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THE BOOK WAS
DRENCHED
DIFFERENTIAL
CALCULUS
SIIANTI
NARAYAN
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(Review published in Mathematical Gazette, London, December, 1953
THE
book has reached
it
Its
5th edition
all
in
9 years and
Is it
it
can be assumed that
meets
demands.
the reviein
wer's fancy to discern the influence of G. H. Hardy
the
opening chapter on
clearly dealt with
?
real
numbers, which are well and
this only to
Or
is
be expected from
an author of the race which taught the rest of the world
how
to count
?
*
.
"i
is
*
*
The course followed
and there
is
a
comprehensive and thorough, v good chapter on curve tracing. The author
is
has a talent for clear and exposition,
difficulties of the beginner.
sympathetic to the
*
*
#
Answers to examples, of which there are good and ample
selections, are given.
*
#
3
Certaianly
excellent
specialist,
Mr.
Narayan's
command
scientific
of
or
English
is
Our own young
mathematical
grumbling over French or German or Latin as additions to their studies, would do well to consider their
Indian
confreres,
with
English
to
master
before
their
technical education can begin.
& B. and Head of the Department of Mathematics Hans Raj College. NEW DELHI BOMBAY JULLUND tTR LUC KNOW CHAND & . A. STUDENTS By SHANTI NARAYAN Principal. DELHI CO. Delhi University TENTH REVISED EDITION 1962 S. Sc.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS FOR B.
6'25 Modern Pure Geometry Analytical Solid Rs. A Course of Mathematical Analysis Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable A Text Book of Matrices Rs. 1250 Rs. CO. 7'50 6 50 A Text Book of Vector Algebra A Text Book of Vector Calculus A Text Book of Cartesian Tensors A Text Book of Modern Abstract Algebra A Text Book of General Topology (Under preparation) Rs. Rs. 14'00 Published by S. 15*00 Rs. New Delhi1* . 5'00 550 Geometry Rs. 700 Published by G S Shartna. CHAND Nagar & NEW CO DELHI DELHI Ram Fountain Lamington Road Mai Hiran Gate Lai Bagh BOMBAY JULLUNDUR LUCKNOW First Edition 1942 Tenth Edition 1962 Price : Rs. CHAND & AH Road.) for Shyam Lai Charitable Trust. 7'50 6 50 Rs. New Delhi. Ram Nagar. Ram Nagar. Chand & Co. New Delhi and Printed at Rajendra Printers.. for S.Books by the same Author Integral Calculus Rs. Asaf (All profits from this book are spent on S. 16B/4. Rs. charities.
Preface to the Tenth Edition The book has been revised. their expression as infinite decimals and their representation by points 'along a line. does not form an unfortunate impression that the study of Calculus consists only in acquiring a skill to manipulate some formulae through 'constant drilling'. This is followed by a discussion of the graphs of the elementary functions x"> log x. analysis of the 'Layman's' concepts has frequently been to serve as a basis for the precise formulation of the corresponding 'Scientist's' concepts. They are given in the form of appendices to the relevant chapters. . 30th April. An made . constant endeavour of the author to see that the subject is not preThis is to see that the student sented just as a body of formulae. A few more exercises drawn from the recent university papers have been given. The book opens with a brief 'outline of the development of Real numbers. Some of the difficulties attendant upon the notion of inverse etc. This part is so presented that a student would have no difficulty in an independent study of the same.1 *. But this order of the subject is by no means suggested to be rigidly different order may usefully be adopted at followed in the class. sin. 1962. The treatment of the subject is rigorous but no attempt has been made to state and prove the theorems in generalised forms and under less restrictive conditions as It has also been a is the case with the Modern Theory of Function. functions have also been illustrated by precise formulation of Inverse trigonometrical functions. on his part. This specially relates to the two concepts of Continuity and Curvature.Sc. examinations of our universities. go through the same in complete details to acquire a sound grasp of the basis of the subject. and Some topics of the Honours B. A tho discretion of the teacher. standard have also been included. The student would. It is suggested that the teacher in the class need refer to only a few salient points of this part of the book.A. The first part of the book is analytical in character while the later part deals with the geometrical applications of the subject. SHANTI NARAYAN PREFACE This book is meant for students preparing for the B. e x sin x.
Moreover. Suggestions for improvement will be thankfully acknowledged. for the help which they rendered me in preparing this book.. 1942 SHANTI NARAYAN . of all the definitions of an asymptote. This chapter will also serve as a useful introduction to the subject of Double points of a curve. M. P. Vidya Sagar M A. This will enable the student to get familiar with the names and shapes of some of the important curves..A. trated The various principles and methods have been profusely by means of a large number of solved examples. formerly of the Government College. Asymptote of a curve has been defined as a line such that the distance of any point on the curve from this line tends to zero as the point tends to infinity along the curve. and Om Parkash M A. January. It is felt that a student would have better understanding of the properties of a curve if he knows how the curve looks like. the definition gives rise to a simple method for determining the asymptotes. Lahore who very kindly went through the manuscript and made a number of suggestions. A chapter on 'Some Important Curves' has been given before dealing with geometrical applications. It embodies the idea to which the concept of asymptotes owes its importance. this is the one which is most natural. Sita Ram Gupta.S. I illus am indebted to Prof. It is believed that.A..Geometrical interpretation of results analytically obtained have been given to bring them home to the students..E. My thanks are also due to my old pupils and friends Professors Jagan Nath M..
tinuity of elementary functions Some important properties of continuous functions .. .. cot x. .......... 1 Real Numbers. 38. .. 1'2. cot~*x see^x... sec x... .. Inverse Functions n Graph of y x*i x Graph of y=a Graph of >>^log a x Graphs of sin x... Variables. 24.. 37. Graphs of shr^x.. Theorems on limits Continuity of sum. 27. . Limit of x n as > oo . . difference.. 366. Limit of [(a*~l)/Jt] as x 0 X . cos^x.. ... Hyperbolic Functions and their graphs 7. 1*4.. tan^x.. Inverse Hyperbolic Functions I 37 41 52 +  53 54 57 58 59 63 64 64 66 68 .. ... Functions PAGE Introduction Rational Numbers . 35. 23..... Con. product and quotient of two continuous functions... tan x. . 1'5.. . 25. 3*3...CHAPTER ARTICLE ri. 361.26 . 20 22 24 25 26.. = .. 2*8. Limit of x n jn as n > oo . Continuity of a function Limit .. 1*3. III Continuity and Limit 32.... 29. cos x. as x>0 Limit of (sin . Functions Some important types of domains of variation Graphical representation of functions . 34.. . Limit of (1 1//I)" as n >oo .. Real Numbers Irrational Numbers....v/x) .. . 3'62. cosec^x Function of a function Classification of functions 30 34 35 CHAPTER 31. 365. Decimal representation of real numbers The modulus of a real number Variables. 1 6. cosec x . 2 5 6 9 11 1*7. 363.. . 18 2*2. Graphs of y=x* Monotoiiic Functions. 13 14 CHAPTER Some Important 21.. 1 .. 364. II Classes of Functions and their Graphs ... Limit of [(x ^)/(xo)] as x>a .
113 Some standard . 5 6. 461. Indroduction. Appendix CHAPTER V Successive Differentiation 51... 118 120 121 5 4.. . 471. 4*16. Derivatives of Trigonometrical Functions Derivative of Inverse Trigonometrical Functions ..... .. results . of a parameter .... Logarithmic differentiation Transformation before differentiation Differentiation 'ab initio* . x0 123 CHAPTER General Theorems..( VI ) CHAPTER IV Differentiation 41.. a .. general theorems on differentiation Derivative of a function of a function .. Rate of change Derivative . . . .. 4*11. 4 22.. ... Rolled theorem Lagrange's mean value theorem Some deductions from mean value theorem Cauchy's mean value theorem . .. 6*2. 6*3. .. 6*4... Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions . ... Derived Function An Important theorem Geometrical Interpretation of a derivative Expressions for velocity and acceleration Derivative of x . 412......... Derivatives of Inverse Hyperbolic Functions 491. Derivability.. Differentiation of inverse functions Differentiation of functions defined by means 88 89 93 96 97 97 99 100 102 104 108 4*5.... 116 5*3. VI 130 130 133 136 137 Mean Value Theorems . .. Determination of the functions th derivative of rational .. Introduction tvl... 5*2. . .... Derivative of (f ... 5*5. 414. 4*35.. 462.. 436. 4*92. .. 415. Notation Calculation of nth derivative.. 48.. ... .. 493.. Deri vati ve of loga x ... Determination of the nth derivative of a product of the powers of sines and cosines Leibnitz's theorem Value of the nth derivative for . 72 72 74 74 76 78 TO 81 86 88 Spme 434. .... 43. 4*4.
. Introduction . 140 145 CHAPTER Maxima and Minima.... Criteria for extreme values 7*6.... .. Limit of [/(x)/F(x)] when/(. of definition . of a function of two variables Continuity . Limit of [/(x). 10*4. Partial Derivatives Geometrical representation of a function of . development of a function in a finite form Lagrange's and Cauchy's forms of remainders Appendix . 179 180 181 185 188 Appendix......... infinite series for evaluating limits x. 10*71.. 84. 95. .... log (lfx). Definition of convergence infinite series and of the sum of an .. sin x... (l+x) CHAPTER X FUNCTION OF VARIABLES WO Partial Differentiation 10 1..c)>oo and F(xj *oo . 10*7. Taylor's . limits.67. 10 '2. Limit of a function of two variables . 8'7... 82.. Application to problems A ... CHAPTER IX Taylor's Infinite Series 9* 1 .. two variables Geometrical interpretation of partial derivatives .( vn ) 6*6.. 86. Taylor's and Maclaurin's infinite series Formal expansions of functions 94. 92.9*3. .F(x)] when/(x)>0 and F(x)>oo .... 4 10*5..74. 148 149 151 157 CHAPTER Evaluation of 81... Limit of [/(*) F(x)J when/(x)>oo and F(x)>oc 165 166 170 173 174 175 Limit of /(x) F'( l " \Y ' under various conditions . Introduction Functions of two variables and their domains .. of first order 193 193 194 195 196 197 198 . ... Rigorous proofs of the expansions of m cos . .... Limit of [/(x)/ir (x)] when/(x)>0 and F(x)>0 .. Definitions necessary condition for extreme values 73. 85. VIII Indeterminate forms . . .. Use of ex . 10'6.. VII Greatest and Least values . 71. 7*2.
.. 12*4. .( VIII ) 10*81. Calculation .... 238 239 ... 135... 11*4.. Extreme values of functions of two variables. . .... semiCubical parabola Polar Coordinates Polar Equations.. Epicycloid Branches of a Implicit Cartesian Equations. equations Angle of intersection of two curves Cartesian subtangent and subnormal Pedal Equations. 10*91. Catenary Explicit Cartesian Equations. 13>2... . Homogeneous functions A new NotaApproximate . Curves r~a sin 3$ and r=a sin U0 . 243 247 Curves r m =a m cos w0. Differentiation of Implicit Functions. . ... 11*3. Differentiation of Composite Functions . . XIII Derivative of Arcs On 133. 128.. 12*3. ... Hypocycloid. Cartesian equations Angle between radius vector and tangent Perpendicular from the pole to a tangent Polar subtangent and subnormal Pedal Equations. 12*2. of an arc as a function Length To determine ds/dx for the curve y=f(x) To determine dsjdt for the curve *=/(0. 248 CHAPTER 121. ... curve. . An axiom the meaning of lengths of arcs.. 126. Lagrange's Multipliers Miscellaneous Exercises I . 127. 10*93* 10*94. 199 . 10*82. .. 116. Cycloid.. . .. ?=/(') ... Leinniscate. 254 262 264 266 267 270 271 272 CHAPTER 13'1. 274 275 275 . Eider's theorem on tion Choice of independent variables. Cardioide. Equality of Repeated Derivatives. 204 206 210 213 Theorem on total Differentials.... 11*5. Spirals.. Strophoid. XII Tangents and Normals Explicit.. To determine dsjde for the curve r=/(0) 276 277 . Cissoid. Appendix.. 12*5. Parametric Cartesian Equations.. Implicit and Paramedic Cartesian . 134..... 230 232237 CHAPTER XI Some Important Curves IT!. Polar equations .
...... . 1547. Generalised Newtonian Formula. I(r7. 315 317 324 325 328 329 331 CHAPTER XVII Singular Points... lfi5. Implicit Equations.. Two properties of evolutes .. 152. Multiple Points 17*1. . Newton's formulae for radius of curvature. Chord of curvature . Introduction Definitions Tangents at the origin Conditions for multiple points. . 1551.... 335 336 336 339 .. 304 310 CHAPTER XVI Asymptotes 161.. . 15*5"). IO31. Introduction. Definitions Investigation of the conditions for a curve to be concave upwards or downwards or to have inflexion at a point Another criterion for point of inflexion . Inflexion 14)..r. its asymptotes .. . .. 14*2. 1C8.. . 281 ..:_< of general rational Alge^raic'Equations Asymptotes " 313 313 ](>(>... 282 284 285 CHAPTER XV Curvature.. 1731. 17*4.. . Radius of Curvature for polar curves Radius of Curvature for pedal curves Radius of Curvature for tangential polar curves Centre Curvature.. 1 t3.. Explicit Equations. ... Definition of Curvature Curvature of a circle Radius of Curvature Radius of Curvature for Cartesian curves.. Position of a curve relative to its asymptotes Asymptotes in polar coordinates .. 15vJ.. ... ordinate axes . to line . Evolutes 151..... Evolute.CHAPTER XIV Concavity.. Asymptotes by inspection Intersection of a curve and Asymptotes by expansion . Definition ... .. 144. .... 290 291 291 . Determination of Asj^mptotes Determination of Asymptotes parallel to co. 292 298 299 300 . lo'l'O. lfi32.. Convexity.. 16'2.. Circle of curvature. . Parametric Equations. 15*48. Concavity and convexity w. Involute... 1(54.. 154.. 172.
