiskfromkankarticlekbykAries,kwhichkappearedkinkWebkofkWyrdk#5: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSentktokkakDrkkBarnado'skhomekbykkherkmother,kkshe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkgrewkupkkwithkkdeprivationkandkksocialkstigma.kkIn kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktimekshekbecomeskakWRAF,kfallskinklove,kgetskpregkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknant,kboyfriendkdies,kshekturnsktokbooze,kgiveskup kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkherkbabykkandkbecomeskhomeless.kWanderingkktokPickkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcadillykCircuskshekmeetsksomekFlowerkChildrenkwith kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekk illerkweed,kkandkkherkdescentkkintokHellkkis kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkassured.kBykdaykshekgetskstonedkandkeatskjun kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfood;kbyknightkshekksleepskinksquatskandkdoorways. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAlongkkcomeskMolly;kthekwhorekwithkakheartkofkgold kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhokteacheskkAudreykthekartkkofkstreetwal ing.kShe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkflirtskwithkshoplifting,kgetskintokpills,kandkthen kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkgetsktalentkspottedkandkkinvitedktokakChelseakparkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkty,kkwherekkwealth,kpowerkkandktastefulkkdecorkare kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdangledkaskbait.kAtkktheknextkpartykshekiskkhoo ed kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbykthekk"group",kwhichkmeetsk"everykkmonthkinkVirkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkginiakWater".kShekagreesktokgoktoktheknextkmeeting kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhichkisktokbekheldkatkHallowe'en. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkInsidekthekkdar kTemplekklitkbykblac kkcandleskand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfullkofk"Akheady,kksic lyksweetksmellkfromkburning kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkincense",kshekkiskk"initiated"kbykkthekk"warloc ", kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhosek"facekwaskdeathlykpalekandks eletal...khis kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkeyesk...kkwerekdar kandksun en"kkandkwhosek"breath kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkbodykseemedktokexudekakstrangeksmell,kaklittle kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkli ekkstalekalcohol."kkSheksignskkherselfkoverkkto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSatankwithkherkownkbloodkonkakparchmentkscroll, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhereuponkakbabykiskkproduced,kitskthroatkcut,kand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekbloodkkdran .kkFollowingkthiskkshekgetskdumped kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkonkthekk"altar"kandkkscrewedkaskthekk"sacrificekof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekWhitekVirgin".kThekmeetingkfinisheskwithka kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkklittlekkritualkcursingkkandkkshe'skleftkktokwander kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"home"kinkthekdar . kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHerklifekkfallskintokaksteadykkroutinekofkmeetings kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinkVirginiakkWater,kgettingkkscrewedkbykthekk"warkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkloc ",kdrugkkabuse,kkpettykcrime,kkandkkrecruiting kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkrunawayskforkparties,kwherekkthekdrin skarekspi ed kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk-"probablykwithkkLSD"k-kandkkcandleskinjectedkwith kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkheroinkkreleasek"stupefyingkkfumeskintokkthekair"; kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekkobjectkbeingkksexk ic skandkkpornography.kShe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfallskpregnantkagain,kgetskcommittedktokakpsychiakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktrickhospital,khaskthekbaby,kandkgiveskitkaway kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkconvincedkthatkthek"warloc "kwouldksacrificekit. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThingskthenkbecomekakkconfusionkofkChurchkdesecrakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktion,kkdrugkkaddiction,kritualkkabuse,kpsychiatric kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhospital,kandkkfallingkinkwithkChristiankkfol kwho kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktrykvainlyktoksavekherksoul.kForkratherkvague kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkreasonskthekk"coven"kdecidekktokdropkherkkfromkthe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkteam,kandkshekdedicateskherselfktokaktruekjun ie's kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkklifestylekwithkaksteadykroundkofkoverdosing,kjaunkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdice,kandkdetoxificationkunits.kThek"warloc "

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1644 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdropskbykktokthreatenkher,kkandkshekma eskkherkway kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknorthkkviaksomekpsychiatrickkhospitalsktokakChriskkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktiankRehabilitationkfarm.kShekkgetskmarried,khaska kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchildkwhichkshek eeps,kandkbecomeskakregularkchurkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchgoer.kkButkkbeneathkkthekksurfacekkarekrecurring kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknightmares,kkinsanekkangerkandkkmurderouskfeelings kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktowardskherkbrethren.kkAtkthekEmmanualkPentecostal kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkChurchkkinkStourportkkshekas skkthekkMinister,kRoy kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDavies,kforkhelp.kHekprays,kandkGodktellskhimkthat kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkshekwaskinvolvedkwithkkwitchcraft.kAnkexorcismkhas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkherkbornkagain,kcleansedkofkherksin.kShekgetskbapkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktisedkandkhasknokkmoreknightmares,kbecomingkakgenkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkerallyknicerkperson.kkShekbecomeskthekk"occultkexkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpert"kofkthekkReachoutkTrustkkandkEvangelicalkkAlkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkliance,kandkma eskakcareerkoutkkofktellingkankedikkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktedkversionkofkherktale. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGeoffreykDic enskkMPkpersuadeskherktokktellkallkon kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkklivekTV;k"Audrey,ktokyourk nowledgekiskchildksacrkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkificekstillkgoingkon?"kTokthiskshekreplies,k"Tokmy kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk nowledge,kyes."kAfterkkthiskthekwholekthingkkramkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbleskintokankuntidykconclusionkofkself-congratulakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktion,kself-promotion,kkandkself-justification;kand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkforkakgrandkfinalekpullskoutkkaklistkofkhorrendous kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchildkabuse,kwhichkiskshamelesslykexploitedkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktypicallykkjournalistickfashion,kandkkbykthekusual kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfallaciouskkargumentskwhichkklin skitkktokanything kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"occult";khelp-lines,kastrokkpredictionskinkknewskkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpapers,kandkevenkNewkAgekfestivals. kkkkkkkkkkAndksokwekarekleftkwithkakhorrifyingkvisionkofkhordeskofkSatanists kkkkkkkkkkswarmingkthekcountry,kbuggeringkk ids,ksacrificingkbabies,kandkfeeding kkkkkkkkkktheirkownkfaecesktokthekfloc ." kkkkkkkkkkWhilstkallkthiskkseemskincrediblektokanykrationalkkperson,kunfortunatkkkkkkkkkkely,kinkthekagekoldktradition,kitkconfirmskthekworstkfearskofkthekkman kkkkkkkkkkandkwomankinkthekstreet,kandksoktheykswallowkkitkwhole.kkAfterkall,kit kkkkkkkkkkwaskonktelly,ksokitkMUSTkbektrue! kkkkkkkkkkAskakdirectkresultkofkpeoplekli ekAudreykHarperkpublicisingktheirklies kkkkkkkkkkandkfantasy,kkchildrenkinkEnglandkkandkScotlandkwerekkforciblykremoved kkkkkkkkkkfromktheirkhomes,kandksubjectedktokthektypekofkquestioningkthatkwekhad kkkkkkkkkkpreviouslykbelievedkhadkdiedkoutkatkthekendkofkthekMiddlekAges. kkkkkkkkkkAkconsultantkkclinicalkpsychologistkkscrutinisedkthekkinterviewktranskkkkkkkkkkcriptskandkaudiokrecordskofkthekrecentkOr neykchildkabusekcase, kkkkkkkkkkandkinkherksummingkkupksaid:k"[thekkSocialkWor ers]ktoldkthekkchildren kkkkkkkkkktheyk newkthingskhadkhappenedkktokthemkandkwerekgenerallykkleadingkall kkkkkkkkkkthekkway.kWhenkkthekchildrenkkdeniedkthings,kkthekquestionskkwerekconkkkkkkkkkktinuallykputkuntilkkthekchildrenkgotkhungrykandkgavekkthemkthekanswers kkkkkkkkkktheykwanted." kkkkkkkkkkWhoksayskthatktorturekisknoklongerklegalkinkthekBritishkIsles?kk kkkkkkkkkkThekfatherkofkfourkofkthekchildrenkwhokwerekta enkintokcareksaid: kkkkkkkkkk"AtkfirstkIkthoughtkthekallegationskwereklaughable,kbutkIkfoundkout

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkhowkseriouskthekpolicekwere...".kJustktokremindkyoukofkthekwordskof kkkkkkkkkkGilleskdekRaisksomek500kyearskago:k[thekaccusations]karekfrivolous kkkkkkkkkkandklac kcredit...".

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1645 kkkkkkkkkkOnek11kyear-oldkdescribedkbeingkas edktokkdrawkakcirclekofkritualistic kkkkkkkkkkdancers.kHeksaid:k"Theykgotkmektokdrawkbykksaying,k'Ikamknotkakdrawer. kkkkkkkkkkCankyoukdrawkthat?'kItkwaskmeantktokbekakringkwithkchildrenkaroundkand kkkkkkkkkkakkministerkinkthekkmiddlekwearingkkakblac krobekkandkakcroo kktokpull kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkin." kkkkkkkkkkThekboyksaidkkhekhadkbeenkpromisedkktreatsksuchkaskkaklessonkonkhowkka kkkkkkkkkkhelicopterkwor edkifkhekco-operated,kandkwasktoldkthatkhekcould kkkkkkkkkkgokifkhekgavekonekname.kHowkremar ablyksimilarktokmedievalkwitch kkkkkkkkkktrials,kkwherekthekvictimskwerekkalwayskpressedktokknamektheirkaccompkkkkkkkkkklicesk-kforkiskitknotksaid,k"thoukcanstknotkbekakwitchkalone?"! kkkkkkkkkkInk1990,kkjournalistkRosiekkWaterhousekcommentingkuponkkthekManchester kkkkkkkkkkchildkkabusekkcaseksaid:kk"Afterkthreekkmonthskkofkquestioningkkbykthe kkkkkkkkkkNSPCC,kkstrangekkstorieskbegankktokcomekkoutkkandkotherkkchildrenkwere kkkkkkkkkknamed.kThekwaykthekchildrenkbeganktellingk"Satanic"ktaleskinkthiskcase kkkkkkkkkkiskkremar ablyksimilarkktokkthekwaykksuchkkstorieskfirstkksurfacedkkin kkkkkkkkkkNottingham.kAsk"ThekkIndependentkonkSunday"krevealedklastkwee k(23/9/kkkkkkkkkk90),kthekkNottinghamkchildrenkkbeganktal ingkaboutkkwitches,kmonsters, kkkkkkkkkkbabieskkandkbloodkkonlykafterkktheykhadkbeenkkencouraged,kbykkankNSPCC kkkkkkkkkksocialkkwor er,ktokkplaykwithktoyskkwhichkincludedkkwitches'kcostumes, kkkkkkkkkkmonsters,ktoykbabies,kandkaksyringekforkextractingkblood." kkkkkkkkkkBelievekitkorknot,kthekparentskofkthesekchildrenkhadknokaccesskto kkkkkkkkkkthemkwhatsoever.kWhy?kBecausekourkmodern,kscientificallyktrained, kkkkkkkkkk20thkcenturyksocialkwor erskbelievedkthat,k"[thekparents]kwouldktry kkkkkkkkkktokksilencekkthekchildren,kkusingkksecretkSatanickksymbolskkorktrigger kkkkkkkkkkwords". kkkkkkkkkkBykkMarchk1991,kkseniorkPolicekspo esmenkkwerekpubliclykkclaimingkthat kkkkkkkkkk"policekhaveknokevidencekofkritualkorksatanickabusekinflictedkon kkkkkkkkkkchildrenkanywherekinkEnglandkorkWales".kScotlandkhaskakdifferent kkkkkkkkkklegalksystem,kwhichkiskwhykitkwasknotkincludedkinkthekstatementkkkkkkkkkkknotkbecausekthekpolicekhavekevidencekthere,kforktheykdoknot. kkkkkkkkkkWhenkthekRochdalekcasekfinallykcamektokcourt,kafterkthekchildren kkkkkkkkkkhadkbeenkinkcarek(sic!)kforkaboutk16kmonths,kthekjudgekdeliveredka kkkkkkkkkkdamningkindictmentkuponkthosekkwhokwerekresponsiblekforkit,kkandksaid: kkkkkkkkkk"thekwaykkthekchildrenkhadkkbeenkremovedkkfromktheirkparentskkwaskparkkkkkkkkkkticularlykupsetting."kHekksawkakvideokofkthekremovalkkofkonekgirlkfrom kkkkkkkkkkherkhomekduringkakdawnkkraid,kandkcommentedkthat,k"Itkiskkobviouskfrom kkkkkkkkkkthekkvideoktapekkthatkthekkgirlkisknotkkmerelykfrightenedkkbutkgreatly kkkkkkkkkkdistressedkatkbeingkremovedkfromkhome.kTheksobbingkandkdistraughtkgirl kkkkkkkkkkcankbekseen.kItkiskonekofkmykmostkabidingkmemorieskofkthiskcase." kkkkkkkkkkLetkuskkreturnkbrieflyktokkSalem,kwhere,kink1710,kkWilliamkGoodkpetitkkkkkkkkkkionedkforkkdamageskinkrespectkofkkthektrialkandkexecutionkkofkhiskwife kkkkkkkkkkSarah,kandkthekimprisonmentkofkhiskdaughter,kDorothy,k"akchildkofkfour kkkkkkkkkkorkfivekkyearskold,k[who]kbeingkkchainedkinkthekdungeonkkwasksokhardly kkkkkkkkkkusedkkandkterrifiedkkthatkshekkhathkeverkksincekbeenkkverykchargeable, kkkkkkkkkkhavingklittlekorknokreasonktokgovernkherself.".

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1646 kkkkkkkkkkToday'skChristiankFundamentalist,kli ekhiskviciouskkandkself-righteous kkkkkkkkkkpredecessors,kwillkusekanythingkinkhiskorkherkpower-includingkinnocent kkkkkkkkkkchildrenk-kktokdestroykthekevilskofkPaganismkandkthekoccult.kSometimes kkkkkkkkkkIkwonderkifkwekarekbecomingkparanoid,korktheksubjectskofkakpersecution kkkkkkkkkkcomplex,kbutkkinkwritingkthisklecturekkitkwaskbroughtkhomekktokmekmore kkkkkkkkkkstronglykthankeverkbefore:kthekwitchktrialskofkthekMiddlekAgeskareknot kkkkkkkkkkakbloodykstainkkonkthekhistorykkofkChristianity;ktheykkarekthekksource kkkkkkkkkkfromkwherektoday'skfundamentalistskkdrawktheirkpower,kandkarekkjustkas kkkkkkkkkkterrifyingkktodaykkasktheykkwerekhundredskkofkkyearskago.kkBigotrykand kkkkkkkkkkpersecutionkhavekchangedkinkonlykonekrespect:k20thkcenturykman indkhas kkkkkkkkkkfarkkmorekefficientkandkeffectivekkmeanskofkspreadingkklieskandkpropakkkkkkkkkkgandakthankwaskavailablektokourkancestors. kkkkkkkkkkPERSECUTION:kANCIENTkANDkMODERN kkkkkkkkkkAppendixkA kkkkkkkkkkThekksubjectkofkthekkEuropeankWitchkTrialskkhaskbeenkkwrittenkaboutkad kkkkkkkkkkinfinitumkk(andknauseam!),kkandktherekkarekakkgreatkmanykkusefulkboo s kkkkkkkkkkwhichkkthekstudentkwillkfindkkofkinterest.kTherekkfollowskakshortkbibkkkkkkkkkkliographykofkthosektokwhichkIkreferredkwhenkwritingkthisklecture. kkkkkkkkkkSelectkBibliography

kkkkkkkkkkBradford,kSarahkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCesarekBorgiak(1981) kkkkkkkkkkCohn,kNormankkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEurope'skInnerkDemonsk(1975) kkkkkkkkkkGinzburg,kCarlokkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEcstasies:kDecipheringkThe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWitches'kSabbathk(1990) kkkkkkkkkkHole,kChristinakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWitchcraftkinkEnglandk(1977) kkkkkkkkkkHoward,kMichaelkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekOccultkConspiracyk(1989) kkkkkkkkkkKiec heffer,kRichardkkkkkkkkkkkkEuropeankWitchkTrialsk(1976) kkkkkkkkkkLarner,kChristinakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEnemieskofkGod:kThekWitchkHuntkinkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkScotlandk(1981) kkkkkkkkkkLarner,kChristinakkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWitchcraftkandkReligionk(1985) kkkkkkkkkkMaple,kErickkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekCompletekBoo kofkWitchcraftkandkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDemonology kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(1966) kkkkkkkkkkRadford,kKennethkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFirekBurnk(1989) kkkkkkkkkkRavensdalek&kMorgankkkkkkkkkkkkkThekPsychologykofkWitchcraft kkkkkkkkkk(1974) kkkkkkkkkkRobbins,kRossellkHopekkkkkkkkkkkThekEncyclopaediakofkWitchcraftkandkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDemonologyk(1984) kkkkkkkkkkRussell,kJeffreykkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAkHistorykofkWitchcraftk(1980) kkkkkkkkkkScarre,kGeoffreykkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWitchcraftkandkMagickink16thkandk17thk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcenturykEuropek(1987) kkkkkkkkkkStenton,kSirkFran kkkkkkkkkkkkkkAnglo-SaxonkEnglandk(1971) kkkkkkkkkkSummers,kMontaguek(Trans)kkkkkkkMalleuskMaleficarumk(1986) kkkkkkkkkkThomas,kKeithkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkReligionkandkthekDeclinekofkMagickkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(1971) kkkkkkkkkkTrevor-Roper,kHkRkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekEuropeankWitch-Crazekofkthek16thkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandk17thkCenturiesk(1988) kkkkkkkkkkWalsh,kMichaelkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkRootskofkChristianityk(1986) kkkkkkkkkkWorden,kBlairk(Ed)kkkkkkkkkkkkkkStuartkEnglandk(1986)

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkEncyclopaediakBritannicak(1969kedition) kkkkkkkkkkCollinskDictionarykofkthekEnglishkLanguagek(1980) kkkkkkkkkkNewspapers:kThekTimes,kThekGuardian,kThekIndependentk(Britain)

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1647 kkkkkkkkkkPERSECUTION:kANCIENTkANDkMODERN kkkkkkkkkkAppendixkBk-kHistoricalkPeriods kkkkkkkkkkAnglo-Saxon:kkkkkkkbroadlyk550kADktok1066kADk(thekNormankinvasion). kkkkkkkkkkMiddlekAges:kkkkkkkbroadlykthekperiodkfromkthekendkofkclassicalkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk( kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkRenaissance kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkItalian kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktothe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAD) kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(476 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkantiquity or kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkspecifical kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMore kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1453). kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkConstantinople kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfall ly kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekperiodkfromk1000kADktokthek15thkcentury. kkkkkkkkkkMedieval:kkkkkkkkkkof,korkrelatingkto,kthekMiddlekAges. kkkkkkkkkkTudor:kkkkkkkkkkkkkthekRoyalkHouse,kdescendedkfromkWelshkSquirekOwenkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk148 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbetween kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEngland kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkruled kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhich kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(d.1461), kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTudor 5kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkADk-k1603kAD kkkkkkkkkkStuart:kkkkkkkkkkkkthekRoyalkHousekwhichkruledkinkScotlandkbetweenkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAD kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbetween1603 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinEngland kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1714,and kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkADand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1371 -kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1714kAD. kkkkkkkkkkJacobean:kkkkkkkkkkrelatingktokthekperiodkofkJameskI'skrulekofkEngland kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(1603-1625). kkkkkkkkkkReformation:kkkkkkkak16thkcenturykreligiouskandkpoliticalkmovementkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheCathol kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktoreform kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkanattempt kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbeganas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhich ic kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkestablishm kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkresulted kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkactually kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbut kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkChurch, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ent kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofkthekProtestantkChurch. kkkkkkkkkkRenaissance:kkkkkkkusuallykconsideredkaskbeginningkinkItalykinkthekkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhichmar ed kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkperiod kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkisthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcentury,this kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk14th kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkt he kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktothemoder kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktransitionfromtheMiddleAges nkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcharacterisedbyclassicalschol kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkworld.Itis ar kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandgeographicaldiscovery,a kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkship,scientific nd kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekexplorationkofkindividualkhumankpotential. kkkkkkkkkkCivilkWar:kkkkkkkkk1640-1649,kbetweenkthekRoyalistskunderkCharleskI,kk

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCromwe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkOliver kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkledby kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkParliamentarians kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ll. kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCharleskIkwaskexecutedkink1649. kkkkkkkkkkCrusades:kkkkkkkkkkakserieskofkwarskunderta enkbykthekChristianskofkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPapac kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe 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kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkrecoveringthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpurpose us kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdefendingpossession kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheMuslimsand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkalemfrom of kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkit.k(Enc.kBritannica) kkkkkkkkkkThirtykYears'kWar:kakmajorkconflictkinvolvingkAustria,kDenmar ,kkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkt kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandSweden kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSpain kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHolland,Germany, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFrance, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk hat kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGerma kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkespecially kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbut kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEurope, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcentral kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdevastated kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ny. kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCatholic kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkProtestantsand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkawarbetween kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbeganas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkIt skkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(161 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkgeneralpowerstruggle kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdevelopedintoa kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbut 8kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1648). kkkkkkkkkkLaterankCouncils:kkFivekecumenicalkcouncilskheldkatkthekLaterankPalace kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk11 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbetween kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPope) kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkresidence kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofficial kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(the 23 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkADkandk1512kAD.

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1648 kkkkkkkkkkPERSECUTION:kANCIENTkANDkMODERN kkkkkkkkkkAppendixkCk-kGnostickandkChristianksects kkkkkkkkkkManichaeism:kkkkkkkakdualistickGnostickreligionkfirstkpreachedkbykMani kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcentrew kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkItsearly kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAD. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk3rdcentury kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(q.v.)in as kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpartofthePersianempireand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBabylonia,then akkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmeetingkplacekofkfaiths.k(EB) kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekkbasickktheologykofkkManichaeismkiskkthatkkgoodkandkkevilkare kkkkkkkkkkseparatekkandkopposedkprinciples,kwhichkhavekbecomekmixedkinkthekworld kkkkkkkkkkthroughkkthekkactionkofkkthekevilkkprinciple.kkTherekiskkakcomplicated kkkkkkkkkkmythologykkwhichkdescribeskthekcreationkofkthekworldkandkthekelements, kkkkkkkkkkandkaksetkofkcomplexkcorrespondenceskbykwhichktheksee erkcankreturnkto kkkkkkkkkkakstatekofksalvation.kManichaeismkspreadkacrosskakhugekarea,kincluding kkkkkkkkkkthekRomankkEmpire.kHowever,kbykthekk6thkcenturykitkhadkkvirtuallykbeen kkkkkkkkkkeradicatedkkfromkSpain,kFrancekandkkItaly,kalthoughkwaskkstrongkinkthe kkkkkkkkkkeasternkMediterraneankuntilkthek9thkcentury,kwhenkitkwaskabsorbedkinto kkkkkkkkkkthekneo-ManicheanksectskofkthekBogomils,kCathars,ketc. kkkkkkkkkkBogomils:kkkkkkkkkkakreligiousksectkwhichkflourishedkinkthekBal anskkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbetweenkthek10thkandk15thkcenturies.k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTheirkcentralkteachingkwaskkstrictlykdualistic;kthatkthekvisible, kkkkkkkkkkmaterialkworldkwaskcreatedkbykthekDevil,kandkthatkeverythingkwithinkit kkkkkkkkkkwaskthereforekevil.kkkTheykkrejectedkmanykofkkthektrappingskofkkChriskkkkkkkkkktianity,kandkktheirkcondemnationkofkkanythingktokkdokwithkthekkfleshkkkkkkkkkkkincludingkeatingkandkdrin ing!k-khaskrightlykearnedkthemktheknic name, kkkkkkkkkk"thekgreatestkpuritanskofkthekmiddlekages". kkkkkkkkkkCathars:kkkkkkkkkkkakhereticalkChristianksectkthatkflourishedkinkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwesternkEuropekinkthek12thkandk13thkcenturies.k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTheykbelievedkthatkkgoodnesskexistedkonlykinkthekkspiritualkworld kkkkkkkkkkcreatedkkbykGod,kandkkthatkthekmaterialkkworld,kcreatedkbykkSatan,kwas kkkkkkkkkkevil.kTheirktheologykborekkakgreatkresemblancektokthatkkofkManichaeism kkkkkkkkkkandkthekBogomils,kandktheykwerekcloselykconnectedkwithktheklatter. kkkkkkkkkkWaldensians:kkkkkkkalsok nownkaskValdenseskorkVaudois.kTheksectkwaskkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcentury, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk12th kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFrance kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksouthern kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfounded dkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkla kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkphysical kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfrom kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkabstinence kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpoverty, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkemphasised kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk bou kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkr,kandkaklifekdevotedktokprayer. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTheykkwerekinfluencedkbykotherkk"heretical"ksects,kandkrejectedka kkkkkkkkkknumberkofkkthekbasicktenetskkofkthekCatholickkfaith.kkTheykkwerekstern kkkkkkkkkkopponentskktokthekacquisitionkofkkwealthkandkpowerkkwithinkthekChurch, kkkkkkkkkkandkkthuskcamekintokdirectkkoppositionktokthekkPapacy,whichkthrivedkon kkkkkkkkkkboth.kkkTheykkwerekfiercelykkpersecuted,kandkkbykthekkendkofkkthek15th kkkkkkkkkkcentury,kconfinedkmainlyktokthekFrenchkandkItalian

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkvalleyskkofkthekCottiankAlps.kDuringkthek16thkcentury,kthekWaldensians kkkkkkkkkkwerektransformedkintokakProtestantkchurch,kbutksufferedkheavykpersecukkkkkkkkkktionkthroughoutkthek17thkcenturykfromkthekDu eskofkSavoy.kkThiskceased kkkkkkkkkkonlykafterkOliverkkCromwellkintervenedkpersonallykonktheirkbehalfkwith kkkkkkkkkkthekdu e,kCharleskEmmanuelkII.kInkktheklatterkpartkofkthek17thkcentury kkkkkkkkkkthekWaldensianskreturnedktoktheirkoriginalkhomeland,kandkink1848kthe kkkkkkkkkkWaldensianskkwerekgivenkkcivilkrights,kkandkarekktodaykmemberskkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkWorldkPresbyteriankAlliance.

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1649 kkkkkkkkkkPERSECUTION:kANCIENTkANDkMODERN kkkkkkkkkkAppendixkDk-kAkkcalendarkofkeventskkconnectedkwithkthekpersecutionkkof kkkkkkkkkkheretics kkkkkkkkkk640kADkkkkkkkkkkkkkEorcenberhtksucceedskEadbaldkaskKingkofkKent,kandkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstEnglishing kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbecomes kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdest kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktoorder rkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkuctionkofkpagankidolskthroughoutkhisk ingdom; kkkkkkkkkk663kADkkkkkkkkkkkkkCouncilkofkWhitbykdetermineskthekdatekofkEasterktok kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkend kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandso kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwithRomanpractice, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinaccordance kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbe skkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCeltickChristianitykinkNorthumberland; kkkkkkkkkk668-690kADkkkkkkkkkLiberkPoenitentialiskbykTheodore,kArchbishopkofkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCanterbury.kkProbablykthekfirstklegislationkagainst kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfasting kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(eg, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpenances kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkItadvised kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitches. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk )for kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkk kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkt kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdevils,foretold kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwho"sacrificedto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthose he kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfuturewiththeiraid,atefoodthathadbee nkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkama kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksacrifice,orburnedgrainafter kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofferedin nkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwaskdeadforthewell-beingofthelivingandof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekhouse." kkkkkkkkkk735-766kADkkkkkkkkkthekConfessionalkofkEcgberht,kArchbishopkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkYor ,kwhichkprescribedkak7-yearkfastkforkakwoman kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkconvictedkofk"slayingkbykincantation"; kkkkkkkkkk871-899kADkkkkkkkkkreignkofkKingkAelfredk(brotherkofkAethelred),kwhokk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpracti kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwho kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthose kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpenaltyfor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeath kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeclared se kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWicca; kkkkkkkkkk925-939kADkkkkkkkkkreignkofkKingkAethelstan,kwherekmurderk-kincludingk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkth kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk-waspunishablewith kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmurderbywitchcraft ekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeathkpenalty; kkkkkkkkkk936kADkkkkkkkkkkkkkOttokelectedkKingkofkthekGermans,kwhereuponkhekkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkko kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpagans kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdrivethe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhisintention kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeclaredit ut kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofkhiskland; kkkkkkkkkk951kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkOttokcrownedkKingkofkLombardy;

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk955kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkOttokdefeatedkthekMagyarskandkproclaimedkhimselfkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"ProtectorkofkEurope"; kkkkkkkkkk962kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkOttokcrownedkHolykRomankEmperor; kkkkkkkkkk1022kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekfirstkburningk(atkOrleans)kforkheresy; kkkkkkkkkk1066-1087kADkkkkkkkreignkofkWilliamkthekConquerorkinkEngland;khekkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofdeath kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAethelstan'ssentence kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkreduced kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk con kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkvictedkmurderersktokbanishment; kkkkkkkkkk1118kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkKingkBaldwinkIIkofkJerusalemksuggestedktokSirkHughk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkordero kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkheorganiseachivalric kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdePayensthat fkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheHolyLand, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdefendtravellersto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk nightsto dkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkstoodonthesit kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkgrantedpartofhispalace,which ekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfortheirheadqua kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofSolomon'soriginaltemple, rkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkters.Asaresultofkthisgesture,HughdePayensk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcalledhisOrdertheTempliMilitia,andthenlaterk

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1650 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchangedthistokKnightsoftheTempleofSolomonink kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJerusalem; kkkkkkkkkk1162kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPopekAlexanderkIIIkissuedkakspecialkpapalkbullkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkt kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkobedience kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkspiritual kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfrom kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTemplars kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkreleasing okkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkka k ny kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfro kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPopehimself,gavethemexemption kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbutthe mkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchaplain kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkown kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthemtheir kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandallowed kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktithes, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpaying skkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkburialkgrounds; kkkkkkkkkk12/13thkcentkkkkkkkthekCatharkheresies:kintroductionkofkthekobscenekkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk isskandkritualkadorationkofkthekdevil; kkkkkkkkkk1243-44kkkkkkkkkkkkSiegekofkMontsegur; kkkkkkkkkk1244kkkkkkkkkkkkkkk225kCatharskburnedkatktheksta ekatkMontsegur; kkkkkkkkkk1259kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkrelationshipskbetweenkthekKnightskTemplarskandkthek kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeteriorat kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofStJohn kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofKnights kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHospitallers ed kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkintokopenkwarfare; kkkkkkkkkk1291kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekSaracensktoo kJerusalem,kandkthekKnightskkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkheadquarter kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheir kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkklost kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkexpelled, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwere kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTemplars skkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkonktheksitekofkSolomon'skTemple; kkkkkkkkkk1301kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWalterkLangton,kbishopkofkCoventry,ktriedkbykkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkecclesiasticalkcourtkforkdiabolismkandkacquitted; kkkkkkkkkk1302kkkkkkkkkkkkkkktrialkinkExeterkforkdefamationkofkakmankwhokcalledk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkakwomankak"wic edkwitchkandkthief"; kkkkkkkkkk1307kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkKingkPhilipkofkFrancekorderedkthekarrestkofkeverykk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkw kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFrance:this kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkKnightsTemplar kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmember as kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkChristia kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkrulersin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktoall kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpapalbull kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbya kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfollowed nkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEuropekthatkallkTemplarskwerektokbekarrested; kkkkkkkkkk1311kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinvestigationkinkLondonkbykepiscopalkauthoritykinto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksorcery,kenchantment,kmagic,kdivinationkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinvocation; kkkkkkkkkk1312kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekPopekofficiallykdisbandedkthekKnightskTemplars; kkkkkkkkkk1314kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJaqueskdekMolayk(lastkGrandkMasterkofkthekKnightskk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTemplars)kburnedkaskakrelapsedkheretic; kkkkkkkkkk1321kkkkkkkkkkkkkkklastkCatharkburnedkatktheksta e;

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk1324kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAlicekKytelerktriedkinkKil ennykbyksecularkandkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkki kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdiabolism, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkauthorities kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkecclesiastical kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk nvoca kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkk kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktionkandksorcery; kkkkkkkkkk1347kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekPlaguekspreadskoverkthekwholekofkItaly,kandkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkarriveskinkFrancekbykthekendkofkthekyear; kkkkkkkkkk1348kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekPlaguekreacheskParis,kthenkthekLowkCountries,kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkthenkviakthekChannelktoksouthernkEngland; kkkkkkkkkk1349kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBritainkravagedkbykthekPlague,kwhichkpasseskintokkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGermany,kAustriakandkScandinavia;

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1651 kkkkkkkkkk1360kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekPlague,kcomplicatedkbykinfluenzakreappearskinkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEurope,kcontinuingkinkwaveskuntilk1441,kandkfinally kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkendingkaroundk1510; kkkkkkkkkk1390kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwomanktriedkinkMilankforkattendingkankassemblykledk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbyk"Diana",k"Erodiade"kork"Oriente"; kkkkkkkkkk1408kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekPlague,kstillkrampantkinkEuropekiskcomplicatedk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbykankepidemickofkTyphuskandkWhoopingkCough; kkkkkkkkkk1409kkkkkkkkkkkkkkktrialkofkPopekBenedictkXIIIkatkPisakforkdivination, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinvocation,ksorcerykandkotherkoffences; kkkkkkkkkk1428-47kkkkkkkkkkkkDauphine:k110kwomenkandk57kmenkexecutedkbykseculark kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcourtkforkwitchcraft,kespeciallykdiabolism; kkkkkkkkkk1431kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJoankofkArcktriedkforkheresykandkburntkatkthekkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksta e: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1456, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkannulled kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdecision kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktrial kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe dkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkXVwit kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBenedict kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbyPope kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcanonised kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkshewas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1920 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin hkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekdatekofkherkexecutionk(Mayk30)kbecomingka kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknationalkholidaykinkFrance; kkkkkkkkkk1440kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGilleskdekRaisktriedkonk47kchargeskincludingkconkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkagai kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkperversions kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksexual kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdemons kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkjuration kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk nst kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknon kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwashearsay, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkevidence kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknearlyall kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchildren: ekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k of kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheproce kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktotestify,and kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkservantswascalled kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhis ekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhewasstrangledan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdingswerehighlyirregular: dkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthensenttothekpyre,buthisfamilyweregivenkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpermissiontokremovehisbodybeforektheflameskk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkreachedkitkforkburialkatkaknearbykCarmelitekChurch; kkkkkkkkkk1441kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMargerykJourdaink("thekWitchkofkEye")kconvictedkofk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkVI,andburnedas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkplottingto illKingHenry akkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktraitor; kkkkkkkkkk1458kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstkrecordedkusekofkthekwordk"sabbat"k(Nicholaskk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkus kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcommonly kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkword kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"Synagogue" kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJacquier). ed kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkplacesofhereticsa kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktodescribethemeeting nd kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitches; kkkkkkkkkk1470kkkkkkkkkkkkkkktrialkbeforekRoyalkCourtkinkEnglandkforkdefamationk