184. and its envelope 369 270 37:2 Miscellaneous Exercises II .... Geometrical relations between a family of curves ... 176. 342 345 CHAPTER 18*2. . XVIII 348 349 357 359 364 Curve Tracing Procedure for tracing curves 2 Equations of the form }> =/(x) Equations of the form y*+yf(x)+F(x)^0 Polar Curves Parametric Equations ... .. .. 19*2. 19'3.. . 19*4... ... 19*6.. CHAPTER XIX Envelopes 19 f l. 369 ... Answers 372 37882 383408 . 19*5. obtained 'ab initio* .. One parameter family of curves Definitions... 186. Types of cusps Radii of curvature at multiple points . 186.. Envelopes ofy=MXtajm .. Determination of Envelope Evolute of curve as the Envelope of its normals .... . 183..175...
Acceleration Gwry^fr&e. An excellent account of the.of the. It may also be mentioned here . see how we were first introduced to the notion of number and how. as such. take note of the properties which we intuitively associate with the same. etc. Thus it is applied to Geometry.that even though it satisfies a deep philosophical need to base the theory part of Calculus on the notion *>f number ialohe. The formula^ tion of an entity in terms of numbers. this notion came to* be subjected to a series of generalisations. the first step is td~ correlate the two notions of Time and Number. Intensity of Light.e. we will in some* . to measure time in terms of numbers. The importance of numlTe^l^/Bfesradj^bf i^subject in hand being thus clear. The subject of Differential Calculus takes its stand upon the aggregate of numbers and it is with numbers and with the various operations with them that it primarily concerns itself. be noted here that this application is may essentially based on the notion of measurement. Similar is the case with other notions such as Heat.. i. however. Demand. In Mechanics. Subtraction and Division.CHAPTER I REAL NUMBERS FUNCTIONS Introduction. also known as Arithmetic Continuum and only a very brief reference to some well known salient facts will suffice for our purpose. therefore. measurement. i. must. : It is. f#ltowig. Development of numbers is given in 'Fundamentals of Analysis' by Landau. in course of time. whereby we employenumbers to measure the particular quantity or magnitude which is the object of investigation in any department of knowledge. but a rigid insistence on the same is not within the scope of . etc. It specially introduces and deals with what is called Limiting operation in addition to being concerned with the Algebraic operations of Addition and Multiplication and their inverses. it finds application to all those branches of human knowledge which deal with the same. in the application of Calculus to Mechanics. This remark will later on be illustrated with reference to the concepts of Velocity. of course. to the entire exclusion of every physical basis. we are concerned with the notion of time and.. not intended to give here any logically connected amount of the development of tl>e system of real numbers. and is a development of the important notion of Instantaneous rate of change which is itself a limited idea and. Force. for instance. Mechanics and other branches of Theoretical Physics and also to Social Sciences such as Economics It and Psychology. articles. Intelligence.e.
. etc. Thus. r we were first introduced through the process of counting certain The totality of these numbers is known as the aggregate of objects. Meaningless operation of division by zero. This property rational is numbers is expressed by saying tli^t the ag^egate of closed with respect to the four fundamental operations. for example. multiplication. was added to the former class. Distance. While the operations of addition and multiplications are^.class q being . 1. 115. Positive Integers. gain and loss. It is important to note that the only exception to the above property is 'Division . positive and negative and q is not zero. It was to the numbers. Fundamental operations on rational numbers. straight line. The introduction of Fractional numbers is motivated. from an abstract point of view/ to render Subtraction always possible and. to render Division unrestrictedly possible and. 113. another class of numbers like p\q (e. 3. This is known as the class of fractions and it obviously includes natural numbers as a sub. 2.g. An impor114.2 this will DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS book and intuitive geometrical notion of Point. from concrete point of view. whole numbers or positive integers. to render numbers serviceable for measurement also in addition to counting. Every rational number is expressible as p\q. The introduction of Negative numbers is motivated. At a later stage.unrestrictedly possible in relation to the aggregate of positive integers. Rational numbers and their representation by points along a 11. . equal to 1 in this case.. sometimes be appealed to for securing simplicity. this is not the case in respect of the inverse operations of subtraction and 'division. 1*12. the symbols are meaningless in respect of the aggregate of positive integers. that natural numbers. the class of numbers was enlarged by incorporating in it the class of negative fractions including negative integers and zero. to facilitate a unified treatment oi oppositely directed pairs of entities such as. Fractional numbers. rise and fall. etc. 4. Still later. ) where p and q are natural numbers. The entire aggregate of these numbers is known as the aggregate of rational numbers. from an abstract point of view. subtraction and division can be performed upon any two such numbers. (with one exception which is considered below in T15) and the number obtained as the result of these operations is again a rational number. Rational numbers. I'll. tant property of the aggregate of rational numbers is that the operations of addition. etc. where p and q are any two integers. from concrete point of view^.
. (1) less hand expression. the operation of division by zero must be always avoided. i. Otherwise. Then . if and only if. the left the equality ceases to hold for Jt=6..6)=Jt Dividing both sides by jc 6. On account of this impossibility in one case and indefiniteness in the other. . A disregard of this exception often leads to absurd results as is illustrated below in (i) (/). the remainder vanishes. 6. is clearly absurd. only when *j66.c 36:=. To decimalise plq. Show that every rational number is expressible as a terminating or a recurring decimal.. (ii) which is zero here. Let 2 jc 6.. The decimal expression will be terminating if. 2. 1. at some stage. the determi Now. tf1 and so must repeat itself at some stage. the process In the latter case. The equality (1) above is proved by dividing the numerator and denominator of the fraction (x 2 36)/(x 6) by (. by b amounts to determining a number c such that bc=a.x 6) and this operation of division is possible only when the divisor (jc 6) ^0. Also show that the aggregate of positive fractions is not closed with respect to the operations of subtraction. Also any number when multiplied by zero produces zero so that 0/0 may be any number. may be seen as follows To divide a and the division nation of c is uniquely possible. . is equal to 12 so that For *=6. there is no number which when multiplied by zero produces a number other than zero so that a JO is no number when 0^0. (je2 36)/(x 6). when x^6. is meaningwhereas the right hand expression.REAL NUMBERS by zero' : 3 This which is a meaningless operation. we get jc+6=l.. Show that the aggregate of natural numbers is not closed with respect to the operations of subtraction and division. the remainder will always be one of the will be unending. Ex. Division by jc absurd conclusion.x6.. (x6)(jcf.. Ex. will be intelligible only. xf 6.e* 9 This explains the restricted character of the equality (1).2 . 6+6=1. finite set of numbers 1. or 8. we have first to divide/? by q and then each remainder. responsible for this We may X also ( remark in this connection that 6) ^lf = *~^~ =x+6... which is i.e. is to be divided by q to obtain the successive figures in the decimal expression of p/q. after multiplication with 10. 12 = 1.
say 3/7. positive sense and a unit length on the number axis in the manner indicated above. axis marking an arbitrary point the origin or zero point. On it the positive side. the parallel to the printed of the page and the right hand side of O is termed posilines drawn ! and the left hand O negative. which may be known as the numberaxis.* DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS From this stage onward. w< Negative integers. After having fixed an origin. m. The student some Ex. we consider any positive integer. ger. m. then. the quotients will also repeat themselves and the decimal expression will. To represent a negative integer. m This point represents the negative integer. The mode of representing rational numbers by points along a line or by segments of a line. and call the unit length. Representation of rational numbers by points along a line or by segments of a line. start with it We and The point Any " one of these o Q tive Fi  O divides the i "ft may side of O on the numberzero will number number axis into two parts or sides. We take $ point on the positive or negative side of O according as p is positive or negative such that its distance from O is p times (or. therefore. will understand the argument better if he actually expresses fractional numbers. we take an number arbitrary length OA. 3/13. then negative. that the 1 is represented by the point A. is numberaxis Usually. p\q* . in decimal notation. We say. we are in a position to determine a point representing any given rational number as explained below : Positive integers. 3. 31/123. then. will now be explained. Fractions. tan  1*16. . be called positive and the other. take a point on the negative side of O such that its distance from is times the unit length OA. The calling be represented by the point O. The point so obtained represents the fraction. W *+. . a point on the positive side of the line such that its distance from O is m times the unit length OA. m. We take Firstly. of them. m. This point. let p\q be any fraction q being a positive OB being one Let OA be divided into q equal parts integer. This point will be reached by measuring successively m steps each equal to OA starting from O. For what values of x are the following equalities not valid : (0 !. be recurring. is said to represent the positive inte. p times jf p is negative) the distance OB. Finally.
Also. if any. Thus the the hypothesis thaPthej^fce measure y/2 of OP is not a rationaffiumber. Thus. by Pythagoras's theorem. 2. It will now be shown +hat the point P cannot correspond to a rational number of OP cannot have a i. line such that the length QL . we Therefore. will clearly show that it is not so. is represented by the Real numbers. that p2 is an even number. Let. measure be a rational number pjq so that. we have If possible. There exists. OA and take a point u Fig. 12. we take a point L on the any rational multiple say. the length 7i r rational number as its measure. "Is the converse true ?" Is it possible to assign a rational number to every point of the numberaxis ? simple consideration. segment OP. notice that such Firstly we so that the square of an even number is even and that of an odd number is odd. let its = 2. of OP. p* 2q*. last article that We A tailed below. to see that we can cover the line with such points as closely as we like.e. then the measure of the length OP is clearly p\q or p\q according as the number is positive or negative. Sometimes we say that the number. p/q. the see. can be cancelled to begin with. p itlHpinst be even. equal to 2n where n is an integer. i. (0 for. therefore^ a point on the numberaxis not corresponding to any rational number.e. p/a. # 2 is alsc #mfcrommo*factor 2 and this conclusion conno common factor. Construct a square each of whose sides is equal to the unit length P on the nutnberaxis such that OP is equal in the length to the diagonal of the square. traflicts is Hence p and Again.REAL NUMBERS 6 If a point P represents a rational number pjq.. as deIrrational numbers. it is easy. have seen in the rational number can be represented by a every point of a line. The natural question now arises. We may suppose that p and factors. q have no common factor. From thHtion (/)..
This is a contradiction.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS ble. every point of the line should have a number to it (or that every length corresponding should be capable of measurement). b be two given numbers such that #<6. rational or irrational. Decimal representation of real numbers. Let P be any 13. number and point. Thus the terms. 121. thus. say x. The number b a is referred to as the length of [a. is. . Then the set of numbers x such thata^x^fe is called a closed interval denoted by the symbol [a. If we now require that our aggregate of numbers should be such that after the choice of unit length on the line. We now seek to obtain the decimal representation of the number associated with the point P. set a. we are forced to extend our system of numbers further by the introduction of what are called irrational numbers. Also the set of numbers x such that a<x<b is called an open interval denoted by the symbol (a. given point of the numberaxis. A number. A notation method of representing is irrational 13. We will thus associate an irrational number to every point of the line which does not correspond to a rational number. that each real number is the measure of some and that the aggregate of real numbers is enough to measure every length. being equal to mqjnp. For. = ' > Thus we see that there exist an unlimited number of points on the numberaxis which do not correspond to rational numbers. is represented by a point P. If any number. Number and Point. Hence L cannot correspond to a rational number. corresponding to it. if possi m p mq /0 or \/ 2 \/2=v v n q p which states that <\/2 is a rational number. b]. Real number. are generally used in an indistinguishable manner. is called given in the next article Def. b] as also of <.b). rational measure. the Each real number is represented by some point of the numberaxis and each point of the numberaxis has some real number. numbers in the decimal irrational. Or. 122. Closed and open intervals. real number. rational or a Theaggregate of rational and irrational number aggregate of real numbers. length OP we might say. *). let The length OL cannot have a m\n be the measure of OL. then we usually say that the point P is x.
the point P will either be found to coincide with some point of division (in this case it corresponds to a rational number) or lie between two points of the We form . In the alternative case.. then it corresa rational number. //u' ! 7 9 . any o.e.. where.a v 1. say n. 2. are fll io fl _!_" +io (in + io' 4_ will l  i a> 2 .. 9. After a number of steps. 1. if P coincides with a point of division.REAL NUMBERS 7 To start with. tff TIP coincides with any of these points of division. 9.e. are. we suppose that the point P lies on the positive Let the points corresponding to integers be marked on the numberaxis so that the whole axis is divided into intervals of length one each. a The points into 10 equal parts so that the length of each part is T1T + . 3. <Ji+i 10 n J is into 10 equal parts so that the length of each part 1/10 2 . again subdivide this last interval and continue to repeat the process. now. . #. it falls between ponds two points of division. one of the integers 0. say If P to i. it corresponds to an In case P falls between two integer and we need proceed no further.. Now. 2. a+ . of division lie coincide with one of the above points corresponds to a rational number) or will between two points of division say cither it The point P which case 10* i. l. side of O. where a 2 is one of the integers 0.. we subdivide the interval (a. say a. . of division. a. now. a l9 is tf.K+1). We again subdivide the interval r L* + io' . . The points of division.. a+l) points of division..
consider will any infinite decimal and construct the [a. . Calculate the cube root of 2 to three decimal places. 122 .a& a. ... is the number representing the point P' on the positive side oft? such that PP' is bisected at O. finite or infinite.M. where a. 1*21.. Let. The successive intervals in which P lies go on shrinking and clearly close up to the point P.. Ex. . 3... This fact is related to the perceived aspect of the continuity of a straight line.. We find that Again consider the numbers 12. a n . see that every decimal. intervals intuitively Thus there is one and only one point common to this and this is the point represented by the decimal Combining the series of p. l<3/2<2... 1.. 13] into 10 equal parts. We consider the numbers 1. is 1/10* and which clearly gets smaller The process can clearly be continued indefinitely...2.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS the distance between which and smaller as n increases. which divide the interval [1. tervals shrink to a point. l'3 r which divide the interval [1*2.a^ . 1'2. 19.. denotes a number which rational if the decimal is terminating or recurring and irrational in the we contrary case... 129. is results of this article with that of Ex.a^+l]. now. [a..... We thus see that these in. 2] into 10 equal parts and find two successive nunv bers such that the cube of the first is <2 and of the second is >2.. This point P is then represented by the infinite decimal Conversely. Each of these intervals lies within the preceding one their lengths go on diminishing and by taking n sufficiently large we can make the length as near to zero as we like.. Then the number ##i#2**#i . 2.... We have I=*l<2and23 =8>2. series of intervals [ 0+1]. representing it is P lie on the negative side of O... !!.
The modulus of a real number. however.. . Hence Thus to three decimal places.  = 75   =2.. Calculate the cube root of 5 to 2 decimal places. a.1*259. its truth more clearly. The modulus of the difference between two numbers is the measure of the distance between the corresponding points on the numberaxis. l25<3/2<l26... the modulus of the sum of two numbers is less than or equal to the to see sum of their moduli. is meant according as x is positive. By the number The smybol x is used to denote the modulus ofx. 2. we split it up of each. we have Notation* \ \ 3  =3..126 divide the interval [125. 126] into 10 equal parts We find that 8 (1259)=1995616979<2 and (1'26) =2'000376>2 !259<3/2<l26. x. 141. i..  We  some simple and a+b < a   + b  . x.  and  = b a + = 7 + 3 73 = 7 + 3 a+6 7+3 I  . . 1 which is indeed very cumbersome. 1251.REAL NUMBERS We find that (l'25) 8 8 =l953125<2and(l26) 2'000376>2. To enable the reader into two cases giving exampfes Case 1. The result is almost selfevident.. or zero. Def. . Ex.e.    I  . The method described above in Ex. we have ?/2=l259.         . 1752. 1*4. other methods involving infinite series or other limiting processes are employed. In actual practice.g. now state useful results involving the moduli of numbers. In this we I e. Note. has only been given to illustrate the basic and elementary nature or the problem. Again. b have the same clearly have sign. x or the modulus of a real number. Let case. [  =0 . Some results involving moduli. the numbers 125. negative.. 3 57   =(3)=3. For example. Thus the modulus of a number means the same thing as ite numerical or absolute value.
a+l].. 4. If y= x \ \ + l jc then show that 2x. lus notation : (/)   <3. belongs to the [al. be three numbers such that x I I <*> (^) then i. show c \ that \ ac 1 </+/w.  is equal to the pro 43   (4)(3) /. so that the point x (which may He to the right or to the left of a) can. () 2<x<5. b have opposite clearly signs. I we have \ a+b < \a\ ab a   + . x_2 (m) 3<. Fig 3 It x lies between a and only and a+l. If x. be at a distance / from the point a.t<7.. Let a. Ex.  . // 1 ab ac \  </. We have 2.g. \b\ b  . in either case. 1. The a and x must be a.g.. In this case. 3  . if may also be at once seen that I *!<' 1 is closed interval equivalent to saying that.   . x. at the most. bc  \ <m. (7) 0< .<0 forO<A:<l. x lies between a I and a\l or that x belongs to the open interval inequality (A) implies thai the numerical difference between less than /.  =12= =12= 4    . 143. a. I we clearly possible. .  3  . 3  =10. e. 4=  a+b 73   < < =  a   7  I + + b  \ . from the see that this is figure.  x\  <2. 4 .e. the modulus of the product of two numbers duct of their moduli.  Thus 142.* DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Case II. Give the equivalents of the following by doing away with the modu3. fora.  = ab+b < 1 ab + \ \ bc \ <l+m. /~s<x</+s. d+t if f Now. Give the equivalents of the following : in terms of the modulus (iv) notation (0 1<*<3.g. e. we I have e. 1 (//) 1  \x+\\ <2.
then the given equation determines a unique corresponding value of y. The symbol x which. These relations assign a definite value to y corresponding to every volue of x. value of x the relation does assign a value to y. the determination of y for x ~2 involves the meaningless operation of division by zero and.(/) (") . we observe that there is no is negative and hence. is positive or zero so long as if equal to 1. their relationship . This the relation is the case and only if x is x 2 is less than or any number satisfying i. in the present case.. 1] is called its domain o? variation. the square root of a negative number does not real number whose square exist. Here. is called the independent variable and the interval [1. Now. Consider two numbers x and y connected by the relation.e. we assign any value to x belonging to the interval [ 1. We give below some examples to enable the reader to understand and formulate the notion of a variable and a function. Before considering this relation. although the value of y is not determined by a single . "where we take only the positive value of the square root. Ex. the relation does not But for every other assign any value to y corresponding to jc=2. Variables. If. can take up as its value any number belonging to the interval [ 1. of x defined in the interval [" 2. 1]. 1 jc 2 .FUNCTIONS 11 1*5.. 1. 1] is called the dependent variable or & function 1. The symbol y which has a value corresponding to each value of x in the interval [1. Consider the two defined by the equations numbers x and y with y=^x* when x<0. I]... when x belongs to the interval [1. 3. so far as real numbers are concerned.(iii) y=ljx when x>l. therefore. Here. 1]. y=x when 0<x<l. 1].. Consider the two numbers x and y connected by the relation. Functions. x is the independent variable whose domain of variation consists of the entire aggregate of real numbers excluding the number 2 and y is a function of x defined for this domain of variation of x. now.
The above examples lead us to the following precise definitions of variable and function. 4. or laws. belonging to its domain of variation. Here again. whatsoever. Ifxis a symbol which does not denote any fixed number but is capable of assuming as its value any one of a set of numbers. It follows may be noticed that the same function can also be defined as : ys= x when x when x<0.12 DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS y corresponding instance. [Equation [Equation (/) forx=.. a value of a symbol. is a function of x defined for the aggregate of positive Let Here we have a function of x defined real for the entire aggregate of numbers. a function of x defined for the entire aggregate This example illustrates an important point that it is not necesthat only one formula should be used to determine y as a funcsary tion of x. in its lowest y= 6. Let Here y integers only. then x is called a variable and this set of numbers is said to be its domain of variation. gate x defined for the entire aggre 1*51. we have to select one of the three equations depending upon the value of x in question. y of real numbers. In order to determine a value of to a given value of x. there corresponds. 1*52. y=( 2 2) =4. formula as in Examples 1 and 2. For forx= 2. What is required is simply the existence of a law or laws which assign a value to y corresponding to each value of x in its domain of variation. for *=3. 5. y+ . j=J ^= is (i7) v 2<0 v 0<J<1 [Equation 9 (in) v 3>1. Function and its domain of definition. by any law. Let yt=z\lq f t when x is a rational number plq terms r y=0 when x is irrational. Independent variable and its domain of variation. Hence again y is a function of of real numbers. // to each value of an independent variable x.
for example. i. is read as the '/' If x. should be noted that the symbols Similar meanings have been assigned to the symbols (0. b) denotes the domain of variation of a variable which can take up as its value any number less than or equal to b. 1*5. b]. b). be any particular value of x belonging to the domain of variation of X then the corresponding value of the function is denoted by/(x). The fact that y is a function of a variable x is expressed symbolically as of x. 3. oo ). x can assume as its value any number greater than or equal to a and less than or equal to 6. GO ) or x>a (00 . b] which denotes a closed interval where x can take up the values a and b also. etc. y and open intervals. b) to distinguish it from [a. if a<x<b then we say that its domain of variation is an open interval denoted by (a. oo ) or any Here it 00. We may bound also have domains of variation extending in one or the other directions i.e. Some Sometimes it becomes necessary to distinguish between closed as its value any number greater than a or less than b but neither a nor b i. the intervals (00. 11. Constants. (a. which is then called the domain of definition of the function. .. GO ). If x can take up We may similarly [a. b]. (00 . it is important types of domains of variation. i.e.e. Usually the domain of variation of a variable x is an interval a. 1*6.e. Yet. Notation for a function. Here. called a constant. as domains of variation. in the following pages they will be used in various ways (but. the symbol ( 00..course never as numbers) and in each case it will be explicitly mentioned as to what they stand for.. b] or x<6 . 1*53. 9 p. Thus. then then If functional symbols be required for two or more functions.. G.FUNCTIONS 13 then y is said to be a function of x defined in the domain of variation of K. iff(x) be the function considered in Ex. a<x^b without x. [a. of .00 are no numbers in any sense whatsoever. have semiclos3(l or semiopened intervals a<x<6 . usual to replace the latter /in the symbol f(x) by other letters such as F. A symbol which denotes a certain fixed number is .
v. w*as symbols for variables. 1* Show that the domain of definition o f the function is the open interval (I. For x>l the expression under the radical sign is positive so that a Hence the function is defined value of the function is determinable. 0) respectively. 3. arq taken as positive directions on the two axes. lengths). interval (1. Graphical representation of functions. The following carefully noted function need not be necessarily defined by a formula or formulae so 1.bet r a. we take two straight lines X'OX at right angles to each other as in Plane Analytical fwid Y'OY Geometry* These are the two coordinate axes. points about the definition of a function should be : Note. 6. 2]. Thus the function in^heopen 2. page 12. It is A whole domain of definition of the function. that the value of the function corresponding to any given value of the independent variable is given by substitution. y v as symbols for constants and the latter letters w. y. Let us consider a function y=f(x) defined in an interval [a. [Refer Ex.] 2. (//) 1/U + cos A) (iii) V(lf2 sin x). [1. We take O OF (usually of the same OY To any number x corresponds a point M on Jfaxis such that . b]. Also for x<l the expression (1 Jt) (x 2) under the radical sign becomes negative. as origin for both the axes and select unit intervals Also as usual.14 It has like a. h. . become customary to use earlier letters of the alp}ifl. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . All that is necessary is that some rule or set of rules be given which prescribe a value of the function for every value of the independent variable which belongs to the domain of definition of the function. that the are (0... (J. oo) ( oo . not necessary that there should be a single formula or rule for the [Refer Ex. z . page 11. OX. and is not defined for *<. c like JC. To on OX.] Ex. Obtain the domains of definition of the functions (0 ^(2x+l) 17. For x=l and x>2 <2 and 2 the denominator becomes zero. that the Show Show and domain of definition of the "function domain of definition of the functions ^[(1 x) (A* 2)] is the closed interval 3. (/) represent it graphically. 4. 1 and x^2. 2). 2).
corresponds a point above.c) and y=f(x) is said to" be the equation of the graph. To the corresponding number y. The graph of y=*x consists of a discrete set of points(1. o Fig. Fig.FUNCTIONS 15 (/). 2). 1). 5 2. Thus we obtain a y* point P which is N y o Fi g% 4 corresponds a number y determined by the functional equation yc=f(x) and to this pair of numbers. 1'5. 2). 6 3. obtained by giving different values. 24). etc. to every number x belonging to the interval [<?. y as obtained totality of these points. 3. to correspond to the pair of y. page 11. (3. \ . b]. is said to be the graph of the function /(. to x. The 1. The graph of >> = 2 (jc 1) is the straight line y=x\l excluding the point P(l. P x. there numbers x. Examples The graph of the function considered is in Ex. avS determined from on Kaxis such that corresponds a point N there said Completing the rectangle OMPN. (4. (2. 6).
when =H x. The graph of the function x. !]. 8 Fig.. (Fig.0]. when when x when I is as given. the function which denotes the positive positive or negative.[!. [0. when x<0. . 9) of x. corresponding to the intervals ^oo. square Draw the graph of root o/x 2 . the As a *v/x =jc or x according *s as x xi is graph (Fig. 10 x). 9 The student should compare the graph graph (Fig. 7 5. Fig. f x. see that Draw the graph of > * We have 2x when x<0. when 0<x { x+x ^l=2x 1 when Thus we have the graph as drawn The graph consists of parts of : x+lx=l x+lx=l 3 straight lines ^ . Fig. 8) of V*2 the graph of the function /(x) where. 8) of 2 \/* with the The reader may 6. o Fig.DrFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS 4. 1.
whe 2 Draw ^* 2 the graphs of the following functions .x f A.^ ! ^ f ^ ^ _ 2.^ f = = : (  v . A ^ \ ^v. 11. Exercises 1 . {!*. w when when * . . when^v^i <)/(*) (")/(*) . Dawn the graph of [*]. * + x + l. x. ^(x\) The positive value of the square root 3. also be similarly is 1^2. is : to be taken in each case.v>0 x. when I/*. where [x] denotes the greatest integer not greater than x. 1.. when OjcCjc^i 2*. : <0/(*) = when A<CO l. . Draw the graphs of the functions + [*fl] () : (///) 2*1  +3 MV M denotes the greatest integer not greater than x. <ix<3 and so on.. when ^< 0. We have f 0.when. when x^u wften A<TO when A>0. when A = . for 2 for negative values of x can The righthand endpoint of each segment of the line point of the graph. (0 4.2 . . . for y=4 The value of y given. W where [*] Draw the graphs of the functions (//) *.FUNCTIONS * 17 7. . <x<2. : l/jc. Draw the graphs of the following functions 1. ( v /)/(A) when x = 4 1 A. for 1 <*<!.^ (/) 00 x + . Yk ~ not a O Fig. 1.