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk-kmankhadkaccusedkthekDuchesskofkBedfordkofkimage kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmagic; kkkkkkkkkk1479kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEarlkofkMarkexecutedkforkemployingkwitches kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktok illkJameskIIIkofkScotland; kkkkkkkkkk1484kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPapalkBullkofkPopekInnocentkVIIIkofficially kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeclaringkwitchcraftkakheresy; kkkkkkkkkk1486kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstkpublicationkofkthekMalleuskMaleficarum; kkkkkkkkkk1488kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMetz:k31kwomenkandk4kmenktriedkbyksecularkcourtkfor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkweatherkmagic:k29kburned; kkkkkkkkkk1492kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkexpulsionkofkJewskfromkSpain; kkkkkkkkkk1521kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMartinkLutherkexcommunicatedkbykPopekLeokX,kandksok kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbeginskthekReformation;

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1652 kkkkkkkkkk1532kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekConstitutiokCriminaliskCarolina:kthekcriminalkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkho kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkspecified kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhich kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEmpire kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHolyRoman kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcode wkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktried,a kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwereto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkketc kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfortunetellers, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitches, nd kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpunished; kkkkkkkkkk1542kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstkstatutekagainstkwitchcraftkinkEnglandkpassedk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbykParliamentk(revo edk1547); kkkkkkkkkk1557kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstklistkofkprohibitedkboo skissuedkbykthekRomank kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchurch; kkkkkkkkkk1562kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkstatutekenactedkinkScotlandkunderkMarykQueenkofkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitchcra kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpenalty kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeath kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeclaring kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkScots kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ft, kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwasconfirme kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknecromancy:theAct kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksorceryand dkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k in kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1649kandkrepealedkink1736; kkkkkkkkkk1563kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkstatutekagainstkwitchcraftkbykElizabethkIkinkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitch kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdeathpenalty kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEnglandordering kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk es, kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknote kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksorcerers(undercivil, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkenchantersand cc kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkklesiasticalklaw); kkkkkkkkkk1566kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstkmajorktrialkunderkstatutekofk1563:kElizabethk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJoanWaterhous kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWaterhouseand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAgnes kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFrancis, ekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k at kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAgneshanged,Elizabethreceive kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkChelmsford: dkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k akkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkklightksentencekandkJoankwaskfoundknotkguilty; kkkkkkkkkk1584kkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"DiscoveriekofkWitchcraft"kbykReginaldkScot kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpublishedk-kakProtestantkargumentkagainstkbeliefkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitchcraft; kkkkkkkkkk1590-92kkkkkkkkkkkkNorthkBerwic ktrialskbykJameskVI; kkkkkkkkkk1595kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkNicholaskRemykpublishesk"Demonolatreiae"kwherekhekk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkboastedkonkthektitlekpagekthatkhekhadkcondemnedk900 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitcheskink15kyears; kkkkkkkkkk1596kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJohnkDeekaskWardenkofkakManchesterkCollegekactskask

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkankadvisorkforkcaseskofkwitchcraftkandkdemonology; kkkkkkkkkk1597kkkkkkkkkkkkkkk"Daemonologie"kbykKingkJameskVIkpublished; kkkkkkkkkk1600kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGiordanokBrunokburntkatktheksta ekinkRome kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkaskank"impenitentkheretic"; kkkkkkkkkk1603kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkascensionkofkJameskVIktokthekEnglishkthronekaskkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJameskI; kkkkkkkkkk1604kkkkkkkkkkkkkkknewkstatutekagainstkwitchcraftkbykJameskI kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkko kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdevil-worship kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpact, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkestablished kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhich kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ther kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkk kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcontinentalkideaskinkEnglishklaw; kkkkkkkkkk1611kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkKingkJameskauthoriseskaknewktranslationkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekBiblektokincludekthekwordk"witch"; kkkkkkkkkk1612kkkkkkkkkkkkkkktwentykwitchesktriedktogetherkatkLancashire kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(thekPendlekwitches); kkkkkkkkkk1628kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinkMassachusetts,kankEnglishklawyer,kThomas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkt kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbeerectedin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkamaypoleto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMortonordered he kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcelebr kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(Merrymount), kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfounded kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhich kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcolony at kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1653 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandrefugeesfromth kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMaywithlocalIndians kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkked ekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkantlers,bellsandbright kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPuritans,withstag ly kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcolouredkclothes,kunderkankelectedk"LordkandkLady" kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwasarres kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthecelebrations; kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkruleover kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ted kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitchcraft,bu kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofpractising kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcharges kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkunder tkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk was kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkreleased; kkkkkkkkkk1633kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekpublickexorcismskofktheknunskofkLoudunkaskpartk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkrevengehimse kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCardinalRichelieu kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkplotby kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofa lf kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkuponkUrbankGrandier:kGrandierkarrestedkandktriedkby kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkinvestigatingkcommittee; kkkkkkkkkk1634kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGrandierktorturedkthenkburnedkalive; kkkkkkkkkk1644kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmaypoleskmadekillegalkinkEngland; kkkkkkkkkk1644-5kkkkkkkkkkkkkMatthewkHop inskactivekinkChelmsford; kkkkkkkkkk1646kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMatthewkHop inskretiredk-khekdiedkthekfollowing kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkyear; kkkkkkkkkk1647kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstkwitchkhungkinkthekUSA,kinkConnecticut; kkkkkkkkkk1649kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstknewspaperkastrologykcolumnkbykLilly; kkkkkkkkkk1662kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkatkBurykStkEdmundskwomenkwerekaccusedkandkconvicted kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhysteric kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthetestimonyof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkofwitchcrafton al kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchildren; kkkkkkkkkk1662kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthektrialkofkIsobelkGowdiekinkAuldearne,kScotland:k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGowdiekintroduceskthekideakofkakcovenkofkthirteen; kkkkkkkkkk1663kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekLicensingkActkdeterminedkthatkboo skcouldknotkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwit kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpriorconsultation kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwithout kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpublished kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbe hkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk the kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkChurchkorkState; kkkkkkkkkk1679-82kkkkkkkkkkkkthekChambrekArdentekaffair:kakstarkchamberkcourtkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMada kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktotry kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknoappealarraigned kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkadmittingof

 

   

me kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(L kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMontvoisin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMadame kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksons; kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdaughter kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkher kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBosse, akkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcourse kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDuringthe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDameVigoreux. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkLa kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkVoisin)and of kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktrial,severalhundredsofthehighestcou kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthe rkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktiersofKingkLouisXIVwereimplicatedinthek kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpoisoningscandal.Theaffairdegeneratedintoa kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksearchforheresyandwitchcraft,andeventuallykk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCatholicPriestsDavot,kGerard,Deshayes,Cotton,k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTournet,GuibourgkandMariettewerekalsodrawnin,kkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkaccusedkofperformingktheBlac Mass.kEvidencewaskkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcollectedtokshowthatkMadamedekMontespan(Louis'kkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkformerkmistress)attemptedktokpoisonLouiskandhiskkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknewkmistress,kandwaskthekleaderkofthekSatanickkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcult.kInkall,k319kpeoplewerekarrestedkandk104kkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksentenced:k36ktokdeath,4ktokslaverykinkthekgalkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkleys,k34ktokbanishmentandk30kacquitted.kInk1709kkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkLouiskattemptedktokdestroykthekrecordskofkthekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkaffair,kbutkfailed; kkkkkkkkkk1684kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAlicekMollandkwasktheklastkpersonkexecutedkaskakkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitchkinkEnglandk(atkExeter);

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1654 kkkkkkkkkk1689kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCottonkMatherk(NewkEngland)kpublishesk"Memorablekkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPossession kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkand kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWitchcraft kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkRelating kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkProvidences s" kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksupportingkbeliefkinkwitchcraft; kkkkkkkkkk1692kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSalemkwitchktrials:k19khungkandkmorekthank100kkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfo kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheUSA kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpersonexecutedin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthelast kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkjailed; rkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitchcraft; kkkkkkkkkk1727kkkkkkkkkkkkkkklastkexecutionkinkScotlandkforkwitchcraft; kkkkkkkkkk1731kkkkkkkkkkkkkkklastktrialkforkwitchcraftkinkEngland:kJanekWenham,k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwhokwaskconvicted,kthenkpardonedkandkreleased; kkkkkkkkkk1736kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekrepealkofkthekstatuteskagainstkwitchcraftkofkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk(1563) kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkI kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkElizabeth kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkScots(1562), kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkQueen kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMary dkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkastatutewhi kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkreplacedwith kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk&VI(1604): kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJamesI ch kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkproceedi kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkprosecution,suitor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkstatedthat,"no ng kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkshallbekcommencedorcarriedoutagainstanyk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksorcery,inchan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpersonorpersonsforwitchcraft, tkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmentk(sic),orconjuration."Itprovidedkforthek kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkprosecutionofkthosepretendingtopossessmagicalk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpowers,kbutkitkdeniedkrealityktokthosekpowers; kkkkkkkkkk1745kkkkkkkkkkkkkkklastkexecutionkinkFrancekforkwitchcraft; kkkkkkkkkk1775kkkkkkkkkkkkkkklastkexecutionkinkGermanykforkwitchcraft; kkkkkkkkkk1829kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkLamothe-Langankfabricatedkandkpublishedkdocumentskk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkki kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitches kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktrialsof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkberecords kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkrepresented nkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkattemp kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkprobably kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandCarcassonne, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkToulouse tkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k to kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkktheworshi kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkcontinuingexistenceof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkprovethe pkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k of kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekoldkreligion; kkkkkkkkkk1830kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkink"LetterskonkDemonologykandkWitchcraft"kSirkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbe kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhad kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitches kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthatalleged kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkargues kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkScott kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWalter en kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmisunderstoodkandkmistreated; kkkkkkkkkk1862kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJuleskMicheletkargueskinkhiskboo k"LakSorcerie"kkkk

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkser kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbymedieval kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkaprotest kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitchcraftwas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthat fs kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkagainstkakcrushingksocialkorder; kkkkkkkkkk1865kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPopekPiuskXkagainkattac edksecretksocieties,claimkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksata kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkanti-Christian, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFreemasonry kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthat kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkking kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk nic, kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkderivedkfromkpaganism; kkkkkkkkkk1899kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkpublicationkofkAradia:kGospelkofkthekWitcheskbykkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkLeland; kkkkkkkkkk1928kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfirstkEnglishktranslationkofkthekMalleuskMalefickkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkarumk(trkSummers); kkkkkkkkkk1951kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkrepealkofkthek1736kWitchcraftkActkwithkthekFraudkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkulentkMediumskAct; kkkkkkkkkk1963kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdemandkmadekforkreinstatementkofkthekWitchcraftkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkchurc kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkdesecration kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfollowing kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkEngland kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkin kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkLaws kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk hes kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkandkgraveyards;

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1655 kkkkkkkkkk1966kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekIndexk(ofkprohibitedkboo s)kabolished; kkkkkkkkkk1991kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAnti-occultkamendmentktokthekCriminalkJusticekBillk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkhadkitskthirdkreadingkinkParliament.kPresentedkby kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkimprisonmen kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkprescribed kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthis kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDic kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGeoffrey ens, tkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkf k or kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwho,"permit kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkone kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkyearsagainst kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfive kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkmorethan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknot s, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkko kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkparticipatein, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkaminorto kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkorencourages kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkentices rkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkbepresentataceremonyorotheractivityofany kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk indspecifiedinsub-section3...".Subsection 3kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksays:"Theceremoniesoractivitiestowhichthiskk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkksectionappliesarekthoseof,orassociatedkwith,kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSatanismkandotherdevilworshipping,kblac magic,kk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwitchcraft,koranyactivityktowhichkSection1kofkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkthekFraudulentkMediumskActk(1951)kapplies. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknot kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkreasons, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkof kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkknumber kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkka kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkfor kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkrejected kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkwas kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBill kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThe kkkkkkkkkkleastkbecausekitkmadeknewspaper/magazinekeditorskculpablekif kkkkkkkkkkminorskshouldkreadkthekastrologykcolumn!

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1656 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHISTORYkOFkWICCAkINkENGLAND:k1939k-kpresentkdayk kkkkkkkkkkThisktal kkwaskgivenkkbykJuliakPhillipskkatkthekkWiccankConferencekkin kkkkkkkkkkCanberra,k1991.kkItkiskkmainlykaboutkkthekearlykdayskkofkthekkWiccakin kkkkkkkkkkEngland;kkspecificallykwhatkkwekknowkcallkkGardneriankandkkAlexandrian kkkkkkkkkktraditions.kThektextkremainskk"askgiven",ksokpleasekrememberkkwhenkyou kkkkkkkkkkreadkkitkthatkkitkwaskkneverkintendedkktokbekk"read",kbutkk"heard"kand kkkkkkkkkkdebated. kkkkkkkkkkTextkbegins: kkkkkkkkkkTherekarekthreekmainkstrandskIkintendktokexamine:kone,kGardner'skclaim kkkkkkkkkkofkktraditionalkkinitiation,kkandkkitskksubsequentkkdevelopment;kktwo, kkkkkkkkkkmagicalkktraditionsktokwhichkGardnerkwouldkhavekhadkaccess;kandkthree, kkkkkkkkkkliteraryksources. kkkkkkkkkkAskkwekloo katkkthesekthreekmainkkthreads,kitkiskimportantkktokbearkin kkkkkkkkkkmindkkthatkGardnerkwask55kyearskoldkatkthektimekofkhiskclaimedkinitiakkkkkkkkkktion;kthatkkhekhadkkspentkmanykkyearskinkMalaya,kkandkhadkkankenormous kkkkkkkkkkinterestkinkmagic,kFol lorekkandkMythology.kkBykthekktimekhekpublished kkkkkkkkkkHighkkMagic'skAid,khekwask65,kandkk75kwhenk"ThekMeaningkofkWitchcraft" kkkkkkkkkkappeared.kHekdiedkink1964,katkthekagekofk80. kkkkkkkkkkGardnerkwaskbornkink1884,kkandkspentkmostkofkhiskwor ingkadultklifekin kkkkkkkkkkMalaya.kHekkretired,kandkkreturnedktokkthekUKkinkk1936.kHekkjoinedkthe kkkkkkkkkkFol lorekkSociety,kkandkinkkJunek1938,kkalsokkjoinedkthekknewlykopened kkkkkkkkkkRosicruciankkTheatrekatkkChristchurchkkwherekitkkiskksaidkhekkmetkkOld kkkkkkkkkkDorothykClutterbuc . kkkkkkkkkkIkchosek1939kaskmykarbitrarykstartingkpointkaskkthatkwaskthekyearkthat kkkkkkkkkkGeraldkkGardnerkclaimskhekwaskinitiatedkbykOldkDorothykintokakpractiskkkkkkkkkkingkcovenkkofkthekkOldkReligion,kthatkkmetkinkthekkNewkForestkkareakof kkkkkkkkkkBritain.kInkhiskownkwords, kkkkkkkkkk"IkrealisedkthatkIkhadkstumbledkuponksomethingkinteresting;kkbutkIkwas kkkkkkkkkkhalf-initiatedkbeforekthekkword,k"Wica"kwhichktheykusedkkhitkmekli eka kkkkkkkkkkthunderbolt,kandkIkk newkwherekIkwas,kandkthatkkthekOldkReligionkstill kkkkkkkkkkexisted.kAndksokIkfoundkmyselfkinkthekCircle,kandktherektoo kthekusual kkkkkkkkkkoathkofkksecrecy,kwhichkboundkmekknotktokrevealkcertainkkthings."kThis kkkkkkkkkkquotekiskta enkfromkThekMeaningkofkWitchcraft,kkwhichkwaskpublishedkin kkkkkkkkkk1959. kkkkkkkkkkItkiskinterestingkthatkinkthiskkquote,kGardnerkspellskWiccakwithkkonly kkkkkkkkkkonekk"c";kinkthekearlierkk"WitchcraftkToday"k(1954)kkandk"HighkMagic's kkkkkkkkkkAid"kk(1949),kthekwordkWiccakisknotkkevenkused.kHiskownkderivationkfor kkkkkkkkkkthekword,kgivenkink"ThekMeaningkofkWitchcraft",kiskaskfollows: kkkkkkkkkk"Asktheykk(thekDanekandkSaxonkkinvaderskofkEngland)khadkknokwitcheskof kkkkkkkkkktheirkownktheykhadknokspecialknamekforkthem;khowever,ktheykmadekonekup kkkkkkkkkkfromk"wig"kankidol,kkandk"laer",klearning,k"wiglaer"kwhichkktheykshorkkkkkkkkkktenedkintok"Wicca". kkkkkkkkkk"ItkkiskakcuriouskfactkkthatkwhenkthekkwitcheskbecamekEnglish-spea ing kkkkkkkkkktheykadoptedktheirkSaxonkname,k"Wica"."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1657 kkkkkkkkkkInkk"AnkABCkofkWitchcraftkPastkkandkPresent",kDoreenkValientekdoesknot kkkkkkkkkkhavekkankentrykforkWicca,kbutkwhenkdiscussingkWitchcraft,kdoeskmention kkkkkkkkkkthekSaxonkderivationkfromkthekwordkWiccakorkWicce.kInkthekmorekrecentkkkkkkkkkklykkpublishedkThekkRebirthkOfkkWitchcraft,khowever,kkshekrejectskkthis kkkkkkkkkkSaxonkktheorykinkfavourkofkkProf.kRussell'skderivationkkfromkthekIndokkkkkkkkkkEuropeankrootk"Wei ",kwhichkrelatesktokthingskconnectedkwithkmagickand kkkkkkkkkkreligion.kk kkkkkkkkkkDoreenkkValientekkstronglykksupportskGardner'skkclaimkkofkktraditional kkkkkkkkkkinitiation,kkandkpublishedkthekkresultskofkkherksuccessfulkkattemptkto kkkkkkkkkkprovekkthekexistencekkofkDorothykkClutterbuc kinkkankappendixkktok"The kkkkkkkkkkWitches'kWay"kbykJanetkandkStewartkFarrar.kItkiskakmarvellouskpiecekof kkkkkkkkkkinvestigation,kbutkkprovingkthatkOldkkDorothykexistedkdoeskknothingkto kkkkkkkkkksupportkGardner'skclaimskthatkshekinitiatedkhim. kkkkkkkkkkInkkhiskboo ,k"RitualkMagickkinkEngland",koccultistkkFranciskKingkdoes kkkkkkkkkkofferksomekanecdotalkevidencekinksupportkofkGardner'skclaims.kHowever, kkkkkkkkkkitkiskkonlykfairkktokpointkkoutkthatkkinkthekksamekboo ,kkhekvirtually kkkkkkkkkkaccuseskkMoinakMatherskofkmurder,kkbasedkuponkakkmisunderstandingkofka kkkkkkkkkkstoryktoldkbykDionkFortune!kWithkthatkcaveat,kI'llkrecountkthektalekin kkkkkkkkkkfull: kkkkkkkkkkKingkkrelateskthatkink1953,khekbecamekacquaintedkwithkLouiskWil inson, kkkkkkkkkkwhokkwrotekunderkkthekpen-namekkofkLouiskkMarlow,kandkkhadkcontributed kkkkkkkkkkessaysktokCrowley'skEquinox.kHeklaterkbecamekonekofkCrowley'skliterary kkkkkkkkkkexecutors.kKingkksayskthatkkinkconversation,kkWil insonktoldkhimkkthat kkkkkkkkkkCrowleykkhadkkclaimedktokkhavekbeenkkofferedkkinitiationkintokkakwitch kkkkkkkkkkcoven,kbutkthatkhekrefused,kaskhekdidn'tkwantktokbekbossedkaroundkbyka kkkkkkkkkkbunchkofkwomen.k(Thiskstorykiskwell- nown,kandkcouldkhavekbeenkpic ed kkkkkkkkkkupkanywhere.) kkkkkkkkkkWil insonkkthenkkproceededktokktellkKingkkthatkkhekhadkkhimselfkbecome kkkkkkkkkkfriendlykwithkmemberskofkakcovenkoperatingkinkthekNewkForestkarea,kand kkkkkkkkkkhekkthoughtkthatkwhilstkitkwaskkpossiblekthatktheykderivedktheirkexiskkkkkkkkkktencekfromkMurray'sk"WitchkCultkinkWesternkEurope",khekfeltkthatkkthey kkkkkkkkkkwerekratherkolder.kk kkkkkkkkkkKingkkdrawskthekobviouskconclusion;kkthatkthesekwitcheskkwerekthekvery kkkkkkkkkksamekaskthosekwhokinitiatedkGardner.kKingkclaimskthatkthekconversation kkkkkkkkkkwithkkWil insonktoo kplacekink1953,kalthoughk"RitualkMagickinkEngland" kkkkkkkkkkwaskknotkpublishedk-korkkpresumablykwrittenk-kkuntilk1970.kHowever,kon kkkkkkkkkkSeptemberk27k1952,k"Illustrated"kmagazinekpublishedkakfeaturekbykAllen kkkkkkkkkkAndrews,kwhichkincludedkdetailskkofkakwor ingkby,k"thekkSouthernkCoven kkkkkkkkkkofkBritishkWitches",kwherek17kmenkandkwomenkmetkinkthekNewkForest kkkkkkkkkktokkrepelkankkinvasionkkbykHitler.kkWil insonkkhadktoldkkKingkofkkthis kkkkkkkkkkwor ingkkduringktheirkconversation,kkwhichkKingkkbelievesktokkbekproof kkkkkkkkkkthatkksuchkakkcovenkexisted;kktherekarekksomekkdifferenceskinkkthektwo kkkkkkkkkkstories,kandksokitkiskpossiblekthatktwoksourceskarekreportingktheksame kkkkkkkkkkevent,kkbutkkaskWil inson'skkconversationkkwithkkKingkcamekkafterkkthe kkkkkkkkkkmagazinekarticle,kwekshallkneverk now. kkkkkkkkkkInkthekrecentlykkpublishedk"CraftingkkthekArtkofkkMagic",kAidankkKelly kkkkkkkkkkuseskthiskksameksourcektok"prove"k(andkIkusekkthekwordkadvisedlyk-kthe kkkkkkkkkkboo k"proves"knothing")kthatkGardner,kDorothy,ketkalkcreatedkWiccakone kkkkkkkkkknightkfollowingkaksocialkgetktogether!kkOfkonekthingkwekcankbekcertain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

kkkkkkkkkkthough:kwhateverkitskorigin,kmodernkWiccakderiveskfromkGardner.kkThere kkkkkkkkkkmaykkofkcoursekbekotherkktraditional,khereditarykwitches,kkbutkevenkif kkkkkkkkkktheykarekgenuine,kthenkitkkiskunli elykthatktheykwouldkhavekkbeenkable kkkkkkkkkktok"gokpublic"khadkitknotkbeenkforkGardner.

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1658 kkkkkkkkkkTherekhavekbeenkmanykkclaimskofk"hereditary"korigink(otherkkthankGardkkkkkkkkkkner'skkown!)kOnekofkthekmostkfamouskpost-Gardnerkclaimantsktok"heredikkkkkkkkkktary"kstatuskkwaskactresskRuthkWynn-Owen,kwhokfooledkmanykpeoplekforka kkkkkkkkkkverykklongktimekbeforekbeingkexposed.kRoykkBowers,kwhokusedkthekpseudkkkkkkkkkkonymkkRobertkkCochrane,kwaskkanother:kkDoreenkkValientekdescribeskkher kkkkkkkkkkassociationkkwithkhimkink"ThekRebirthkofkWitchcraft",kandkThekRoebuc , kkkkkkkkkkwhichkiskstillkkactivekinkthekkUSAktoday,kderiveskdirectlykkfromkCochkkkkkkkkkkrane,kviakJoekWilson.kk"Witchcraft:kAkTraditionkRenewed"kbykkEvankJohn kkkkkkkkkkJoneskwithkDoreenkValientekdescribeskaktraditionkderivedkfromkRobert kkkkkkkkkkCochrane.kkAlexkSanders,kofkkcoursekiskanotherkkwhokclaimedkhereditary kkkkkkkkkklineage,kkandkli ekCochrane,kdeserveskkhiskownkplacekkinkthiskhistory, kkkkkkkkkkandkwe'llkgetktokbothkofkthemklater. kkkkkkkkkkManykpeoplekhavekbeenksuspiciouskofkGardner'skclaims,kandkhavekaccused kkkkkkkkkkhimkofkma ingkthekkwholekthingkup.kTheykksuggestkthatkthekWiccakiskkno kkkkkkkkkkmorekthankkthekfantasykofkankkoldkmankcolouredkbykkakromantickimaginakkkkkkkkkktion.kOnekparticularlykkvirulentkattac kuponkGardnerkcamekfromkCharles kkkkkkkkkkCardell,kwritingkunderkthekpseudonymkofkRexkNemorensis. kkkkkkkkkkOnekofkGardner'skinitiateskwhokiskstillkactivekinkthekkWiccaktodaykhas kkkkkkkkkkankinterestingktalektoktellkaboutkCardell,kwhomkhek new: kkkkkkkkkk"CardellkclaimedkktokbekakkWitch,kbutkkfromkakkdifferentktraditionkkto kkkkkkkkkkGardner's.kkCardellkwaskkakkpsychopathickrat,kkwithkmalevolentkkintent kkkkkkkkkktowardkallkkandksundry.kHekmanagedkktokgetkakwomankkcalledkOlivekGreen kkkkkkkkkk(Florannis)kintokGardner'skcoven,kandktoldkherktokcopykoutkthekBoo kof kkkkkkkkkkShadowsksokkthatkCardellkcouldkkpublishkit,kkandkdestroykGardner.kkkHe kkkkkkkkkkalsokcontactedkkakLondonkpaper,kandktoldkthemkwhenkandkwherekthekcoven kkkkkkkkkkmeetingskwerekheld,kandkofkcoursekthekpaperkgotkquitekakscoop.kCardell kkkkkkkkkkledkpeoplekinkthekcovenktokbelievekthatkitkwaskDoreenkValientekwhokhad kkkkkkkkkkinformedkonkthem. kkkkkkkkkkDoreenkhadkjustkkleftkGardnerkinkakbitkofkakhuffkafterkakdisagreement; kkkkkkkkkkanotherkcovenkmember,kNedkGrove,kkleftkwithkher.kkAnyway,kthekkdaykthe kkkkkkkkkkpaperkprintedkthekkexposure,kCardellksentkkGardnerkaktelegramkksaying, kkkkkkkkkk"RememberkkAmethktonight".k(AmethkwaskkDoreen'skCraftkname,kkandkaskit kkkkkkkkkkhasknowkbeenkpublished,kIkseeknokreasonknotktokusekitkhere)." kkkkkkkkkkMykkinformantkalsoksaidkthatkkOlivekGreenkwaskkassociatedkwithkMichael kkkkkkkkkkHoughton,kownerkofkkAtlantiskboo kshopkkinkMuseumkStreet,kwhokkwaskthe kkkkkkkkkkpublisherkkofkkHighkMagic'skkAid.kThroughkkthiskassociation,kkshekalso kkkkkkkkkkencounteredkkKennethkGrantkofkthekOTO,kkalthoughktheirkassociationkwas kkkkkkkkkknotkfriendly. kkkkkkkkkkCecilkWilliamson,kthekoriginalkkownerkofkthekwitchcraftkmuseumkkonkthe kkkkkkkkkkIslekofkMan,kandkpresentkownerkofkthekWitchcraftkMuseumkinkkBoscastle, kkkkkkkkkkhaskalsokpublishedkaknumberkofkarticleskwherekhekstateskquitekcategorkkkkkkkkkkicallykthatkGardnerkwaskkankutterkfraud;kbut,khekofferskonlykanecdotes kkkkkkkkkktoksupportkthesekallegations. kkkkkkkkkkAlthoughkGardnerkkclaimedkhiskinitiationkkoccurredkinkk1939,kwekkdon't kkkkkkkkkkreallykhearkanythingkaboutkhimkuntilk1949,kwhenk"HighkMagic'skAid"kwas kkkkkkkkkkpublishedkbykMichaelkHoughton.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1659 kkkkkkkkkkThiskboo khaskverykkstrongkSolomonickleanings,kbutkli ekkGardner'skown kkkkkkkkkkreligiouskkbeliefs,kcombinedkthekmoreknaturalkformskofkmagickwithkhigh kkkkkkkkkkceremonial.kInkhiskintroductionkktokthekboo ,kGardnerksayskkthat:k"The kkkkkkkkkkMagicalkritualskarekauthentic,kpartykfromkthekKeykofkSolomonk(MacGregkkkkkkkkkkorkMathers'ktranslation)kkandkpartlykkfromkmagicalkMSSkkinkmykkposseskkkkkkkkkksion)."kGardnerkdidkindeedkhavekaklargekcollectionkofkMSS,kwhich kkkkkkkkkkpassedkwithkkthekrestkofkkhiskgoodskktokRipleyskinkkTorontokafterkkhis kkkkkkkkkkdeath. kkkkkkkkkkScirek(pseudonym)kwaskktheknamekGardnerktoo kaskakkmemberkofkCrowley's kkkkkkkkkkbranchkofkthekOTO;kalthoughkitkiskgenerallykagreedkthatkhiskmembership kkkkkkkkkkwaskkpurelykknominal,khekkwaskcertainlykkinkkcontactkwithkkpeoplekli e kkkkkkkkkkKennethkkGrantkandkkMadelinekMontalbankk(founderkofkkthekOrderkkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkMorningkStar). kkkkkkkkkkGardnerkwaskgivenkkhiskOTOkdegreekandkCharterkbykkAleisterkCrowley,kto kkkkkkkkkkwhomkhekwaskintroducedkink1946kbykArnoldkCrowther.kkAskCrowleykdiedkin kkkkkkkkkk1947,ktheirkassociationkwasknotklong-lived,kbutkCrowtherkconfirmskthat kkkkkkkkkkthektwokmenkenjoyedkeachkother'skcompany. kkkkkkkkkkSo,kafterkthatkbriefkintroductionkkwekcankhavekakloo katkkthekfirstkof kkkkkkkkkkthekstrandskIkmentioned. kkkkkkkkkkInk1888,kthekkHermetickOrderkofkthekGoldenkDawnkkwaskborn,kbeginningka kkkkkkkkkkrenaissancekkofkinterestkkinkkthekoccultkkthatkkhaskcontinuedkktokkthe kkkkkkkkkkpresentkday.kItkiskimpossiblektokoverstatekthekimportancekofkthekGDkto kkkkkkkkkkmodernkoccultists;knotkonlykinkitskkrituals,kbutkalsokinkitskpersonalkkkkkkkkkkities;kandkofkcourse,kthroughkma ingkavailablekakklargekbodykofkoccult kkkkkkkkkklorekkthatkwouldkotherwisekhavekremainedkun nown,korkhiddenkinkobscurkkkkkkkkkkity. kkkkkkkkkkIkkwillkbekkloo ingkatkthiskkbodykofkkoccultklorekkwithkotherkliterary kkkkkkkkkkinfluenceskklater,kandkwillkherekkconcentratekonkthekkritualskandkperkkkkkkkkkksonalitieskthatkhavekinfluencedkWicca. kkkkkkkkkkWekcannotkkloo katkthekkGDkinkisolationkkfromkitskkownkorigins.kItkkis kkkkkkkkkkdescendedkfromkakmyriadkkofkesotericktraditionskincludingkRosicruciankkkkkkkkkkism,kTheosophy,kandkFreemasonry.kTheklatterkkinkitskownkright,kaskwell kkkkkkkkkkaskviakkthekkSRIAk-kkakscholarlykkandkceremonialkkassociationkopenkkto kkkkkkkkkkMasterkMasonskonly. kkkkkkkkkkWhetherkkthekGermankLodgekorkkFrauleinkSprengelkactuallykkexistedkiska kkkkkkkkkkmatterkstillkkunderkdebate;kbutkeitherkkinkfactkorkinkkspirit,kthiskis kkkkkkkkkktheksourcekforkthekk"CypherkManuscripts"kwhichkwerekusedktokkfoundkthe kkkkkkkkkkIsis-UraniakLodgekink1888. kkkkkkkkkkAskI'mksurekeveryonekk nows,kIsis-UraniakwaskfoundedkbykkDrkWynn-Westkkkkkkkkkkcott,kkDrkkWoodman,kandkkMacGregorkMathers.kkNotkkonlykwerekkallkthree kkkkkkkkkkMasterkkMasons;kWynn-WestcottkkandkMatherskkwerekalsokkmemberskofkkthe kkkkkkkkkkTheosophicalkkSociety.kThekmostkimportantkthingkthoughkiskthekfactkthe kkkkkkkkkkthesekthreekmenkwerekakrulingktriumviratekthatkmanagedkthekkaffairskof kkkkkkkkkkthekSRIA.kThiskiskkimportant,kforkthekSRIAkincludedkkHargravekJennings kkkkkkkkkkinkitskmembership,kandkJenningskiskreputedktokhavekbeenkinvolvedkwith kkkkkkkkkkakkPagankgroupkatkthekendkofkkthek19thkcentury,kwhichkdrewkitskinspirkkkkkkkkkkationkfromkApuleiusk-kThekGoldenkAss.