n being any integer. obviously. sec^x. the properties of the graph n of whatever positive even integral n may have. therefore. Thus no point on the graph lies in the third or the fourth when x quadrant. to be taken to define them so as to introduce them as singlevalued. is posiy (ii) positive tive or negative. . . 1. when x= graph. is A (1. through the points. The following are. . . value. when n is a (Hi) when n positive even integer is . inverse trigonometric functions are inverses of the corresponding trigonometric functions. Let n be a positive even integer. (//) a negative even integer when n is a positive odd (iv) when n is a negative odd integer. cot~ 1 x.CHAPTER II SOME IMPORTANT CLASSES OF FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS This chapter will deal with the graphs and some Introduction. Graphical representation of the function y=x* . passes 1). We have. tan"~ 3 x. . (it.0).1). The therefore. The functions belonging to the same sub class will be seen to have graphs similar in general outlines and differing only in details. 21. y=x (i) ^=0. O (0. cosec x 1 1 sin~ x. The trigonometric functions being periodic. 12. tan x. really to discuss a class of functions obtained by giving different integral values to n. the whole of this class of functions divides itself into four subclasses a& follows : (i) integer . A' (1. 18 .3*. cot x. The logarithmic function is inverse of the exponential just as the sin x. cc5s~ x. 211. the inverse trigonometric are multiplevalued and special care has. here. when x=0 y=l. positive or negative. cosec. when x=l >>=!. simple properties of the elementary functions x n a x loga x . Each of these four cases will now be taken up one by one. sec x. a positive even integer) Fig. It will be seen that. from the point of view of graphs. cos x.
general outlines. a positive odd integer) 13. say.l) y is according as x tive. larger. The graph of y=x* 212.4 (I. of odd are the properties integral value n may have. Moreover. therefore. Let n be a negative even integer. may have o =x 9 x (n. page. passes through the points . gets larger so that the values of x. whatever positive ^ ^=0. m> (w>0). (//') therefore. I). (i) The following y=xn . x=l . xn ~~ xm  \U. when whenx^O. y 1. sufficiently large numerically. 9 is. symmatrical about the . The graph.GRAPHS (wi) 19 We have same value of y corresponds to two equal and opposite The graph is. as x gets larger and made as large as we like by The graph is. lies positive or negative is positive or nega in Thus. a negative even integer) Fig. 12. not for positive even integral value of n as given in Fig.0).D The following are the x n whatever properties of y negative even integral value. 0(0. . therefore. (///) Fig The numerical value of y increases with an increase in the numerical value of x. y can be taking x sufficiently large numerically. 14 involves the meaningless operation of division by and so y is not defined for for x=Q (i) Determination of y . Also. quadrant. (iv) The variable y and larger numerically.4'(l. closed. n. 18. no point on the graph the second or the fourth (n. in Let n be a positive odd integer.yaxis. 1 _______ Here. the numerical value of y can be made as large as we like by taking x 213.
as x.e. Det L A function y=*f(x) an it is Def. ourselves article some digression in this to facilitate some of the later considerations. The graph is. x decreases so that y increases. 15. as near zero m taking x sufficiently large. x may be. now.. The 214. starting from 1. decreases. 221. 15) * Before considering the graphs of other functions. Also y can be made as large as we like by taking x sufficiently near 0. We have so that the same value of y corresponds to the two equal and opposite values of x. Monotonic functions. lies in the third or in the fourth quadrant. is called a monotonically increasing such that throughout the interval a larger interval if function in value of x gives a large value of y. increase in the value of x always causes a decrease in the value of the function. +. put The statement of the various properties for this case reader. therefore. approaches zero.. Thus. x also increases so that y as small as we like (i. 2. (p) As x. integer^ Increasing or decreasing functions. is the graph passes through y point on the graph (IF) Thus no positive whether x be positive or negative. i. if *i and x a axe any two numbers in an interval such that . (Fig. A function is if His such that an called a monotonically decreasing function. so that A (I. Let n be a negative odd integer.e. 1). starting from 1. symmetrical about jraaris. l)andX'(l. is left is to the The graph only shown VJ) here. we allow 2*2. variation of y for negative values of down by symmetry. Alsojy can be made as we like) by increases.20 (fl) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS the two points (itt) y=l when x=l or 1. an increase in the value of x always causes an increase in the value of y. m Again. a negat^ odd Fig.
GBAPHS then for a monotonically increasing function in the interval 21 and for a monotonically decreasing function in the interval A ing is function which is called a Ex. [0. 6). x l9 x. we notice that is (/) monotonically decreasing in the interval ( tonically increasing in the interval [0.monotonically decreasing in the intervals a negative odd integer. 0) is and mono a positive even oo. the case solvable for (1) may not always determine a (ii) The functional equation unique value of y in terms of x as. x be (i) The functional equation (1) may not always as a function of y as. 0).. oo] when n integer . .. Let y=Ax) .(1) be a given function of x and suppose that we can solve this equation for x in terms of y so that we may write x as a function of y. 6). This process of defining and determining the inverse of a given function may be accompanied with difficulties and complications as illustrated below . oo) when n is a negative even integer. 0]. on solving for x. of Illustration.. Inverse functions. mono tonic that for a either monotonically increasing or function. decreasthe Show monotonic function /(x) in an interval (a. [ (in) monotonically increasing in the interval ( 00. (iv) when n is . (a.(2) Then <p(y) is called the inverse of f(x). gives . oo ] (//') when n is monotonically increasing in the intervals a positive odd. a . xn Looking at the graphs in 2*1. fraction keeps the same sign for any pair of different numbers. . (0.(3) which.. integer. oo) 222. say x=*(y). for instance.. in the case of the functional equation j = l+x .0) and monotonically decreasing in the interval (0. 00. . (00. for instance.
therefore. from 2*2 or otherwise. determines jc as a function of y in the interval (0. for. This of x which to the same must natur so that to each value of y there correspond two values situation is explained by the fact that in (3) two values are equal in absolute value but opposite in sign give rise value of y and so. integer. it is worthwhile to have a simple which may enable us to determine whether a given function y=f(x) admits of an inverse function or not. To draw the graph of JL y=x* n being any positive or negative .22 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS of x. b] and takes up every value between its smallest value f(d) and its greatest value f(b). is easily reached if y decreases monotoni Illustrations of this general rule will articles. test If a function y=f(x) is such that it increases monotonically in an interval [a. . Thus. or whatever integral value n (11) monotonic and positive in the interval may have . In view of these difficulties. (0. to a given value of y there ally correspond two values of x which gave rise to it. jc. we see that to every positive value of y there corresponds one and only one positive value of x such that y=x n Thus or xy^ . look upon. it. then it is clear that to each value of y between f(a) and /(/>). according to our notion of a function there must correspond just one value of. of x which gave rise to interval [f(d)> f(b)}. y. to a value of. oo ) . x being also always positive. in the usual sense. conversely. y. we see that y=x n (i) is of y~x n drawn in 21. We cannot. x. there corresponds one and only one value so that *is a function of y defined in the Similar conclusion cally. oo ) takes up every positive value. From an examination of the graph even otherwise. as a function of. appears in the following 2*3.
i To draw the graph of y~x H when x is independent and y dependent. student. x is irrational is beyond the scope of this book. when n is a negative Fig. so that the nih root is not unique and if n be even and x be negative. It is nth root of x not enough to say that x lln is an we must say the positive wth root . 23 first quadrant. one positive and the other negative. It may be particularly noted that in order that x lfn may have one and only one value. Fig. find the reflection of the curve in the line y=x. we have to restrict x to positive values n only and x l l is then to be taken to mean the positive nth root of x. then x has no nth root so that x lln does not exist. y* o when n is a positive integer. The meaning of a* when a is and x is any rational number. 16. to the point (k. to obtain some idea of the meaning of a? in this case. 24. Cor. we have to change the point (h. is already known to the positive 2*3 above). Thus x and x 1 /" are both positive. is also the graph of x=y n . 18. if n be even and x be positive. h) i. then x has two nth roots. The exponential function a*. X when n is a positive integer. x p u means (. we proceed as follows : . o/the positive number x. k) in t i n j. However. 17. Note..e. This is illustrated in the figure given below. For. Fig.OBAPHS The part of the graph of y~x n lying on the . integer. (It has also been considered in To give the rigorous meaning of a* when the index.x^) 1 /? where the root is to be taken positively and x is also positive.
Therefore on the graph. as x increases and can be (//) It decreases monotonically as near zero as we like by taking x sufficiently large. as drawn Fig. . Fig. Moreover it gives no precise analytical way of representing a* as a decimal expression. Leta>l. Since a*~\\a~* we see that a* is positively very small when x is negatively very large and can be made as near zero as we like provided we give to x a negative '. In order to draw the graph of y*=<f> : we note (i) following properties 241. then join them so as to determine a continuous curve. is The function a* always positive whether x be positive or negative. 1) lies on the graph.24 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS find points on the graph of y=a* corresponding to the rational values of x. is The function a* always positive whether x b3 positive or negative. We We Note. 20. (ill) made (0. (//) large as (ill) (iv) It increases monotonically as x increases and can be made as we like by taking x sufficiently large. tf=l so that the point (0. z of Graph its y=a . we can draw the graph which is as shown in (Fig. . as given here. 1) lies (iv) fl=l. 20). 19. . is then taken to be the value of a* for that particular value. 242. is incomplete in as much as it assumes that what we have done is actually possible and that also uniquely. sufficiently Thus we have the graph in (Fig. the point Since a x ~\\cr x we see that cf positively very large when x is negatively very large/ Also it can be is made as large as we like if we is give to x a negative value which large numerically. is sufficiently large nu With the help of these facts. The definition of a* when x is irrational. 19). The ordinate of the point of this curve corresponding to any irrational value of x as its abscissa. (i) LetQ<a<\. value which merically.
Considering the functional equation y=log a x.0 for y~l. . Thus . Also. 25. (i) 2.t the reflection tfy=a* in the line . . see that as the independent variable x varies from oo to dependent variable y monotonically increases from we to oo the oo if and monotonically decreases from Also. x being any We positive numbers. 1 /*'.y . This is the justification for the name n the base is a variable "Exponential function" given to it. . a* never vanishes and 1 2 /*" is always positive : : Draw 1 2 /* the graphs of the functions 1 </<) (iiflZ /* WZ. In the case of the function a* it is the exponent x which is a variable and the base is a constant. Fig. Note Ex. 22. The graph of>'=log 3 . For the function x and the exponent is a constant. oo to oo if We thus have the graphs as drawn. Graph of the logarithmic function ylog a x a. we take y as independent variable and Thus we see that that it continuously varies from to GO suppose x monotonically increases from x to oo if (/') . is Note.x x if decreases from oo to (//') monotonically x=. Fig. y=Q for x = l.GRAPHS 25 Note 1. know that y=a* can be written as We have seen in 2'4 that y~a* is monotonic and takes up oo every positive value as x increases taking 'all values from to fo> . In the figure of 2*4. to any positive value of y there corresponds one and only one value of x. 21.
e. (ii) It increases monotonically . we 2*6. if Trigonometric functions. we When 0<1. log a x>0. if x>l. trigonometrical The most important property of those functions is their periodic character. cosec x being 2?r and that for tan x. now. sufficiently large and sufficiently near 0. whatever value x may have. sec x. cot x. For #<1. We may. if When fl>l. and log a x<0. if x<l x<l. and log a x<0. assumed that the student is already familiar with the and the nature of variations of the fundamental functions sin x. properties here. definitions. properties It will be We 261. tan x. i. and so on. (Hi) 1 < sin x <1. cos x. x>l. will only produce their graphs and restate some of their well important and known x. 23. . sin  x [ <1. (i) It is defined for every value of x. we have similar statements with obvious (i/O log a 1=0. ysin . 1 to 1 as x increases from from to 7T/2 it decreases monotonically from 1 to 1 as x increases 7r/2 from Tr/2 to 3?r2. . sec x and cosec x. note the following important properties of is (i) log a x is defined for positive values of also positive. log^x can be made as large as can be made as small as we we like like by taking x by taking x alterations. the period for sin x. have. (ii) x only and the base a If a>l. cos x. cot x being TT. loga x>0..1\ Fig.26 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Some important properties of lo&x. have.
. 24. involves division by which is a meaningless operation. (i) It is defined for all values of x excepting where n is any integer. (/) cos x ) <1 x. . it (2 will + l)7r/2. It fact be recalled that for each of these angles the base of the rightand so the definition of angled trangle which defines tan x becomes tan jc. and ) so on. positive or negative.e. 1 It decreases mono ton ically from whatever value x to 1 as x increases from to TT .GRAPHS 27 Fig. may have. as being the ratio of height to base. i. 263. (i) (11) It is defined for every value of x. 25. y^tan Fig.