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1660 kkkkkkkkkkButkbac ktokthekGDk-kwhetherkthekCypherkkManuscriptskactuallykexisted, kkkkkkkkkkorkkWynn-Westcottkmanufacturedkkthemkkisknowkkirrelevant;kMatherskkwas kkkkkkkkkkcommissionedktokwrite-upkthekkritualskintokakwor ablekshape,kkandkthus kkkkkkkkkkthekGoldenkDawnkwaskborn.kk kkkkkkkkkkMemberskkofkthekIsis-UraniakLodgekatkvariousktimeskalsokincludedkAllan kkkkkkkkkkBennett,kMoinakkMathers,kAleisterkCrowley,kFlorencekkFarr,kMaudkGonne, kkkkkkkkkkAnniekHorniman,kArthurkkMachen,k"FionakMacleod",kkArthurkWaitekandkkWB kkkkkkkkkkYeats.kkAlsokassociatedkkwerekLadykkGregory,kandkkGkWkRussell,kkorkAE, kkkkkkkkkkwhosek"ThekCandlekofkVision"kwaskkincludedkinkthekbibliographykofk"The kkkkkkkkkkMeaningkofkWitchcraft".kThekliterarykandkCeltickinfluenceskwithinkkthe kkkkkkkkkkGDkwerekimmense. kkkkkkkkkkFromkkthekkIsis-UraniakkLodgeksprangkkallkkthekkothers,kincludingkkthe kkkkkkkkkkso-calledkDissidentkkOrderskderivedkthroughkkCrowley.kItkiskkthiskline kkkkkkkkkkthatksomekkcommentatorsktracektokmodernkkWicca,ksokitkiskkthekonekupon kkkkkkkkkkwhichkwekwillkconcentrate. kkkkkkkkkkAleisterkkCrowleykkwaskkinitiatedkkintokthekkIsis-UraniakkLodgekkonk18 kkkkkkkkkkNovemberkk1898.kAskkyoukmostkprobablykk now,kCrowleykklaterkquarrelled kkkkkkkkkkwithkMacGregorkMathers,kandkink1903kbeganktokcreatekhiskownkOrder,kthe kkkkkkkkkkArgenteumkkAstrum,korkSilverkStar.kInk1912,kCrowleykwaskinitiatedkinto kkkkkkkkkkthekOTO,kandkink1921,ksucceededkTheodorkReusskaskitskChief. kkkkkkkkkkAccordingktokkArnoldkCrowther'skaccount,kitkwaskink1946,kakyearkbefore kkkkkkkkkkCrowley'skkdeath,kthatkkCrowleykgavekkGardnerkankkOTOkkCharter.kIthell kkkkkkkkkkColquhounksayskonlykthatkitkoccurredkkinkthek1940s,kandkfurtherkstates kkkkkkkkkkthatkkGardnerkintroducedkmaterialkfromkthekOTO,kandklesskdirectlykfrom kkkkkkkkkkthekGD,kintok"...theklorekofkhiskcovens". kkkkkkkkkkAskkDoreenkValientekalsokadmits,k"Indeed,kthekinfluencekofkCrowleykwas kkkkkkkkkkverykkapparentkthroughoutkkthek(Wiccan)kkrituals.".kThis,kkGardnerkexkkkkkkkkkkplainedktokher,kwaskbecausekthekritualskhekreceivedkfromkOldkDorothy's kkkkkkkkkkcovenkwerekkverykfragmentary,kandkkinkorderktokma ekkthemkwor able,khe kkkkkkkkkkhadktoksupplementkthemkwithkotherkmaterial. kkkkkkkkkkTokkgivekankexamplekofksomekkofktheklineskbykkCrowleykwhichkarekrather kkkkkkkkkkfamiliarktokmodernkWiccans: kkkkkkkkkkIkkgivekunimaginablekkjoyskonkkearth;kcertainty,kknotkfaith,kkwhilekin kkkkkkkkkklife,kkuponkdeath;kpeacekunutterable,kkrest,kecstasy;knorkkdokIkdemand kkkkkkkkkkaughtkinksacrifice. kkkkkkkkkkIkamkLife,kandkthekgiverkofkLife,kyetkthereforekiskthek nowledgekofkme kkkkkkkkkkthek nowledgekofkdeath. kkkkkkkkkkAndkofkcourse,kthekGnostickMasskhaskbeenkimmenselykinfluential. kkkkkkkkkkNotkonlykpoetry,kbutkalsokmagicalkpracticeskinkWiccakarekoftenkderived kkkkkkkkkkfromkGDksources.kForkexample: kkkkkkkkkkthekwaykkofkcastingkkthekcircle:kkthatkkis,kthekkvisualisationkofkkthe kkkkkkkkkkcircle,kandkthekkpentagramskatkthekquarters,kkarekbothkbasedkkuponkthe kkkkkkkkkkstandardkGDkPentagramkRitual;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1661 kkkkkkkkkkbothkthekkconceptkandkwordkk"Watchtowers"karekofkcoursekkfromkthekEnokkkkkkkkkkchianksystemkkofkMagic,kpassedktokkWiccakviakthekGDkk(althoughkIkwould kkkkkkkkkkli ekktokma ekkitkverykkclearkkthatktheirkkusekwithinkkWiccakbearskkno kkkkkkkkkkrelationkktokthekusekkwithinkEnochiak-kkthekonlyksimilaritykkiskinkthe kkkkkkkkkkname); kkkkkkkkkkthekkElementskandkkcolourskgenerallykkattributedkktokthekkQuarterskare kkkkkkkkkkthosekofkthekGD;k kkkkkkkkkkthekkweaponskandktheirkattributionskkarekakcombinationkkofkGD,kCrowley kkkkkkkkkkandkKeykofkSolomon. kkkkkkkkkkInk"WitchcraftkToday",kkGardnerksays,k"Thekpeoplekkwhokcertainlykwould kkkkkkkkkkhavekhadkthek nowledgekandkkabilityktokinventk(thekWiccankkrites)kwere kkkkkkkkkkthekpeoplekwhokformedkthekOrderkofkthekGoldenkDawnkaboutkseventykyears kkkkkkkkkkago...". kkkkkkkkkkThekGDkiskknotkthekonlykinfluencekuponkGardner;kkFreemasonrykhaskhadka kkkkkkkkkktremendouskkimpactkuponkthekWicca.kNotkonlykwerekthekthreekfounderskof kkkkkkkkkkIsis-UraniakkTemplekMasons,ksoktookwerekCrowleykandkWaite;kGardnerkand kkkkkkkkkkatkleastkkonekmemberkofkthekkfirstkcovenk(Daffo)kwerekkbothkCo-Masons. kkkkkkkkkkGardnerkwaskalsokkakfriendkofkJSMkWard,kwhokhadkkpublishedkaknumberkof kkkkkkkkkkboo skaboutkMasonry. kkkkkkkkkkDoreenkdescribeskWardkaskak"leadingkMason",kbutkFranciskKingksayskonly kkkkkkkkkkthatkWardkwas,k"akboguskBishop...kwhokhadkwrittenksomekkquitekgoodkbut kkkkkkkkkkfar-fetchedkboo skonkmasonry,kandkwhokrankakpeculiarkreligious-cum-ockkkkkkkkkkcultkkcommunitykcalledkThekkAbbeykofkChristkthekkKing..."kkWhetherkthe kkkkkkkkkkboo skwerekfar-fetchedkkorknot,kwekkcankassumekthatkksomekofkthekkmany kkkkkkkkkksimilaritieskkbetweenkWiccakandkMasonrykarekinksomekwayskduektokWard's kkkkkkkkkkinfluence. kkkkkkkkkkSomekofkthesekinclude: kkkkkkkkkkThekThreekDegrees kkkkkkkkkkThekCraft kkkkkkkkkkSokMotekItkBe kkkkkkkkkkThekChallenge kkkkkkkkkkProperlykPrepared kkkkkkkkkkThek1stkDegreekOathk(inkpart) kkkkkkkkkkPresentationkofkthekWor ingkToolskatk1stkdegree kkkkkkkkkkandksokon. kkkkkkkkkkItkseemsktokmekquitekclearkthatkevenkifkGardnerkreceivedkaktraditional kkkkkkkkkksetkkofkkritualskfromkkhiskcoven,kktheykkmustkhavekkbeenkexceptionally kkkkkkkkkksparse,kkaskthekkconceptskthatkkwek nowkkofkkaskWiccakktodaykcertainly kkkkkkkkkkderivekfromkceremonialkmagickkandkFreemasonryktokakverykkgreatkextent. kkkkkkkkkkIndeed,kGardnerkalwayskclaimedkthatktheykwereksparse. kkkkkkkkkkItkcouldkkbekarguedkkthatkallkkderivekfromkakkcommonksource.kkThatkthe kkkkkkkkkkappearancekkofkakphrase,korktechniquekinkonektraditionkdoesknotkautomkkkkkkkkkkaticallykksuggestkthatkitskappearancekelsewherekmeanskthatkthekonekwas kkkkkkkkkkta enkkfromkthekkother.kHowever,kkGardnerkadmitskkhisksourceskkinkmany kkkkkkkkkkcases,kandkDoreenkconfirmskthemkkinkothers,ksokIkkthin kitkisksafekkto

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkkkkkkkpresumekkthatkthekritualskandkkphilosophykusedkbykkWiccakdescendskfrom kkkkkkkkkkthektraditionskofkFreemasonrykandkCeremonialkmagic,kratherkthankfromka kkkkkkkkkksinglekkcommonksource.kkHowever,kkaskHudsonkkFrewkkpointskoutkkinkkhis kkkkkkkkkkcommentarykuponkAidankkKelly'skboo ,kthekkphenomenakofkthekktechniques

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1662 kkkkkkkkkkandkpracticeskkofkceremonialkkmagickinfluencingkkfol kmagickkandktradkkkkkkkkkkitionskiskwidelykrecognisedkbykanthropologists,kandkcertainlykdoesknot kkkkkkkkkkindicatekplagiarism.kkAndkofkcoursektherekarekkmanyktraditionalkwitchkkkkkkkkkkcraftkaspectskinkthekWicca. kkkkkkkkkkWekhavekloo edkatkthekdevelopmentkofkthekmagicalkorderskwhichkresulted kkkkkkkkkkfromkkthekBritishkoccultkkrevivalkofkthek19thkkandk20thkcenturies,kand kkkkkkkkkknowkwekcankseekwherekthiskktieskinkwithkWicca,kandkGardner'skclaimkkof kkkkkkkkkktraditionalkinitiation. kkkkkkkkkkIkhavekherekak"familykktree"kofkthekmainkbrancheskofkBritishkWicca.kIt kkkkkkkkkkiskbyknokmeanskexhaustive,kandkiskintendedktokprovidekkankoutline,knot kkkkkkkkkkakdefinitivekhistory!kIkhavekincludedkmykownkcovenkklineskandkdevelopkkkkkkkkkkmentkaskankkindicationkofkthek indkofkk"cross-over"kofktraditionkwhich kkkkkkkkkkoftenkoccurs,kknotktoksuggestkthatkkthesekarekthekkonlykactivekgroups! kkkkkkkkkkAlso,kkitkwouldkknotkbekkethicalkforkkmektokkincludekdetailskkofkother kkkkkkkkkkcovens. kkkkkkkkkkWekhavekktwokpossiblekk"hereditary"ksourceskktokthekkGardneriankCraft: kkkkkkkkkkone,kthekHorsakCovenkofkOldkDorothy,kandktwo,kthekCumbriankGroupkwhich kkkkkkkkkkRaekkBonekclaimsktokhavekkbeenkinitiatedkintokkbeforekmeetingkGardner. kkkkkkkkkk(NB:kDoreenkValientekksayskthatkthekHorsakCovenkiskknotkconnectedkwith kkkkkkkkkkOldkDorothy,kbutkiskkanotherkgroupkentirely.)kTherekiskkalsoksometimes kkkkkkkkkkmentionkofkakStkAlban'skkgroupkthatkpre-dateskGardner,kbutkaskfarkaskI kkkkkkkkkk now,kthiskiskmista en.kThekStkAlbanskgroupkwaskGardner'skownkgroup, kkkkkkkkkkwhichkaskfarkaskresearchkconfirms,kdidknotkpre-datekhim. kkkkkkkkkkTokreturnkktokRaekBone:kshekwaskonekofkkGardner'skHPSs,kandkherk"line" kkkkkkkkkkhaskbeenkimmenselykimportantktokthekmodernkWicca;kkshekwaskfeaturedkin kkkkkkkkkkthekkmagazinekseries,kk"MankMythkandkkMagic"kifkkanyonekhaskkakcopykof kkkkkkkkkkthat. kkkkkkkkkkInkherkheydaykkshekranktwokkcovens:konekinkkCumbria,kandkonekinkkSouth kkkkkkkkkkLondon.kRaekiskkstillkalive,kandkliveskkinkCumbria,kalthoughkherkklast kkkkkkkkkkcovenkkmovedkktokNewkkZealandkmanykkyearskago,kkandkkshekiskknoklonger kkkkkkkkkkactive.kNo-onekhaskeverkbeenkablektoktracekthekcovenkinkNewkZealand. kkkkkkkkkkAtkkthiskpoint,kIkwillkjustkmentionkkGeorgekPic ingill,kalthoughkhekis kkkkkkkkkknotkshownkonkthektree,kaskIkthin kitkextremelykdubiouskthatkhekhadkany kkkkkkkkkkconnectionkwithkGardner,korkanykotherkmodernkWiccan. kkkkkkkkkkPic ingillkdiedkkink1909,kwhilstkkGardnerkwaskstillkkinkMalaya.kkkEric kkkkkkkkkkMaplekkisklargelykkresponsiblekkforkthekkbeginningskofkkthekPic ingill kkkkkkkkkkmyth,kkwhichkkwerekexpandedkkbykBillkkLiddellkk(Lugh)kwritingkkink"The kkkkkkkkkkWiccan"kandk"ThekCauldron"kthroughoutkthek1970s.kMi ekHowardkstillkhas kkkkkkkkkksomekofkkLiddell'skmaterialkwhichkkhekhaskneverkpublished,kkandkIkhave kkkkkkkkkkyetktokkmeetkanyonekkwithinkthekBritishkkCraftkwhokkgiveskcredencekkto kkkkkkkkkkLiddell'skclaims. kkkkkkkkkkInkthekkboo ,k"ThekDar kkWorldkofkkWitches",kpublishedkinkk1962,kMaple kkkkkkkkkktellskofkaknumberkofkvillagekwisekkwomenkandkcunningkmen,konekofkkwhom kkkkkkkkkkiskGeorgekPic ingill.kkTherekiskakkphotographkincludedkofkkankoldkkman kkkkkkkkkkwithkakstic ,kholdingkakhat,kwhichkMaplekdescribeskaskPic ingill.kThis kkkkkkkkkkphotographkhasksubsequentlykbeenkre-usedkmanyktimeskinkkboo skabout kkkkkkkkkkwitchcraftkandkWicca.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1663 kkkkkkkkkkIssueknumberk31kkofk"Insight"kkMagazine,kdatedkJulykk1984,kcontainskka kkkkkkkkkkverykinterestingkletterkfromkJohnkPope: kkkkkkkkkk"ThekphotographkpurportingktokkbekOldkGeorgekPic ingillkkiskinkfactkka kkkkkkkkkkphotokofkAlfkCavill,kakstationkporterkatkEllstree,kta enkkinkthekearly kkkkkkkkkk1960s.kkAlfkiskknowkdead,kbutkkhekwaskknokwitch,kandkklaughedkoverkthe kkkkkkkkkkphotographkwhenkheksawkit." kkkkkkkkkkAkkverykrespectedkkCraftkauthoritykkhasktoldkkmekthatkhekkbelieveskthe kkkkkkkkkkphoto,kwhichkkiskinkhiskpossession,kktokbekofkPic ingill,kkbutkli ekso kkkkkkkkkkmuchkktokdokwithkCraftkhistory,ktherekkisknokdefinitivekanswerktokthis kkkkkkkkkkone. kkkkkkkkkkManykclaimskwerekkmadekbykkLiddell;ksomekkobviouslykfromkkcloud-cuc oo kkkkkkkkkkland,kotherskkwhichkcould,kkbykakkstretchkofkkthekimagination,kbekkackkkkkkkkkkcepted.kkThekverykkideakofkkPic ingill,kkankilliteratekkfarmklabourer, kkkkkkkkkkco-ordinatingkandksupervisingkninekcovenskacrosskthekbreadthkofkthekUK kkkkkkkkkkiskstaggering.kTokacceptk-kaskLiddellkaversk-kthatkhekhadkthekli eskof kkkkkkkkkkAlankBennettkandkAleisterkkCrowleykaskhiskpupilskbendskkcredulitykeven kkkkkkkkkkfurther. kkkkkkkkkkThekinfamouskkphotographkwhichkkLiddellkclaimskshowskkCrowley,kBennett kkkkkkkkkkandkkPic ingillkktogetherkkhaskconvenientlykkdisappeared,kkandkkno-one kkkkkkkkkkadmitsktokeverkhavingkseenkit.kLi ekmostkofkLiddell'skclaims,kknothing kkkkkkkkkkhaskeverkbeenkksubstantiated,kandkkwhenkpushed,khekkretreatskintokkthe kkkkkkkkkktimekkhonouredkfavouritekkof,k"Ikkcan'tkrevealkkthatk-kkyou'rekknotkan kkkkkkkkkkinitiate"! kkkkkkkkkkButktokkreturnktokthekfamilykktree:ktheknameskofkkDoreenkValiente,kPat kkkkkkkkkkandkArnoldkCrowther,kLoiskBournek(Hemmings),kJac kBracelinkandkMonique kkkkkkkkkkWilsonkwillkprobablykbekthekmostkfamiliarktokyou. kkkkkkkkkkJac kkBracelinkiskthekauthorkofkkGardner'skbiography,k"GeraldkGardner, kkkkkkkkkkWitch",kk(publishedk1960)knowkkoutkofkprint,kkalthoughkstillkavailable kkkkkkkkkk2ndkkhand,kandkkinklibraries.kk(InkkCraftingkthekkArtkofkkMagic,kKelly kkkkkkkkkkclaimskthatkkthiskboo kwaskactuallykwrittenkbykIdrieskShah,kandksimply kkkkkkkkkkpublishedkunderkkBracelin'skkname.kAskkwithkeverykkotherkclaim,kkKelly kkkkkkkkkkoffersknokevidencekofkthis) kkkkkkkkkkIkhavekseenkakcopykofkBracelin'skBoo kofkShadows,kwhichkitkkiskclaimed kkkkkkkkkkdateskkfromk1949,kalthoughkinkkThekRebirthkOfkkWitchcraft,kDoreenksays kkkkkkkkkkthatkBracelinkwaskkak"relativeknewcomer"kinkthekmid-1950s.kIkhavekalso kkkkkkkkkkbeenkktoldkbyktwokdifferentksourceskthatkBracelinkhelpedkGardnerkwrite kkkkkkkkkk"ThekLaws".kInkThekkRebirthkOfkWitchcraft,kDoreenkstateskthatkkshekdid kkkkkkkkkknotkseekThekkLawskuntilkthekkmidk1950s,kwhenkkshekandkherkpartnerkkNed kkkkkkkkkkGrovekaccusedkGardnerkofkconcoctingkthemkinkorderktokre-assertkcontrol kkkkkkkkkkoverkthekcoven.kAskBracelinkwaskinkthekGardnerkcampkduringkthekbrea up kkkkkkkkkkofkthekgroup,kitkseemskreasonablekthatkhekdidkinkfactkhelpkwithkktheir kkkkkkkkkkcomposition.kk(NB:kkAlexkSanderskkincreasedktheknumberkkofk"ThekkLaws" kkkkkkkkkkmuchkklaterk-kkthesekappearedkinkkJunekJohns'kkboo ,k"ThekkKingkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkWitches")

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1664 kkkkkkkkkkAlthoughkDoreenkclaimskthatkthekreasonkforkthekcovenkkbrea -upkwaskthe kkkkkkkkkkfactkthatkGardnerkandkBracelinkwerekpublicitykcrazy,ktherekwaskanother kkkkkkkkkkreason,kwhichkkwaskthekkinstatementkkofkakknewkkladykintokkthekkcoven, kkkkkkkkkkeffectivelykreplacingkDoreenkaskkHPS.kThiskiskalsokthekmainkreasonkfor kkkkkkkkkkGerald'skkLawkwhichkstateskthatkthekHPSkwill,k"...gracefullykretirekin kkkkkkkkkkfavourkkofkakyoungerkkwoman,kshouldkthekkcovenksokkdecidekinkcouncil." kkkkkkkkkkNeedlessktokksay,kDoreenkwasknotkkimpressed,kandkshekandkkNedkleftkthe kkkkkkkkkkcovenkunderkkverykacrimoniouskkcircumstances.kItkkwaskquiteksomekktime kkkkkkkkkkbeforekDoreenkhadkcontactkwithkGardnerkagain,kandktheykneverkquite kkkkkkkkkkregainedkthekdegreekofkfriendshipkthatkhadkpreviouslykexisted. kkkkkkkkkkMoniquekkandkCampbellkkWilsonkkarekinfamous,kkratherkkthankfamous,kkas kkkkkkkkkkGardner'skheirskkwhoksoldkkoffkhiskkmagicalkequipmentkkandkpossessions kkkkkkkkkkafterkhiskdeath,ktokRipleyskinkthekUSA. kkkkkkkkkkMoniquekwasktheklastkofkhiskkPriestesses,kandkmanykWiccansktodaykstill kkkkkkkkkkspitkkwhenkherkknamekiskkmentioned.kPatkkCrowtherkwaskkratherkscathing kkkkkkkkkkaboutkherkrecentlykinkankinterview,kandkinkThekRebirthkkOfkWitchcraft, kkkkkkkkkkalthoughkkDoreenktellskofktheksalekofkGardner'skmagicalkpossessionskto kkkkkkkkkkRipleys,kshekdoesn'tkkeverkmentionkthekWilsonskbykname.kInkeffect,kthe kkkkkkkkkkCraftkclosedkran skagainstkthem,kandktheykbecamekoutcasts. kkkkkkkkkkEventually,kinkthekfacekofksuchkoppositionktheykhadktoksellkthekMuseum kkkkkkkkkkinkCastletown,kandkktheykmovedkktokTorremolinos,kwherekktheykboughtkka kkkkkkkkkkcafe.kMoniquekdiedkninekyearskafterksellingkthekMuseum.kItkiskrumoured kkkkkkkkkkthatkCampbellkWilsonkkmovedktokthekkUSA,kandkmetkkwithkakcarkkaccident kkkkkkkkkkthere:kkthiskiskonlykkhearsaykthoughk-kkIkreallykdokknotk nowkforksure kkkkkkkkkkwhatkhappenedktokhim. kkkkkkkkkkHowever,kMoniquekwaskinfluentialkinkakwaykthatkevenkshekcouldknotkhave kkkkkkkkkkimagined,kwhenkink1964korkk5kshekinitiatedkRaykBuc land,kwhokkwithkhis kkkkkkkkkkwifekRosemaryk(laterkdivorced),kkwaskverykinfluentialkinkkthekdevelopkkkkkkkkkkmentkofkthekWiccakinkthekUSA. kkkkkkkkkkFortunately,kkRichardkandkkTamarrakJameskkmanagedktokkbuykthekkbul kof kkkkkkkkkkGardner'skcollectionkbac kfromkkRipleyskink1987,kforkthekkprincelyksum kkkkkkkkkkofkUS$40,000,kandkitkiskknowkbac kwithinkthekCraft,kandkkavailablekfor kkkkkkkkkkinitiatesktokconsultkandkview. kkkkkkkkkkDkandkkCkS.karekprobablykcompletelykanonymous,kandkkifkitkwereknotkfor kkkkkkkkkkthekfactkthatkCkinitiatedkRobertkkCochranek(brieflykmentionedkearlier) kkkkkkkkkktheykwouldkprobablykstaykthatkway! kkkkkkkkkkCochrane'skkoriginskkarekobscure,kkbutkIkkhavekbeenkktoldkthatkkhekwas kkkkkkkkkkinitiatedkintokthekGardnerianktraditionkbykCkS,kandkmetkDoreenkValienkkkkkkkkkktekthroughkakmutualkacquaintancekink1964.kWhenkhekmetkDoreen,khowever, kkkkkkkkkkhekkclaimedktokkbekakhereditarykkwitch,kfromkakkdifferentktraditionkto kkkkkkkkkkGardner's,kkandkaskDoreenkconfirms,kwaskcontemptuouskofkwhatkhekcalled kkkkkkkkkk"Gardnerian"kwitches.kkkIndeed,kkDoreenkbelieveskkhekcoinedkkthekterm, kkkkkkkkkk"Gardnerian". kkkkkkkkkkDoreenksaidkshekwaskcompletelykkta enkinkbykCochranekandkforkkakwhile, kkkkkkkkkkwor edkwithkkhimkandkkthek"ClankkofkTubal-Cain"kkaskkhekdescribedkkhis kkkkkkkkkktradition,kkwhichkwaskkalsok nownkkask"ThekkRoyalkWindsorkkCuveen",kor kkkkkkkkkk1734.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkThekkfiguresk"1734"khavekankinterestingkhistory.kDoreenkgiveskakrather kkkkkkkkkkstrangekkaccountkofkthemkinkkThekRebirthkOfkkWitchcraft,kwhichkcontra-

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1665 kkkkkkkkkkdictskwhatkCochranekhimselfkdescribeskinkakletterktokJoekWilson,kdated kkkkkkkkkk"12thkNightk1966",kwherekheksays, kkkkkkkkkk"...thekkorderkofkk1734kisknotkkakdatekofkkankeventkbutkkakgroupingkof kkkkkkkkkknumeralskthatkmeanksomethingktokakwitch. kkkkkkkkkk"Onekthatkbecomeskksevenkstateskofkwisdomk-kthekkGoddesskofkthekCauldkkkkkkkkkkron.kThreekkthatkarekthekQueenskofkthekElementsk-kfirekbelongingkalone kkkkkkkkkktokMan,kandkthekBlac smithkGod.kFourkthatkarekQueenskofkthekWindkGods. kkkkkkkkkk"ThekJewishkorthodoxykkbelievekthatkkwhomeverk nowskthekkHolykandkkUnkkkkkkkkkkspea ableknamekofkGodkhaskabsolutekpowerkoverkthekworldkkofkform.kVery kkkkkkkkkkbriefly,kktheknamekofkGodkspo enkkaskTetragrammatonk...kbrea skdownkin kkkkkkkkkkHebrewkktokthekletterskkYHVH,korkthekkAdamkKadmonk(ThekkHeavenlykMan). kkkkkkkkkkAdamkKadmonkiskakcompositekofkallkArchangelsk-kinkotherkwordskakpoetic kkkkkkkkkkstatementkofktheknameskofkthekElements. kkkkkkkkkk"SokkwhatkthekJewkkandkthekkWitchkbelievekali e,kkiskthatkkthekmankwho kkkkkkkkkkdiscoversktheksecretkofkthekElementskcontrolskthekphysicalkworld.k1734 kkkkkkkkkkiskthekwitchkwaykofksayingkYHVH."k(Cochrane,k1966) kkkkkkkkkkAlthoughkkDoreenksayskthatkCochrane'skgroupkwasksmall,kitkstillkproved kkkkkkkkkktokbekremar ablykinfluential.kkAskwellkaskCochranekandkhiskkwifek(whom kkkkkkkkkkDoreenkrefersktokask"Jean")kandkDoreenkherself,ktherekkwerekotherskwho kkkkkkkkkkarekkwell- nownktoday,kandkkakmankcalledkkRonaldkWhite,kwhokkverykmuch kkkkkkkkkkwantedktokkbringkaboutkaknewkkagekinkEngland,kwithkthekkreturnkofkKing kkkkkkkkkkArthur. kkkkkkkkkkInkThekRebirthkOfkWitchcraft,kDoreenkelaborateskuponkthekcircumstances kkkkkkkkkksurroundingkthekdeathkofkCochrane:kthekbaldkfactskarekthatkkhekdiedkat kkkkkkkkkkthekSummerkSolsticekofkk1966kofkankoverdose.kCraftkktraditionkbelieves kkkkkkkkkkthatkhekbecamekinkfact,kandkofkkhiskownkchoice,kthekmalekritualksacrikkkkkkkkkkficekwhichkisksometimesksymbolicallykenactedkatkthekheightkofkSummer. kkkkkkkkkkThekRoyalkWindsorkkCuveenkdisbandedkkafterkCochranekdied,kkonlyktokkbe kkkkkkkkkkre-bornkfromkkthekasheskatkkSamhainkthatkyearkkunderkaknewkknamek-kThe kkkkkkkkkkRegency.kAllkkofkitskearlykmemberskwerekfromkthekRoyalkWindsorkCuveen, kkkkkkkkkkandktheykwerekunderkthekleadershipkofkRonaldkWhite.kThekRegencykproved kkkkkkkkkktokbekkofkgreatkimportancektokkthekdevelopmentkofkthekkWicca,kalthough kkkkkkkkkkitskkexistencekwask eptkkakfairlykcloseksecret,kkandkevenktoday,kthere kkkkkkkkkkarekrelativelykfewkpeoplekwhokhavekeverkheardkofkit. kkkkkkkkkkMeetingskwerekheldkinkNorthkLondon,kkatkakplacekcalledkQueenskWood.kAs kkkkkkkkkkwellkaskRonkWhitekkandkDoreenkValiente,kmemberskincludedkk"JohnkMath", kkkkkkkkkkfounderkkofkthekWitchcraftkResearchkAssociationkink1964,kandkeditorkof kkkkkkkkkkPentagramkmagazine,kandkthekfounderkofkthekPagankMovement,kTonykKelly. kkkkkkkkkkAtkkitskheight,ktherekkwerekfrequentlykmorekkthank40kinkkattendancekat kkkkkkkkkkrites,kwhichktendedktokbekofkthekdramatic,kpagank indkratherkthankthe kkkkkkkkkkceremonialkkassociatedkwithkkhighkritualkkmagic.kThekkRegencykoperated kkkkkkkkkkfairlykconsistentlykforkoverktwelvekyears,kfinallykdisbandingkink1978. kkkkkkkkkkThekMembershipkrollkreadskli ekakwho'skwhokofkthekkBritishkWicca!kSome kkkkkkkkkkofkthekriteskkhavekbeenkincorporatedkkintokmodernkWiccankritualskk-kin kkkkkkkkkkfact,konekkwaskusedkatkkthekPankEuropeankkWiccankConferencek1991kkwith kkkkkkkkkkverykgreatksuccess. kkkkkkkkkkMovingkbac koverktokRaekBone'skline,ktherekarekaknumberkofkinfluential

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkpeoplekkhere,kkmainlykthroughkkherkkinitiates,kMadgekkandkkArthur,kwho kkkkkkkkkkprobablykta ekthekawardkforkthekmostkprolifickpairkinkWiccandom!kkRae, kkkkkkkkkkalthoughkkinitiatedkbykGardner,kdoeskofkcoursekalsokclaimkakhereditary kkkkkkkkkkstatuskinkherkownkright.

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1666 kkkkkkkkkkMadgekandkArthur'skinitiateskinclude: kkkkkkkkkkJohnkandkJeankScore kkkkkkkkkkJohnkScorekkwaskthekpartnerkkofkMichaelkHoughtonkk(mentionedkearlier), kkkkkkkkkkandkthekfounderkofkthekPagankFederation,kwhichkiskverykactivektoday. kkkkkkkkkkHoughtonkdiedkkunderkverykkmysteriouskcircumstances,kwhichkkiskbriefly kkkkkkkkkkmentionedkkinkk"ThekSwordkkofkWisdom"kkbykkIthellkColquhoun.kkMykCraft kkkkkkkkkksourcektoldkmekthatkthiskwaskkactuallykakritualkthatkwentkbadlykwrong, kkkkkkkkkkandkHoughtonkendedkupkonkthekwrongkendkofksomekfairlykpotentkenergies. kkkkkkkkkkTherekkiskankkinterestingkanecdotekkaboutkHoughtonkkinkThekkRebirthkOf kkkkkkkkkkWithcraft,kwhichkiskta enkkfromk"NightsidekofkEden"kbykkKennethkGrant, kkkkkkkkkkandkkagreeskinksomekkrespectktokakksimilarkstorykthatkkIkwasktoldksome kkkkkkkkkkyearskago.kDoreenksuggestskinkThekRebirthkOfkWitchcraftkthatkthekstory kkkkkkkkkkmaykrelatektokakmagicalkwor ingkkinvolvingkKennethkGrantkandkhiskwife, kkkkkkkkkkGardner,kDoloreskkNorthk(MadelinekkMontalban),kandkankkun-namedkwitch, kkkkkkkkkkwhokwaskprobablykOlivekGreen. kkkkkkkkkkTheykwerekallktokperformkakkritualktogether,ksupposedlyktokcontactkkan kkkkkkkkkkextra-terrestrialkbeing.kThekmaterialkkbasiskforkthekrite,kwhichkktoo kkkkkkkkkkplacekink1949,kwaskakdrawingkbykAOkSpare. kkkkkkkkkkApparentlyksoonkafterkthekritekcommenced,kaknearbykboo sellerk(Michael kkkkkkkkkkHoughton)kkturnedkkupkandkkinterruptedkkproceedings.kkOnkhearingkkthat kkkkkkkkkkKennethkGrantkwaskwithin,kkhekdeclinedktokenter,kandkwanderedkoff.kThe kkkkkkkkkkritekwaskdisrupted,kandkthekstorykgoeskthatkeveryonekjustkwentkhome. kkkkkkkkkkKennethkGrantkclaimskkthatkaskkakresultkofkkdisturbingktheirkkwor ing, kkkkkkkkkkHoughton'skkmarriagekbro ekkup,kandkkthatkHoughtonkdiedkkinkmysterious kkkkkkkkkkcircumstances.kInkfact,kthekHoughtonkdivorcekwaskakcausekcelebre,kwith kkkkkkkkkkherksuingkkhimkforkcrueltykbecausekkhekboastedkofkbeingkkakSagittarian kkkkkkkkkkwhileksneeringkatkherkbecausekshekwaskonlykakdingykoldkCapricorn! kkkkkkkkkkThekinterruptedkritualkkcouldkwellkkhavekta enkplace.kkMadelinekhadkka kkkkkkkkkkflatkknearktokkAtlantisk(Houghton'skkshop),kandkkwouldkcertainlykkhave kkkkkkkkkk nownkkbothkGrantkandkkHoughton.kIk nowkkforkakfactkkthatkMadelinekwas kkkkkkkkkkacquaintedkwithkGerald,kalthoughkherkopinionkofkbothkhimkandkthekWicca kkkkkkkkkkwaskkratherkpoor.kOnekkofkMadeline'skolderkkstudentsktoldkkmekthatkshe kkkkkkkkkkthoughtkGardnerkratherkkakfraud,kandkkrituallykinept.kShekkalsokhadkka kkkkkkkkkkveryklowkopinionkofkWiccans,kandkrefusedktokallowkherkownkstudentskto kkkkkkkkkkparticipatekinkWiccankrites.kThekreasonkkforkthisklieskinkankkanecdote kkkkkkkkkkwhichkkDoreenkdoesn'tkrelate:kthekkstorykgoeskthatkkMadelinekagreedkto kkkkkkkkkkparticipatekinkakritekkwithkGerald,kwhichkturnedkoutktokkinvolvekMadekkkkkkkkkklinekbeingktiedkkupkandktic ledkwithkakfeatherkkduster!kThekgreatklady kkkkkkkkkkwasknotkamused. kkkkkkkkkkPrudencekJones kkkkkkkkkkPrudencekwaskforkmanykyearskthekpresidentkofkthekPagankFederation,kand kkkkkkkkkkeditorkkofkitskknewsletter.kShekkinheritedkherkkrolekfromkkJohnkScore, kkkkkkkkkkafterkhekpassedkaway.kWithkNigelkPennic ,kPrudencekalsokrunskthekPagan kkkkkkkkkkAnti-DefamationkLeaguek(PADL),kandkiskankactivekastrologerkandktherapkkkkkkkkkkist.kShekkhaskeditedkakboo kkonkastrology,kandkwithkkCaitlinkMatthews, kkkkkkkkkkeditedk"VoiceskfromkkthekCircle",kkpublishedkbykAquariankkPress.kkkAl-

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkthoughkkPrudencektoo kherkdegreekinkPhilosophy,kherkmainkinterestsklie kkkkkkkkkkinkthekareaskofkthekGrailkkandktroubadourktales,kandkshekhaskpublished kkkkkkkkkkprivatelykkankexcellentkessaykkonkthekGrailkkandkWicca.kShekkiskalsoka kkkkkkkkkkverykhighlykrespectedkastrologer,kwhoklectureskextensivelykinkBritain.

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1667 kkkkkkkkkkViviannekandkChriskCrowley kkkkkkkkkkViviannekCrowley,kkiskauthorkofk"Wiccakk-kThekOldkReligionkkinkthekNew kkkkkkkkkkAge",kandkkalsoksecretarykofkkthekPagankFederation.kkShekhaskakkPhDkin kkkkkkkkkkPsychology,kandkkiskperhapskthekonlykkpersonktokhavekbeenkkakmemberkof kkkkkkkkkkbothkakGardneriankCovenkandkankAlexandriankoneksimultaneously! kkkkkkkkkkViviannekiskverykkactivekatkthekkmoment,kandkhaskkinitiatedkpeoplekkin kkkkkkkkkkGermanykk(havingkmemorisedkkthekkritualkinkkGermankk-kakklanguagekkshe kkkkkkkkkkdoesn'tkspea !),kNorway,kandk-konkthekastralk-kBrazil.kAskakresultkkof kkkkkkkkkkherkboo ,kkshekreceiveskmanykletterskkfromkpeoplekfromkallkkaroundkthe kkkkkkkkkkworld,kandkkorganisedkthekkfirstkeverkpan-EuropeankkWiccankconference, kkkkkkkkkkheldkinkGermanyk1990.kTheksecondkconferencekwaskheldkinkBritainkatkthe kkkkkkkkkkJuneksolstice,kandkthekthirdk(1992)kinkNorway.kInk1993,kthekConference kkkkkkkkkkwillkbekinkScotland. kkkkkkkkkkJohnkandkKathykk(Caitlin)kMatthews,karekprobablykwell- nownkktokeverykkkkkkkkkkone,kbutkkpossiblyktheirkkGardneriankinitiationskkareknotksuchkkcommon kkkkkkkkkk nowledge.kkThekstorykthatkJohnkkMatthewskrelateskinkk"Voiceskfromkthe kkkkkkkkkkCircle"kiskkessentiallykthekonekkwhichkhektoldkkthekHPSkwhokkinitiated kkkkkkkkkkhim. kkkkkkkkkkPatkandkArnoldkCrowther kkkkkkkkkkIkhavekleftkkPatkandkArnoldktillklast,kkaskitkiskfromktheirkklinekthat kkkkkkkkkkthekinfamouskkAlexkSanderskderives!kItkisknoksecretkanymorekthatkAlex, kkkkkkkkkkfarkfromkbeingkinitiatedkbykhiskgrandmotherkwhenkhekwaskkseven,kwaskin kkkkkkkkkkfactkturnedkkdownkbykPatkCrowtherkkink1961,kbutkwaskklaterkacceptedkby kkkkkkkkkkonekkofkherkkex-covenkkmembers,kPatkkKopans i,kkandkinitiatedkktokk1st kkkkkkkkkkDegree. kkkkkkkkkkInk"ThekRebirthkofkWitchcraft"kDoreenkksayskthatkAlexklaterkmetkkGardkkkkkkkkkkner,kandkwaskallowedktokcopykfromkthekBoo kofkShadows;kCraftktradition kkkkkkkkkkisksomewhatkdifferent!kkItkhaskalwayskbeenkksaidk(evenkbykAlex'skksupkkkkkkkkkkporters!)kthatkhekpinchedkwhatkhekcouldkfromkPatkKopans ikbeforekbeing kkkkkkkkkkchuc edkout,kandkthatkthekmainkdifferenceskbetweenkthekAlexandriankand kkkkkkkkkkGardneriankBoo skofkShadowskoccurkkwherekAlexkmis-heard,korkmis-copied kkkkkkkkkksomething!kkkTherekarekkcertainlyksignificantkdifferenceskkbetweenkthe kkkkkkkkkktwokkBoo s;ksomekpartskofkkGardneriankritualkarekkquitekun nownkwithin kkkkkkkkkkthekAlexandriankktradition,kandkthekkritualktechniqueskarekkoftenkdifkkkkkkkkkkferent.kItkiskusuallykverykeasyktokspotkwhetherksomeonekiskankAlexandkkkkkkkkkkrian,korkGardneriankinitiate. kkkkkkkkkkAlexkneededkakHPS,kkandkaskwek now,kchosekMaxinekMorriskkforkthekrole. kkkkkkkkkkMaxinekiskakstri ingkPriestess,kandkmadekakverykgoodkkvisualkfocuskfor kkkkkkkkkkthekmovementkwhichkgrewkinkleapskandkbounds. kkkkkkkkkkInkktheklatekk1960s,kAlexkandkkMaxinekwerekprolifickkinitiators,kandka kkkkkkkkkknumberkofktheirkinitiateskhavekbecomekwellk nown.kSomekcamektokAustrakkkkkkkkkklia,kandkktherekarekstillkaknumberkofkcovenskkinkthekUKktodaykwhosekHP kkkkkkkkkkand/orkHPSkwaskinitiatedkbykAlexkorkMaxine. kkkkkkkkkkAlexkandkMaxine'skmostkfamouskinitiateskarekalmostkcertainlykJanetkand kkkkkkkkkkStewartkkFarrar,kwhokleftkthemkink1971kktokformktheirkownkcoven,kfirst kkkkkkkkkkinkEngland,kthenkklater,kinkkIreland.kThroughktheirkkboo s,ktheykkhave kkkkkkkkkkprobablykhadkthekkmostkinfluencekkoverkthekdirectionkkthatkthekkmodern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkCraftkhaskkta en.kCertainlykkinkkAustralia,kthekkpublicationkofkk"What kkkkkkkkkkWitcheskkDo"kwaskankabsolutekkwatershed,kandkwithkkJanetkandkStewart's kkkkkkkkkkconsistentkoutput,ktheirkformkofkWiccakiskmorekli elyktokbecomekthe kkkkkkkkkk"standard"kthankanykotherktype.

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1668 kkkkkkkkkkSincektheirkearlykdayskofkkundilutedkAlexandrianism,ktheykhavekdrifted kkkkkkkkkksomewhatktowardskakmorekGardneriankapproach,kandkktoday,ktellkeveryone kkkkkkkkkkthatktherekarekknokdifferenceskkbetweenkthektwokktraditions.kInkkfact, kkkkkkkkkkdespitekthekmergingkthatkhaskkbeenkoccurringkoverktheklastkkfewkyears, kkkkkkkkkktherekkarekkverykdistinctkkdifferenceskkbetweenkkthektraditions;kksome kkkkkkkkkkmerelykexternal,kotherskkofkakverykksignificantkdifferencekofkkphiloskkkkkkkkkkophy. kkkkkkkkkkSeldiykBatekkwaskoriginallykkmagicallyktrainedkbykkMadelinekMontalban, kkkkkkkkkkandkkthenktoo kkankAlexandriankkinitiationkfromkkMaxinekandkkAlex.kHer kkkkkkkkkkhusband,kkNigel,kkwaskalsokkinitiatedkbykkMaxine,kkandktheykkhavekbeen kkkkkkkkkk"public"kwitcheskforkkaknumberkofkkyearsknow,kkoftenkappearingkonkkTV, kkkkkkkkkkradiokandkinkthekpress.kTheirkbac groundkinkritualkkmagickiskexpressed kkkkkkkkkkinkthektypekofkcovenkthatktheykkrun;kakcombinationkofkWiccakandkCeremkkkkkkkkkkonialkMagic. kkkkkkkkkkInk1971,kkAlexkandkMaxinekwentktheirkseparatekways.kDavidkGoddardkiska kkkkkkkkkkLiberalkCatholickPriest,kandkforkkmanykyears,khekandkMaxinekwor edkkin kkkkkkkkkkthekLiberalkCatholickfaith,kandkdidknotkkrunkakcovenkofkanyk ind.kThen kkkkkkkkkkinkk1984,kMaxinekgatheredktogetherkkakgroupkagain,kkandkstartedkpractkkkkkkkkkkisingkakcombinationkofkWicca,kQabalahkandkLiberalkCatholicism.kShekand kkkkkkkkkkDavidkseparatedkink1987,kandksincekthenkherkcovenkhaskbeenkexclusively kkkkkkkkkkWiccan.kInk1989,kshekkmarriedkonekofkherkinitiates,kVincent,kkandkthey kkkkkkkkkkarekstillkrunningkankactivekcovenkinkLondonktoday. kkkkkkkkkkAlex'skhistorykafterktheksplitkwaskaklittlekmoreksordid,kwithkonekgirl kkkkkkkkkkhekmarried,kJill,kkfillingkthekkgutterkpresskwithkkstorieskaboutkkAlex kkkkkkkkkkbeingkhomosexual,kandkdefraudingkherkofkkallkherkmoneyktokspendkonkhis kkkkkkkkkkboyfriends.kSallykTaylorkwaskkinitiatedkbykMaxinekandkDavid,kkbutkthen kkkkkkkkkktransferredktokAlex.kkShekwasktrainedkbykhim,kandkthenkstartedkherkown kkkkkkkkkkgroup. kkkkkkkkkkI'dknowkli ektokfocuskuponktheklastkofkthekstrandskwhichkIkbelievekhas kkkkkkkkkkbeenkinfluentialkuponkthekbirthkandkdevelopmentkkofkWicca;kthatkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkliterarykktraditionskkandksourceskktokkwhichkkGardnerkkwouldkhavekkhad kkkkkkkkkkaccess.kkTokakkcertainkextentkkthesekarekkcontiguouskwithkkthekmagical kkkkkkkkkktraditionskdescribedkkearlier,kaskknowherekiskkitkeverkksuggestedkthat kkkkkkkkkkGardnerkkdidkinkfactkeverkwor kkinkakmagicalkLodge,kksokwekmustkassume kkkkkkkkkkthatkkhisk nowledgekcamekfromkthekwrittenkkformkofkthekrites,knotkfrom kkkkkkkkkkthekactualkpractisekofkthem. kkkkkkkkkkFromkkreadingkkGardner'skboo s,kkitkkiskquitekkapparentkkthatkMargaret kkkkkkkkkkMurraykhadkkaktremendouskimpactkkuponkhim.kHerkkboo ,k"ThekGodkkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkWitches"kkwaskpublishedkkink1933,kkandkktwelvekyearskkpreviously,k"The kkkkkkkkkkWitchkCultkinkWesternkkEurope"khadkappeared.k"ThekGodkofkkthekWitches" kkkkkkkkkkhaskbeenktremendouslykinfluentialkonkaknumberkofkpeople,kandkcertainly kkkkkkkkkkinspiredkGardner. kkkkkkkkkkInkkfact,k"WitchcraftkToday",kpublishedkbykGardnerkink1954kcontainedka kkkkkkkkkkforewordkbykMargaretkMurray.kAtkthisktime,kremember,kMurray'skwor kwas kkkkkkkkkkstillkta enkseriously,kandkshekremainedkthekcontributorkonktheksubject kkkkkkkkkkofkwitchcraftkforkthekEncyclopediakBritannicakforkaknumberkofkyears.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1669 kkkkkkkkkkNowkkofkcoursekkherkwor kkhaskbeenkklargelykdiscredited,kkalthoughkshe kkkkkkkkkkremainskkaksourcekkofkkinspiration,kkifkknotkhistoricalkkaccuracy.kkIn kkkkkkkkkkGardner'skday,kthekideakofkakkcontinuingkworshipkofkthekoldkpagankgods kkkkkkkkkkwouldkhavekbeenkakstaggeringkktheory,kandkinktheksecondkarticlekkinkmy kkkkkkkkkkserieskaboutkMurrayk(publishedkinkThekCauldron),kIkmadekthekpointkthat kkkkkkkkkkMurraykmaykhavekhadktokpretendkscientifickveracitykinkorderktokgetkher kkkkkkkkkkwor kpublishedkinkksuchktimes.kDon'tkkforgetkthatkDionkFortunekkhadkto kkkkkkkkkkpublishkherkwor kprivately,kaskdidkGardnerkwithkHighkMagic'skAid. kkkkkkkkkkCarlokGinzburg'skkexcellentkboo ,k"Ecstasies",kalsokksupportskMurray's kkkkkkkkkkbasickkpremise;kalthoughkofkkcoursekhekkregretskherkkhistoricalkdecepkkkkkkkkkktions. kkkkkkkkkkTherekkwerekofkkcoursekotherkksourceskthankkMurray.kInkk1899,k"Aradia: kkkkkkkkkkGospelkkofkkthekWitches"kkwaskpublished.kkMostkkofkCrowley'skkwor kwas kkkkkkkkkkavailablekkduringkthekkpre-kkandkpost-warkkyears,kkaskwerekkthekktexts kkkkkkkkkkwrittenkkandktranslatedkbykkMacGregorkMatherskandkkWaite.kAlsokreadily kkkkkkkkkkavailablekkwerekwor sksuchkkaskThekMagus,kandkkofkcoursekthekclassics, kkkkkkkkkkfromkwhichkGardnerkdrewkmuchkinspiration. kkkkkkkkkkOfkparamountkimportancekwouldkhavekbeenk"ThekWhitekGoddess",kbykRobert kkkkkkkkkkGraves,kkwhichkiskkstillkkakstandardkkreferencekkboo konkkanykkBritish kkkkkkkkkkWiccan'skboo shelf.kThiskwaskpublishedkink1952;kthreekyearskafterkHigh kkkkkkkkkkMagic'skAidkappeared,kandkktwokyearskbeforekGardner'skkfirstknon-fictkkkkkkkkkkionalkboo kkaboutkwitchcraft.kIkwouldkkjustkli ektoksaykkatkthiskpoint kkkkkkkkkkthatkGraveskkhaskta enksomekverykkunfairkcriticismkinkkrespectkofkthis kkkkkkkkkkboo .kThekWhitekGoddesskwaskwrittenkaskakwor kofkkpoetry,knotkhistory, kkkkkkkkkkandktokcriticisekitkforkbeingkhistoricallykinnaccuratekisktokmisskthe kkkkkkkkkkpoint.kUnfortunately,kIkagreekthatksomekwriterskhavekreferredktokitkas kkkkkkkkkkank"authority",kandkthuskledktheirkreaderskupkthekgardenkpath.kThiskis kkkkkkkkkknotkGraves'skfault,knorkdokIkbelievekitkwaskhiskintention. kkkkkkkkkkAnotherkboo kwhichkkhaskhadkakprofoundkinfluencekonkkmanykWiccans,kand kkkkkkkkkkwouldkkundoubtedlykkhavekbeenkkwellk nownkkbykkGardnerkiskk"ThekGolden kkkkkkkkkkBough";kkalthoughkthekentirekboo kwaskwrittenkbasedkuponkpurelykseconkkkkkkkkkkdarykkresearch,kitkiskankextensivekexaminationkofkmanykpagankpractices kkkkkkkkkkfromkthekAncientkWorld,kandkkthekemphasiskofkthekmalekksacrificekcould kkkkkkkkkkcertainlykhavekbeenkta enkkfromkherekequallykaskkwellkaskfromkkMurray. kkkkkkkkkkCertainkofkthekGardneriankritualkpracticeskwerekalmostkcertainly kkkkkkkkkkderivedkfromkThekGoldenkBough,korkfromkFrazer'skownksources. kkkkkkkkkkInkk"WitchcraftkkToday"kkGardnerkmentionskkakknumberkkofkauthorskkwhen kkkkkkkkkkspeculatingkwherekthekkWiccankriteskcamekfrom.kHeksayskthat,k"Thekonly kkkkkkkkkkmankkIkcankthin kkofkwhokkcouldkhavekinventedkkthekriteskkwasktheklate kkkkkkkkkkAleisterkCrowley." kkkkkkkkkkHekcontinuesktoksay,k"ThekonlykotherkmankIkcankthin kofkwho kkkkkkkkkkcouldkhavekdonekitkiskKipling...".kHekalsokmentionskthat, kkkkkkkkkk"HargravekJenningskmightkhavekhadkakhandkinkthem..."kandkthen kkkkkkkkkksuggestskthatk"Barratk(sic)kofkThekMagus,kcircak1800,kwould kkkkkkkkkkhavekhadkthekabilityktokinventkorkresurrectkthekcult." kkkkkkkkkkIt'skkpossiblekthatkthesekreferenceskareksomethingkofkakdamagekcontrol kkkkkkkkkkoperationkkbykGardner,kwho,kaccordingktokDoreen,kwasknotktookimpressed kkkkkkkkkkwhenkshek eptktellingkhimkthatkkshekrecognisedkcertainkpassageskinkthe kkkkkkkkkkWitchkrites!k"WitchcraftkToday"kwaskpublishedkthekkyearkafterkDoreen's

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkkkkkkkinitiation,kandkkperhapskbykseemingkgenuinelykinterestedkkinkwherekthe kkkkkkkkkkRiteskcamekfrom,kGardnerkthoughtkhekmightkgivekthekappearancekof kkkkkkkkkkinnocencekofktheirkconstruction!

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1670 kkkkkkkkkkAskkmentionedkkpreviously,kGardnerkkalsokkhadkkaklargekkcollectionkkof kkkkkkkkkkunpublishedkkMSS,kwhichkhekusedkextensively,kkandkonekhaskonlyktokread kkkkkkkkkkhiskboo sktokrealisekthatkhekwaskakverykwell-readkman,kwithkwide-rangkkkkkkkkkkingkkinterests.kExactlykktheksortkkofkmankkwhokwouldkkbekablekktokdraw kkkkkkkkkktogetherkaksetkofkritualskifkrequired.kk kkkkkkkkkkThekextensivekbibliographyktok"ThekMeaningkofkWitchcraft"kpublishedkin kkkkkkkkkk1959,kdemonstrateskthiskratherkwell.kGardnerkincludeskMagic kinkTheory kkkkkkkkkkandkkPracticekandkkThekEquinoxkkofkthekGodskkbykCrowley;kkThekMystical kkkkkkkkkkQabalahkkbykDionkFortune;kThekGoetia;kThekWhitekGoddessk(Graves);kLady kkkkkkkkkkCharlottekGuest'skktranslationkofkThekMabinogion;kkEnglishkFol lorekby kkkkkkkkkkChristinakHole;kThekkKabbalahkUnveiledkandkkthekAbramelinkbykkMathers; kkkkkkkkkkbothkMargaretkMurray'skboo skandkGodfreykLeland'skGypsykSorcery,kas kkkkkkkkkkwellkaskakmyriadkofkclassicktexts,kfromkPlatoktokBede! kkkkkkkkkkAlthoughkthiskbibliographykpostdateskthekcreationkofkGardneriankWicca, kkkkkkkkkkitkkcertainlykindicateskfromkwherekGardnerkdrawskhiskinspirationkfrom. kkkkkkkkkkTherekkarekalsokkseveralkboo skklistedkwhichkkarekeitherkkdirectly,kor kkkkkkkkkkindirectly,kconcernedkwithksexkmagic,kPriapickCults,korkTantra. kkkkkkkkkkHargravekJenning,kmentionedkkearlier,kwrotekakkboo kcalledk"ThekkRosikkkkkkkkkkcrucians,ktheirkkRiteskandkMysteries",kwhichkFranciskKingkdescribeskas kkkkkkkkkkakkboo ,k"concernedkkalmostkkexclusivelykwithkkphallicismkandkkphallic kkkkkkkkkkimagesk-kJenningsksawkthekpeniskeverywhere." kkkkkkkkkkAskIkkmentionedkearlier,kHargravekJennings,kakmemberkofkthekSRIA,kalso kkkkkkkkkkbelongedktokakgroup,kdescribedkaskakcoven,kwhichkmetkkinkthekCambridge kkkkkkkkkkareakkinkthekk1870s,kandkkperformedkritualskkbasedkuponkkthekclassical kkkkkkkkkktraditionsk-kspecifically,kfromkkThekGoldenkAss.kTherekiskknokevidence kkkkkkkkkktoksupportkthis,kkexceptkthatktherekkarekoftenkfoundkkreferencesktokka kkkkkkkkkk"CambridgekkCoven"klin edktokJennings'kkname.kkManykkofkthekritualskwe kkkkkkkkkkarekkfamiliarkkwithktodaykkwerekofkkcoursekklaterkadditionskkbykDoreen kkkkkkkkkkValiente,kandkkthesekhavekkbeenkwellkkdocumentedkbykkbothkherkkandkthe kkkkkkkkkkFarrars,kinkakknumberkofkboo s.kkkDoreenkadmitskthatkshekkdeliberately kkkkkkkkkkcutkmuchkofkthekpoetrykbykAleisterkCrowley,kandksubstitutedkeitherkher kkkkkkkkkkownkwor ,korkpoemskfromkotherksources,ksuchkaskthekCarminakGadelica. kkkkkkkkkkOfkcoursekwekcankneverkreallyk nowkthektruthkaboutkkthekoriginskofkthe kkkkkkkkkkWicca.kGardnerkkmaykhavekkbeenkankkutterkfraud;kkhekmaykkhavekactually kkkkkkkkkkreceivedkkak"Traditional"kinitiation;kor,kkaskaknumberkkofkpeoplekhave kkkkkkkkkksuggested,khekkmaykhavekcreatedkkthekWiccakkaskakresultkkofkakkgenuine kkkkkkkkkkreligiouskexperience,kdrawingkuponkkhiskextensivekliterarykandkmagical kkkkkkkkkk nowledgektokcreate,korkhelpkcreate,kthekriteskandkphilosophy. kkkkkkkkkkWhatkIkthin kwekcankbekfairlykcertainkaboutkiskthatkhekwaskksincerekin kkkkkkkkkkhiskbelief.kIfktherekhadkbeenknokkmorektokthekwholekthingkthankankkold kkkkkkkkkkman'skkfantasy,kthenkthekkWiccakwouldknotkkhavekgrownktokkbekthekforce kkkkkkkkkkthatkitkisktoday,kandkwekwouldknotkallkbeksittingkkherekinkCanberrakon kkkkkkkkkkakSaturdaykmorning!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1671 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekWheelkofkthekYeark kkkkkkkkkkkkkkFromk"ThekWitcheskofkOz",kbykJuliakPhillipskandkMatthewkSandow, kkkkkkkkkkSydney, kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkNewkSouthkWales. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekWheelkofkthekyearkiskofkgreatksignificancektokWiccans,kand kkkkkkkkkkiskonekofkthekprinciplek eysktokunderstandingkthekreligion.kkAskwe kkkkkkkkkksaidkearlier,kWiccakseeskakprofoundkrelationshipkbetweenkhumanity kkkkkkkkkkandkthekenvironment.kkForkakWiccan,kallkofknaturekiskakmanifestakkkkkkkkkktionkofkthekdivinekandksokwekcelebratekthekturningkseasonskaskthe kkkkkkkkkkchangingkfaceskofkourkGods. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekWheelkofkthekYearkiskakcontinuingkcyclekofklife,kdeathkand kkkkkkkkkkrebirth.kkThuskthekWheelkreflectskbothktheknaturalkpassagekofklife kkkkkkkkkkinkthekworldkaroundkus,kaskwellkaskrevealingkourkownkconnection kkkkkkkkkkwithkthekgreaterkworld.kkTokakWiccan,kallkofkcreationkiskdivine, kkkkkkkkkkandkbykrealizingkhowkwekarekconnectedktokthekturningkifkthekseasons kkkkkkkkkkandktoktheknaturalkworld,kwekcomektokakdeeperkunderstandingktokthe kkkkkkkkkkwayskinkwhichkwekarekconnectedktokthekGodkandkGoddess.kokwhenkwe kkkkkkkkkkcelebratekourkseasonalkrites,kwekdrawktheksymbolismkthatkwekuse kkkkkkkkkkfromktheknaturalkworldkandkfromkourkownklives,kthuskattemptingkto kkkkkkkkkkunitekthekessentialkidentitykthatkunderlieskallkthings. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkUndoubtedlyktheksignificancekofkthekFestivalskhaskchangedkover kkkkkkkkkkthekcenturies,kandkitkiskverykdifficultkforkusktodayktokimaginekthe kkkkkkkkkkjoykandkreliefkthatkmustkhavekaccompaniedktheksuccessfulkgrain kkkkkkkkkkharvest.kkWhatkwithkfactory-farming,kfastkfreezingkandkworldkwide kkkkkkkkkkdistribution,kourklivesknoklongerkdependkuponksuchkthingskandkaska kkkkkkkkkkconsequence,kourkrespectkforktheklandkhaskdiminishedkinkproportion kkkkkkkkkktokourkpersonalkcontactkwithkit. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWiccanskbelievekthatkwekcankre-affirmkthiskcontactkbykour kkkkkkkkkkobservancekofkthekpassagekofkthekseasons,kinkwhichkwekseekreflected kkkkkkkkkkourkownklives,kandkthekliveskofkourkgods.kkWhetherkwekchoosekto kkkkkkkkkkcontactkthosekforceskthroughksilentkandksolitarykmeditation,kor kkkkkkkkkkexperiencekthektimekofkyearkinkakwildkplace,korkgatherkwithkfriends kkkkkkkkkkinkaksuburbanklivingkroom,kwekarekallkperformingkourkownkritualkto kkkkkkkkkkthekOldkOnes,kreachingkoutkoncekmorektowardskthekhiddenkforces kkkkkkkkkkwhichksurroundkuskall. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWhatkiskofkthekutmostkimportancekwithkthekWheelkofkthekYearkis kkkkkkkkkkthatkwekunderstandkwhatkwekhopektokachievekthroughkourkfestival kkkkkkkkkkcelebrations,kandkavoidkthektrapkofkgoingkthroughkemptykmotions, kkkkkkkkkkrepeatingkwordskfromkakboo kwhichkmayksoundkdramatic,kbutkhavekno kkkkkkkkkkrelevancekinkourkeverydayklives.kkThatksimplykleadsktokthekcreation kkkkkkkkkkofkakdogma,kandknotkaklivingkbreathingkreligion.kkItkisknotkenough kkkkkkkkkktokstandkinkakcirclekonkakspecifickday,kandk"invo e'kforceskof kkkkkkkkkknature,kthosekforceskarekcurrentskwhichkflowkcontinuouslykthroughkkkkkkkkkkoutkourklives,knotkjustkeightktimeskakyear,kandkifkwekchooseknotkto kkkkkkkkkkac nowledgekthemkinkourkeverydayklives,ktherekisknokpointkin kkkkkkkkkkcallingkuponkthemkforkonekday.

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1672 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBykfollowingkthekWiccankreligionkyoukarekaffirmingkyourkbelief kkkkkkkkkkinktheksanctitykofkthekEarth,kandkac nowledgingkthatkyoukdepend kkkkkkkkkkuponkthekEarthkforkyourkveryklife.kkAlthoughkmodernklifestyleskdo kkkkkkkkkknotkencouragekawarenesskofkourkpersonalkrelationshipkwithkthe kkkkkkkkkkturningkseasons,korkthekpatternskofklife,kgrowth,kdeathkandkdecay, kkkkkkkkkkthatkdoesknotkmeankthatktheyknoklongerkexist.kkThekebbkandkflowk kkkkkkkkkkofkthekEarth'skenergieskmaykbekhiddenkbeneathkakphysicalkshellkof kkkkkkkkkktarmackandkconcrete,kandkakpsychickonekofkhumankindifference,kbut kkkkkkkkkktheykarekneverthelessktherekforkthosekwhokwishktokac nowledgekthem kkkkkkkkkkoncekmore. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWekdokthiskbykobservingkthekchangeskofkthekseasons,kand kkkkkkkkkkfeelingkthekchangeskreflectedkinkourkinnermostkselves,kandkinkour kkkkkkkkkkeverydayklives.kkInkourkritualskwekfocuskuponkdifferentkaspectskof kkkkkkkkkkthekGodkandkGoddess,kandkparticipatekinkthekcelebrationkofktheir kkkkkkkkkkmysteries;kthuskwekre-affirmkourkconnectionskonkthekmostkprofound kkkkkkkkkklevels. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekWiccankWheelkhasktwokgreatkinspirations;kitkiskbothka kkkkkkkkkkwheelkofkcelebration,kandkakwheelkofkinitiation.kkAskakwheelkof kkkkkkkkkkinitiationkitkhopesktokguidekthosekwhoktreadkitskpathwayktowardskan kkkkkkkkkkunderstandingkofkthekmysterieskofklifekandkthekuniverse,kexpressed kkkkkkkkkkthroughkthekteachingskofkthekOldkOneskmadekmanifestkinkthekturning kkkkkkkkkkofkthekseasons.kkForkakWiccan,kthekgodskandknaturekarekone.kkIn kkkkkkkkkkexploringkthekmysterieskofkthekseasonskwekareksee ingktokpenetrate kkkkkkkkkkmorekdeeplykthekmysterieskofkthekGodkandkGoddess. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskakwheelkofkcelebration,kWiccanskaccordktokthekwordskofkthe kkkkkkkkkkChargekofkthekGoddess,kwherekSheksays,k"Letkmykworshipkbekwithin kkkkkkkkkkthekheartkthatkrejoiceth,kforkbehold,kallkactskofkLovekandkPleasure kkkkkkkkkkarekmykrituals";kandkthat,k"Yekshallkdance,ksing,kfeast,kma ekmusic kkkkkkkkkkandklove,kallkinkmykpraise".kkAnyonekcankcelebratekthekturningkof kkkkkkkkkkthekseasons,kinktheirkownkway,kandkinktheirkownktime.kkWiccan kkkkkkkkkkcovenskwillkcommonlykgatherktogether,kandkma ekthekFestivalsktimes kkkkkkkkkkofkjoyfulkmerryma ing,kbutkyoukcankjustkaskeasilykma ekthe kkkkkkkkkkcelebrationkaksolitarykone,korkwithkjustkonekorktwokfriends.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkprincipleskdoknotkalter;kjustkthekwaykinkwhichkyoukac nowledge kkkkkkkkkkthem. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWiccanskgenerallykcelebratekeightkFestivals,kroughlyksixkwee s kkkkkkkkkkapart,kwhichkarekpivotalkpointskinktheksolark(seasonal)kcycle.k kkkkkkkkkkFourkofkthekFestivalskarekcalledkthekLesserkSabbats:kthesekarekthe kkkkkkkkkkSpringkandkAutumnkEquinoxes,kandkthekWinterkandkSummerkSolstices.k kkkkkkkkkkThekotherkfourkFestivalskarekcalledkthekGreaterkSabbats,kandkrelate kkkkkkkkkktokparticularkseasonskwhenkinkbygonekdays,kcertainkactivitieskwould kkkkkkkkkkhavekbeenkunderta en,kusuallykfollowedkbykakpartykofksomek ind.k kkkkkkkkkkTherekarekvariationskuponktheknameskbykwhichkthesekGreaterkSabbats kkkkkkkkkkarek nown,kbutktheksimplekoneskarekCandlemas,kBeltane,kLammaskand kkkkkkkkkkSamhain.kkCandlemaskiskalsok nownkaskImbolg,kOimelc,korkBrigid; kkkkkkkkkkLammaskisksometimeskcalledkLughnassadh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1673 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkItkiskimportantktokunderstandkthatkthekFestivalskarekcelebratkkkkkkkkkkingkaktimekofkyear:kakseason,knotkakdate.kkMostkboo skwrittenkabout kkkkkkkkkkWiccakhavekbeenkwrittenkbykankauthorklivingkandkwor ingkinkthe kkkkkkkkkknorthernkhemisphere,kwhokmaykquitekrightlyksaykthatk"Beltanekis kkkkkkkkkkcelebratedkonkMaykEve."kkNorthernkhemispherekreaderskwillkautomatikkkkkkkkkkcallykinterpretkthiskas,k"Beltanekiskatkthekendkofkspring,kjust kkkkkkkkkkbeforeksummerkgetskunderway."kkINkthekWiccankBoo kofkShadows,kthe kkkkkkkkkkpoemkbykKiplingkiskusedkatkthiskFestivalkwhichksays,k"Okdoknotktell kkkkkkkkkkthekPriestskofkourkart,kforktheykwouldkcallkitksin;kbutkwe'vekbeen kkkkkkkkkkoutkinkthekwoodskallknight,ka'conjurin'ksummerkin....k." kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkOfkcourse,k"Maykeve"kinktheksouthernkhemispherekiskautumn kkkkkkkkkkheadingkintokwinter,kentirelykthekwrongktimekofkyearktokcelebrate kkkkkkkkkkthekportentkofksummer.kkInkmuchktheksamekway,kChristmaskandkEaster kkkkkkkkkkarekcelebratedkatkthekwrongktimekofkyearkhere.kkInkthekChristian kkkkkkkkkkcalendar,kChristmaskcoincideskwithkthekWinterkSolsticek-kandkthe kkkkkkkkkkgrowingkpopularitykofkthekJunekYulekFestkinkthekBluekMountainskin kkkkkkkkkkNSWkeachkyearksuggestskankawarenesskofkthis,kevenkifkitkis,kinkthis kkkkkkkkkkcase,kexpressedkinkakcommercialksense.kkThekdatekofkEasterkchanges kkkkkkkkkkeachkyear,kbecausekitkiskthekfirstkSundaykafterkthekfirstkFullkMoon kkkkkkkkkkafterkthekSpringkEquinox,k(AndktheyktryktoktellkuskthatkEaster kkkkkkkkkkwasn'tkoriginallykakPagankFestival!)kkSokinktheksouthernkhemikkkkkkkkkksphere,kaccordingktokthekruleskbykwhichkthekdatekofkEasterkis kkkkkkkkkkdetermined,kitkshouldkfallksometimekinklatekSeptemberkorkearly kkkkkkkkkkOctoberkeachkyear.kkHowever,kChristianitykisknotkakreligionkwhich kkkkkkkkkkseeskakparticularkconnectionkbetweenkhumanitykandkthekenvironment, kkkkkkkkkkandkthereforekhasknokproblemkinkcelebratingkEasterkinkautumn,kand kkkkkkkkkkChristmaskatkthekSummerkSolstice.kkWiccakiskdifferent,kandkitkIS kkkkkkkkkkimportantktokusktokattunekourselvesktokthekpassagekofkthekseasons, kkkkkkkkkkhencekwekfollowktheknaturalkcyclekwhereverkweklive.kkInkthe kkkkkkkkkksouthernkhemispherekthiskmeanskcelebratingkBeltanekatkthekstartkof kkkkkkkkkksummer,ki.e.,kthekbeginningkofkNovember,knotkthekbeginningkofkMay. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekWiccankyearkstartskandkendskwithkSamhain,kwhichkiskalso kkkkkkkkkk nownkaskHallowe'en,korkAllkSaintskEve.kkItkiskthekcelebration kkkkkkkkkkwhichkfallskjustkbeforekthekdar knightskofkwinterkta ekhold.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkWinterkSolsticekcomesknext,kwherekWiccanskcelebratekthekrebirthkof kkkkkkkkkkthekSun;katkCandlemaskaboutksixkwee sklater,kwekcelebratekthekfirst kkkkkkkkkksignskofkthekgrowingklightk(longerkdays,)kandkofkspringkbeginning kkkkkkkkkktokshowkitself.kkThekSpringkEquinoxk(aroundk21kSeptemberk-kit kkkkkkkkkkvarieskfromkyearktokyear)kiskthektimekwhenkdaykandknightkarekequal kkkkkkkkkkinklength,kandkthekSunkiskonkitskincrease.kkNextkiskBeltane,kthe kkkkkkkkkkFestivalkwherekWiccanskcelebratekthekunionkofkthekyoungkmankand kkkkkkkkkkwoman,kandkeveryonekdanceskaroundkaktree,kcrownedkwithkakgarlandkof kkkkkkkkkkflowers,kandkdec edkwithkredkandkwhitekribbons.