(i) It is defined for 4?r.28 (if) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS It increases monotonically . provided we take x> 264. . STT. TT. STT. and can be made negatively as large as we like provided we take x<0 and sufficiently near to it. 7T/2 and sufficiently near to yr=cot x. GO as x increases as x increases . <x> It decreases monotonically from oo to to TT it decreases monotonically from oo to /rom from TT to 2?r and so on. nir. 47T. 7T/2 it from to +00 as can bfe made we take positively as large as well like provided x<7r/2 and sufficiently near to it . i.e. 26.. and can be made negatively as large as we like it. () . n Fig. since for each of these angles the height of the rightangled triangle which defines cot x is zero and the definition of cot x being the ratio of base to height involves division by zero. TT. 0. (iii) It can be made positively as large as we sufficiently near to it like provided we take x>0and . 2?r. and so on. from oo to from +00 as x oo increases x 7T/2 to 7T/2 increases from (Hi) It increases monotonically to 37T/2. all values of x excepting 27r. where w has any integral value.
Fig. . (11) by sec  x j ^1 whatever value x may have. It is defined for all values of A: excepting i. (2n l) ?r/2. sufficiently near to y=cosec x. (zv) It can be made positively as large as we like by taking x<7r/2 and sufficiently near to it (ill) It increases . since for each of these angles.GRAPHS 265.e. 1 to oo when x increases to Tr/2 it increases oo to 1 when x monotonically from increases from ?r/2 to TT. the base of the right angled triangle which defines sec x is zero and as such the definition of sec x involves division + zero.. as large as we like by taking it. 29 Fig. and can be made negatively x>ir/2 and 266. where n has any integral value. monotonically from from . 28. and so on.
applies to the remaining trigonometric func proceed to modify the definitions of the inverse functions so as to remove the ambiguity referred to trigonometrical here.c=sin>>. cot~ l jc. We now 271. Now.1 .1 *. . (/) the independent and x the dependent t variable. The same remark tions also. tan. as it stands. It is defined for all values of x excepting TT. nit. so that to monotonically. cos. The definition. is not unique. to each value of y there corresponds just one value of x in (i). as defined above." 0.1 x are generally defined as the inverse of the corresponding trigonometrical functions. For instance. i.1 *. 27T. metrical functions The inverse trigono sin. ysin^x. Consider the functional equation We know that as y increases from Tr/2 to w/2. Thus sin" 1 A*. taking up every value between 1 and 1 there each value of x between corresponds one and only one Thus there is one and only value of y lying between ?r/2 and Tr/2. as~""x (lii) It decreases monotonically 7T/2 from creases to .*. and ir/2 with a given sine. cosec.. then x increases 1 and 1. the same value of x corresponds to an unlimited number of values of the angle so that to any given value 1 and I there corresponds an unlimited number of of x between values of the angle y whose sine is x. (ii) 27T. cosec x ^ 1 whatever value x may \ have. On the other hand..e. We where y consider the functional equation x== sin y is .30 (i) DIFFBKENTIAL CALCULUS . sec. sin" 1 * is defined as the angle whose sine is x. 27. "STr. it oo from 1 to decreases monotonically from oo to]*l increases as jc in from to 7T/2. TT. and can be made negatively as large as we like by taking x<0 and sufficiently near to it.1 *.  when n has any integral value. Inverse trigonometrical functions. is incomplete and ambiguous as will now be seen. OTT. (iv) It can be made positively as large as we like by taking x>0 and sufficiently near to it .. one angle lying between 7T/2 .
w^ose w x. 2* to 3* and so . then ovaries monotonically taking up Note 1. fiw/2) instead of What we have done here is. cos*x is the angle lying between ! : We know cos y. Consider the functional equation A: to TT. We The graph of ^sinJ 1 .1 * [ defined only. 2w]. there value between 1 and monotonically taking up every and TT. [. instead of (On).1 *. cosMl) = 0. however. whose cosine is x.^ is that x^cosy varies mondtonically. Fig. 3*] etc.on. 2. [2*.1 0=0. with a given cosine. Note 2*72. COS^O^TT^ 1 1. Thus. ( 7T/2. Thus value between 1 and 1 as y increases from modified ty restricting the definition could also have been equally suitably 1 x to any of the intervals. is 1. To draw the graph of y= sin. increases from To draw the graph of we note that (/) y from TT to decreases monotonically as x increases from 1 to 1. and every value between soon. 30. in Fig. 1] only. We know w to 2w. more usual.y sin x in the line y=cos"" x.*? is the reflection of . (3*/2. 3*/2). (/I) COS" 1 ( 1)=7T. have the graph as drawn. 1 and 1 as y increases from w/2 to 3w/2.1 * as follows : the angle lying between 5/ne Tr/2 and Tr/2. taking up every Note. tf/2). botwean Accordingly we define cos~ x as follows and TT. the interval We. we note that monotoni(i) y increases to ?r/2 as x from cally Tr/2 1 to 1. 3^/2 to 5w/2. increases from (if) ^ _ __ sin. thus. 29. then x decreases that as y 1.GRAPHS Accordingly sin~ l x is we define sin. 1] (fff) sin. cos . Thus the definition could also have been equally suitably modified by restricting sin'a to any of the intervals (w/2.. know that if x^siny. defined in the interval [ (MI) cos. is one and only on? an^lc. lyiiva.
31) of y increases monotouically oo to oo and then tan*" 1 1 from ?r/2 to Tr/2 as x in 0=0. We know that as monotonically from one and only one angle between 7T/2 and 7T/2 with a given tangent. we define cot" 1 x as follows : We know that cot~\ x is the angle. X Fig. 32 . to TT. lying between and TT. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS y=tair*x. lying between whose tangent TT/ 2 and Tr/2. then x increases 00 to oo taking up every value. 31 To draw the graph note that creases from 274.x. Thus there is isx. monotonically and TT with given cotanthere is one and only one angle between gent. Thus. In view of this. then x decreases as y increases from from 4a> to oo taking up every real value. 1 Accordingly we have the following definition of tan. whose cotangent is x.x l tari~ x is the angle. y==cot. n o Fig. We consider the functional equation x=tan y.32 273. (Fig. Consider the functional equation x=cot y. : y increases from 7T/2 to 7T/2.
X=9eC y.1 x is the angle.1 to ?r/2 as x increases from 1 oo to increases from sec. TT y=COt~ l we note from that oo to oo y decreases monotonically from and cot" 1 0=7r/2. it monotonically from Thus there is one and only one decreases monotonically from oo to 1 value of the angle lying between ?r/2 and Tr/2 having a given to oo . cosec" cosecant is x.1 ( 1 to oo and . lying between 1 whose secant is any given number. Consider the functional equation x=cosec y. We thus 1 say that angle. not lying between of sec l x The following is. thus. then x decreases and as y increases from to ?r/2. cosecant. We know that as y increases from . and 1. then monotonically from 1 to oo also as y X increases monotonically from oo to 1. increases from 1 to 0. the precise definition : sec. Also 1=0. then x increases increases from 7T/2 to TT. 7T/2 We know that asj. lying between To draw the graph of y=secr* x. 32) of X. whose'$eant is x. there and TT.GRAPHS To draw the graph (Fig. we note that y increases from y increases from Tr/2 to TT as x sec. is one and only one value of the angle. y=cosec 1 x. and TT. 33 276. y^sec^x. to as x increases 275. Fig. and Ylk l)=7r. x is the lying between ?r/2 and *r/2. Thus. Consider the functional equation to ?r/2. whose To draw the graph of .
Consider the two equations >>=sinw.. y is a function of a function of x. The notion of & function offunction will be introduced by means of examples. ~37T). tan *. 3*} . if and only if x lies in the open intervals .(3) .. (27T. corresponds a value of u as determined from (1) and to this. cos. we notice that since the two equations (I) and (2) associate a value of y to any given value 3fx.1 * and Note.e. Combining the two equations. (0. (1) determines a value of u corresponding to every value of x.(!) . sec * and cosec * fespectively in the line yx. corresponds a value ofy as determined from (2) so that we see that y is a function of u which isagain a function of x. (~47T. Consider the two equations w=sin The equation x. cos *. 28. 1. i...34 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS to ?r/2 as x increases from as x increases from 1 to oo.. 7T). Function of a Function. The graphs of j^s in. cot *.... sec..*. 2.... .. 34 1 1 1 Ex.* are the reflections of y *.*.. cot.1 *... 1 sosec.. From a slightly different point of view. we get 2 j>=8in x which defines y directly as a function of x and not through the intermediate variable w.. sec. The equation (2) then associates a value of y to given But we know that u is positive this value of u in case it is positive. W) f (2*. 1 cot.(2) To any given value of *.1*. Ex.. they determine y as a function of x defined for the entire aggregate of real numbers. What other definitions of tan.. value of w. tan. .1* would have been equally suitable.1*. Ex.* and cosec.  we note that y decreases from any y decreases from ?r/2 to J oo to Fig.*.(2) y=\ogu..
is either (ii) Algebraic and Transcendental. called a polynomial in x.. logarithmic... subtraction. b] is defined in the interval and <f> (u) in [c. . ). variable A function x and any number of y=x+7jc+3... namely.. .. Algebraic or is transcendental..c4 + 5.. d\. division and root extraction. x Clearly. y as a function of Any given function (i) Classification of functions. Let and be two functional equations such that/(x) [a. A function is said to be transcendental if it is The exponential. x where the. A where # is function of the type . d]. A rational function of x is defined for every value of x excludthose for which the denominator vanishes. said to be algebraic if it arises by performing upon the constants a finite number of operations of addition. #. define y as a function of set of intervals (3). further. each value of f(x) in [c. multiplication. ing . y=(7x 2 +2)/(3. Thus.FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION 35 ' Thus these two equations domain of variation of x is the General consideration..c 2 are algebraic functions. lie Let. b}. particular cases of algebraic functions. then. a m are constants and m is a positive integer. y^V(*+ 3 \/* 8 + Vx) not algebraic. 29. these two equations determine defined for the interval [a.+a m ^x +a is called a rational function of x. A such as function which appears as a quotient of two polynomials a Qx m +al x m *+ . There are ally important types of algebraic functions. (/) Two two speci (ii) Polynomials Rational functions. trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions are all transcendental functions. ..
36 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Exercises 1. (ill) log sini*. (iv) cos. (/) Write down the values of sinH. 3*). Find out the intervals in 3. 1]. (2n. *).. x. n being any integer. (x) x tanix. (///) sec~i 2. (//) (i)* (ill) 3 (iv) 4 l/x2 ' (v) 2sinx. . 4. 50 that sinNx O'O is defined in the interval sin [0. cally increasing or decreasing : which the following functions are monotoni1 ''*' (02*. : (11) tani(l). is [Sol. log [ (xH)/(xl) 2 ] (v/) (viii) log (tan'x (Iog 6 x)^.. 2. log sin x is defined only for the values of x for which x>0 I. in the open intervals (0. For what domains of values of the independent variable are the following. (v/0 (sin x)*. (/) sinNx defined only for those values of x for which and this will be the case if. and only if.. or generally in (2nn... (ix) log [x+>J(x ~ 1) ]..1 (~i).*. (v) 2/ifl *) . Distinguish between the two functions 1 . G) . (//) functions defined log a sinx. (iv) log [ (1 +*)/(! x) ] .
) value /(x^ of the assigned to the function for x=x 2 is quite independent of the  I  I function for x=x We now propose t.. may be f(c). We Here. The function f(x) will vary continuously at x=c if. i? small. b]. To be more precise. finally say that c continuous at x= \f(c+h)f(c) 37 . so that Thus. r. is we A function /(x) c. 31. again. the change in the value of the function is small if only the change in the value of x is also small. b]. we have to examine the precise meaning of this implication in its relation to a function /(x) which is defined in any interval [a. as x changes from c to either side of it. i. is positive or negative. x a are any two values of the independent variable values of the function fix). we first analyse the intuitive notion of continuity that in the form of possess and then state its precise analytical meaning a definition. Intuitively. if *!. positive number. Let. there exists a positive if. The statement that a function of x is defined in a certain interval means that to each value of x belonging to the interval there corresvalue ponds a value of the function. that For continuity. should be h  can c __/j)_y( c ) small. be any point of this interval. sufficiently yjr  made numerically as small as This like means that \ we by taking The precise analytical definition of continuity should not involve the US6 and of the word small. as there exists no definite absolute standard of smallness. Then. such that corresponding to any number S arbitrarily assigned. we already In the next article. if we h be is require c+h)f(c) small. the corresponding change in the depenmay be positive or negative. h.  change XgXi  relative to the /(x? )/(x. is the change n the independent variable x. the change in the value of the function is not sudden. It is because the value /(x. whose meaning is definite.CHAPTER III CONTINUITY AND LIMIT Introduction../(c+A) dent variable /(x). Continuity of a function at a point. then /(* 2 )/(*i) /(*i) /(*) are the corresponding may be large even though x a x. continuous variation of a variable implies absence of sudden changes while it varies so that in order to arrive at a suitable definition of continuity. which consider a value cf/* of x belonging to the interval [tf.) study the change the notion of continuity and discontinuity of by introducing to I  a function. Such a definition would now be given. The value of the function for any particular value of x of x may be quite independent of the value of the function for another and no relationship in the various values of a function is implied in the defini tion of a function as such.e. numerically small. which.
x=c x=c+S. F g. if it is continuous at every point thereof.38 for DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS all values of. 35. We to continuity in an interval and say that A function /(x) is continuous in an interval [a. replacing c+h by x. 311. we have cf 8) c being any positive number arbitrarily assigned. h. In the last articles. lie on the point P and different sides of are parallel to I Here. f(x) is continuous at that. . we can say that 8. Draw the lines which xaxis. Meaning of continuity explained graphically. should be lines requires that we able to draw two 8./(c)] on it. e and /(c)+c for all and Alternatively. we at a point of dealt with the definition of continuity of a function /(x) now extend this definition its interval of definition. around c such for all values if there exists an interval (c ofx in this interval. . The continuity of /(x) for x=c. such that This means that/(c+A) values of h lying between 8 lies between /(c) 8. A function /(x) which said to be discontinuous for is not continuous for will x=c is xc. &]. Continuity of a function in an interval. then. Draw the graph of the function /(x) and consider the point P[c. such that every point of the graph between the two lines (2) lies also between the two lines (1).(2) which are parallel to >>axis and which lie around the line x=c. e is any arbitrarily assigned positive number and measures the degree of closeness of the lines (1) from each other.. Discontinuity. now be illustra Show that is continuous at x=l. The notion of continuity and discontinuity ted by means of some simple examples.. Examples 1. x=c.
. as follows be any positive number. say '001. l e/3) around 1 such that for every value of x in this interval. is continuous for every value of x.e . : Now 3 if x *i. Hence /(x) is continuous Note* lit for x=l. . may similarly show that the test is true for the other particular values of e also. and 39 We (/) will now attempt to make the numerical value of this difference smaller than any preassigned positive number. 001/3. Thus. Here S=e/3. We have is. or Combining (/) and  (//')..(0 1) is negative and the numerical Now  /(*)/(!) I =3(l*)<001. so that 3(# 1) is positive and is.cM. for all values of x such that 0003 < x <1 +0003. the /(I). numerical value off(x) Now /(*)/(l) =3(xl)<001. The We The complete argument Let e however. test of continuity for x~l is thus satisfied for the particular value 001 of e. if lx< ' i.CONTINUITY AND LIMIT Here. if l~001/3<x.. if x<l+001/3=*l0003. therefore.i) is 3(Lx). so that 3(x value of/(jc)/3. the numerical value of the difference between f(x) and /(I) is less than a preassigned positive + number e. Let x>\. we seo that  /(*)/(!) 1 <001. if xKOOl/3 ie. 3. there exists an interval (1 e/3. may be shown that.e. Let JC<1. if le/3 < x < l+e/3. (11) .
xc Now Also cos x+c . say Let e be any arbitrarily assigned positive number.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 2. Therefore /(x) is continuous for x=2.   x2 is continuous for every value of x. . 3. Note. Thus. x sin c \ 2 cos 1 x+c sin x ~ . X + C! sm c. Prove that c. we have Now 17 if  x2  <e/17. 3x + 8 Thus when positive and less and 3. 1 for every value of x and . we see that there exists a positive . number e/17 such that when <e/17. It may be shown that 3x*f2x 1. For values of x than (3*3+8)= 17.   We suppose that x is lies between 1 between 1 and 3. Let be any given positive number. xc^lx c (From Elementary Trigonometry) Thus we have sm x sm c cos x+c xc XC Hence  sin x sin c I <e when x  c  < e. We have  = 3x*+2xl15 = x2 3x+8  I  . sin x is continuous for every value of x. sin It will be shown that x is continuous for any given value of x .  We c have /(x) /(c)  = = sin  . Show e f/Ktf /(x)=3x 2 +2x 1 is continuous for x = 2.
also for is c being any number. be any given positive number. that the function f(x). will be better grasped by considering the graph* 1) consists of the point P (. therefore. The important concept of the limit of a function introduced. continuous for I xc x=c and. is continuous for xc and.   sin (x c)  sin (x  xc when 1 Hence. sin x every value of x 5. (ii) the values of /(x) for values of x near c. The value /(c) of the function for x= c. arbitrarily assigned. 2 is <e. as defined below. analytically. v/z. The graph and the lines . c+e) around <s. there exists an interval every value of x in this interval sin  (c e. ^ tive number 32. for For the continuity of /(x) for x = c. c such that for x sin c  Hence. x. sin x every value of x 4. .CONTINUITY AND LIMIT Thus. In general. the values of the function values of x near c lie near/(c). discontinuous Show atx^. the two things. . Our intuition excluding that there is a disimmediately suggests continuity at A there being a gap in the graph at A. therefore. we can see that round about x=. and (i) . The argument of this function. also for c being any number. /(x) differs from /() which is equal to 1. when when [x. AC: y * * p * ^* r . is Therefore /(x) will discontinuous at x=: now be Limit. the point A. OA. by a number greater than so that there is no question of making the difference between /(x) and/ () less than any posiAlso. S7z0w e Let is continuous for every value ofx. f/?tff sm* x We have \f(x)f(c) =   sin 2 xsin 2 c sin    = < (x+c) c) . B Fi C X. . for every value of x.
\ such that xc \ <8. we have seen in Ex. that the values of the function for values of x near lie near which is different from the value. i. if corresponding to any positive number. corany positive number e. arbitrarily assigned.f(x) differs from I numerically by a number (c A function f(x) said to tend to a limit. I/WM whenever <* c<x<c+8. such that arbitrarily assigned. Mm is f(x. I. arbitrarily assigned. there exists a positive number. and say the right handed limit of f(x). In this case. such that that. as x responding to which is less than e. for example. c+S). if. 5. above. independent. Right handed and left handed limits. as x tends to c from below. From above it at once follows that lim *) = /. their exists a positive number. I. 1. as x tends e. other than c. from above. . The above remarks lead us to introduce the notion of limit as x=. S. 8. we write lim /(*)=/ x > (c0) and say that. A function f(x) is said to tend to a limit. of the function for In fact this inequality itself was the cause of discontinuity of this function for x= J. said to tend to x>(c+0) A function f(x) is lim /(*)=/ x>(c0) a limit. to.=l.42 DIFFBBENTIAL CALCULUS It may. follows : Def. / is whenever c8<x<c. \A*)l\ <e. lim /(*)=/. Thus. we write lim fix) = 1. I. /. such that for every value of x in the interval S.e. there exists a positive number. In this case. if. corresponding to any positive number. for every value ofx t other than c. in fact.. c. of the function for values of x near c lie near a number / which is not equal to f(c) or that the values do not lie near any number at all. x > c tends to c. e. sometimes happen that the values are. 8. is the left handed limit of/(x).
if for some e. Another form of the definition of continuity. e. x=c. Comparing the definitions of continuity and limit as given in 3*1. x approaches 'c* does not take The function may not even be defined for 321. 46) In order that a function may tend to a limit it is necessary and sufficient that corresponding to any positive number. i. may not always exist. x >c (Hi) Hm f(x) exists and/(c) is defined but lim f(x) ^f(c). The function will not either approach a limit or at any rate will not have the limit /. lim f(x)=f(c). (Refer. 2. > y as x tends to c. we see that f(x. y for Case 1.. Remarks The question of the limit of f(x) as any note of the value of /(or) for x^c. The function is defined for every value of x y= x2 _ 1 =*+!. when x^l. r. and only if. a corresponding 8 does not exist. Examine the limit of the function <w x tends to 1 . is continuous for x=c if. p. 3. 3*2.e. Firstly consider the behaviour of the values of values of x greater than L Clearly. a choice of 8 is possible. Ex. (11) f(x) does not tend to a limit as x tends to lim f(x) does not exist. Examples 1. Jim It is /fx)=/= lim f(x) important to remember that a limit 1. . X >C Thus the limit of a continuous function f(x) equal to the value f(c) of the function for x=c. and only if. the variable y is greater than 2 when x is greater than 1. is We in any see that a function /(x) can fail to be one of the following three ways : f(x) is continuous for X = c (/) not defined for x=c .CONTINUITY AND LIMIT jf.
s. If x. while remaining greater than difference from 1 constantly diminishes. any arbitrarily assigned positive number. for every value of x which is greater than 1 and less thai* 1*001. <x. so that for every value of x less than 1 but >1 value of the difference between y and 2 is less than the the absolute e. diminishes also. is less consider the behaviour of the values of x less When x If. than 1. the absolute value of the difference between y and 2 is less than* the number 001 which we had arbitrarily selected. by taking x sufficiently For instance. Thus. Instead of the particular number 001. while remaining takes up values whose difference from 2 constantly In like fact. positive we now consider any number Then e. /. takes up values whose then y. 1 f e). We now than 1. from Let. Then if x<l001. Thus. takes up values whose 1 constantly diminishes. difference between y and 2 can be made as small as wenear 1. for any value of x in this interval. 2. consider the number "001. greater than 2. e be small. there exists an interval (/. now. while remaining less takes up values whose difference from 2 constantly diminishes x.^4 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 1. then y. by a number which is smaller than the positive number e. number . selected arbitrarily. difference than also. }> is less than 2. while remaining less than 1. is Thus the limit of y as x approaches 2 and we have lim I through values greater than =2. differs from 2 numerically. however We if then have  y2  =2>>=2(x+l)=lx< 1 e. if x<l + e. such that the value ofy. y for Case values of II.
interval the numerical value of the difference between of x in this is less than the arbitrarily assigned positive number x sin x and 1 so that we have a situation similar to that in case I of the Ex.e. Thus there V e. Case I. Thus lira x sin x=0. Thus the 1. jc~(i0) cases. if that x Let e sin x<x 2 . we suppose x> Tr/2. Thus lim y=2. we have sin BO < 7T/2. 2 we have x sin x<e. such that for every value of x in this interval. y > 2 as x > 1. see that corresponding to there exists an interval (1  y2  < e or any x. as x approaches lim through values less than 2 and we write y=2. other than 1.. e ) such that for every value exists an interval (0. Examine the limit of the function y=x sin x. if we suppose X For 0<x<7T/2. x>l 2. above. as x approaches 0.CONTINUITY AND LIMIT 45 Thus there Jor any x in the is exists an interval (I interval. s. Let x<0 so that ^>0. For values of x which are positive and than y'e. 0<x<7r/2. differs from smaller than the arbitrarily such that the value of y. 1. less be any arbitrarily assigned positive number. as in case I. such that xl<e. Let x > 0. we number e. r<x. . other than 1. so that y is also > 0. i. 1) 2 numerically by a number which selected positive number e. we have X <e so that for such values of x. in magnitude but opposite in signs are equal. The values of the function for two values of a which are equal Hence. if Case II. 14**) around 1. is limit ofy. or. we have Case HI. y differs from 2 numerically by a number which is less than e. Combining the conclusions arrived at in the last two any arbitrarily assigned positive e.
if even x=0 were an exception. the same as its value. l/jc decreases monotoni(i/i) from 5?r/2 to 3?r/2 and therefore sin l]x decreases from I to cally as x i. increases from 2/5?r to 2/37T. possesses but does not have any value for x=l. and so on.e. to 2/7T. The function (x2 a limit as x approaches that it is l)/(jtl). the numerical value of the Hence difference i. Again. But it should be carefully noted that no difference would arise as to the conclusion lim xsin x=0. we note the following points (/) a function defined for every value of x.46 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS ( we easily see that for any value of x in the interval the numerical value of the difference between x sin x and than e. 1/x decreases and therefore sin (I/*) decreases monotonically from toO as x increases monotonically from 2/37T. sin the value of the function is 0=0 Thus in this case. . Let so that y is The graph of this function will enable the student the argument better. Hence Note. 1 . we see that for #=0. x > (00) Case HI. we see that corresponding to any positive number e arbitrarily \/s. 3. To draw the graph. there exists an interval ( for any x belonging to this interval. other than to understand : As x to from 1 7T/2 . such that assigned. 1. x  x>0 It will be seen that the inequality sin x  < e is even for x=0. \/e.. as considered in Ex. go discontinuous for x = l. nuous for x=0. \/ e ) around 0. Ifx de(//') greases monotonically from 3?r/2 to Tr/2 and therefore sin 1/x increases 1 to 1 monotonically from . Examine the limit of sin (1/jc) as x approaches 0. satisfied lira x sin x=0. increases monotonically from 2/7T to oo. between x sin x and  is x sin <e. 0) is^ less lim x sin x=0. x~Q \ <e. the Thus this function is limit conti which is also its limit as is of the function x approaches 0. Combining the conclusions arrived at in the last two cases.