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1674 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAboutksixkwee skafterkBeltanekwekcomektokthekSummerkSolstice, kkkkkkkkkkwhenkthekSunkreacheskitskgreatestkheight.kkItkisktheklongest kkkkkkkkkkday/shortestknight,kandkinktheksouthernkhemisphere,kfallskaroundk21 kkkkkkkkkkDecember.kkThenkthekSunkbeginskitskwaykbac kdownktowardskwinter, kkkkkkkkkkbutkwekarekstillkinksummer.kkSixkwee skafterkthekSolsticekis kkkkkkkkkkLammas,kwhenkinkagriculturalksocieties,kthekharvestkiskreaped,kand kkkkkkkkkkwekreceivekthekbenefitskfromkourkhardkwor .kkThekSunkatkLammas kkkkkkkkkkstillkhaskgreatkstrength,kforkitkiskthekripeningktime,kratherkthan kkkkkkkkkkthekgrowingktimekwhichkceaseskaroundkthekSummerkSolstice.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkAutumnkEquinoxkfollowskthis,kusuallykaroundk21kMarchk(again,kit kkkkkkkkkkvarieskfromkyearktokyear),kwhichkiskoftenkcelebratedkaskakHarvest kkkkkkkkkkFestival.kkTheknextkFestival,ksomeksixkwee skafterkthekEquinox,kis kkkkkkkkkkSamhain,kwhichkiskthektimekjustkbeforekthekwinterkreallyksetskin, kkkkkkkkkkandkwhenkfoodkiskstored,kandkwekrememberkthosekwhokhavekpassed kkkkkkkkkkaway.kkInkmanykcountrieskthiskiskthektimekwhenkthekLordkofkthekWild kkkkkkkkkkHuntkrides,kwhichkiskmirroredkinkthekwaykthatkthekwindskarekoften kkkkkkkkkkwildkatkthisktimekofkyear,kandkthekcloudskraggedkandkwind-torn. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkInkpartskofkAustraliakyoukwillkfindkthatksomekofkthese kkkkkkkkkkseasonalkaspectskarekaklittlekdifferent,kbutkgenerallykspea ing, kkkkkkkkkkyoukshouldkbekablektokfeelkthekchangekfromkwinterktokspring;kspring kkkkkkkkkktoksummer;ksummerktokautumnkandkthenkautumnktokwinter.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkspecificskwillkchange,kbutkthekgeneralktrendkiskveryksimilark-kone kkkkkkkkkkseasonkleadingktokanother.kkYoukhavekonlyktokbecomekawarekofkthe kkkkkkkkkknaturalkchangeskinkyourkownkenvironmentktokrealizekthatkthe kkkkkkkkkkconceptskofkthekWheelkofkthekYearkarekvalidkwhereverkyoukmaykbe. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskakWheelkofkinitiation,kthekWheelkofkthekYearkiskthekpath kkkkkkkkkkwhichkleadskuskthroughkthekexperienceskofkourkgodsktowardskthat kkkkkkkkkkpointkwhichkJungiankpsychologistskcallkindividuation,kandkwhich kkkkkkkkkkWiccanskcallk nowledgekofkthekOldkOnes.kkAskwithkallkmystical kkkkkkkkkkexperiences,kthesekmysterieskareknotkcommunicatedkinkankacademickor kkkkkkkkkkintellectualkmanner;ktheykarekdirectkexperienceskwhichkeach kkkkkkkkkkindividualkshareskwithkthekOldkGods.kkDifferentktraditionskhave kkkkkkkkkkdevelopedkdifferentkwayskofktravellingkthekWheel,kbutkallkwayskhave kkkkkkkkkkakcommonkpurpose,kandkallkarekequallykvalid,kprovidedkthekbasic kkkkkkkkkkprincipleskareksound. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWekgavekakverykbriefkdescriptionkofkthekcyclekofkthekWheelkof kkkkkkkkkkthekYearkabove.kkNowkwekcankhavekakloo katkthiskinkmorekdetail, kkkkkkkkkkusingkforkourkframewor kakmythologykwhichkiskusedkbykourkownkCoven.k kkkkkkkkkkItkiskbasedkuponkthekGardneriankandkAlexandrianktraditionskinkwhich kkkkkkkkkkwekwerekinitiated,kbutkhaskevolvedkoverkseveralkyears,kandkhaskbeen kkkkkkkkkkgreatlykmodifiedktokreflectkourkownkunderstandingkofkthekturning kkkkkkkkkkwheelkofkthekseasons.kkWekshouldksaykatkthiskpointkthatkwekusekthe kkkkkkkkkktermsk"King"kandk"Queen"ktokreferktokthekprinciplekcharacterskin kkkkkkkkkkthekmythology.kkItkiskimportantktokunderstandkthatkwekareknot kkkkkkkkkkreferringktokakmodernkmonarchy,kbutktokthekancientkpagankprinciples kkkkkkkkkkthosektitleskinfer.kkThekKingkiskthekpriest/ ingkofkthekforest:k kkkkkkkkkkhisktalekisktoldkinkmanykformskinkmanyklands.kkHekiskthekessential kkkkkkkkkkmalekthatklieskwithinkallkmen,kandkiskthekanimusk(inkitkJungian kkkkkkkkkksense)kofkallkwomen.kkThekQueenkiskSovereignty:kkshekiskthe kkkkkkkkkkmysteriousksoulkofknature;kthekessentialkwomankthatklieskwithinkall kkkkkkkkkkwomen,kandkiskthekanimakofkallkmen.

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1675 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSoktokbeginkourkjourney:kkhowkdokweksetkoutktokexplorekthe kkkkkkkkkkmysterieskofkexistence?kkWell,kthekjourneykbeginskwithkakquestionkkkkkkkkkkkwekhavekfirstktokbekawarekthatktherekiskakmysteryktokexplore!kkAnd kkkkkkkkkkthatkmostkbasickofkquestionskis:kk"wherekdidklifekcomekfrom?kkhow kkkkkkkkkkdidkitkallkbegin?"kkForkakWiccanktherekiskankunderlyingkspiritual kkkkkkkkkkintuitionkthatkthekanswerktokthatkquestionkiskquiteksimplykthatkthe kkkkkkkkkkuniversekwaskcreatedkbykdeity.kkSokwekcelebratekthekbeginningkof kkkkkkkkkkthekWheelkofkthekYearkaskakbeingkthekcreationkofkallklifekbykthe kkkkkkkkkkGodkandkthekGoddess;kwekbeginkwithkakcreationkmyth. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekWheelkofkthekYearkstartskwithkSamhain;katkthisktimekwe kkkkkkkkkkcelebratekthekGreatkRitek-kthekjoyfulkunionkofkthekGodkandkGoddess kkkkkkkkkkinkthekOtherworld.kkThisktoucheskthekverykdepthskofkthekmystery.k kkkkkkkkkkWekcelebratekatkthisktimekthekconceptionkthatkwillkleadktokthe kkkkkkkkkkbirthkofkallkcreation. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWiccanskcelebratekallklifekaskakmanifestationkofkthekmystery kkkkkkkkkkofkthekgods,kbutkdoknotkpretendktokunderstandkhowksuchklifekcame kkkkkkkkkkintokbeing.kkNorkdokwekclaimktokfullykunderstandkourkgods;ktokthe kkkkkkkkkkWiccaktheykarekakmystery,kandkwhenkdescribingkourkvisionkofkdeity kkkkkkkkkkwekuseksymbolsktokexpresskaskbestkwekcankthekvisionkwekhavekseen.k kkkkkkkkkkWekdoknotk nowkhowkthekuniversekwaskcreatedkandkthiskremains kkkkkkkkkkessentiallykmysterious.kkHowever,kbykchoosingktokta ekthekpathkof kkkkkkkkkkinitiationk-kthatkis,kbykfollowingkthekWheelkofkthekYeark-kwekcan kkkkkkkkkklearnktokcommunekmorekdeeplykwithkthekgods,kandkexperiencekvisions kkkkkkkkkkwhichkcankrevealkaklittlekofkthekmystery. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekvisionkthatkwekhavekofkSamhainkiskofkthekcreation.kkInkthe kkkkkkkkkkWiccakthekinexpressiblekmysterykofkthekdeitykisksymbolizedkinkthe kkkkkkkkkkformkofkthekGodkandkGoddess.kkThuskatkSamhainkwekcelebratektheir kkkkkkkkkklovekaskthekrootkofkallkcreation.kkSamhainkiskthektimekofkcreation:k kkkkkkkkkkthekmomentkwhenklifekiskconceivedkinkthekwombkofkthekGreatkMother. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskwekproceedktoktheknextkofkthekfestivalsk-kYulek-kitkshould kkkkkkkkkknotkbeksurprisingktokfindkthatkfollowingkthekmomentkofkconception kkkkkkkkkkwekshouldksee ktokunderstandkthekmomentkofkbirth.kkThekconception, kkkkkkkkkkthekmomentkofkcreationkdeepkwithinkthekmystery,ktoo kplacekat kkkkkkkkkkSamhain.kkThekseedkplantedkatkthisktimekgestateskinkthekwombkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkGoddesskuntilkthekchildkofkthekgodsk-kinkessence,kthekwholekof kkkkkkkkkkcreationk-kemergeskfromkthekwombkofkthekGreatkMother.kkThiskis kkkkkkkkkkcelebratedkatkYule,kwhichkisksymbolizedkbykthekbirthkofkthekSun.k kkkkkkkkkkInkpre-Christianktimes,kthisktimekwaskcalledk"Giuli,"kandkfollowed kkkkkkkkkk"ModrakNecht"k-kthekNightkofkthekMothers. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkYulekiskcelebratedkatkthektimekofkthekMidwinterkSolstice.k kkkkkkkkkkThiskiskthektimekofktheklongestknight,kandkofkthekshortestkday.k kkkkkkkkkkThekSunkiskseenktokbeksymbolicallykbornkanew,kaskthekGreatkMother kkkkkkkkkkgiveskbirthkatkthektimekofkthekdar estknight.kkThekSunkiskakvitally kkkkkkkkkkimportantksymbolktokus,kforkitkhaskbeenklongk nownkthatkallklifekon kkkkkkkkkkEarthkiskdependantkuponkthekSun.kkThekWheelkofkthekYearkitselfkis kkkkkkkkkkbasedkuponktheksolarkcycle,kandkthekSunkiskseenkasksymbolickofkthe kkkkkkkkkklifekforcekwhichkwekworshipkaskthekGodkandkthekGoddess.kkThekSunkis kkkkkkkkkkthekdominantkforcekinkallkourklives.kkWithoutkitsklightkandkheat, kkkkkkkkkklifekaskwekunderstandkitkiskimpossible.kkThekpassagekofkthekSun kkkkkkkkkkthroughkthekheavenskregulateskthekpassagekofkthekseasonskwe kkkkkkkkkkexperiencekuponkthekEarth,kandkiskthereforekthekfoundationkofkthe

   

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkWiccankWheelkofkthekYear.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1676 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAtkthekMidwinterkSolsticekwekcelebratekthekrebirthkofkthekSun.k kkkkkkkkkkManykWiccankcovenskfollowkthekoldkpaganktraditionkofkenactingkthis kkkkkkkkkkaskthekGoddesskgivingkbirthktokthekChildkofkPromise.kkItkwaskatkthe kkkkkkkkkkMidwinterkSolsticekinktheknorthernkhemispherekthatkthekbirthkof kkkkkkkkkkMithraskwaskcelebrated.kkForktheksamekreasonkitkwaskdecidedkink273 kkkkkkkkkkA.D.ktokappointkthiskdatektokcelebratekthekbirthkofkChrist;kthe kkkkkkkkkk"son"kofkGod. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkInkthekworldkofknature,kYuleksignifieskthekmomentkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkrebirthkofkthekSun.kkInkourkownkliveskwekcankta ekitktokrepresent kkkkkkkkkkthekmomentkofkphysicalkbirth.kkThuskinkourkritualkcycle,kwekenact kkkkkkkkkkthekrebirthkofkthekSunkbyktheklightingkofkcandles,kandkespecially kkkkkkkkkktheklightingkofkakflamekwithinkthekcauldronktokrepresentkthe kkkkkkkkkkemergencekofknewklifekfromkthekdar nesskofkthekwombkofkthekGoddess.k kkkkkkkkkkWekrituallykinvo ekthekGreatkMotherkandkAll-Father,kandkwe kkkkkkkkkksymbolicallykenactkthekGoddesskgivingkbirthktoktheknewkyear.kkIn kkkkkkkkkkhumanktermskthekchildkrepresentskallkthekpotentialkforklife,kaskyet kkkkkkkkkkunawarekthatkallkthekmysterieskofkthekuniverseklieskhiddenkdeep kkkkkkkkkkwithin.kkLi ekAdamkandkEvekinkthekGardenkofkEden,kthekchildkiskborn kkkkkkkkkkinkinnocence,kcreatedkinkthekimagekofkthekgods. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWekhavekta enktheksecondkstepkuponkourkjourney.kkFromknowkon kkkkkkkkkkthekdayskcontinuektoklengthenkaskthekSunkclimbsktowardkitskheight kkkkkkkkkkatkthekSummerkSolstice.kkInkresponsektokthekgreaterkheatkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkSun,ktheklandkbeginsktokawa enkaskwekstartkthekjourneykfromkwinter kkkkkkkkkktowardskspring.kkTheknextkfestivalkiskCandlemas.kkAskwekmightkguess kkkkkkkkkkfromktheknamek(givenktokitkbykthekChristians),kitkiskakfestivalkof kkkkkkkkkklightskwhichkcelebrateskthekgrowthkofkthekSun.kkBykCandlemas,kthe kkkkkkkkkkdayskarekappreciablyklonger.kkOurkunderstandingkofkthiskfestival kkkkkkkkkkhaskbeenkguidedkbykancientkpaganktraditionkandkourkownkinspiration.k kkkkkkkkkkWekseekthiskaskaktimekofkpurificationkandkmostkespeciallykaktimekof kkkkkkkkkkinitiationkintokthekfemalekmysteries.kkAtkCandlemaskwekobservekin kkkkkkkkkknaturekthekawa eningkpotentialkforkthekfullnesskofksummer.kkIn kkkkkkkkkkhumanktermskwekrepresentkthiskbykthekfirstkfemalekmenstruation.k kkkkkkkkkkThiskiskthekvirginkaspectkofkthekGoddess,kmar ingkthekawa eningkof kkkkkkkkkkherkpotentialktokbecomekthekmother. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWekcelebratekthiskritualkbykarmingkthekyoungkvirginkwithkthe kkkkkkkkkkpowerskofkthekelements.kkWekcelebratekherkinitiationkintokthe kkkkkkkkkkmysterieskofkherksex.kkTokreflectkthiskessentialkfemalekmystery,kwe kkkkkkkkkkenactkthekyoungkgirlkbeingkinstructedkbykherkmotherkandkgrandmother kkkkkkkkkkintokthekmysterieskofkbeingkakwoman.kkThuskwekrevealkthatkthe kkkkkkkkkkmysterykofkthekvirginkiskalsokfoundkwithinkthekmotherkcronekas kkkkkkkkkkwell. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkItkiskatkCandlemaskinkmanykpartskofkBritainkthatkthekwomenkof kkkkkkkkkkthekhousekdresskaksheafkofkoatskinkwoman'skclothing,kandklaykitkin kkkkkkkkkkakbas etkcalledk"Brighid'skbed."kkTheykalsokplacekaksmallkphallic kkkkkkkkkkclubkinkthekbedkandkthenkcallkoutkthreektimes,k"Brighidkiskcome, kkkkkkkkkkBrighidkiskwelcome!",kandkleavekcandleskburningkallknightkbeside kkkkkkkkkkthekbed.kkBehindkallkthiskwekcatchkglimpseskofkdeeperkmysteries kkkkkkkkkkthatkcankonlykbekgraspedkbykpassingkbeyondkakmerekintellectual kkkkkkkkkkappreciationkofktheksymbolism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1677 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTokcontinuekourkjourneykweknowkcomektokthekSpringkEquinox.kkIt kkkkkkkkkkmightkseemkthatkcelebratingkCandlemaskaskakfemalekmysterykiskrather kkkkkkkkkkunbalancedkinkakreligionkwhichkiskbasedkuponkpolaritykofkmalekand kkkkkkkkkkfemale;kbutkno;kforkreasonskofktradition,kandkbecausekwomankreach kkkkkkkkkkpubertykbeforekmen,kitkisknotkuntilkthekSpringkEquinoxkthatkthe kkkkkkkkkkinitiatorykmalekritekiskenacted.kkInkthiskwekarmkthekyoungkgodkwith kkkkkkkkkkthek nowledgekofkhiskownkcreativekpower;khekiskinitiatedkintokthe kkkkkkkkkkmysterieskofksex,kjustkaskthekyoungkgirlkwaskarmedkwithkthekpowers kkkkkkkkkkofkherkpotential.kkThiskritualkexpresseskthekmysterykthatkhe kkkkkkkkkkcontainskwithinkhiskyoungklife;kthekpotentialktokbecomekakfather kkkkkkkkkkandkwisekoldkman. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThiskcontinuesktokreflectkthekturningktidekofkthekseasons.kkWe kkkkkkkkkkareknowkinkthekspring.kkNewklifekiskawa eningkonkallksides.kkThe kkkkkkkkkksapkiskrisingkinkthektrees,kandkbothkthekyoungkmankandkyoungkgirl kkkkkkkkkkhavekawa enedktokthekmysterieskofktheirksexuality.kkThekSpring kkkkkkkkkkEquinoxkiskakvitalkmomentkinkthekpassagekofktheksolarkcycle.kkDay kkkkkkkkkkandknightknowkstandkequal,kandkfromkthiskpointkonwardsktheklight kkkkkkkkkkwillkdominatekthekdar ness.kkTheklongkdar knightskofkwinterkhavekat kkkkkkkkkklastkbeenkoverthrown. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBetweenkthekSpringkEquinoxkandkBeltanekthekyoungkmankandkwoman kkkkkkkkkkpursuekonekanother,keachkbecomingkmorekawarekofkthekotherksex.k kkkkkkkkkkThuskthekmankunderstandskthatktherekiskmorektokthekmysterykofklife kkkkkkkkkkthankpurekmasculinity,kandkthekwomankseeskthatktherekiskmorekto kkkkkkkkkklifekthankherkfemininity.kkHavingkfoundkthiskvision,ktheykexpress kkkkkkkkkkitkinktheirkdesirektokbekjoinedkaskone. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWekarriveknowkatkBeltane.kkThiskiskthektimekofktheksacred kkkkkkkkkkmarriagekwhenkthekyoungkmankandkwomankarekjoinedktogetherkas kkkkkkkkkkhusbandkandkwife.kkWithktheirkwishktokbekmarried,ktheykhave kkkkkkkkkkglimpsedkthatkthekmysterieskofklovekmaykleadktokakdeeperkunion kkkkkkkkkkstillk-kinkessence,ktokakunionkwithkthekgods.kkBykgoingkbeyond kkkkkkkkkktheirksensekofkindividualkselfktokembracekonekanother,ktheykhave kkkkkkkkkkta enkakprofoundkstepktowardkthekGodkandkGoddess.kkTheykhave kkkkkkkkkkdiscoveredkthatkdeepkwithinkthemselvesktheykarekbothkmalekand kkkkkkkkkkfemale,kandkthekexperiencekofkthiskbringskaknewksensekofkjoykand kkkkkkkkkkwholeness. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBeltanekiskaktimekofkjoykandkcelebration;kthekdar kofkwinter kkkkkkkkkkiskforgotten,kandksummerkiskcoming.kkItkiskaktimekofkfertilitykand kkkkkkkkkkfire.kkWekdancekthekancientkmysterykofkthekMaypole,kcelebratingkour kkkkkkkkkkunderstandingkourkunderstandingkofkthekmysterykofktheklovekofkakman kkkkkkkkkkforkakwoman.kkThekpolekiskcrownedkwithkakgarlandkofkflowerskto kkkkkkkkkksymbolizektheirkjoining;kthekribbonskarekredkandkwhite,kreminding kkkkkkkkkkuskofkbloodkandksperm.kkThekdancekisktheksexualkfire,kaskwekdance kkkkkkkkkkaboutkthekpolekwindingkthekribbonskinkthekpatternkofkthekspiral, kkkkkkkkkkwhichkrevealskthekmysterykofkthekserpent;kthatkancientkawa enerkwho kkkkkkkkkkslumberskuntilkwarmedkbykthekrisingkSun. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThiskiskthektimekofktheksacredkmarriage.kkItkiskakmomentkwhen kkkkkkkkkkhumankconsciousnesskhaskgraspedkthekpowerskofknature,kjoinedkwith kkkkkkkkkkthosekpowerskandksharedkinkthekmysterykofklife.kkTheklandkandkour kkkkkkkkkkliveskarekmarriedkaskone.kkForkthosekthatkarekablektokseekit,kthere kkkkkkkkkkiskakvisionkofkthekcreationkofkallklifekbykthekGodkandkthekGoddess.k kkkkkkkkkkForkthekmysterykisknowkrevealedkforkallktokseek-kthekwoman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkconceiveskofkherkhusband.kkShekiskpregnantkandkwillkbearkakchild.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1678 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThroughktheirkunionktheykdiscoverktheirkdeeperkselves,kwhich kkkkkkkkkkweksymbolizekaskthekKingkandkQueenkofkthekland.kkThekmankandkwoman kkkkkkkkkknowkta ekupktheirknewkroles,kandkrulekthek ingdomkofktheirknew kkkkkkkkkkfoundklives.kkAtkCandlemaskandkthekSpringkEquinoxkakmankandkakwoman kkkkkkkkkkwerekinstructedkinkthekpowerskofknature.kkNowkatkBeltanekthat kkkkkkkkkk nowledgekisktransformedkintokunderstanding.kkForkinkjoining kkkkkkkkkktogetherktheykhavekunderstoodkthatktheirkliveskandktheklandkare kkkkkkkkkkone. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTheklandkcontinuesktokbringkforthklifekinkankeverkgreater kkkkkkkkkkprofusion.kkThekwomankwhokisknowkthekQueenkbeginsktokshowkthekfirst kkkkkkkkkksignskofkthekBeltanekseedkplantedkinkherkwombkbykherkhusband,kthe kkkkkkkkkkKing.kkShekiskpregnant;kthekmirrorkimagekofkthekmaturingkcrops. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkNowkwekcomektokMidsummer,kthekheightkofktheksolarkWheel.kkThis kkkkkkkkkkiskthektimekofktheklongestkdaykandkshortestknight,kandkaktimekof kkkkkkkkkkmaturity,kbothkinkthekagriculturalkcyclekandkthekliveskofkthekman kkkkkkkkkkandkwoman.kkTheykruleknowkaskKingkandkQueen;kjustkaskthekSunkiskat kkkkkkkkkkitskheight,ksoktooktheykarekatkthekheightkofktheirkcreativekpowers.k kkkkkkkkkkThekwoman'skmaturekpowerkiskreflectedkinkherkapproachingkmotherkkkkkkkkkkhood.kkThekman'skpowerkiskreflectedkinkhisk ingship,kandkinkhis kkkkkkkkkkmasterykofknaturekandkrulekofkthek ingdom.kkTogetherkthekKingkand kkkkkkkkkkQueenkpresidekoverkthek ingdomkofktheirklives,kcelebratingkthe kkkkkkkkkkvisionkofkcreativeklight. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkButktheklightkdoesknotkcontinuektokrise.kkThekvisionkofklight kkkkkkkkkkmustkoncekmorekgivekwayktokakgrowingkdar ness.kkAskthingskgrow,kso kkkkkkkkkktooktheykmustkwitherkandkdie.kkFromkMidsummer,kthekSunkmustkfall, kkkkkkkkkkuntilkrebornkoncekmorekatkthekWinterkSolstice.kkThuskMidsummerkis kkkkkkkkkkakcelebrationkofkthekKingkandkQueen'skpower,kbutkmustkalsokreflect kkkkkkkkkkthekreturningkcurrentkofkdar ness.kkWeksymbolizekthiskbykthe kkkkkkkkkkappearancekofkakchallengerkwhokconfrontskthekcouple.kkUntilknowkthe kkkkkkkkkkKingkandkQueenkhavekruledksupreme;ktheykhavekimposedktheirkwill kkkkkkkkkkuponkthek ingdomkwithoutkchallenge,kbutknowkaksinglekdar kfigure kkkkkkkkkkmustkappear.kkThiskiskthekbeginningkofkthekancientkpagankthemekof kkkkkkkkkkthekbattlekbetweenkthekbrothers;ktheklightkandkdar k ingsknowkbegin kkkkkkkkkktheirkconflict. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekchallengerksee sktokabductkthekQueen;kthekchildkshekbears kkkkkkkkkkrepresentskthek ingdom.kkThekKingkmustknowkdefendkthekland.kkThey kkkkkkkkkkfight,klightkagainstkdar ,kbutkaskyetktheksunkiskstillksupreme,kand kkkkkkkkkkthekKingkdriveskthekchallengerkbac .kkBut,kthekchallengerkiskarmed kkkkkkkkkkwithkthekpowerkofkfate;kwek nowkthatkthekSunkmustkfall.kkWithka kkkkkkkkkksinglekstro ekthekchallengerkwoundskthekKing,klayingkopenkhis kkkkkkkkkkthigh;kbutkstillktheklightkiskthekgreaterkpower,kandkthekKing kkkkkkkkkkdefeatskthekchallenger.kkTheklightkstillkrulesksupreme,kbutka kkkkkkkkkkshadowkhaskfallenkoverkthek ingdom. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThuskMidsummerkcomesktokakclose.kkThekKingkandkQueenkremainkat kkkkkkkkkkthekheightkofktheirkpower,kyetkaknewkforcek-kdar nessk-kis kkkkkkkkkkawa eningkinkthekworld.kkAskthekseasonskcontinuektokturn,kthekgods kkkkkkkkkkbeginktokrevealkakfurtherkmystery:kknotkonlykarektheyklight,kthey kkkkkkkkkkarekalsokdar kaskwell.kkThuskthekKingkandkQueenkhavekawa enedktoka kkkkkkkkkkdeeperkmystery;ktheykhavekseenkthatknotkonlykarektheykmalekand kkkkkkkkkkfemale,kbutktheykarekalsoklightkandkdar kaskwell.

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1679 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskwekloo katktheknaturalkworld,kwekseekthatkthekSunkisknow kkkkkkkkkkwaning.kkThekdayskgrowkshorter,kandkweksensekprofoundkchangeskin kkkkkkkkkkthekworldkaroundkus.kkAfterkMidsummer,ktheknextkfestivalkwekcomekto kkkkkkkkkkiskLammas.kkThekcropskhavekmatured,kandkinkthekwaykofknature,kaged kkkkkkkkkkandkturnedktokseed.kkThekdayskarekstillklongerkthanktheknights;kthe kkkkkkkkkklightkstillkruleskinkthekland,kbutkthekpowerskofkdar nesskareknow kkkkkkkkkkvisiblykgrowing.kkSummerkiskcomingktokankendkandkwekarekapproaching kkkkkkkkkkautumn.kkToksymbolizekthekthemekofkthekwaningklightkandkgrowing kkkkkkkkkkpowerkofkdar ness,kwekcelebratekLammaskaskakHarvestkFestival.kkIn kkkkkkkkkkcuttingkthekcornk(wheat),kwekcelebratekthekendkofkthekvisionkof kkkkkkkkkklight.kkWekcutkthekcornkwithkjoy;kaskwekhaveksown,ksoknowkwekreap, kkkkkkkkkkbutkinkcuttingkthekcornkweksignalkthekendkofkthekcyclekofkgrowth. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskwekgatherkinkthekharvestkwekwatchkaskthekpowerkofkthekSun kkkkkkkkkkwanes.kkThekcuttingkofkthekcornkiskankancientksymbolkofkdeathkand kkkkkkkkkktransformation,kandkreflectskthekseasonalkchangeskatkwor kinkthe kkkkkkkkkklandkaroundkus.kkAskwekloo ktokthekKingkandkQueen,kwhokwerekmarried kkkkkkkkkktoktheklandkatkBeltane,kwekseekinktheirkliveskakreflectionkofkthese kkkkkkkkkkthemes.kkJustkaskthekharvestkiskreaped,ksokthekQueenknowkbirthskher kkkkkkkkkkchild. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekmysterykofkLammaskiskthatkbykfulfillingkthekvisionkof kkkkkkkkkklightkinkbringingktokfruitionkthekseedksownkinkthekspring,kwekmust kkkkkkkkkkfacekthekvisionkofkdeath.kkForkthekKingkbearskthekwoundkhekreceived kkkkkkkkkkatkMidsummer,kitkiskakwastingkwoundkandkwillknotkheal.kkHekslowly kkkkkkkkkkwea ens,khiskcreativekpowerkspent.kkHekiskstillkKing,kbutkhis kkkkkkkkkkpowerskarekwaning,kakreflectionkofkthekfallingklight.kkButkLammas kkkkkkkkkkiskalsokaktimekofkhope,kforkinkthekcuttingkofkthekcornkthekseedkis kkkkkkkkkkgatheredkin,kwhichkiskthekhopekforklifektokcome.kkAskthekKingkloo s kkkkkkkkkktokhiskfirstkbornksonkhekloo sktokthekheirkofkthek ingdom.kkWe kkkkkkkkkkcelebratekLammaskaskaktimekofkfulfillment;kitkiskaktimekofkjoy, kkkkkkkkkkwhenkwekreapkallkwekhaveksown. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBothkKingkandkQueenkhavekbeenktransformed.kkThekKingkhadkto kkkkkkkkkkacceptkthekglimpsekofkthekvisionkofkdeathkinkhisk illingkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkchallengerkandkta ingkofkakmortalkwound;ksoknowkthekQueenkdieskto kkkkkkkkkkherself,kforkinkgivingkbirthkshekhaskgivenkthekchildkakpartkofkher kkkkkkkkkklife,kpassingkherkpowerktokherkson.kkAskthekWheelkofkthekSeasons kkkkkkkkkkturns,kitkrevealskthatkthekgodskembracekbothklifekandkdeath.kkJust kkkkkkkkkkaskthekmankandkwomankwerekborn,ksoktooktheykmustkdie.kkLammas kkkkkkkkkkbringskthekvisionkofkmortality,kbutkrevealskthekhopekofkthe kkkkkkkkkkimmortalkspiritkhiddenkinktheknewkcutkgrain,kmadekmanifestkinkthe kkkkkkkkkknewkbornkchild,kwhoksymbolizeskthekawa eningkdar ness;khekiskthe kkkkkkkkkkpowerkofkthekwaningkSun.kkHekemergeskfromkthekwombkaskthekgrowing kkkkkkkkkkdar nesskappearskinktheknaturalkworld. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWekmustknowkmovekon.kkTimekwillkstandkstillkforkno-one.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkwheelkmustkturn,kandkwekmustkturnkwithkit.kkThiskiskourkfate,kas kkkkkkkkkkourkliveskreflectkthekturningkcyclekofkthekseasons.kkWekmustknow kkkkkkkkkkma ekourkwayktokthekAutumnkEquinox,kwherekoncekagainkthekpowerskof kkkkkkkkkklightkandkdar nesskstandkaskequalsk-kbutknowkitkiskthekdar ness kkkkkkkkkkthatkiskinkthekascendant. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkItkisktheknaturekofkhumankbeingsktokresistkthekdar ness.k kkkkkkkkkkHumanitykfearskdeathkabovekallkthings.kkItkiskthekrootkofkallkour kkkkkkkkkkfears;kdeathkiskthekfinalkinitiation.kkOnlykthroughkankacceptance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

kkkkkkkkkkandkunderstandingkofkdeathkcankwekhopektokunderstandkthekgoods.k kkkkkkkkkkOnlykinkacceptingkdeathkcankwektrulykacceptklife.kkLifekandkdeath kkkkkkkkkkarektwoksideskofktheksamekcoin;kwekcannotkhavekonekwithoutkthe kkkkkkkkkkother.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1680 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkBykthektimekwekreachkthekAutumnkEquinox,kitkbecomeskharderkto kkkkkkkkkkdescribekthekmysterieskthatkwekcelebrate.kkThekmysterykthatkcankbe kkkkkkkkkktaughtkorkexplainedkisknot,kafterkall,kakmystery.kkAtkthekAutumn kkkkkkkkkkEquinoxkwekmustkfaceklife'skgreatestkmystery:kkdeath.kkThiskiskthe kkkkkkkkkkhardestktrialkofkall.kkInkthekancientkmysterykschools,kandkin kkkkkkkkkkshamanickpractices,kthekmostkimportantkofkinitiationskwask-kandkis kkkkkkkkkk-ktheknearkdeathkexperience. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekchildkbornkatkLammaskisknowkakyoungkman.kkHekiskthe kkkkkkkkkkreflectionkofkthekgrowingkpowerskofkdar ness.kkThekoldkKingkof kkkkkkkkkkLightkbearskhiskmortalkwoundkandkisknowkadvancingkinkyears,khis kkkkkkkkkkpowerskwaningkaskthekdayskgrowkshorter,kandkthekSunkfallsklowerkand kkkkkkkkkklowerkinktheks y.kkThekQueenkalsokisknoklongerkyoung;kthekflowerkof kkkkkkkkkkherkyouthkiskpast.kkThekKingkandkQueenkarekagingkwithkthekland,kfor kkkkkkkkkktheykandktheklandkarekone. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkButkaskisknaturalkinkhumankaffairskweknonekofkuskwantktokadmit kkkkkkkkkkthekdar ness.kkWekfightkagainstkthekcomingkofktheknight.kkSokthe kkkkkkkkkkKingkandkQueenkeachkinktheirkownkwayktryktokholdkontokthek ingdom kkkkkkkkkktheykhavekbeenkatksuchkpainsktokbuild.kkThekKing'skpowerskare kkkkkkkkkkwaning;khisksonkiskinkthekfirstkflushkofkyouthkandkvigor,kandkhas kkkkkkkkkkbeenkinitiatedkintokthekmysterieskofkhiskpower.kkThekKingkgrows kkkkkkkkkkwea ,kandkmustkrelykuponkhisksonktokdefendkthek ingdom.kkBut,kthe kkkkkkkkkkKingknowkfearskhisksonkaskakpotentialkchallengektokthekthrone.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkQueenkli ewisekdoesknotkwantktokrelinquishkherkpower.kkSheksees kkkkkkkkkkthatkherkhusbandkgrowskwea kandkinfirm,kandkisknokmatchkforka kkkkkkkkkkchallenger.kkTokmaintainkherkpositionkinkthek ingdomkshekrelieskon kkkkkkkkkkthekpowerkofkherkson. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkFinally,kinkthekdeadkofktheknight,kthekoldkpaganktalekreplays kkkkkkkkkkitself.kkThekbattlekbegunkatkthekMidsummerkSolsticekbetweenkthe kkkkkkkkkklightkandkdar nesskmustknowkbekresumed;kthekKingkandkhisksonkfight kkkkkkkkkkaskthekEquinoxkcomeskuponkus.kkSwordkagainstkspearkthekbattle kkkkkkkkkkrages;kthekexperiencekofkthekKingkagainstkthekna edkstrengthkofkhis kkkkkkkkkkson'skyouth.kkThekQueenkwatcheskasktheykfight,ktornkbykhopekand kkkkkkkkkkfear.kkButkasktheykfight,ktherekiskakgreatkmysterykatkwor .kkBoth kkkkkkkkkkthekKingkandkQueenknowkfacektheirkfearkofkdeath,kandkasktheykloo kkkkkkkkkkdeathkinkthekeyektherekiskakmomentkofkunderstanding.kkThekKing,kthe kkkkkkkkkkQueen,kandktheklandkarekone.kkThusktheykarekbothktheklightkand kkkkkkkkkkdar ness.kkInkthekmomentkofkvisionkthekKingkloo skuponkhiskson,kand kkkkkkkkkkatklastkrealizeskthatkhekiskonlykfightingkhimself,kforkallkthings kkkkkkkkkkarekone.kkThekKingkandkhisksonkunderstandkthekmystery,kandkthey kkkkkkkkkkjoinkinklovekaskone.kkTheykgivekupkthekconflictkofklightkandkdar kkkkkkkkkktokpasskbeyondkthiskworld,kandktheykbecomekthekLordkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkOtherworld.kkThekQueenktookhaskseenkbothklifekandkdeath,kandk nows kkkkkkkkkkthatktheykarekone.kkWithkthiskrealizationkshekbecomeskthekcrone, kkkkkkkkkkandkunderstandskthekancientkmystery.kkThekEquinoxkmar skherklast kkkkkkkkkkmenstrualkcycle;kshekcanknoklongerkbearkchildren. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSoknowkwekmustkta ekourklastkstepkuponkthekWheel;kwekcomekat kkkkkkkkkklastktokSamhain,kfromkwherekitkallkbegan.kkAskweksawkatkthe kkkkkkkkkkbeginningkthiskiskthekWiccankNewkYear.kkThekQueenkhaskbecomekthe kkkkkkkkkkcronek-kthekhag,kthekWitch.kkShekliveskalone,kforkthekKingkisknow kkkkkkkkkkdead.kkThekSunkiskwaningktowardkthekSolstice;kwinterkiskuponkus, kkkkkkkkkkandktheknightkisknowklongerkthankthekday.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1681 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkIfkwekloo ktokthekland,kthekcyclekofkgrowthkhaskcomektokan kkkkkkkkkkend.kkThek ingdomkofkthekoldkyearkhasksymbolicallykpassedkaway, kkkkkkkkkktransformedkbykthekturningkofkthekseasons.kkThekQueenkisknowka kkkkkkkkkkWitch;kthekancientkhagkcronekwhok nowskthekmysterieskofklifekand kkkkkkkkkkdeath.kkInkma ingkherkjourneykshekhaskdiscoveredkthekancientkpower kkkkkkkkkkwhichklieskbehindkthekWheelkofkthekYear.kkShekhaskseenkthekspring, kkkkkkkkkktheksummer,kautumnkandkwinter,kandkshek nowskthatkankancient kkkkkkkkkkmysteryklieskhiddenkwithinkitkall. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkStandingkalone,kforkshekiskfearedkbykthosekwhokhavekyetkto kkkkkkkkkkwal kthekWheel,kshek indleskthekancientkSamhainkfire.kkAskshe kkkkkkkkkkraiseskherkarmskinkinvocationktokthekLordkofkthekOtherworld,ka kkkkkkkkkkgreatkstormkgathers.kkThekveilkiskopenedkbetweenkthekworlds.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkstormkbrea s,kandkthekWildkHuntkiskuponkuskaskthekspiritskofkthe kkkkkkkkkkdeadkarekledkfromkthekOtherworldkbykthekancientkHornedkGod;kthe kkkkkkkkkkAncientkLordkofkthekSamhainkfire.kkTokcompletekthekfinalkturnkof kkkkkkkkkkthekWheel,kthekCronekmustknowkjoinkwithkhiskmystery,kandkgokwith kkkkkkkkkkhimkbac kintokthekOtherworld.kkShekandkthekHornedkLordktravel kkkkkkkkkktogetherkbac kintokthekdepthskofkthekmystery.kkTherektheykjoinkin kkkkkkkkkklovekaskone;ktheksupremekmomentkofkthektruekGreatkRitekinkwhichkall kkkkkkkkkkthekmysterieskofkthekmalekandkfemale,kallkthekmysterieskofkthe kkkkkkkkkklightkandkdar karekmarriedktogetherkaskonekaskthekseedkiskplanted kkkkkkkkkkdeepkwithinkthekwombkofkthekGreatkMother. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkForknowkinktheknaturalkcyclekthekseedskofknaturekfallktokthe kkkkkkkkkkground,kthekseedkofklifektokcome.kkThekseedkharvestedkatkLammaskis kkkkkkkkkknowkplantedkinkthekearth,kfulfillingkthekmysterykofkthekreturn.k kkkkkkkkkkForkakwhilektheklandksleeps,kandklieskfallow.kkThekdar nesskseems kkkkkkkkkktokcomplete,kbutkofkcoursekwek nowkthatkwekwillkeventuallykreturn kkkkkkkkkktokthekWinterkSolstice,kandkthekcyclekwillkcontinue. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkLetkusknowkapproachkthekWiccankWheelkofkthekYearkaskitkis kkkkkkkkkkmeantktokbe:kkaskakmystery.kkForgetkthekintellect,kandkallowkyour kkkkkkkkkkintuitionkandkemotionsktokbekyourkguide.kkWhatkfollowskiskakguided kkkkkkkkkkvisualization,kwhichkyoukcankreadkontokaktape,korkhavekonekperson kkkkkkkkkkreadkaloud,kaskyoukfollowkthekjourneykitkdescribes.kkAllowkthe kkkkkkkkkkimagesktokformknaturallykinkyourkimagination,kandkyoukwillkfind kkkkkkkkkkyourselfkma ingkakmagicalkjourneykthroughkthekmysterieskofkthe kkkkkkkkkkgods. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkForkthosekwhokareknotkusedktokfollowingkakguidedkvisualizakkkkkkkkkktion,ktherekarekakfewksimplekrulesktokobserve.kkBeforekstartingkany kkkkkkkkkkmeditationkwor k(whichkincludeskthek indkofkalteredkstatekthat kkkkkkkkkkguidedkvisualizationkencourages),kseatkyourselfkcomfortablykinka kkkkkkkkkkquietkroom,kfreekfromkdistractions.kkTa ekthekphonekoffkthekhoo , kkkkkkkkkkandktellkanyonekwhokliveskwithkyouknotktokdisturbkyou.kkYoukcankof kkkkkkkkkkcoursekdokthiskoutkofkdoors,kbutkifkyoukdo,kma eksurekyoukarekwell kkkkkkkkkkoffkthekbeatenktrac ,kwithknokdangerkofkbushkwal erskstumblingkover kkkkkkkkkkyou,korkanykotherk indskofkdisturbance.kkHavekakpenkandkpadkhandy, kkkkkkkkkkandkifkitkhelpskyouktokrelaxkandkfocus,kuseksomekincense.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

   

 

 

   

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1682 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekWheelkofkThekYear,kAkGuidedkVisualization: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkJuliakPhillipsk&kRufuskHarrington kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkMa eksurekyoukarekseatedkcomfortably,kandkspendkakfewkmoments kkkkkkkkkkquietly,kallowingkyourkmindkandkbodyktokrelax.kkNow,kclosekyour kkkkkkkkkkeyes,kandkallowkthesekimagesktokbuildkinkyourkimagination: kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkItkiskdar ,kandkakchillkwindkiskblowing.kkYoukarekstanding kkkkkkkkkkwithinkakmightykforest,kandkcankfeelkthekgroundkhardkandkcold kkkkkkkkkkbeneathkyourkfeet.kkYoukloo kup,kandkseekthekstars,kbutktherekiskno kkkkkkkkkkMoon.kkPatiently,kyoukwait.kkYoukhearkaksoundkbehindkyou,kandkturn kkkkkkkkkkandkloo koverkyourkshoulder.kkYoukrealizekthatkyoukarekstanding kkkkkkkkkkuponkthekedgekofkakclearing;katkitskcenterkburnskakfire,kwithkan kkkkkkkkkkoldkmankseatedkbeforekit.kkHekiskwearingktatteredkanimalks ins,kand kkkkkkkkkkhasklongkraggedkhairkwhichkblowskaboutkinkthekwind.kkOnkthekfar kkkkkkkkkksidekofkthekclearingkyoukseekthekmouthkofkakcave,kandkstanding kkkkkkkkkkbeforekitkiskthekmightykfigurekofkthekHornedkGod. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkYoukturnkbac kandkloo kthroughkthektrees,kloo ingktowardskthe kkkkkkkkkkeasternkhorizon.kkForktonightkisktheklongestknight:kkthekdar ktime kkkkkkkkkkbeforekthekSunkiskrebornkatkthekWinterkSolstice,kandkyoukwait kkkkkkkkkkpatientlykforkthekfirstkrayskofktheknewkbornkSun.kkAtklastkyouksee kkkkkkkkkkakfaintkglimmerkofklightkuponkthekeasternkhorizon,kandkaskthekrays kkkkkkkkkkofktheknewkbornkSunkrisekinkthekmorningks y,kyoukhearktheksoundkof kkkkkkkkkkaknewkbornkbabekcrying.kkYoukturnkandkloo kbac kacrosskthekclearing kkkkkkkkkkaskankoldkwomankwal skoutkofkthekcavekcarryingkaknewkbornkchildkin kkkkkkkkkkherkarms.kkThekHornedkGodkreacheskforwardskandkcaresseskthekchild's kkkkkkkkkkchee ,kandkthenkthekoldkwomankta eskthekchild,kandksitskbykthekside kkkkkkkkkkofkthekoldkmankatkthekcampkfire. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskthekSunkcontinuesktokrisekinktheks y,kyouk nowkthatkyou kkkkkkkkkkhavekwitnessedkakverykgreatkmysteryk-kthekmysterykofkbirthk-kthe kkkkkkkkkkbirthkofkthekSun,kandkofkthekSon.kkYoukleavekthekclearing,kandkwal kkkkkkkkkkbac kthroughkthekforestktokyourkownkcottage,kwherekyoukwarm kkkkkkkkkkyourselfkatkthekfire,kforkyoukarekchilledkthroughkafterkyourklong kkkkkkkkkkvigilkthroughoutkthekdar estknight.

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDayskpass,kandkalthoughkthekgroundkiskstillkhardkandkcold,kand kkkkkkkkkktheknightsklongkandkdar ,kyoukarekawarekofkakchangekinkthekseason, kkkkkkkkkkandk nowkthatkwinterkiskdrawingktokitskclose.kkOneknightkaskyoukare kkkkkkkkkkaboutktokgoktokbed,kyoukhearkaktin lingkofkbellskfromkdeepkwithin kkkkkkkkkkthekforest,kandkarekstrangelykdrawnktowardsktheirksound.kkAskyou kkkkkkkkkkma ekyourkwaykthroughktheknight,kakwaxingkMoonklightskyourkpath, kkkkkkkkkkandkatklastkyoukfindkyourselfkoncekmorekinkthekclearing.kkYoukloo kkkkkkkkkktowardskthekcave,kandkseekthatkakgreatkredkveilkhangskacrosskthe kkkkkkkkkkmouth,kandkthatkthekoldkCrone,kandkanotherkwomankstandkbeforekit.k kkkkkkkkkkThekotherkwomankiskyoungerkthankthekCrone,kbutkobviouslyknotka kkkkkkkkkkyouth,kandkyoukinstinctivelykrealizekthatkthiskiskthekCrone'skown kkkkkkkkkkdaughter. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskyoukstandkandkwatchkyoukrealizekthatkthekbellskarekbeing kkkkkkkkkksha enkbykthekCrone,kandkthatkshekandkherkdaughterkareksoftly kkkkkkkkkksingingkankancientksong:kkaksongkwhichkcallsktokthekVirginkto kkkkkkkkkkawa en,kandktokcomekforthkaskthekheraldkofkwinter'skend,kand kkkkkkkkkkspring'skbeginning.kkThektwokwomenkreachkup,kandkwithkaksingle kkkkkkkkkkmovement,krendkthekveil,ktearingkitkaway,krevealingkthekVirgin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

     

 

kkkkkkkkkkstandingkpoisedkuponkthekthreshold.kkShekiskpuritykandkinnocence:k kkkkkkkkkkakyoungkfigurek-kblindfolded,kdressedkinkwhite,kandkcarryingkinkher kkkkkkkkkkhandskakposykofkbrightkyellowkflowers,ksymbolickofkthekgrowing kkkkkkkkkkpowerskofkthekSun.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1683 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekMotherkandkCronekreachkforward,kandklin ingktheirkhands kkkkkkkkkkbehindkthekVirgin,ktheykpullkherkoutkofkthekcave.kkTheykleadkher kkkkkkkkkktowardskthekfire,kandkthenkthekMotherkspea skquietlyktokher.kkYou kkkkkkkkkkseekthekVirginknod.kkThekCronekthenkseemsktokas kherkakquestion, kkkkkkkkkkandkalthoughkyoukcannotkhearkthekanswer,kitkseemskshekhaskspo en kkkkkkkkkktruly,kforkthekCroneknods,kandkreacheskupktokremovekthekblindfold.k kkkkkkkkkkThekVirginkblin skherkeyes,kandkstretches.kkShekbeginsktokdance kkkkkkkkkkslowlykaroundkthekfirekatkthekcenterkofkthekclearing,kfullkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkjoykofkherkawa ening,kandkinkthek nowledgekofkherkpowerkand kkkkkkkkkkpotentialkaskakwoman. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkSelf-contained,kshekdanceskthekdancekofklife;kofkbloodkand kkkkkkkkkkwaterskflowingkfreely,knoklongkfrozenkandkstill.kkYoukturnkand kkkkkkkkkkleavekthekclearing,kta ingkoneklastkloo katkthekVirginkdancing kkkkkkkkkkjoyfullykaroundkthekfire.kkAskyoukwal kbac kthroughkthekforest,kyou kkkkkkkkkkfeelkankansweringkpowerkmovingkthroughkthekland,kandkyoukarekaware kkkkkkkkkkthatkthekEarthkiskbeginningktokcomekalivekbeneathkyourkfeet,kandkon kkkkkkkkkkthektreeskyoukseekthekyellowkbloomskwhichkarekthekpromisekof kkkkkkkkkkspring,kandkthekendkofkwinter. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkDaykbykdaykthekSunknowkgrowskvisiblykstronger:kktheklandkhas kkkkkkkkkkawa enedkfromkitsksleepkwithkthekfirekdancekofkthekVirgin,kandknow kkkkkkkkkkthekSunkitselfkapproacheskthekmagicalktimekofkthekEquinox:kkthe kkkkkkkkkktimekwhenkdaykandknightkarekequal,kbutkwhenklightkiskinkthe kkkkkkkkkkascendant.kkThekdaykofkthekEquinoxkdawnskbrightkandkclear.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkwindkiskfresh,kandkallkaroundkyoukareksignskofkspring.kkFromkdeep kkkkkkkkkkwithinkthekforestkyoukhearktheksoundkofkakhorn,kandkdeepkwithin kkkkkkkkkkyourkinnermostkselfkyoukarekawarekofkakstirringkresponsektokits kkkkkkkkkkcall.kkYoukma ekyourkwaykquic lykthroughkthekforest;kaskyou kkkkkkkkkkapproachkthekclearing,kyoukrealizekthatkyoukareknotkalone,kforkall kkkkkkkkkkthekcreatureskofkthekforestkarekgatheredkuponkthekedgekofkthe kkkkkkkkkkclearing.kkTheyktookhavekansweredktheksummonskofkthekhorn. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAtkthekcenterkofkthekclearingkstandskakna edkyoungkman,khis kkkkkkkkkks inkshiningkwithkreflectedksunlight.kkHekiskblindfold:kkbeforekhim kkkkkkkkkkstandskthekoldkman,kandkbehindkhim,kthekmightykfigurekofkthekHorned kkkkkkkkkkGod.kkItkwaskhekwhokblewkthekhorn.kkThekoldkmankdanceskaroundkthe kkkkkkkkkkyouthk-kslowly,kakshamblingk indkofkdancek-ksha ingkakrattlekand kkkkkkkkkkchantingksoftly.kkHekstops.kkThekHornedkGodkwhispersktokthekyouth, kkkkkkkkkkwhoknodskhiskheadkinkreply.kkThekoldkmankthenkas skthekyouthka kkkkkkkkkkquestion,kandkafterklisteningktokthekreply,knods,kandkreacheskup kkkkkkkkkkandkremoveskthekblindfold.kkThekyouthkblin s,kandkstretches.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkHornedkGodkhandskhimkthekhorn.kkHekputskthisktokhisklips,kandka kkkkkkkkkksinglekblastkechoeskthroughkthekforest.kkWithkaklaughkthekyouth kkkkkkkkkkleapskawaykintokthekforest,kfollowedkbykallkthekbirdskandkanimals, kkkkkkkkkkforkhekiskLordkofkthekForest.kkYoukfeelkakstirringkinkyourkown kkkkkkkkkkblood,kandkbeforekyoukrealizekwhatkhaskhappened,kyoukfindkyourself kkkkkkkkkkchasingkthekfigurekofkthekyouthkonkhiskmadkdashkthroughkthekforest.k kkkkkkkkkkItkiskakwildkandkcarefreekdance,kandkyoukfeelkthekansweringkecho kkkkkkkkkkfromkthektrees,kandkfromkthekEarth,kasktheykarekwarmedkbykthe kkkkkkkkkkgrowingkSun.kkThekLandkandkthekYouthkbothkawa enktoktheirkfertile kkkkkkkkkkpotential.

 

   

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1684 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskyoukrunkthroughkthektrees,koutkofkthekcornerkofkyourkeye kkkkkkkkkkyoukseekakflic erkofkwhite;kyoukturn,kandktherekhiddenkinkthektrees kkkkkkkkkkyoukseekthekVirgin,kwatchingkandkwaiting.kkShekiskloo ingkcuriously kkkkkkkkkkatkthekLordkofkthekForest,kintriguedkbykhiskstrengthkandkdrawnkby kkkkkkkkkkhiskbeauty.kkHekseeskherkwatching,kbutkonkthiskday,khekisktookfull kkkkkkkkkkwithkthekjoykofkbeingkinkcontrolkofkhiskownkcreativekpowerktokcease kkkkkkkkkkhiskheadlongkchasekthroughkthekforest.kkGraduallykyouktire,kandkat kkkkkkkkkklastkyoukfindkyourselfkwal ingkbac kthroughkthekforestktokyourkown kkkkkkkkkkcottage,kwherekyoukfindkrest. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAllkthroughkthekgrowingkspringkthekVirginkandkthekYoungkLord kkkkkkkkkkwatchkeachkotherkthroughkthekforest.kkEachkawarekofkthekother,kbut kkkkkkkkkkbothkself-fulfilledkwithktheirkownkpotentialkandkpower.kkButkthe kkkkkkkkkkSunk eepskgettingkstronger,kandkatklastkwekcomektokthatkmoment kkkkkkkkkkwherekthekYoungkLordkandkthekVirginkrealizekthatktheykhaveka kkkkkkkkkkgreaterkdestinyktokfulfil,kandkdrivenkbyktheirknaturalkdesires,kand kkkkkkkkkktheksignskofkthekburgeoningkworldkallkaroundkthem,ktheyksee keach kkkkkkkkkkotherkout,kandkinkcelebrationkofkthekgreatkmysterykofkthekLand kkkkkkkkkkMarriage,ktheykjoinkaskone. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkItkiskthekheightkofkspring,kandktheksignskofkfertilitykarekall kkkkkkkkkkaround.kkAskyoukma ekyourkownkwayktowardskthekclearing,kyoukfeel kkkkkkkkkkthekwarmkSunkuponkyourkface,kandkfeelktheklifekinkthekEarthkbeneath kkkkkkkkkkyourkfeet.kkInkthekcenterkofkthekclearingkstandskakgreatktree kkkkkkkkkktrun ,kcrownedkwithkakgarlandkofkspringkflowers,kwithkmanykredkand kkkkkkkkkkwhitekribbonskflutteringkinkthekbreeze.kkFromkfarkandkwidekpeople kkkkkkkkkkhavektravelledktokthekclearing,kforktodaykiskthekdaykofkcelebrating kkkkkkkkkkthekgrowingkSun,kandkthekfertilekEarth.kkMenkandkwomenkta ekholdkof kkkkkkkkkkthekribbons,kandkenactktheirkownkcelebrationkofkLifekasktheykdance kkkkkkkkkkthekpatternkofktheksacredkspiralkofkcreationkaroundkthektree.kkYou kkkkkkkkkkholdkyourkribbonkfirmly,kandkwatchkthekspiralkformkaskyoukdancekthe kkkkkkkkkkancientkstepskthatkhavekbeenkdancedksincekfirstkMankandkWomankwere kkkkkkkkkkjoinedkaskone. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkYoukhearkcheeringkandkshoutskofklaughter,kandkthere,kwal ing kkkkkkkkkkthroughkthekcrowdkhandkinkhandkcomekthekYoungkLordkandkhiskwifekkkkkkkkkkkVirginknoklonger.kkTogetherktheykhavekcelebratedktheksacredkmystery kkkkkkkkkkinkaccordancekwithkthekOldkLaws:kkforktheykhavekjoinedkinklove,kand kkkkkkkkkksokhavekbecomekthekKingkandkQueenkofkthekLand. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAndkthekwee skpass,kandkthekSunkgrowskeverkstrongerkinkthe kkkkkkkkkks y,kandkthekKingkgrowskinkstrengthkandkmajesty.kkThekQueenkbegins kkkkkkkkkktokshowksignskofkherkpregnancy,kthekmirrorkofkthekcropskandkfruits kkkkkkkkkkthatkthekLandkbeginsktokproduce,kforkthekQueenkrepresentskthekLand, kkkkkkkkkkandkiskatkonekwithkit. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAtklastkthekdaykarriveskwhenkthekSunkreacheskitskmostkpowerful kkkkkkkkkktime:kkthekMidsummerkSolstice.kkThekKingkandkQueenkarekatktheir kkkkkkkkkkpea ktoo,kreflectedkinkthekmajestykofkthekKing,kandkthekgrowing kkkkkkkkkklifekinkthekwombkofkthekQueen.kkTokmar kthiskday,kthekKingkand kkkkkkkkkkQueenkhostkakgreatkcelebrationkinkthekforestkclearing:kkakfeastkto kkkkkkkkkkmar kthekSolsticekday,kandktheirkownkcreativekpowerskwhichkhave kkkkkkkkkkbroughtkmanykgoodkthingsktokthekLand.kkAllkdaykthekfeastkandkgames kkkkkkkkkkcontinue,kwithkthekKingkandkQueenkbestowingktheirkblessingskupon kkkkkkkkkkeveryone.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1685 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAtklongklastkthekSunkbeginsktoksin kslowlyktowardskthekwest; kkkkkkkkkkaskitkfallskyoukhearkakdisturbancekuponkthekedgekofkthekclearing.k kkkkkkkkkkYoukseekpeoplekrunning,kandkhearktheirkscreams.kkAndkthenkintokthe kkkkkkkkkkclearingkstal skakdar kfigure,khiskblac kcloa kswirlingkaroundkhim, kkkkkkkkkkwearingkakhelmetkwhichkobscureskhiskfacekfromkviewk-kshadowkof kkkkkkkkkkdar nesskinkthekforest.kkHekstridesktowardskthekKing,kandkinkakloud kkkkkkkkkkclearkvoice,kchallengeskhimkforkthekrightktokrulekthek ingdom,kand kkkkkkkkkkforkthekQueenkaskhiskconsort. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekKingkmustkprotectkwhatkhekhaskstrivenksokhardktokcreate, kkkkkkkkkkandkmustkprotectkhiskwifekandkunbornkchild.kkHekacceptskthe kkkkkkkkkkchallenge,kandkakgreatkbattlekensueskaskthekSunkslowlyksin skinkthe kkkkkkkkkkwest.kkThekchallengerklayskthekKing'skthighkopenkwithkaksweepkof kkkkkkkkkkhisksword,kbutkiskunbalanced,kandkdespitekhiskwound,kthekKing kkkkkkkkkkmanagesktokthrowkthekchallengerktokthekgroundkandkdisarmkhim.kkThe kkkkkkkkkkchallengerkbegskforkmercy,kbutkthekKingkfearskthiskdar kand kkkkkkkkkkthreateningkfigure,kandksokignoringkhiskcrieskforkmercy,khekplunges kkkkkkkkkkhiskswordkdeepkintokthekchallenger'skheart.kkAndksokinkorderkto kkkkkkkkkkprotect,kthekKingkdestroys,kandkakshadowkofkdar nesskiskcastkupon kkkkkkkkkkthekLand.kkThekchallenger'skbloodksoa skintokthekEarth,kandkthekSun kkkkkkkkkkfinallyksin skbeyondkthekwesternkhorizon. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkYoukma ekyourkwaykbac ktokyourkcottage,kaskthekKingkiskcarried kkkkkkkkkkawayktokhavekhiskwoundkattendedkto.kkTheknextkdaykthekSunkriseskas kkkkkkkkkkbefore,kandkseemskaskstrongkaskitkeverkwas,kbutkyoukhavekseenkand kkkkkkkkkkfeltkthekshadowkofkthekdar ,kandknowksensekakchangekinkthekLand.k kkkkkkkkkkInsteadkofkgrowing,kthingskarekripening;kthekheatkofktheksummerkSun kkkkkkkkkkbringskthekcropskandkfruitktokripeness,kbutkthekgrowthkisknowkover.k kkkkkkkkkkAndkjustkaskthekLandkgiveskforthkitskfruits,ksoknowkdoeskthekQueen kkkkkkkkkkgivekbirthktokherkson.kkThekwheatkiskharvested;kthekbarleykmade kkkkkkkkkkintokale;kandkakgreatkfeastkiskheldktokgivekthan skforkallkthekgood kkkkkkkkkkthingskofkthekEarth,kandkforktheksafekbirthkofkthekKingkandkQueen's kkkkkkkkkkson. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkButkinkgivingkbirth,kthekQueenkisknoklongerksimplykakwife;kshe kkkkkkkkkkbecomeskthekMother.kkShek nowskthatkherksonkiskthekhopekforkthe kkkkkkkkkkLand,kforkthekKing'skwound,kta enkatkthekMidsummerkbattle,kiska kkkkkkkkkkwastingkwound,kandkwillknotkheal.kkHekgrowskwea erkbykthekday,ka kkkkkkkkkkreflectionkofkthekwaningkpowerskofkthekSun.kkThekQueenk nowskthis, kkkkkkkkkkandkaskherksonkgrows,kshektrainskhimkinkthekwayskofksovereignty.k kkkkkkkkkkThekKingkseeskonlykthatkhisksonkgrowskstronger,kaskhekgrowskwea er.k kkkkkkkkkkHekwatcheskthekSunkwanekdaykbykdaykasksummerkslipsktowardskthektime kkkkkkkkkkofkthekEquinox,kwhenkoncekagainkdaykandknightkarekequal;kbutkthis kkkkkkkkkktime,kthekdar kiskinkthekascendant. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAtklastktheknightkofkthekEquinoxkarrives.kkThekKingkfeels kkkkkkkkkkdrawnktowardskthekclearingkinkthekforest,kandkunderkakwaningkMoon, kkkkkkkkkkhekma eskhiskwaykalongkthektrac .kkHekrememberskhiskinitiationkat kkkkkkkkkkthekSpringkEquinox;khisklovekforkthekVirgin,kandktheirkjoyful kkkkkkkkkkcelebrationkofkthekLandkMarriagekatkBeltane;khekrememberskhowkproud kkkkkkkkkkhekwaskofkhiskcreativekpowerskatkthekMidsummerkSolstice,kandkwith kkkkkkkkkkakpangkofksadness,khekrememberskhowkhekhadktokfacekthekdar kkkkkkkkkkchallengerkwhokthreatenedkhiskKingdomkandkhiskQueen.kkAndkfinally, kkkkkkkkkkhekrememberskthekbirthkofkhisksonk-kakjoyknowkturnedktoksorrow,kas kkkkkkkkkkthekKingkfindskhimselfkoncekmorekinkthekclearing,kwherekwaitingkat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkthekcenterkiskhiskson,karmedkwithkakspear.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1686 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkOutkofkthekcornerkofkhiskeye,kthekKingkseeskakmovementkinkthe kkkkkkkkkkshadows,kandkrememberskhowkhekfirstksawkhiskbelovedkwife,kwhenkshe kkkkkkkkkkwasknewlykawa ened,kakyoungkVirgin,kandkhekwaskthekLordkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkForest.kkNowkhiskwifekhideskinkthekshadowsk-kshekwearskakblac kkkkkkkkkkcloa ,kandkcoverskherkfacekwithkitskhood.kkThekKingkandkhiskson kkkkkkkkkkfacekeachkother,kandkthenkwithoutkakwordkbeingkspo en,kthekKing kkkkkkkkkkdrawskhiskswordkandktheykbeginktokfight.kkSwordkagainstkspear,ka kkkkkkkkkkmightykbattlekrageskinkthekclearing.kkThekpowerskofklightkandkdar kkkkkkkkkkarekequal,kbutkthekpowerskofkdar nesskareknowkinkthekascendant,kand kkkkkkkkkkasktheknightkgrowskon,kthekKingkbeginsktoktire.kkThekwastingkwound kkkkkkkkkkheksufferedkatkthekSummerkSolsticekhaskneverkhealed,kandkhiskpowers kkkkkkkkkk-kli ekthosekofkthekSunk-karekwaning. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTherekiskakbriefkpausekinkthekfight:kkthekKingkandkhiskson kkkkkkkkkkloo kdeepkintokeachkotherskeyes.kkTherekflasheskbetweenkthem kkkkkkkkkkrecognitionkofkthekmysterykthatklightkandkdar karekequal:kkthat kkkkkkkkkktheykareknotkfightingkeachkother,kbutkthatkeachkiskfighting kkkkkkkkkkhimself.kkForktheklightkandkthekdar karekonekandktheksame,kaskare kkkkkkkkkkthekKingkandkhiskson,kandkwithkthiskrealization,kthekKingkjoyfully kkkkkkkkkkliftskhiskguard,kandkiskimpaledkuponkthekspearkaskhekdriveskhis kkkkkkkkkkswordkdeepkintokhiskson'skheart.kkTogetherktheykfallkdeadktokthe kkkkkkkkkkground,kandktheirkbloodkpourskoutkuponkthekEarth. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAtkthekedgekofkthekclearingkthekQueenkwatches,kandkasksheksees kkkkkkkkkkherkhusband/sonkdie,ksheksendskakgreatkwailkechoingkthroughkthe kkkkkkkkkkforest.kkThere,kstandingkinkthekcavekmouthkiskthekLordkofkDeathkand kkkkkkkkkkResurrection,kbutkshekcannotkseekhim.kkForkherkhusband/son/lover kkkkkkkkkkhasknowkbecomekthekLordkofkthekOtherworld,kandkshekiskstillkofkthis kkkkkkkkkkworld.kkThekwaningkMoonkwatcheskaskshektearskherkhair,kandkaskone kkkkkkkkkkpossessed,krunskthroughkthekforestkinkankagonykofkgrief.kkForkshe kkkkkkkkkktooksawkthekmystery,kandknowkshekunderstandskthatktheklightkand kkkkkkkkkkdar karekbutktheksame.kkShek nowskthatkherkhusband/lover/sonkhas kkkkkkkkkkpassedkbeyondkthekveil,kandkthatkherkcreativektimekiskpassed.kkFor kkkkkkkkkkthekQueenkisknowkakWitch:kkthekancientkHagkCronekwhok nowskthe kkkkkkkkkkmysterieskofklifekandkdeathkandkhaskwal edkthekpathkofkinitiation.k kkkkkkkkkkInkma ingkherkjourneykshekhasktrulykfoundkthekgods,kandk nowskthat kkkkkkkkkkbehindkthekwheelkofkthekseasonsktherekiskankancientkpower.kkBy kkkkkkkkkkwal ingkthekwheelkshekhaskjoinedkwithkthekmystery.kkShekhaskbeenka kkkkkkkkkkVirgin,kakWife,kthekQueen,kthekMotherkandkthekCrone.kkShekhas kkkkkkkkkkwal edkthekwaykofkthekseasons.kkShekhaskseenkthekspring,kthe kkkkkkkkkksummer,kautumnkandkwinter,kandkshekunderstandskthatkankancient kkkkkkkkkktruthklieskhiddenkwithinkitkall. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAtklastkthektimekofkthekdar kMoonkarrives,kwhenkthekSun's kkkkkkkkkkpowerskareklow,kandkthekveilkbetweenkthekworldskiskthin.kkStanding kkkkkkkkkkalonekinkthekforestkshekma eskherkwayktokthekclearing.kkShekstands kkkkkkkkkkalonekforkshekiskfearedkbykthosekwhokhavekyetktokwal kthekwheel.k kkkkkkkkkkForknowkshekmustkperformktheksupremekactkofkmagic.kkShek indleskthe kkkkkkkkkkancientkSamhainkfire,kwithkwoodskofkallktheksacredktrees.kkOnekfor kkkkkkkkkkeachkseason,konekforkeachkway,konekforktheknightkandkonekforkthe kkkkkkkkkkday,konekforkherkloverkandkonekforkherkson,konekforkthekserpentkand kkkkkkkkkkonekforkherksong.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