The function considered above is is the function defined for jc=0. more and more 1 1 and The function oscillates between rapidly as x approaches nearer and nearer zero from either side. Hence.CONTINUITY AND LIMIT 47 infinite Thus the positive values of jc can be divided in an 2 number of intervals * J' LlT' 5. exist no number which differs from the function by a number less than an arbitrarily assigned positive number for values of x near 0. Fig. we have the graph (Fig. Neither exist when x tends to zero. 37. x=0 not continuous for nor does its limit . 37) as drawn. x >0 This example illustrates an important fact that a limit always exist. There can.: J' L57T> 3lTj' such that the function decreases from 1 to in the first interval on the right and then oscillates from 1 1 to 1 and from 1 to in the others beginning from the second interval on alternatively the right. therefore. Hence lira (sin 1/x) does not exist. may not Note. r j Li n r j!_ I*' x also A [37T' _ _? 1 57TJ such that the function decreases from 1 in the first interval to 1 on the left and then oscillates from 1 to 1 and from 1 to alternately in the others beginning from the second interval on the^ left. If we take any interval enclosing x=0. however small it may be then for an infinite number of points of this interval the function assumes the values 1 and ] . It may similarly be seen that the negative values of divide themselves in an infinite set of intervals.
s) around Hence In fact. c+8] excluding c. c+S]. x sin (I/*) differs from than e. there exists a positive number 8 such that for all values ofx other than c lying in the 9 9 interval [c8. if. handed We shall now consider some examples. a function f(x) is said to tend to Corresponding to any positive number G. Meanings oo . if. Def. exists an interval ( e. for non x *riniso that = ]* sin~L]<* x x sin j\ xsm when be any positive number. oo Also. however large.48 4. the graph of y=x oscillates . we see that e. is sin x Obviously the function not defined for x=0. is This function of (i) Infinite limits not continuous for x=0. lim/(x)=oo lim f(x)= . . corresponding to any positive number G. as x tends to c. however large. Now. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Examine the limit of x as x approaches zero values of 0. AX) Right handed and p. Thus. such that for every value of x in vthis interval. left < G. A function f(x) is said to tend to oo as x tends to c. . Jt>y a number less if. 1 sin x between y=x as and>>= x x tends to 3*22. there exists a positive number S such that for all values of x in [c8. as may be easily seen. and variables tending to (//) infinity. /(*) > G. zero. 42. with the sole exception of 0. then there 0. limits can be defined as in 3*2.
lj\/G]. around 0. or (l/. then 1/x 2 increases.c*)*oo as . increases towards zero. x in the interval ( l/y^* 0)> we have so that 1/x 2 tends to oo as and we write in smybols x tends to through values less than it 2 lim (l/JC ) a>(00) = oo. Here also y is positive. there exists an interval [ II\/G. If x. there exists an interval [0. Let x<0. Hence lim l*2 = oo.INFINITE LIMITS 4 Examples I. 3 x<l/10 . the remain negative. lj\/G] such that for every x belonging to it. then 1/x 2 also nuing Case increases. . x while contiII. Consider any positive number. G for every value of be any* arbitrarily assigned positive number. say 10 6 Then l/x 2 >10 6 so that for all positive values of X<1/10*. we have Thus lim lx*z=oo . Also if. Also.t>0. then. If. such that for every value of x (other than 0) belonging to this interval. however large. Lef . Combining the conclusions arrived at in the last two cases we see that corresponding to any arbitrarily assigned positive number G. diminishses. we have . We write y=l/x 2 . if Instead of the particular number positive number Then 10 6 we may consider any G. Case I. if only we take x sufficiently near and greater than it. y is greater than the arbitrarily assigned t number G. value of positive Thus. while continuing to remain positive. Show that ^cA* The function is lim ( 52 ' ]=OQ . not defined for x=0. Case III. 1/x* can be made as large as we like.
lim /(*) (11) i/. Hence lim (l/x)= oo if x>l/G. The function is not defined for x=0. 2. if G be any positive number taken arbitrarily. of e'$.problem on limits requires that the problem should be examined strictly according to the definitions given above in terms. WFFBRENTIAL CALCULUS Show that . there exists a positive number A Symbolically. 0). Bat in practice this proves very difficult except in some . We will now give a number of definitions whose mean may easily follow. ings the reader (i) Clearly when x>0. diminishes. Hence lim (l/x) if x<l/G. 323. if G be any positive number taken arbitrarily. 1. then y=ljx decreases and numerically increases. we r write . II. then l/x<G. while con^ tinuing to remain negative. Instead of oo. 1 lim =POO . however tends to oo (or oo ) large. as x tends to oo QO ). ofx>G. lim  cfoes wo/ exist. oo ]. corresponding to (or any arbitrarily assigned positive e. If x.50 2. If x. solution of any . when x>(0 Case III.1 = lim 00. A function f(x) said to tend to corresponding to any positive such that oo as x number G. = oo whenx>(0+0). Note 1. increases towards zero. Let x>0 so that j is positive. then Ijx increases. oo oo . G's etc. while continuing to remain positive. if. lim/(x)=oo when x~oo [lim/(x)=<x> when x> oo )] The reader may now similarly define oo when x*oo lim /(*) = oo when x* lim/(x) = . there exists a positive number G. lim (1/x) does not exist. Case Let #<0 Also. we may write +00 to avoid confusion with Note Rigorous. such that ' number !/(*)/ for every value  <> [lim/(x)=/ when x> . Also. g'j. Case I. so that y=ljx is negative. Symbolically. is A function f(x) said to tend to a limit /. We write y=I/x. we write = / when x>oo is .. (x< G). then l/x>G.
Show that /(z)=cos is when x^O and/(0)=l. (//) (3*4)=2. 25.THEOREMS ON LIMIfS very elementary cases. whena?=0. Show (0 that the following limits exist and have the values as given lim : lim (2*+3)=5. J5J We may not. g=0. Investigate the points of continuity and discontinuity of the following : function f(x)=(x*la)a for x<a. /(a)=0. discontinuous for 9. for every value of x.7) /()=/ j^ sin ~. p. Show that lim logx= oo. : Also show that two functions are continuous 3. therefore. 27] tan x does not exist. when #=3. (///) lim a?>l (iv) lim o. p. continuous for *=3. *>(<HO) [Refer 11. 6. discontinuity./(aO=a(aV#). 5. 0. 7. Show (0 (11) that is is 5x+4 z a +2 continuous for z=2. Examine lim 5^ . Draw the graph of the function V(x) which is equal to when x when 0<a. 25]. Prove that cos x is continuous for every value of x. tan a?=oo . Exercises 1. Show that lim lim tan a?= oo but [Refer 10. 4. (**+3)=4. for oj=0. of the following functions 6. always insist on a rigorous solution of such probelms.~>3 (v) lim (l/aO=i (vO lim 2. to 1 Show that cos 2 x and 2+x+x* are continuous for every value of x. (. Examine the continuity (0 . lim 263. for 8.^l and to 2 when s>l and show that it has two points of .
3*3. Let/(x) and lim be two functions of x such that lim /(*) = /.. i. Give an example of a function which has a definite value at the origin nevertheless. equal to the product of ih* limit . i If x tends to through negative values. fore. discountinuous there.. p. exist. 21 /* tends ooo.] Show that lim 13. ?(x)=w. 11. of the product of two functions is their limits (iv) lim i. of two functions .. lim 2* = JL_ sKO+0) but lim 2* does not 12. then I/* tends to l/a tents toO. but is.e. sum of two functions ?(x)]=lim difference equal to the sum of their limits (ii) lim [f(x) /(x)lim y>(. therefore.e. lim 2*~=oo. a?>(l exist. *Hi 0) What is +0) <c>J ? the value of the function for x=\ [Refer Fig. /(aO=0.e. then lim lim lim f(x) does not /(*) = !. is equal to the difference of their (Hi) i. lim [f(x)9(x)]=limf(x) lim *'(*) x*a x~>a x >a = /m. Show that if where [a?] denotes the greatest integer not greater than rr. 14. ^Ae limit their limits of the quotient of two functions is equal to the quotient of provided the limit of the divisor is not zero. then I/* tends to ooand.DIFFERENTIAL OALOTTLtTS [If x tends toO through positive values.e.. the limit limits of the . .. lim a?0 x >a x*a is the limit of the .x) = / m. 17] Explain giving suitable examples. the distinction between the value of the function for a?=a and the limit of the same as x tends to #. Theorems on <p(x) limits. 15. 2 > oo and there Thus JL. Then (0 i.
and f(x)<p(x) may similarly For the quotient. some observations seem to be necessary here. = lim 9(x)=?(0). Inversion of operations. + B) ^sia A+ sin B. however. It cannot just be assumed that the order can be changed at will without altering the final outcome.. product and quotient of two continuous functions. difference. (Hi) ax(b+c) In (/) we find that the two operations taking of sine. The reader is advised to think of other similar cases also. i. therefore. In (//'/). We now examine the following statements : (i) (it) logOnfn) . *here lim . x > a we see that =value of so that/(x)+9(.. of/(x) y(x) The continuity proved. lim x > a. Similar is the case in (//) where we have the operations of adding and we see that the two operations of addition and multi The theorems in this article amount to asserting the validity of the inversion of the operations of taking the limits with each of the four operations of addition.FEOPERT1ES OF CONTINUOUS ITUNCTIONS 63 These results are of fundamental importance but their formal proofs are beyond the scope of this book. subtraction. x > a the theorems in 3*3. the final result may not be independent of the order of the operations. plication are invertible. In mathematics we deal with different types of operations and sometimes the mathematical expressions are subjected to two or more operations and in such a case the order in which the operations are made must be taken into account.*logw4log sin (A n. 34. Note.e. to help him dp so. Let /(. =0x6 + axc. Continuity of the sum. In order. multiplication and division. <p(x) be any two functions which are continuous for x=0. so that Prom lim/(x) ^(a). involved.c). for *=0 be continuous at x = (t. A The fact is that in each case the question as to whether the inversion of the order of operations is or is not valid has to be separately examined in relation to the nature of the operations. that of addition and taking of log arc not invertible. viz. beginner who notices the above statements for the first time may fail to see any meaning in them and he may not be able to appreciate the significance of the same. These results can easily be extended to the case of any finite number of functions.x) is [/(*) +?(*)]. we have lim /M ?^M ' .
tan"" x. . the product and the quotient of two continuous functions are also continuous (with one obvious exception in the case of a quotient).x. Its truth is obvious if we remember that a continuous function does not undergo sudden changes so that if /(x) is positive for any value c of x and also continuous thereat. provided lim <p(x)=<p(a)^iQ. Continuity of elementary functions. 9 Also it may be easily seen that. Then there an interval [c S. they are defined. 1 a? are. p. sec.x. cot. cot x=. GOB x are continuous for all values of x. 51. it cannot suddenly become negative and must. 3*5. p. c+S] around c such that /(x) has the sign of f(c)for all values ofx in this interval. therefore. we see that every polynomial is a continuous function for every value of x and that every rational function <* Q x+a xl +. above. Thus. continuous for all those values of x for which cosec. sin. Hence from tan 4.sin 1 x are also continuous for all those values of x for which they are defined points of discontinuity of these four functions arise when the denominators cos X sin x become zero and for such values of x.54 D1FFB&BKTUL CALCULUS JM ?(a) ^value of t&. x. remain positive for values of x in a certain neighbourhood of c. f&e sum. . 40 and Ex.+a n l is a continuous function of x for every value of x except those which the denominator becomes zero. so that/(x)r?(x) is also continuous at x=fl.. log a x. II. cos x sm x x= 1 cos x ' . when x > a. cosec x=. exists Letf(x) be continuous for x=c and f(c)^0.x. we . 3. This is geometrically obvious from the graphs drawn in Chap..x. Some important properties of continuous functions. 351. see that sec . for 1 1 1 1 1 Finally the functions. Thus by repeated applications of the results of 3/4 above. these functions themselves cease to be defined. that sin x and x= cos sin x x 3*4.x. 3*41. cos. Analytical proofs are beyond the scope of this book. . ?(*)' for xa. the difference. We have seen in Ex. and a constant are continuous functions of x.
beyond the scope of this book. Its formal. itself negative when x lies in the interval ~ [C8. :_ * : . therefore. there for every value of x such that c Letf(c)>Q. a continuous curve y=f(x) going from a point on one side of xaxis to. be negative if e< /(c). itself positive when Hence /(c)e is already negative and /(c) +s will Ltf(c)<0. Thus in this case if we take e any positive number which is smaller than the positive number /(c). This simple but important property of continuous functions will be used in the chapters on Maxima.~ ibrJfc=X . \. then we see that /(x) lies between the two negative numbers /(c) e and/(c)+s and is. 3*52. C+8]. Hence the theorem. Its truth is intuitively obvious. may not possess greatest or least values we now Consider the function defined as follows: I x. Note. is beyond the scope of this book. c8 is. Minima and Points of inflexion. may be proved as follows it every positive number s. i. b].~fbr 0<. for. /(*) lies between two positive numbers and x lies between and c+S. Then there exists points c and d in the interval [a.. continuous func_ . Letf(x) be continuous in a closed interval [a. A as discontinuous function illustrate. analytical proof is. b]. In this case we take e any positive number less than/(c) so that/(c)~ e and/(c)+e both are positive. theorem states that there is a value of a tion greater than every other of its values and as also a value smaller than every other value. Let f(x) be continuous in a closed interval [a. however small correspond a positive number S such that To may be. Thus. therefore. f(b) have opposite signs ^ Thenf(x) is zero for at least one value of *> lying between a and b.PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOTJS FUNCTIONS In informal. where f(x) assumes its andm. greatest and least values M The proof . b] and let /(a). it 65 . precise manner. a point lying on the other cannot do so without crossing it.e.The. 353. however.
the possesses greatest value. hm(x / a)=0. say a positive integer. write hm Case division.. Thus to its value for x~a. it (0'i)C explained by the fact that the function is not continuous in the is This interval (0. . If we consider > any^ value less than 1. limit does not depend upon the value for x=a. m is Now suppose that n is a negative integer. n is any integer. 1 not being a value of the function. Firstly suppose that n a positive integer. +di=na** ~ x >a x a Case where II..DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS *>' u point 5. the function continuous for every value of x and.. . . 38. however near 1 may be seen that there is a value of the function greater than that value.~> is r for . #=0 being a point of discontinuity. This property will be required to prove Rolle's Theorem in Chap. The function point C(0no and the line AB excu . Note. is x A In the present case the limit of the numerator I.. 1) Fig. jc*~ a*  = yrS . By actual x a the equality being valid for every value of x other than a. Example Show that when. We cannot . We have m. as such. also zero.. lim is its limit when x > a must be equal x ^=a*i+an *a+ . we can write  As the ~~ x*a x a lim ~ x > a Being a polynomial...