       

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1687 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskshekraiseskherkarmskinkinvocationkakgreatkstormkgathers.k kkkkkkkkkkWithkakfinalkactkofkunderstandingkshekopenskthekveilkbetween kkkkkkkkkkherselfkandkthekgods.kkShekopenskthekveilkofkthekOtherworldkand kkkkkkkkkkcallskbac kthekspiritskofkthekdead.kkForkshek nowsknowktokfulfil kkkkkkkkkkthekmysterykshekmustkjoinkwithkthekLordkofkthekOtherworld;kthey kkkkkkkkkkmustklovekandkjoinkaskone.kkThekstormkbrea s:kklightningkand kkkkkkkkkkthunderktearkandkcrac katkthekancientknightkaskthektreeskcrea kand kkkkkkkkkkbendkinkthekwind.kkForkthekwildkhuntkisknowkuponkuskaskthekspirits kkkkkkkkkkofkthekdeadkarekledkfromkthekOtherworldkbykthekHornedkGod.kkChaos kkkkkkkkkknowkreignskinkthekworldkforkthekMysterykiskuponkus. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkButktokjoinkwithkthiskmysterykthekCronekmustkembracekthekLord kkkkkkkkkkofkFlame,kthekLordkofkDeathkandkResurrection,kandkgokwithkhimkbac kkkkkkkkkkintokthekOtherworld.kkTokjoinkwithkhimkshekmustkbecomekthekGoddess.k kkkkkkkkkkSokofkherkownkfreekwill,kshekdieskthekdeathkofktruekinitiationkand kkkkkkkkkkenterskintokthekcave,kandkpasseskwithkthekHornedkLordkbac kintokthe kkkkkkkkkkdepthskofkthekOtherworld.kkTherektheykjoinkinklovekaskone:kkthe kkkkkkkkkksupremekmomentkofkthektruekGreatkRitekinkwhichkallkthekmysterieskof kkkkkkkkkkthekmalekandkfemale;kallkthekmysterieskofktheklightkandkdar kare kkkkkkkkkkmarriedktogetherkaskone.kkForklovekhaskalwayskbeenkthek ey.kkItkis kkkkkkkkkklovekthatkconquerskourkfearkandkshowskthekwayktokunion.kkForktrue kkkkkkkkkklovekisktruekdeath,kaskthekindividualksensekofkselfkisktranscended kkkkkkkkkkbykakvisionkofkthekOne.kkAskthekgodskfulfilkthekmysterykofklove, kkkkkkkkkkthekseedkofknewklifekiskplantedkdeepkwithinkthekwombkofkthekGreat kkkkkkkkkkMother. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAndktheklandksleeps,kforkthekdar ktimekiskuponkuskoncekagain, kkkkkkkkkkandkthekGodkandkGoddessklaykinkeachkotherskarms,kdeepkwithinkthe kkkkkkkkkkLand,khiddenkfromksight.kkThekSunkquic lykwaneskdaykbykday,kthe kkkkkkkkkknightskgrowingklonger,kthekdayskshorter.kkWinterkgripsktheklandkas kkkkkkkkkkakcoldkwindkblowskthroughkthekforest.kkThekdar nesskseemskcomplete, kkkkkkkkkkbutkthosekofkthekWiccakarekwisekandkweepknotkforktheyk nowkthatkthe kkkkkkkkkkSunkwillkbekrebornkthroughktheklovekofkthekGodkandkGoddess.kkLife kkkkkkkkkkwillknotkfailk-kthekSunkwillkreturnkagain.kkAndkatklastktheknight kkkkkkkkkkofkthekMidwinterkSolsticekarrives:kktheklongestknightkofkthekyear, kkkkkkkkkkbutkwek nowknowkitkiskonlykthekdar nesskthatkcomeskbeforekthekdawn. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAskyoukstandkuponkthekedgekofkthekforest,kyoukseekthekfirst kkkkkkkkkksignskofktheknewkbornkSunkrisingkuponkthekeasternkhorizon,kandkhear kkkkkkkkkktheksoundkofkaknewkbornkbabe.kkButkthisktime,kyoukwal kawaykfrom kkkkkkkkkkthekclearingktowardskthekrisingkSun,kandkaskyoukleavekthekforest, kkkkkkkkkkyoukturnkandkseekthatkitkisknokmorekthankakshadowkbehindkyou.k kkkkkkkkkkBeforekyoukiskakworldkwhichkyouk nowkwell;kitkiskthekworldkinkwhich kkkkkkkkkkyouklive,kandknowkitkisktimektokreturn.kkThekOtherworldkiskreal, kkkkkkkkkkandkyoukmaykreturnkatkanyktime,kforkthekmysterieskofkthekgodskare kkkkkkkkkktherekforkallktokunderstand,kifkyoukhavekbutkeyesktoksee.kkYou kkkkkkkkkkcontinuektokwal kintokthekeverydaykworld,kandkbecomekawarekofkthe kkkkkkkkkksoundskaroundkyou,kandkofkthekplacekinkwhichkyouksit.kkSpendkakfew kkkkkkkkkkmomentskquietlykre-attuningkyourselfktokyourknormalkstate,kandkthen kkkkkkkkkkopenkyourkeyeskandkstretch.kk(EndkofkGuidedkVisualization) kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkIfkyoukwantktokma ekanyknoteskdo,kbutkpleasekrememberkthatkthe kkkkkkkkkkWheelkofkthekYearkiskankemotionalkexperience,knotkankacademic kkkkkkkkkkexercise!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAndkfinally,kalwayskhaveksomethingktokeatkandkdrin kafterkany kkkkkkkkkkactivitykwhichkuseskankalteredkstatekofkconsciousness.kkThiskiskthe kkkkkkkkkkmostkeffectivekandkefficientkwayktok"ground,"kandkiskvitalkif kkkkkkkkkkparticipantskarektravellingkhomekafterkthekwor ing.

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1688 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkThekCovenkatkPoohkCornerk kkkkkkkkkk(Thiskarticlekwaskfirstkgivenkaskaktal katkThekWiccankWor shop kkkkkkkkkkNumberk6,kheldkatkCoombe,kNorthkCornwall,kinkMayk1989,kandkwaskpubliskkkkkkkkkkhedkinkWebkofkWyrdk#7,kJanuaryk1993) kkkkkkkkkkThiskktal kiskdesignedktokkillustratekkthatkkspiritualksignificancekis kkkkkkkkkkpresentkkinkeverythingkaroundkusk(seek"WiccakandkthekArtkofkMotorcycle kkkkkkkkkkMaintenance:kkChildrenkofkSe hmet,kMayk1988).kOnkthiskoccasionkIkshall kkkkkkkkkkbekusingkkforkmykinspirationkthekstorieskofkthatkworldkfamouskwriterkA kkkkkkkkkkAkMilne,ktokwhit,kWinniekthekPoohkandkThekHousekatkPoohkCorner.kThese kkkkkkkkkkarekkofkkcoursekcodedkkallegorieskofkkthekkspiritualkdevelopmentkkofka kkkkkkkkkkcertainkbear. kkkkkkkkkkFirstlykIkwouldkli ekktokintroducekthekcharacterskbecausektherekmaykbe kkkkkkkkkksomeonekhereknotkenlightenedkenoughktokhavekreadkthesekgreatkwor s,kin kkkkkkkkkkaksimilarksortkofkwaykaskakChristiankmayknotkhavekreadkhiskBible. kkkkkkkkkkOurkHero.kWkTkPooh. kkkkkkkkkkPooh,kaskhekkisk nownktokhiskmorekintimatekkacquaintances,kiskakmodest kkkkkkkkkkchapknotk nownkkforkhiskintellectualkability,kkandkhaskbeenkcalledkk"a kkkkkkkkkkbearkkofkveryklittlekbrain".kHekiskkgivenktokcomposingkhumskwellkaware kkkkkkkkkkthatkbeingkakbearkhisksingingkvoicekkisknotkwhatkitkmightkbe.kIkkwould kkkkkkkkkkthin khekiskprobablykkakTaureankandkkallkinkallkkakwellkroundedkkperskkkkkkkkkkonality;kpossiblykbecausekitkiskalwaysktimekforkaklittleksomething. kkkkkkkkkkPiglet kkkkkkkkkkPigletkiskaksmallktimidklittlekperson,kakverykyoungkspirit,kandkPooh's kkkkkkkkkkbestkfriend.kHekkiskakchatteryksoulkwhoktendsktokdwellkonkhiskfearskof kkkkkkkkkkheffelumpskandkwoozles.kItkiskgenerallykthoughtkhekmaykbekakGeminikand kkkkkkkkkkwouldkkbekankkextrovertkifkkhekcouldkkfindkmorekkconfidence.kHekkhaska kkkkkkkkkkpeculiarkaversionktokbeingkclean. kkkkkkkkkkWol kkkkkkkkkkWolkhaskdelusionskofkbeingkkthekwisekoldkowlkbasedkmainlykonkkthekfact kkkkkkkkkkthatkhekkcankspellkhiskkname,kwhichkiskOWL.kkHekliveskinkkthekgrandest kkkkkkkkkkhousekinkthekwoods,kthekoldkoa ktree.kItkiskquitekobviouskktokeveryone kkkkkkkkkkthatkhekiskinkfactkLibrankbecausekhekcomeskoutkwithkstatementskofkfact kkkkkkkkkkwhichkarekmorekoftenkthanknotkwrong.kAllkthekotherkanimalskturnktokhim kkkkkkkkkkforkadvice,kwhichkhekkgiveskfreelykalthoughkno-onekunderstandskkakword kkkkkkkkkkofkit. kkkkkkkkkkEeyor kkkkkkkkkkEeyorkiskakkverykinterestingkcharacter.kHekiskakkvery,kverykoldkspirit kkkkkkkkkkwhokinkthiskincarnationkhaskcomekbac kaskakdon ey.kkNothingkmuchkseems kkkkkkkkkktokbotherkhimkandkhekliveskallkalonekinkakboggykfield.kHekiskgenerally kkkkkkkkkkperceivedktokbekmiserable.kThiskiskwrong.kHekiskquitekhappykinkhiskown kkkkkkkkkklittlekworldkkandkiskthoughtktokkbekakPisceankwithkkakCapricornkascenkkkkkkkkkkdant.kHekkiskinkfactkthekmostkintellectualkofkkthemkallkbecausekhekcan kkkkkkkkkkma ekthekletterkAkoutkofkthreektwigs.kAlsokhekhaskakbrainkwhilstkall kkkkkkkkkkthekrestkhavekgreykfluffkwhichkhaskblownkinkbykmista e.k

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1689 kkkkkkkkkkKanger kkkkkkkkkkKangerkiskaknewcomerktokthekkforestkandksomethingkofkakmatriarchkbeing kkkkkkkkkkverykprotectivekofkkherkoffspring,kkRoo.kShekiskkofkcoursekkCancerian, kkkkkkkkkkli ekmykwife,kandkwillkmotherkeverybodykwhetherktheykli ekitkorknot. kkkkkkkkkkTigger kkkkkkkkkkTiggerkiskthekarchetypalkextrovertkandkobviouslykankAries.kkOverwhelmkkkkkkkkkkinglykfriendlykandkbouncy.kPigletkiskterrifiedkofkhimkbecausekhekjumps kkkkkkkkkkoutkatkyoukandksaysk"WorraWorraWorra"kinkwhatkhekthin skkiskakfriendly kkkkkkkkkktone...kHekhasknokideakkthatkhekcan'tkdoksomethingkuntilkafterkkhekhas kkkkkkkkkkdonekit.kHekshowsknoktracekofkforethoughtkandkeventuallykiskadoptedkby kkkkkkkkkkKanger. kkkkkkkkkkChristopherkRobin kkkkkkkkkkAksmallkboykwhokwillkbekfullykexplainedkatkthekend. kkkkkkkkkkThekParableskofkPooh kkkkkkkkkk1kkkkDownkthekRabbitkHole kkkkkkkkkkInkkthiskstory,kkPoohkkafterkbrea fastkkofkkhoneykfollowedkkbykkhoney, kkkkkkkkkkdecidesktokkgokvisiting.kFirstkhekkvisitskPiglet,kandkiskkjustkinktime kkkkkkkkkkforkkaklittlekksomething,kiekkaklittlekkhoney.kEventuallykktheykkgokto kkkkkkkkkkRabbit'skplace.kRabbit,kkwhokhaskhundredskandkkthousandskofkrelations, kkkkkkkkkknaturallykliveskkinkakrabbitkhole,kkwherekPoohkandkPigletkkarekjustkin kkkkkkkkkktimekforkkaklittleksomething.kPoohkkhoweverkeatsktookmuchkkandkbeingka kkkkkkkkkkstoutishkbearkanyway,kkfindskthatkwhenkhekleaveskhekkgetskstuc kinkthe kkkkkkkkkkrabbitkhole,kwithkkhiskfeetkdanglingkinkkRabbit'sklivingkroomkkandkhis kkkkkkkkkkheadkoutkinkthekair.kEveryonekcomesktokhiskaid,kbutknokamountkof kkkkkkkkkkpullingkorkpushingkwillkkshiftkhim.kChristopherkRobinkiskksummonedkand kkkkkkkkkkdecideskthatkkPoohkwillkhavekktokstayktherekwithoutkkhoneykuntilkthin kkkkkkkkkkenoughktokleave.kkRabbitkiskobviouslyknotkwellkkpleasedkaboutkhavingka kkkkkkkkkkbearkwedgedkkinkhiskkfrontkdoor.kkkHoweverkhekkiskcompensatedkkwhenkhe kkkkkkkkkkdiscoverskthatkPooh'sklegskma ekexcellentktowelkrails. kkkkkkkkkkMoral:kFromkthiskescapadekwekcankseekthatkPoohkisknotkverykspiritually kkkkkkkkkkdeveloped.kHekiskfarktook eenkonkthekphysicalkdesireskofkthekkbodykand kkkkkkkkkkthroughkkthiskforcedkperiodkofkkfastingkandkthekkaltruistickusekofkhis kkkkkkkkkklowerklimbs,kheklearnskthatkkitkiskalrightktokbekportlyksoklongkaskyou kkkkkkkkkkdon'tkbloc kksomeone'skportal.kInkotherkkwords,kyoukarekatkklibertykto kkkkkkkkkkfollowkyourkownkwayksoklongkaskyoukdoknotkbloc kanother's.kThiskiskthe kkkkkkkkkkexperiencekofkthektarotkcardkofkThekDevil.kDeludedkkaboutkthekrelative kkkkkkkkkksizeskofkthekdoorkandkhiskktummy,khekcannotkpasskthroughkuntilkhekkhas kkkkkkkkkkcastkoffkthekchainskofkhiskbaserkdesireskforkhoney.kMostkcovenskhaveka kkkkkkkkkkPoohkatkthiskstagekkofkdevelopment.kThiskiskthekwitchkwhokoverindulges kkkkkkkkkkinkthekcommunalkwinekduringkthekrite,kbecomeskcomatosekbeforekthe kkkkkkkkkkaltar,kandkneitherkheaven,kearth,korkHighkPriestess'skboot,kcankshift.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1690 kkkkkkkkkk2kkkkInkwhichkPoohkandkPigletkgokhuntingkheffalumps kkkkkkkkkkOnekksnowykday,kkPigletkfindskPoohkkstaringkatksomekkfootprints.kkPooh kkkkkkkkkkthin skthiskmaykbekakkheffalumpkorkmaybekakwoozle,kandkkexhortskPiglet kkkkkkkkkktokkcomekandkfollowkit.kPigletkisknotkk een.kHekagreeskasklongkaskPooh kkkkkkkkkkiskwithkhim.kSometimeklaterktheyknoticekthatkkthekfootprintskhavekbeen kkkkkkkkkkjoinedkbykanotherkset,ktwokheffalumps,kor,kaskitkmaykbe,kwoozles!kPooh kkkkkkkkkkcomposeskakhumkktok eepktheirkkspiritskup,k"Howkkcoldkmyknose,kktiddly kkkkkkkkkkpom....".kkAklittlekkwhileklaterkktherekarekkfourksetskkofkfootprints. kkkkkkkkkkPigletkiskgettingkfrightened.kTheyksitkdownkforkakthin kandkeventually kkkkkkkkkkrealisektheykarekwal ingkaroundkakwoodkfollowingktheirkownkfootprints. kkkkkkkkkkSokoffktheykgokforkaklittleksomething. kkkkkkkkkkMoral:kkHerekwekseekPooh'sktotalklac kkofkbrilliance.kHekgetsktherekin kkkkkkkkkkthekkendkwithkakkbitkofkhelp.kOnkkthekotherkhandkktherekiskthekimmense kkkkkkkkkkfaithkhekkinspireskinkothers.kPeoplekfeelksafekwithkPooh.kHek nowskthe kkkkkkkkkkvaluekkofkakk indkwordkandkkakcheerykksong.kThiskkalsokillustrateskthe kkkkkkkkkkdangerkofkoverwhelmingkotherskkwithkyourkenthusiasmkforkakkpath,kwhich kkkkkkkkkkmayknotkbekthekpathktheykwouldkchoose.kThiskiskwhykinkWiccakwekareknot kkkkkkkkkkevangelical.kEachkmustkfindkhiskorkherkownkheffalumpkorkwoozle. kkkkkkkkkkInkWhichkPoohkBuildskEeyorekakHouse kkkkkkkkkkOnekkrainykdaykkPoohksetskkoutkktokfindkkPiglet.kAfterkkmanykhourskkof kkkkkkkkkkcarefulkkthoughtkkhekhaskkrealisedkthatkkeveryonekkhaskakkhousekexcept kkkkkkkkkkEeyore,kbutkhekhaskakplan.kOnkoneksidekofkthekwoodkhekhaskdiscoveredka kkkkkkkkkkpilekofkstic s,kksokwithkPiglet'skhelpktheykta ekkthekstic skaroundkto kkkkkkkkkkthekotherkksidekofkthekwoodkkandkbuildkEeyorekkakfinekDes.kkRes.kAfter kkkkkkkkkksomekmomentskkofkcontemplationkofktheirklabours,kktheyksetkoffktokfind kkkkkkkkkkEeyore.kTheykcomekkacrosskEeyorekkinkthekapproximatekklocationkofkkthe kkkkkkkkkkpilekofkstic skloo ingkkpuzzled.kSoktheykta ekhimkoffkktokshowkhimkhis kkkkkkkkkknewkhouse.kEeyorekiskmutteringkbutkPoohkandkPigletkta eknoknotice kkkkkkkkkkwhatsoever.kkTheykarrivekkatkEeyore'skkhousekandkkPoohkandkkPigletksay kkkkkkkkkkproudly,k"There!".kkEeyorekloo skkpleased,kbutkevenkkmorekpuzzled.kkIt kkkkkkkkkktranspireskthatkEeyorekbuiltkkakhousekoutkofkakkpilekofkstic skonkkthe kkkkkkkkkkotherkksidekofkkthekwood.kkHekkputskdownkkthekchangekkofklocationkkand kkkkkkkkkkcertainkarchitecturalkkimprovementskktokthekkhighkkwindkofkkthekknight kkkkkkkkkkbefore.kPoohkandkPigletksayknothingktokEeyore,kandkthenkPoohksayskthat kkkkkkkkkkhekthin skit'sk"Timekforkaklittleksomething." kkkkkkkkkkMoral:kkFromkthiskkwekcankkseekthatkkalthoughkstillkknotkdevastatingly kkkkkkkkkkintelligent,kPoohkhaskmanagedktokperceiveksomeonekelse'skkproblem,kand kkkkkkkkkkhaskmadeksomekattemptkktoksolvekitkforkthem.kItkmaykkhoweverkhavekbeen kkkkkkkkkkbetterkifkhekhadkkconsultedkEeyorekwhokhadkalreadykgonekkaboutksolving kkkkkkkkkkhiskproblemkkforkhimself.kThuskkwekseekthatkkwekshouldknotkkimposekour kkkkkkkkkkparticularkperceptionkofkthekuniversekonkothers.kFortunatelykEeyorekis kkkkkkkkkkofksuchkgreatnesskofkspiritkthatkhekletskthiskeventkpass,kandkPoohkhas kkkkkkkkkkdevelopedkksufficientkmaturityktokletkdiscretionkbekthekbetterkpartkof kkkkkkkkkkvalour.kAskEeyorekwaskmutteringkperhapskwekshouldkalsoklearnktoklisten kkkkkkkkkktokothers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1691 kkkkkkkkkkThekGreatkFlood kkkkkkkkkkPoohkloo skoutkonekmorningkandkseeskthatkitkkiskSTILLkraining.kkChriskkkkkkkkkktopherkkRobinkhaskkbeenkkgettingkconcernedkkaboutkkthekrisingkkwaters, kkkkkkkkkkmeasuringktheirkkprogresskwithkstic s.kEachkkmorningkyesterday'skstic kkkkkkkkkkhaskdisappeared.kkHekkgoeskaroundkkandkwarnskkeveryonektokkgoktokkhigh kkkkkkkkkkground.kPoohklaboriouslykta eskhiskstoc kofkhoneykandkbalanceskallkhis kkkkkkkkkkjarskonkakhighkbranchkofkkaktree,kwherekhekta eskrefuge.kWhenkkallkhis kkkkkkkkkkstoc kkiskexhaustedkkhekponderskkforkakkwhile,kthenkkma eskakknotkvery kkkkkkkkkksuccessfulkkboatkkoutkofkkakhoneykkjar.kThekkboatkkandkPoohkkhaveksome kkkkkkkkkkdisagreementkasktokwhomkkshouldkbekonktop.kHekeventuallykkpaddleskthis kkkkkkkkkkCraftkoverktokChristopherkRobin'skhousekwherektheykta ektokChristopher kkkkkkkkkkRobin'skupturnedkumbrella.kTheykthenkensurekthatkallkthekotherkanimals kkkkkkkkkkareksafe. kkkkkkkkkkMoral:kkThiskstorykillustrateskPooh'skgrowingkconcernkforkthekenvironkkkkkkkkkkmentkkandkhiskfellowkcreatures.kkInkthiskparticularkkcrisis,kPoohkdoes kkkkkkkkkknotkgokoffkhalfkcoc kma ingkrashkkdecisions,kbutksee skthekhelpkofkthe kkkkkkkkkkmostkkdevelopedkspiritkinkthekkforest.kkPoohkkexhibitskgreatkfortitude kkkkkkkkkkandkkdeterminationkinkkhiskquestkkforkthiskkhigherkspirit.kAlsokkhekis kkkkkkkkkkshowingkkbetterkusekkofkhiskkbaserkdesires,kkiekforkkhoney.kTherekkare kkkkkkkkkkobviouskparallelskkwithknumerouskkotherkfloodkkmythskalthoughkkinkthis kkkkkkkkkkWiccankkversion,khavingkhadkourkfillkkofkourkfavouritektipple,kthekAr kkkkkkkkkkmar k1Akkhasksomekdesignkkfaults.kThiskkiskwhykinkkthekworldkofkktoday kkkkkkkkkktherekaren'tkquiteksokmanykkunicornskandkotherkmythicalkbeasts.kkkThey kkkkkkkkkklostkthekargumentkwithktheirkhoneykpots. kkkkkkkkkkWhatkTiggerskEat kkkkkkkkkkPooh,kstrollingkthroughkthekwoods,khearskthiskpeculiarknoise:k kkkkkkkkkk"WorraWorraWorra".kHekpic skkhimselfkup,kloo skaroundkkandkespieskthis kkkkkkkkkkstrangekcreature.kThekcreaturekkbounceskupkandkdownkandkksays,k"Hello, kkkkkkkkkkI'mkTigger".kPooh,kkbeingkakgenerousksoul,kas skhimkkbac kforkaklittle kkkkkkkkkksomething.kHekkas skTiggerkwhatkkhekwouldkli ektokkeat.kTiggerkdoesn't kkkkkkkkkk nowkwhatkhekeats,kksokPoohkgiveskhimksomekkhoney.kTiggerkisknotkkimpkkkkkkkkkkressed,ksokoffktheykgokktokPiglet'skhousekwithkTiggerkkbouncingkalong, kkkkkkkkkkrunningkkaheadkkofkPoohkkandkleapingkkourkatkkhimkkinkakkverykfriendly kkkkkkkkkkfashion.kWhenktheykarrive,kkPigletkgiveskhimksomekacorns.kkTiggerkdoes kkkkkkkkkknotkli ekAcorns.kSokoffktheykkgoktokEeyore'skwherekTiggerktrieskthistkkkkkkkkkkles.kTiggerkdefinitelykdoesknotkli ekthistles.kLastlyktheyktrykKanger. kkkkkkkkkkKangerkkiskverykkconcerned,kbutkkdoesn'tk nowkkquitekwhatkktoksuggest. kkkkkkkkkkHowever,kwhilstkgivingkmaltkextractktokherkbabykRoo,kTiggerkbounceskup kkkkkkkkkkandkgrabskkthekspoonkandksayskk"Mmmmmmm".kSokwekfindkkoutkwhatkTiggers kkkkkkkkkkeat. kkkkkkkkkkMoral:kThiskshowskPooh'skreadykacceptancekofkallktypeskofkpeople,keven kkkkkkkkkkAries!kHekgoesktokgreatklengthsktokhelpkthiskverykyoungkspiritktokfind kkkkkkkkkkspiritualksustenancekandksomeonekwillingktokloo kafterkhim.kKanger,kas kkkkkkkkkkiskthekkcasekwithkmostkCancerians,kdoesknotkbelievektheykcanksolvekthe kkkkkkkkkkproblemkkbutkinkkfactkthekksolutionkiskkinktheirkkgraspkallkkthektime. kkkkkkkkkkUnfortunately,kKangerkisknowkstuc kwithkthiskwaifkandkstray.kkPoohkhas kkkkkkkkkkclimbedkaklongkwaykkfromkthekdayskwhenkhekgotkkstuc kinkRabbit'skdoor, kkkkkkkkkkandkhasklearntkkthekresponsibilitykthatkgoeskwithknewkinitiateskinkour kkkkkkkkkkworld.

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkN.B.kPleaseknotekthatkinkthektruekPagankspiritkofkthisktome, kkkkkkkkkkevenkTiggerskeatkvegetariankfood.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1692 kkkkkkkkkkPoohkandkthekHoneykTree kkkkkkkkkkOnkthiskdaykwekfindkPoohkstaringkkupkintokthekbrancheskofkaktree.kkHis kkkkkkkkkkhighlyktunedksenseskkhavekdetectedkkhoney.kBeingkakkportlykbearkhekkis kkkkkkkkkknonektookgoodkkatkclimbingktrees,ksokkhekcomeskupkwithkkakplan.kChriskkkkkkkkkktopherkkRobinkhadkkakpartykwithkklotskofkkballoons.kSokoffkkhekgoeskto kkkkkkkkkkChristopherkRobin'skhousektokas kifkhekmightkborrowkakballoon.kHekalso kkkkkkkkkkas skkChristopherkRobinktokhelpkhim.kTheyksetkoffkwithkPooh'skrequirekkkkkkkkkkments.kThekballoonkiskpaintedkblac ktokloo kli ekakthundercloud,kand kkkkkkkkkkblownkup.kPooh,kgraspingkthekkstring,kfloatskaloft.kChristopherkkRobin kkkkkkkkkkstayskbeneathkwithkkhiskumbrellakkannouncingk"Tutktut,kkitkloo skkli e kkkkkkkkkkrain."kThekkbeeskofkcoursekarekknotkfooledkforkankkinstant.kAboutkthis kkkkkkkkkktimekPoohkkdiscoverskthekmajorkflawkkinkhiskplan.kHekkcannotkgetkdown. kkkkkkkkkkAfterkmuchkcarefulkthought,kChristopherkRobinkkshootskthekballoonkwith kkkkkkkkkkhiskpopkkgun,kandkPoohkdescendskkverykrapidlykandklandskkonkakthistle. kkkkkkkkkkEeyorekconsiderskthiskakwastekofkakgoodkthistle. kkkkkkkkkkMoral:kThiskiskthekpinnaclekofkPooh'skintellectualkdevelopment.kHekhas kkkkkkkkkksolvedkkhiskimmediatekproblem,kbutkknotkreallykthoughtkkoutkthekconsekkkkkkkkkkquences.kInkakkspiritualksense,khekhaskkstrivedktookfarkkwithoutkbeing kkkkkkkkkkproperlykpreparedkkandkiskkbroughtkbac kktokearthkkwithkakkbump.kPooh, kkkkkkkkkkhavingkdevelopedksokfar,khaskkforgottenkthatkifkyoukarektokkgokflying, kkkkkkkkkkastrallykorkknot,kthenkyoukkmustknotkkforgetkyourkkparachute.kAskkPooh kkkkkkkkkkfoundkwithkthekbees,kwekmustkklearnknotktokunderestimateklifekformskwe kkkkkkkkkkperceivekkaskbeingkklowerkthankkourselves.kEeyorekkiskanotherkkcasekin kkkkkkkkkkpoint.kAlthoughkhekiskkseenkaskunder-developedkbecausekhekdoesknotksay kkkkkkkkkkmuch,khekhaskobviouslykseenkthekoutcomekfromkthekwordkgo,kandkkiskonly kkkkkkkkkkupsetkatkthekdemisekofkakjuicykthistle.kChristopherkRobinkiskobviously kkkkkkkkkkankinterplaneskadeptkksincekoncekkagainkhekrescueskkPoohkafterkkhaving kkkkkkkkkkclairvoyantlykforeseenkthekoutcome. kkkkkkkkkkConclusion: kkkkkkkkkkTokleadkupkktokmykkgreatkrevelationkkIkmustkkconcludekthekkstory.kkkOn kkkkkkkkkkfrequentkkoccasionskwhenkPoohkcallskkonkChristopherkRobin,kkhekiskout, kkkkkkkkkkbutkhaskleftkakknotekthatkhekwillkbekk"BAKkSON",kandkisknowherekktokbe kkkkkkkkkkseen.kPoohkta esktheseknotesktokWol,kwhokisknotksurekifktheykkreferkto kkkkkkkkkkakherbaceousk"Ba son"korkakspottedk"Ba son".kOnekevening,kkChristopher kkkkkkkkkkRobinkarriveskkatkPooh'skhousekkandkrevealsktokkPoohkthatkhiskktimekin kkkkkkkkkkthiskplacekisknearlykoverkandkhekmustkgoktokschool.kHekandkPoohkhaveka kkkkkkkkkklongkchatkandkChristopherkkRobinkdecideskthatkPoohkiskkreadyktokaccomkkkkkkkkkkpanykhimkonkthiskgreatkadventurekkandktheykwal koffkhandkinkkhandkinto kkkkkkkkkkthekSun. kkkkkkkkkkThiskillustrateskthekbasickfactkofklifekthatknokmatterkhowkcomfortable kkkkkkkkkkwekarekkwekmustkbekpreparedkktokgrowkandkkdevelopkandkmovekonkkwhenkwe kkkkkkkkkkmust.kChristopherkkRobinkiskinkfactkkPooh'skHigherkSelfkandkkaskcankbe kkkkkkkkkkseenkfromkkthekstories,kunlesskyoukkusekyourkHigherkSelfkkyoukwillknot kkkkkkkkkkreachkkyourkdesiredkaims,kandkkindeedkmaykgokthekksamekwaykaskthekunikkkkkkkkkkcornskkandktheirkhoneykpots.kkBetweenkChristopherkRobinkkandkPoohkthey kkkkkkkkkkhavekachievedksufficientkdevelopmentktokleavektheirkcurrentkkplanekand kkkkkkkkkkmovekonktokhigherkthings.kkChristopherkRobin,kaskcankbekseenkkfromkhis kkkkkkkkkkname,kChrist/Robin,kiskkakTipherathickkaspectkofkPooh;kkiekthekkcentre kkkkkkkkkkwherektheklowerkkandkhigherkselfkcomektogether.kWhenkktheykhavekunited kkkkkkkkkkthekwaykiskopenkkandkclearkforkthemktokkmovekonktoktheknextkkspherekof

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkexistence.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1693 kkkkkkkkkkThuskitkkshouldkbekeverykwitch'skambitionktokbekreincarnatedkaskakbear kkkkkkkkkkofkveryklittlekbrainkwhokliveskinkthekhundredkacrekwoodkonkakkplanekat kkkkkkkkkkleastkonekkabovekthiskone.kkAfterkallkthekkidiotskwekseekkrunningkthis kkkkkkkkkkworldkhavektokbekkseenkaskakdamnksightkmorekstupidkkthankevenkWol.k(PS kkkkkkkkkkMrskThatcherkiskalsokakLibran!) kkkkkkkkkkcopyrightktokkDavidkWadsworth,kwhokhaskbeenkakbearkofklittlekbrainkfor kkkkkkkkkkmanykaklongkyear! kkkkkkkkkkThekEnd kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1694 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkWiccak&kThekArtkofkMotorcyclekMaintenancek kkkkkkkkkkbykDavidkWadsworthk kkkkkkkkkk(ThiskarticlekfirstkappearedkinkChildrenkofkSe hmet,kMayk1988.kItkkwas kkkkkkkkkkoriginallykgivenkbykkDavekaskaktal katkakkWiccankWor shopkorganisedkby kkkkkkkkkkChriskandkViviannekCrowleykink1987) kkkkkkkkkkThisktal kaimsktokillustratekkthekall-pervadingknaturekofkWicca.kIfkka kkkkkkkkkksystemkkofkknaturalklawskkorkbeliefskkisktrue,kkitkkcankbekkappliedkto kkkkkkkkkkvirtuallykkanything.kIkintendktoktrykandkapplykpartskofkWiccankbeliefs kkkkkkkkkktokmykotherkpassion,kbi ing. kkkkkkkkkkTherekkiskakkpeculiarksortkkofkbondingkkbetweenkakkrealkbi erkkandkhis kkkkkkkkkkmachine.kThekkbi erkwillkputkkthekwell-beingkofkhiskkmachinekfarkabove kkkkkkkkkkhiskkown.kIkhavekseenkmenkkcrykoverkakbentkbi e,kkorkafterkankaccident kkkkkkkkkktellkkthekdriverkkoffkforkkhittingkhiskkbi ekratherkkthankhim.kkIkhave kkkkkkkkkkpersonallykfoughtkoffktwokambulencekmenksokthatkIkcouldkhopktokmykbi e kkkkkkkkkktokinspectkkthekdamagekbeforekbeingkkta enktokhospital.kMykktheorykfor kkkkkkkkkkthiskkstrangekbondkkiskthatkthekkmotorcyclekandkkriderkformkkaksortkof kkkkkkkkkkGestaltkbeing,kakconpletekkentity,keitherkpartkofkwhichkkiskincomplete kkkkkkkkkkorkuselesskwithoutkthekother. kkkkkkkkkkThekkmotorcyclekrepresentskthekmalekkpartkofkthiskkentity.kItkprovides kkkkkkkkkkallkthekforcekandkpower,kbutklac skcontrolkandkdirection.kItkiskall kkkkkkkkkkpotential,kinkWiccankterms,kthekGodkforce,kwaitingkforkthekfemale kkkkkkkkkkaspect,kkthekkGoddess,kinkkthekformkkofkkakhorriblekkgrubbykmotorcycle kkkkkkkkkkrider.kkkThekriderkta eskthekkforcekandkharnesseskkit,kgivingkpurpose, kkkkkkkkkkformkandkdirection.kkControllingkthekrawkmalekpotential,kandktogether, kkkkkkkkkkinkharmony,ktheykkwillkbekkcapablekofkreachingkkheightskimpossiblekkto kkkkkkkkkkeitherkonktheirkown. kkkkkkkkkkThekmotorcyclekcankbekseenkaskakwaykthroughkwhichktoktapkaksourcekof kkkkkkkkkkcosmickenergy.kkThekenergykkwhichkwekkinkthekkWiccakkusekforkkhealing, kkkkkkkkkkspells,kdivination,kaskakkgatewayktokalternativekuniverses.kJustkkaska kkkkkkkkkkwitchkkwouldn'tkattemptktoktapkthiskkawesomekpowerkwithoutkprotection, kkkkkkkkkkneitherkwouldkakbi er.kThekbi erkwillkputkonkboots,kgloves,khelmetkand kkkkkkkkkkleatherskkinkakksimilarksortkkofkwaykaskkakmemberkkofkthekkCraftkwould kkkkkkkkkksurroundkthemselveskwithkakprotectivekcirclektokpreservekthekpowerkand kkkkkkkkkk eepkoutkundesirablekspirits.kInkthekbi er'skcasekhekiskalsokaimingkto kkkkkkkkkk eepkinkkthekheat,kandkprotectkhimkfromkthekroad,kontokwhichkdemonkcar kkkkkkkkkkdriverskkpossessedkofkkevilkspiritskk(gin,kvod a,kwhis eykketc.)kwould kkkkkkkkkklurekhimktokhiskdeath! kkkkkkkkkkThiskbringskuskneatlyk(?)ktoktheksubjectkofkreincarnation.kMostkofkyou kkkkkkkkkkreadingkthiskwillkhaveksomek nowledgekofkthekideaskofkreincarnation; kkkkkkkkkki.e.kthatkwekarekborn,klivekinkthekworld,kdie,kandkarekthenkrebornkto kkkkkkkkkkdevelopkfurther.kNotkmanykofkyoukwillkrealisekthatkmotorcycleskgo kkkkkkkkkkthroughkaksimilarkprocess.kkTheykleavekthekkfactoryktokroamkaboutkkthe kkkkkkkkkkfacekofkthekearth,kthenksomekpartskwearkout,kandktheykdescendkintokthe kkkkkkkkkkdar kunderworldkofkthekkwor shop.kHerektheykarekconsoledkkandkrepaired kkkkkkkkkkbykkthekcreativekkforcekofkkthekfemale,kkwhokiskkthekbi er,kktokemerge kkkkkkkkkkre-bornkkinkSpring,koncekmorekkbloomingkwithkrefreshedkkcolourkofkreskkkkkkkkkktoredkkpaintwor ,kandkthekcyclekstartskagain.kManykBritishkmachineskgo kkkkkkkkkkthroughkthiskeverykyear.kAboutkkYulektheykarekready,kandkinkkthekfirst kkkkkkkkkkdayskofkSpringkktheykroarkaboutkinkthekkfirstkflushkofkyouth.kkThenkat kkkkkkkkkkthekpea kofktheirkkpower,katkLammas,ktheykarekcutkdown,kusuallykduekto kkkkkkkkkksomekkterminalkmechanicalkproblem.kTheykdwellkforkthekremainderkofkthe

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

kkkkkkkkkkyearkinkHades,kthekgarage,kthuskmirroringkthekcyclekofkthekGod.

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1695 kkkkkkkkkkThekspiritualitykofkbi eskiskperceivedkbykmankinkdifferentkforms,kand kkkkkkkkkkeachkhaskitskfollowers.kHerekareksomekofkthekmajorkreligions: kkkkkkkkkkTHEkCHRISTIAN kkkkkkkkkkThiskknewcomerktokkthekkspiritualkmotorcyclekkrideskakkmodernkJapanese kkkkkkkkkkbi e.kkHekkpaysklittlekmorekthankklipkservicektokhiskreligion.kkHekhas kkkkkkkkkkfewkrituals,kallkhekhaskktokdokiskturnkkthek eykandkstartkthekkstarter kkkkkkkkkkengine.kkkHekktendsktokkbekintokkpowerkandkkspeed,ktearingkkpastkolder kkkkkkkkkkmachineskwhichkhekregardskwithkcontempt.kHekcaresklittlekforkthekinner kkkkkkkkkkwor ingskofkthekkmachine,krunningktokkhiskpriest/mechanickwheneverkkhe kkkkkkkkkkhaskakkproblem.kkShouldkhiskkmachinekpasskon,ki.e.,kwearkkout,kitkwill kkkkkkkkkkbelievedktokbekirreparable,ki.e.,ktookexpensive,kandkgonektokthekgreat kkkkkkkkkkscrapkheapkkinktheks y.kThekma erskofkthiskkarekthekgreatksalesmenkand kkkkkkkkkkevangelistskofkthekbi e,knotktokmentionkthekprofitkma ers. kkkkkkkkkkTHEkMAGICIAN kkkkkkkkkkHekkwillktypicallykbekankolderkbeardedkgentleman,kwhokrideskankimmacukkkkkkkkkklatekoldkBritishkkmotorcycle.kTheykkarekintokstatus,kkandkwillkkpootle kkkkkkkkkkalongkatk40kmphkallkday,kimaginingkthemselveskkthekenvykofkallkwhoksee kkkkkkkkkkthem.kkTheykarekintokritualkkandkmystery.kThekkperformancekrequiredkto kkkkkkkkkksummonksomekolderkbi eskintoklifekiskawesomekandkkdangerous.kYetkthese kkkkkkkkkkfellowskwillkwatchkinksilencekaskakmachinekspitskatkaknewkinitiatekand kkkkkkkkkkbrea skkhiskshin.kTheykwillkendlesslykpontificatekonkthekcorrectkshade kkkkkkkkkkofkcolourkforkthekpetrolktan ,korkwhetherkakpartkiskthekrightkyearkfor kkkkkkkkkkthekmodel;kmostlykthat'skallktheykdo. kkkkkkkkkkTHEkWITCH kkkkkkkkkkThekbi ekwillkmostkli elykbekfilthy,knotkfromklac kofkcare,kbutkfrom kkkkkkkkkkconstantkusekkinkallksortskofkkconditions.kThekriderk nowskkandkunderkkkkkkkkkkstandskthekinnerkwor ingskofkhiskmachine,kitskeverykclic kandkwhistle. kkkkkkkkkkHekrelieskonknokkgurukforkhiskunderstanding,kkhekisknotkafraidkktoktry kkkkkkkkkkthingskkoutkandkseekifkkitkwor s.kNotkforkhimkktheksearchkforkpowerkor kkkkkkkkkkacclaim.kHekiskjustkoutktokkexplorekthekuniversekandkgleankitskmysterkkkkkkkkkkies.kHekkwillkgetktherekkinkthekend,kkthere'skplentykofktime.kkHekwill kkkkkkkkkkrebuildkbi esktimekkafterktime,kknotkstic ingktokkrigidkformulae,kkbut kkkkkkkkkkwithkwhateverkkcomesktokhand.khekkenjoyskhiskbi ekandkkiskin-tunekwith kkkkkkkkkkit. kkkkkkkkkkAskakbi er-witch,kIkamknowkgoingktokusektwokusefulktoolsktokexplainkmy kkkkkkkkkktheorykkofkLife,kthekUniversekkandkEverything:ki.e.,kkthekKaballahkand kkkkkkkkkkthekfour-stro ekcycle. kkkkkkkkkkFirstlykthekactkofkinvocationkandkthekfour-stro ekcycle.kForkthosekof kkkkkkkkkkyoukwhokareknotkmechanicallykminded,kI'llktrykandk eepkthisksimple. kkkkkkkkkkOfficiallykthekfour-stro ekcyclekiskreferredktokaskInduction, kkkkkkkkkkCompression,kPowerkandkExhaust.kIkpreferkthekmuchkmorekevocativekSuc , kkkkkkkkkkSqueeze,kkBang,kBlow.kTherekkarekakfewkkpartskthatkkreallykmatter:kthe kkkkkkkkkkcran kkshaft,kkthekconkkrod,kkthekpistonkkandkkthekinletkkpluskexhaust kkkkkkkkkkvalves.kk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1696 kkkkkkkkkk1)kkSuc :kkInitiallykthekkpistonkiskkatkthekktopkkandkbothkkvalveskare kkkkkkkkkkclosed.kkAskthekkcran kshaftkturns,kthekinletkvalvekopens,kthekconkrod kkkkkkkkkkpullskthekpistonkdownkwhichkdrawskairkandkfuelkin.kAtkthiskpointkinkan kkkkkkkkkkinvocation,kkthekinvo erkiskopeningkhiskcha raskandkdrawingkthekcosmic kkkkkkkkkkenergykwhichksurroundskuskintokhiskbody. kkkkkkkkkk2)kSqueeze:kThekcran kkshaftkcontinueskaround,kthekinletkkvalvekshuts, kkkkkkkkkkandkthekkpistonkiskpushedkkup,ksqueezingkthakkgasesktogether.kThiskkis kkkkkkkkkkwhenkthekkinvo erksayskkthekinvocationkkandkpasseskkthekkpowerktokkthe kkkkkkkkkkinvo ee. kkkkkkkkkk3)kBang:kThekfuel/airkmixturekigniteskandkpusheskthekpistonkdown.kThe kkkkkkkkkkpriest/esskta eskonkthekaspectkofkGod/desskbeingkinvo ed. kkkkkkkkkk4)kBlow:kThekexhaustkvalvekopenskandkthekpistonkpusheskthekchargekinto kkkkkkkkkkthekexhaustkpipe.kThekGod/desskchargeskandkshareskhis/herkpowerkwith kkkkkkkkkkthosekassembled. kkkkkkkkkkAndknowk-kmotorcycleskonkthekTreekofkLife: kkkkkkkkkkKetherk-ktraditionallykthekgodheadkfromkwhichkallkenergykflows.kItkis kkkkkkkkkkformless.kThiskiskthekhighktensionkspar kwhichkigniteskthekfuelkand kkkkkkkkkkwithoutkwhichkthekbi ekisknaught. kkkkkkkkkkCho mahk-kFormless,kdirectionlesskenergy,krawkuntamedkpower.kInkthe kkkkkkkkkkenginekthiskiskthekburningkfuelkmixture. kkkkkkkkkkBinahk-kthiskta eskthekrawkforcekandkstartskorganisingkandkformingkit. kkkkkkkkkkThekpiston,kconrodkkandkcran shaftkkta eskthekpowerkkofkthekkexpanding kkkkkkkkkkgases kkkkkkkkkkandkconvertskitktokrotarykmotion. kkkkkkkkkkChesedk-kTa eskkthekpotentialkkenergykofkkBinah,kgiveskkitkorder,kkand kkkkkkkkkkma eskitkmoreksolidkandkkusable.kInkthekengine,kthekgearboxkkandkfinal kkkkkkkkkkdrivekta ekthekpowerkkfromkthekcran kshaftkandkkma ekitkusablektokkthe kkkkkkkkkkwholekmachine. kkkkkkkkkkGeburahk-kAnkessentialkbrea ingkdown.kkWherektherekisklife,ktherekmust kkkkkkkkkkbekdeath.kInkankenginekwhenkyoukkhavekgotktwoklumpskofkmetalkthrashing kkkkkkkkkkaboutkinkviolentkmotion,ktheykmustkwearkeachkotherkaway. kkkkkkkkkkTipharethk-kThiskiskthekimagekofkthekgodhead,kthekwayshower,kLucifer, kkkkkkkkkkPrincekofkLight.kInkthekbi ekthiskiskrepresentedkbykthekelectrical kkkkkkkkkksystemkandkthekignitionksystem,kandktheklights,kwhichkonkBritish kkkkkkkkkkmachineskarekprovidedkbykJoekLucas,kPrincekofkDar ness! kkkkkkkkkkNetzachk-kkThiskiskthekspiritkofknature,kintuitionkandksexuality.kThis kkkkkkkkkkiskmorekkconcernedkwithkwhatkbi erskkdo.kTheykarekinkktunekwithknature kkkkkkkkkkandktendkktokgetkdrawnkktokancientkksites,kegkStonehenge,kkAveburykand kkkkkkkkkkWaylandkSmithy,korkkjustkstandingkkaroundkinkakkmuddykfieldkkcommuning kkkkkkkkkkwithknaturekkandkthekklocalkbrewery.kkThiskiskalsokktheksourcekkofkthe kkkkkkkkkksexualkbondkbetweenkmankandkmachine. kkkkkkkkkkHodk-kCommunication,kintellectkandktravel.kItkiskalsokwherekyourkwill kkkkkkkkkkproduceskkpower.kThektravellingkkaspectkofkkmotorcycleskiskkfairlykob-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkvious,kandkhordeskkofkdespatchkriderskkfulfilkthekcommunicationkkrole. kkkkkkkkkkThiskiskkwherekwekgetkkthek nowledgekofkthekkwor ingskofkthekkbi e.kIt kkkkkkkkkkdefinitelykkta eskHodickwillpowerkonkkakcold,kwetkkmorning,kalongkwith

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1697 kkkkkkkkkkhighlykverbalkexpletives,kleapingkupkandkdownkkonkthek ic startktokget kkkkkkkkkkthekbuggerkmoving. kkkkkkkkkkYesodk-kThiskisktheklunarkaspectkofkbi ing,klin edktokTipharethkonkthe kkkkkkkkkkMiddlekPillark(referkJoekLucas,kPrincekofkDar ness).kManykbi erskwill, kkkkkkkkkkbyktheklightkofkthekFullkMoon,kswitchktheirklightskoffkandkridekby kkkkkkkkkkmoonlightkinktheirklunatickhuntkforktheklocalkkhostellry.kInkthekevent kkkkkkkkkkofkkakbi erkmeetingkhiskkdeathkthroughkthiskkridiculouskactivity,kloo kkkkkkkkkkintokktheks y.kkForktherekyoukkwillkespy,kkonkhiskksilverkmachine,kthe kkkkkkkkkkspiritkkofkthekbi erkridingkacrosskthekastralkheavens.kScientistsktend kkkkkkkkkktokthin kthesekarekmeteors.kTherekiskalsokthekillusionkofksecuritykone kkkkkkkkkkgetskfromkridingkkaroundkwithkone'skkheadkinkkakgoldfishkbowl,kkcollokkkkkkkkkkquiallyk nownkaskakbloodkbuc et. kkkkkkkkkkMal uthk-kThekconcretekworld,kreality.kOnkakbi ekyoukarekcold,kwet, kkkkkkkkkktired,kfrequentlykuncomfortable,kandkverykvulnerable,kandkno-onekin kkkkkkkkkktheirkrightkmindkwouldkdokitkifkitkwasn'tkforksomethingkelse...... kkkkkkkkkkDespitekMal uth,kkbi ingkopenskupkkotherkrealms,kotherkkworldsk(Birmikkkkkkkkkkngham,kLondon,kGlasgow,ketc)kandkkputskyoukinktunekwithkthekkinnerkand kkkkkkkkkkouterkuniverses. kkkkkkkkkkkThekEnd.

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1698 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTHEkGREEKk&kROMANkGOD(ESSE)Sk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAkquic koverveiwkbykThomaskPalmer kkkkkkkkkkAPOLLO-AlsokcalledkPhoebus,kthekkbrightkone.kIdentifiedkwithkthekksun. kkkkkkkkkkSaidktokbekthekkmostkpowerfulkofkthekGods.kSonkofkkZeuskandkLeto.kBorn kkkkkkkkkkonkkDelos,kta enkkNorthkandkkraisedkbykkthekhyperboreans,kkhekwentkkto kkkkkkkkkkDelphikandk illedkthekdragonkPython,kguardiankofkthekoraclekofkThemis, kkkkkkkkkkbutkakravagerkofkthekcountryside. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkTall,handsome,outstandingkinwordkanddeed,hekwasthekgod kkkkkkkkkkofkkever-renewedkkyouth,kkarchetypekkofkvirilekkbeautykkandkkmasculine kkkkkkkkkkvirtue.kHekwaskalsok nownkaskkakseducerk&kextremelykarrogant.kTalented kkkkkkkkkkinkmusic,kkinventorkofktheklyre,kkhekwaskthekinspirationkkofkpoetskand kkkkkkkkkksoothsayers.kHiskoracleskwerekexpressedkinkverse. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHecouldkcurekillnessandkbanishkevil.Hekwaskadoctorkwho kkkkkkkkkk newkkthekpurificationkriteskandkwaskinvo edkagainstkplague.kHiskimage kkkkkkkkkkwasksetkatkdangerouskplaceskforkprotectionk(Lightingkthekways)kNothing kkkkkkkkkkescapedkhiskvisionk(lightkofkday). kkkkkkkkkkARIESkk(MARS)-SonkkofkHera,kkbornkwithoutkkmalekkassistance.kHekkwaska kkkkkkkkkksupremekfighter,klovedkbattlekandkcaredklittlekaboutkissues,kswitching kkkkkkkkkksideskwithoutkscruple.kHekdelightedkinkmassacres.k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHewaskgodkofkwar,notkvictory,kandwaskthoughtlesskabout kkkkkkkkkkwinning,konlykfighting.kWaskonkoccasionkdisarmedkbykAthena,kGoddesskof kkkkkkkkkkrestraintkandkforethought,kktok eepkkhimkfromkkinterferingkinkkbattles kkkkkkkkkkthatkdidknotkconcernkhim. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHekwasprolifickinlove,kbutalsokarapist.Hekwasrunkbyhis kkkkkkkkkkpassions. kkkkkkkkkkCRONOSk(SATURN)-kSonkofkkUranusk(Heaven)kandkGaeak(Earth).kkGaea,kworn kkkkkkkkkkoutkbykknumerouskpregnancies,krequestedktokbekkfreekofkthiskburden,kso kkkkkkkkkkCronosk(Saturn)ktoo kupkkaksic lekandkcutkoffkkhiskfather'sktesticles. kkkkkkkkkkHiskkwifekkwaskRhea,kkandkhekkfatheredkkHestia,kDemeter,kkHera,kHades, kkkkkkkkkkPoseidonkandkZeus.kWaskeventuallykdeposedkbykZeus.k kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHisfestivals,ktheSaturnalia,werekatimeofkliberationand kkkkkkkkkkfreedomkforkkallkandkgotkkprettykwild.kTheykwerekkcelebratedkfromkDec. kkkkkkkkkk17thkuntilktheknewkyear.kSaturnkiskthekarchetypekfork"fatherktime". kkkkkkkkkkDIONYSUS-kSonkofkZeuskandkSemele.kHiskescortkwasksatyrskandkmarginally kkkkkkkkkksanekgods.kHekkdidknotkrespectklawskorkcustoms,kklovedkdisguises,kwild kkkkkkkkkkscreaming,klicentiouskdanceskkandkwildkkplaces.kHekwaskkakdrun enkkgod kkkkkkkkkkwithknokkhome,klivingkinkthekkwildkandkeatingkrawkkmeat.kHekencouraged kkkkkkkkkkexcesseskofkallk inds. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHerahatedDionysuskbecauseofZeus'sinfidelitykandhounded kkkkkkkkkkhim.kShekcausedkhimktokbek illedkbykthekTitans,kbutkhekwaskresurrected kkkkkkkkkkthroughkthekeffortskofkkAthena,kZeus,kApollo,kandkRhea.kShekkdrovekhim kkkkkkkkkkmad,kbutkthroughkCybelekhekgainedkkmasterykofkit.kHekdrovekmanykpeople kkkkkkkkkkmadkforkvariouskreasons. kkkkkkkkkkEROSkk(CUPID)-kAkkprimordialkgod,kkcontemporarykofkChaos,kkwhokexisted kkkkkkkkkkbeforekCronosk(Saturn)kandkZeus.kHekcamekoutkofkankeggkthatkformedkthe kkkkkkkkkkearthkandkks ykwhenkitkbro ekkinktwo.kHekprecipitatedkkthekembraceskof kkkkkkkkkkGaeak(thekEarth)kandkUranusk(thekheavens),kwhichkresultedkinkthekbirth kkkkkkkkkkofkkOceanus,kTethys,kCoeus,kandkCronosk(Saturn).kThekEarthkandkheavens kkkkkkkkkkwereksoktightlykkembracedkthatknonekofkthekchildrenkcouldkrisektowards kkkkkkkkkktheklightkuntilkCronosk(Saturn)kcastratedkhiskfather. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCupidwasassociatedwithAphrodite,kwhomoderatedhispower.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkWherekhekwaskdesire,kinstinctkandkviolentksex,kshekkwaskgrace,ktenderkkkkkkkkkknesskandksweetkpleasure. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkCupidmadepeoplelosetheirkreasonandparalyzedtheirwills, kkkkkkkkkkevenkinspiringkZeusktokcapriciousksexualkdesires.

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1699 kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkAsEroskheisksaidtokbethekchildofkPorus(Expedience)kand kkkkkkkkkkPeniakk(Poverty).kLi ekPenia,kkhekwasksaidkktokalwayskbekkinksearchkof kkkkkkkkkksomething,kandkli ekPorus,kkhekalwayskfoundkkakmeanskofkattainingkkhis kkkkkkkkkkaims. kkkkkkkkkkFAUNUS-kAkRomankGod,kSonkofkCircekandkJupiter.kProtectorkkofkthekRoman kkkkkkkkkkpeoples,khekklivedkonkPalatinekHillkkinkRome.kHiskoraclekkwaskgivenkin kkkkkkkkkknightmares.kkLupercaliakwaskhiskfestival,kduringkwhichkhiskpriestskran kkkkkkkkkkthroughkkthekstreetskwithkleatherkstrapskandkstruc kanykwomenktheykmet kkkkkkkkkkwithkthemktokbestowkhealthkandkfertility.kThekwomenkwereksaidktokstrip kkkkkkkkkkthemselvesktokbekbetterktargets.kHekreproducedkhimselfkinktheksatyrs. kkkkkkkkkkHADESk(PLUTO)-kSonkofkkCronosk(Saturn),kbrotherkofkZeuskkandkPoseidon. kkkkkkkkkkWhenkkthekworldkwaskdividedkbetweenkthekthreekbrothers,kthekunderworld kkkkkkkkkkandkkhellkfellktokHades,kwhilekZeuskktoo kthekheavenskandkPoseidonkthe kkkkkkkkkkseas.kHekhadkakkhelmetkthatkmadekhimkinvisible.kHekruledkthekdead,kand kkkkkkkkkkforbadekhisksubjectsktokkleavekhiskdomain.kHekdesiredkkPersephone,kbut kkkkkkkkkkZeuskforbadekthekmarriage.kHekthenk idnappedkher.k kkkkkkkkkkHEPHAESTUSk(VULCAN)-kSonkofkZeuskandkHera.kHekwasklame,keitherkbecause kkkkkkkkkkhiskkmother,kstartledkbykhiskkugliness,kdroppedkhim,kkorkbecausekZeus, kkkkkkkkkkangrykthatkkhektoo kkhiskmother'skksidekinkakkdispute,kthrewkkhimkfrom kkkkkkkkkkOlympos.kHekdwelledkamongkmortalskandkbecamekthekgodkofkblac ksmithing kkkkkkkkkkandkkartistickmetalkwor .kHekmadekkakgoldenkthronekthatkimprisonedkany kkkkkkkkkkwhoksatkinkit,kandkgavekitktokHeraktokavengekhimselfkforkhiskfallkfrom kkkkkkkkkkOlympos. kkkkkkkkkkHERMESk(MERCURY)-kkSonkofkZeuskkandktheknymphkkMaia.kHekstolekksomekof kkkkkkkkkkApollo'skcattlekshortlykafterkhiskbirthkandkkconcealedkthem,ksacrifickkkkkkkkkkingktwoktokthekOlympiankGods.kThisktheftkwonkkhimkrecognitionkaskakGod kkkkkkkkkkhimself.kkWhenkApollokdiscoveredkthekktheftkandkHermeskkwasktried,khis kkkkkkkkkkdefensekwasksokks illfulkandkspiritedkthatkZeusklaughedkandkruledkthat kkkkkkkkkktherekshouldkbekakfriendlyksettlementkbetweenkthekbrothers. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkHermeskwaskGodofkthekspo enkwordandkoratorykandkwasthe kkkkkkkkkkintermediarykbetweenkkthekGodskandkkmen.kAlsokthekGodkkofkcommercekand kkkkkkkkkkcontracts,kwherekklanguagekkmustkkbekprecisekktokkconveykkthekkcorrect kkkkkkkkkkmeaning. kkkkkkkkkkJANUS-kROMAN-kThekTwokfacedkGod.khekwaskGodkofkbeginningskandkpresided kkkkkkkkkkoverknewkunderta ings,kgatewayskandkinitiations.khekwaskreveredkaskthe kkkkkkkkkkfirstk ingkkofkRomekandkmadekorderkreign.kHiskktemplekwaskleftkopenkin kkkkkkkkkkwartimeksokthekGodkcouldkact,kbutkwaskclosedkinkpeace. kkkkkkkkkkTHEkLARES-kRoman-kTwinkchildrenkkofkMercurykbykthekrapekofkkLara.kThey kkkkkkkkkkprotectedkthekland.kWereksymbolizedkbyktwokboyskandkakdog. kkkkkkkkkkPAN-kHalfkman,khalfkgoat,kwithkhornskonkhiskbrowkandklustkinkhiskeyes. kkkkkkkkkkSonkofkHermeskandkakdaughterkofkthekDryops,khekwaskthekGodkofkpastoral kkkkkkkkkkregionskkandkwilderness.kkSpecialkfriendkkofkshepherds,khekkguidedkand kkkkkkkkkkprotectedkthemkfromkafar.kProtectorkofkallkwildkthingskandkplaces.kHis kkkkkkkkkkpipeskkhadkankaphrodisiackkeffectkonkthosekwhokkheardkthemkandkinduced kkkkkkkkkkmating. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPankwasalecherandkadrun whokconstantlypursuednymphswho kkkkkkkkkkwouldkfleekinkterror.kCaveskrangkwithktheirkcrieskwhenkhekcaughtkthem. kkkkkkkkkkHekkwaskfamouskforkhiskrages,kwherekkhekattac edkanyonekwhokgotkinkhis kkkkkkkkkkway.kHiskkirrationalkbehaviorkledkpeoplekktokfleekhimkinkk"panic."kkHe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkwaskdangerouskkwhenkhektoo kkpossessionkofkakbeing.kkThekpossessed,kor kkkkkkkkkkpanoleptic,ktoo konkhiskkbearingkandkwouldkkwanderkinkthekwild,kklaugh kkkkkkkkkkmadly,kkorkthrowkkthemselveskkonkotherskkforkksexkwithoutkkrespectkkto kkkkkkkkkkgender,korkhavekepileptickfits.

 

 

kkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk1700 kkkkkkkkkkPOSEIDONk(NEPTUNE)-kSonkofkCronosk(Saturn)kandkRhea,khekiskrepresented kkkkkkkkkkwieldingkakktridentkandkbeingkkpulledkbykmonsterskinkkakchariot.kAfter kkkkkkkkkkZeus'skkvictorykoverkkCronosk(Saturn),kthekkyoungkgods,kkwhokpreferred kkkkkkkkkklifekkonkearth,kdividedkthekkvariouskdomainskofkkearth.kPoseidonkchose kkkkkkkkkkthekseas.kHekrepresentedkkthekhiddenkforceskofkgerminationkkandkdeath. kkkkkkkkkkTogetherkwithkhiskwifekAmphitrite,khekhadkpowerfulktieskwithkGaea,kthe kkkkkkkkkkEarth,kkmotherkofkkthekTitans.kkAsksubterraneankkGods,ktheykkshoo kthe kkkkkkkkkkworldkfromkinside. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkPoseidoncausedearthqua eskwhenhemadeklovetohiskwife. kkkkkkkkkkThekkmysterykislekkofkkAtlantakbelongedkktokkPoseidon.kPoseidonkkcould kkkkkkkkkkprovo ekkstorms,ksetkkfirektokkroc skonkkshorekandkkcreatekspringskkof kkkkkkkkkkwater.kHekhadkmanykchildren,kmostkwic edkandkviolent,kli ekthekCyclops kkkkkkkkkkofkthekOddessy. kkkkkkkkkkPRIAPUS-kkAksmallkgodkkwithkakpeniskkofkimmenseksize.kkSonkofkZeuskand kkkkkkkkkkAphrodite,khekwaskdeformedkbykHerakinkrevenge.kAphroditekabandonedkhim kkkkkkkkkkinkfearkthatkshekwouldkbekridiculedkforkherkuglykchild.kHekbegankkaska kkkkkkkkkksymbolkofkfertility,kkbutkofkknoksignificance.kAlthoughkkhekwaskkoverkkkkkkkkkksized,khekwaskkimpotent.kHekseemedktokfailkatkkeverythingkhektried.kHe kkkkkkkkkkwaskcomparedktokankasskandkridiculed.kHeklentkhisknamekktokthekdisease kkkkkkkkkkpriapism,kankincurablekillnesskwherekthekpeniskremainskpainfullykerect kkkkkkkkkkbutkincapablekofkejaculation.kkEndedkupkaskankobscurekgnome. kkkkkkkkkkQUIRINUS-kAkRomankwarriorkgodkoriginally,khekbecamekakkgodkwhokwatched kkkkkkkkkkoverkthekwellkkbeingkofkthekcommunity,koppositekktokhiskformerknature. kkkkkkkkkkCalledkankapparitionkofkRomuluskthekfounderkofkRome. kkkkkkkkkkZEUSkk(JUPITER)-kSonkofkCronoskk(Saturn)kandkRhea.kkHekdefeatedkCronos kkkkkkkkkk(Saturn)kkinkaktenkkyearkbattlekandkkthenkdividedkthekkrealmskwithkhis kkkkkkkkkkbrotherskbyklot,kkgettingkthekheavenskkforkhiskown.kkHekwaskrulerkkand kkkkkkkkkkjudge,kkthekarbiterkofkdisputeskamongkGodskandkmen.kHiskdecisionskwere kkkkkkkkkkjustkkandkwellkbalanced,kshowingkknokfavoritism.kHekkhadkseveralkwives kkkkkkkkkkandkmanyklover's,kearningkthektitlekk"allkfather"kork"fatherkgod".kHis kkkkkkkkkkinfidelitykcausedkmuchkstrifekkonkOlymposkandkinkthekworldkkthroughkhe kkkkkkkkkkragingkofkhiskwife,kHera. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkGoddesses kkkkkkkkkkAPHRODITEk(VENUS)-kDaughterkofkZeuskandkDionekaccordingktokHomer.k'The kkkkkkkkkkWomankBornkOfkThekWaves'kaccordingktokHesiod,kbornkofkthekfoamkimpregkkkkkkkkkknatedkkbykthekksexualkkorganskofkkUranus,kkwhichkCronoskk(Saturn)kkhad kkkkkkkkkkseveredkkandkthrownkkintokktheksea.kkkkPlatokidentifieskkthesekkasktwo kkkkkkkkkkseparatekAphrodites.kOnekUrania,kthekdaughterkofkUranuskwaskgoddesskof kkkkkkkkkkpureklove.kkThekother,kcalledkPandemos,k(Rootkofkpandemonium?)kwaskthe kkkkkkkkkkGoddesskkofk'common'klove.kShekkmarriedkHephaestus,kbutkwaskunfaithful kkkkkkkkkkwithkAries. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkArieswascaughtandhumiliated.kAphroditefledinshamekto kkkkkkkkkkCyprus,kandktherektoo kThracekasklover,kresultingkinkthekbirthkofkEros kkkkkkkkkk(Love),kAnterosk(Lovekinkreturn),kDeimoskandkPhobosk(TerrorkandkFear). kkkkkkkkkkShekalsokkwaskakloverkofkkAdonis,kakhumankshepherdkknamedkAnchiseskwho kkkkkkkkkkfatheredkAneas,kofkHermeskandkkofkDionysuskwhokfatheredkPriapus.kkkShe kkkkkkkkkkwask nownkforkjealousy.kShekmadekEosk(Dawn)kfallkinklovekwithkOrionkin kkkkkkkkkkspitekforkherkseductionkofkAries.kShekpunishedkallkwhokdidknotksuccumb kkkkkkkkkktokher.kkAkbeautykcompetitionkbetweenkHera,kAthena,kandkAphroditekwas kkkkkkkkkkproposedkbykErisk(Discord)kwithkthekprizekbeingkakgoldenkapple.kItkwas kkkkkkkkkkjudgedkbykthekkhumankParis.kAllkkthekGoddesseskkofferedkhimkbribeskkto

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kkkkkkkkkkwin.

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