Some important and . /t~>0 3*6.iMPOKTAisri LiMi'fs 67 . we must suppose that is continuous for x=a. 3*61. therefore x n also tends to To be more Then If rigorous. Let x>\. 1. Show that lim sin(*f /t)=sin x. *= 2. . Hence n x=(l+h) >l+nh. We By write x= 1 +h so that h is positive. (\\nh) tends to infinity with n. As infinity. we have where each term is positive.= x* a* . If ^2 and/(2)*t find A so that/(x) may be continuous for 3. lim Exercises 1 x m a m mx m a x a m a m . x 1 ' hm  m m employing Case I and the fact that l/a x In the Case II. then x n >G for H> A so that x**oo when w~>oo . the Binomial theorem. live integral values (i) Limiting value of x" when n tends to infinity through posi x being any given real number... Show that 2. we consider any preassigned positive number G.. A be any^positive integer greater than (G l)/t. lira . useful limits.
But a*>0. through 3'6i. x"   =an . lies between e and e n^m so that for 0<jc<l lim x w when >co . n any assigned number. when n > if. . oo. . Let x= i n this case. Here x is (v) Le/ l<x<0. when n tends to infinity positive integral values and x is any given real number. As before <z __ __ ^ _ 1+nh' Therefore x"*Q as Now oo. Here x* =l for all values of n and therefore in this case. Then if If m be any integer which is > f  1 J[A. so that a is a positive number less than 1. x is alternatively negative and But in this case it takes values numerically greater than positive. x" so that A is is positive. and only Abo ttisOifl<x<I 9 9 i.. We write x=l/(l +h) a positive number.*= a Absolute value of x n is a n . we see that lim x*. . if\x\ <1 and is Iforx^l. n Thus. [ . To be more we consider any positive number t. therefore Since x n is alternately 1. exists finitely if. Limiting value of x jn !. Here. ll(l+nh)*Q as n tends to rigorous. ao that we haye . infinity. negative so that x* is positive We write . for even values of n and negative for odd values. (m) Let 0<x<l. neither tends to any finite limit nor to Jt (vi) Here. also. n Let x be positive and integers between.58 (ii) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Let x~l.c*<c for ri^m* Thus we see that x w .. Here ^=0 for all n so that x>0. i.e. then . (iv) Let x=0. which is always positive.which x lies let m> m+l be the two consecutive . Hence it 1 and 1. Hence x does not tend to a limit. {vii) Let x< /.e... again.
m+3 \*~ . Since. each of ^~. n tends to infinity through positive integral 3 63. Hence since j>0. tive. . Limiting value of .^ ~ ' " x* x m p x 8ay where A: is a positive constant independent of n. Again. ' is n / <. Here.. may have. Hence xn lim ^^=^0.JL 12 a positive constant. m. x/(w + l) is positive and <1. m+2 f ^.  lim x* y*= n whatever value x values only. Also. ' ! when w^oo . so that a is have posi n Ij n Y Now.IMPOETAN'T LlMlfs We nl write s = Let so that /? is 1*2 ^L ' ^L IT' ' ' JL * ' * ' ' ' "m m+1 ^n+2' '7T* p=^. when n tends to infinity through positive integral values. let We x be any negative numbed. say x* a. therefore when m being a constant. of course. we see that also0.
.60 Step 1. (l + l/M)" 1 increases monotoni Step II.A_^ A n+i ) (wi1 . __L_Vi... DIFFERENTIAL CALCTJLXJS we have By the Binomial Theorem for a positive integral index. fi V n n+l \ J terms. i. Here.. We have . The expression on the right Changing n to fl + 1. the righthand side consists of the Also sum of (+2) positive ' i_l_<i__2_ 1 n < n + l' !_! i 41 so that each term in the expansion of is greater than the corresponding term in the expansion of C'+r)'Thus.e. we get is a sum of (n +1) positive terms.. we conclude that l / 1 \* K'+T) for all positive integral values of w.. cally as n increases.
j__^]. In Chapter IX it will be shown how the value of e. 1.2. From (i) and we see that for every value of n so that the limit is some number which lies between 2 and 3.(!) factors t =1 + g. a 2 =2 25. a4 2 441.. 3. 2. and re H (1 Note 1. Note The proof for scope of this book. Lim its (1 4l/x)*=e. The mere The reader will be enabled to appreciate the argument better and also begin to feel a little more acquainted with. x n+1 . except that it lies between 2 and 3. If x be any positive real number. limit as n > oo .2. can be determined without much inconvenience. then there exists a positive integer n such that JL > JL x or n+i' ' i.(//) Thus we mains / see that f 1 j  N* J steadily increases as /i takes up successively the series of positive integral values less than 3 for all values of n. real I. e.4_ L>i___J_. tfj2. correct to any number of places.. The formal proof of this fact is beyond the 2. the existence of the limit has been based on an intuitively obvious fact that a monotonically increasing function which remains less than a fixed number tends to a limit... 1 . .+2. 2 <3) foralln. . etc. if he calculates the value of ( 1+ for various successive positive integral values of n. a 3 237. Cor. existence of the limit of (1 f l/w)*has beea shown here and at this stage nothing more can be said about the actual value of the limit which is denoted by e. when x tends to infinity taking all the numbers as values.. <?.SOME IMPORTANT LIMITS 61 <l+l+2+ 2"+.  \ J n approaches a finite (11).
itie inequality. z . jY lim ooV T ^(l+~ Z Cor. We have = l ' a lim flf  ^yV 0. + a=s according as z > through Now lim (1+z) z>(0+0) lim *> [1+ ) s=f and lim (1+2) > (00) lim f 1+ ~) =^. direction (In case the base is greater than 1. does not alter the. lim (l+z) =e when z > or Let z=l/x so that jc positive or negative values. 2. 3. We know Then n and (w+1) > that 00 through positive integral lim H / (l 1 J = lr=:lim M+ ""Xf lim x* J =^ = lim (l+^~TTj /I J \ n4 * 1 Therefore Urn x+< COT. C^ccV Let x= y so that >>> + oo as x 4 oo . lim l. oo .82 / DIFFERENTIAL CALCTTLtT& 1 or \ O+T) number to a greater power.) __ We thus have Let x ~> values. raising a greater Qf.
. Iy . not mentioned so that log x means log e x. =loga. To . =x log (l+>0/loga.. y ^Q]_ a .=log. i. X ^Q a*\ = x hm '. lus M .SOME IMPORTANT LIMITS 63 Cor. ..Q Note.. x Hl+ ^ +0\ that *. ._ log 'logo . hm . To show a* lim i . V is taken as the base of e is The base generally 364.. 4. y 1 .e. . _ x Let a?l=y so that y > as x >().. j (1+7) log (1+7) r. y &v 1 . tn higher Mathematics the number logarithms which are then called Natural logarithms. We have or x Hence a* 1 log a=log (1 +>>). a.y'*Iim a) X ^. logo 1 T7 /:K 1 J Hm lim log (1+7) ^0 365.
DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS Let x=a(l+y) BO that y > 0. as y > 0. Urn  =?va ~ >0 x a hm z*0 . we put (1BO X l=z so that z + 0.. =i +2 or l) _ . Now #>0 aothat lim result. ' hm . log 3*66.. as x  a. lim/(x)=lim f a?>OL >0 Hence the f[x)=* .. Show that ll X when is continuous for x=0. Examples 1. as proved in books on Elementary Trigono metry.a(XD a ' _z Fog _ (1+z) ' log (1+z) ~~~y ' ... lim  ^0 x =1. *X <* X .. = aX [(1+JO X 1] = x~ 1 fl Again. (XD * > z_ log (1+z j log (1+z) Hence .  .
then When x i tends to therefore e*  + oo. 0) . tT _1 ^ . f(x) does not Hence the 3. 65 Show that i /(x)=(e*l)/(e* +1) whenx^Q. Thus hm Hence we see that lim f(x)^ lim f(x) eo that Hm exist. /(0)=0 if discontinuous at x=0.EXAMPLES 2. Now.. Thus . .1 =B continuous for x=l. as may _ _ oo. Show that easily be seen . through positive values. then l/JC> <x> And therefore e * >0. lim lim a?>(l e*"1 =0. When x tends to JL through negative values. result.r ^ .
when the interest is is being continuously added ? Supposing that the interest year. annum. taf^ * 1 (j/i) lim . rc=0.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Thus lim /(x)=0. i^O. tan 2* > when a. Prove that sin ax a . when when a. I 1. Km /(x)0.. 0. result. when a. the amount added after every nth part of a r after t years will be \tn The required amount is its limit as n> c. A sum of P rupees is given on interest at the rate of r% per What mil be the amount after t years.COS l   2. .0) x=0= Hence the 4.=0. *Hl+0) lim *>(!. C sin (iO A*)}" ^ 2r "5 1 when #0. . wbencc^O. =0. whena. Examine whether or not the following functions are continuous ( :r 0. We have " fr/100 which > Pe as n *> oo and is thus the required amoun ^ Exercises 1.
( when #=0. . is = e^ . x= 12 = sinh x. C0th X= cosh x = x= . whens^O. Carefully state the results you employ. 1 L 3. Show that sin lim A>0 (a?/0  sin a?  =cos .HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS 67 e2 . positive integral values. . the Hyperbolic functions are defined in the following manner : sinh x= QX _ p X . f ( when # = (). tanh X=s x sech 371. . 03? 5 _ I ^ sinh cosh x== g ^ 2 e^ . 4. V>__gO' (tf) sinh 0= =0. vi/0 /()( l "777 * e 11 1. 2 e 1. Draw the graphs of the functions 37. . when #=0. f (v/0 /(*)= <( e 1 /* ~^T~' 1+ I/a' whcn x ^  U. Show that and (//) ( when w>oo through 5. I/* *)=) C when #=0. Note on Hyperbolic Functions.ass ~ 2 5 cosech Graph of The following graphs: (i) properties of sinh x will enable us to draw the sinh x continuous for every value of #.. In analogy with Trigonometric functions.
Thus cosh x increases as x increases monotonically from 0. sinh x monotonically e* and as x increases from increases. Hence the graph as shown. (iv) lim (sinh x>oo sinh a x)=oo . increases from 0. 3*73.68 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS e x er* _L 2 ~ 0. (tit) tanh x = e*+e~* 1 . (v) x)=cosh x. e* 2 monotonically increases and Thus as x monotonically decreases. 39 3'72. Fig. = sinh x. cosh x is continuous for every value of x. Thus we have the graph as shown. (/) Graph of cosh x. tanh x is continuous for every value of x. (iv) lim cosh X>co cosh ( x= oo. the denominator not vanishing for anv value of x. as x increases from 0. e~*. (Fig. () tanh 0=0. (ii) cosh cosh 0= (iii) x= and as seen above ( ex ex)l2 monotonically increases.e* (v) (*)= . in general outlines. (i) Graph of tanh x.. 39).
Let < 1 y=sinh"" x. In this section we obtain the 3*8. Inverse hyperbolic functions. relations can be at once deduced from the definitions : r a) (2) cosh x 1 2 2 sinh 2 x =1 . or j . Note. sech"" x. 2 sinh x cosh x =sinh 2x.1 9 1 1 1 x.x. which are defined as the inverses of the corresponding hyperbolic functions. cosh. i (3) I coth2 xl (*) cosh 2x+sinh 2x cosh 2x.1 1 X tanh. =cosech2 x. A. coth. 41 (iv) lim tanh x = = lim e*fi \e~** lim e*+e~* tanhx. The reader may. so that y is the number whose sinh is x. draw the same himself. ifhe so desires. 1+e (v) tanh ( x) We may note that j tanh x for every value of x. logarithmic expressions for the inverse Hyperbolic Functions : sinh. sech x and cosech x have not been given. < tanh x =sech2 x. The graphs of coth x. Some fundamental relations.x. vi y^tanh x Fig. cosech"" x. This will also necessitate a slight modification of the definitions so as to make them singlevalued.HYPERBOLIC BO that tanh 69 x increases as x increases from onward. The following fundamental 374.
The ambiguity referred to here is a consequence of the fact that in xcosh y two values of . positive or negative. 1 !)] 22 Here we see that both jt + 1 ) are v/(* l). + Let We will see that there are a given number. always two values of y whose cosh is Now y= J *=xi/(x* x=cosh (<# f<r") l) i. or >>=log [x v^C* . where . Also we know that the logarithm of a negative number has no meaning in the 2 field of real numbers so that [x <\/(* 1)] has to be rejected. an d xVf* positive and real when x>l so that in this case y has two values. e 2 *2. and it is log [x To avoid this ambiguity.. Let 7=tanh~1 x. Hence + is we have B.  x \ x= Thus l x== ___ fog A "T" A . Note. C.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS It is easy to see that x+ V(* 2 1) is positive and x <\/(x*+l) negative for every value of x. if I x .x.1 x is the positive number y whose x=log [x + vXx* 1)]. For x>l. (Refer 3*72).y give rise to the same value pf x so that to a given value of x correspond two values of y which gave rise to it. cosh"" x a little and say that cosh is x so that we have cosh1 usual to modify the definition of cosh. we have and BO that log [*4V(* 2 1)]>0. It is easy to see that ^0..^+l=0.e.
sinh (. 3.c+^)==sinh x cosh . x is <x< 1]. similarly show that log eothix=^^f X A ^] ~  x M.lo Show that cosh x tends to oo whether x tends to oo or to oo.y+cosh x sinh y cosh (xf v)=cosh x cosh y i sinh x sinh y. . 4. [<*+!)/(*. Show that sinh* tends or oo according as x tends to or oo . positive or negative according as to oo x is Ex. ' F. where the sign of the radical positive or negative. if  jc >1. [0 sech*x=log 1+ ^flTlg2).1)]>0. oo 1. E. 1 according Show that tanh x > 1 or > as x tends to Show that oo or oo .HYPB11BOLIC FUNCTIONS 71 We may D. 2. .
then. and the corresponding change in the dependent variable /(c). We take of this interval which lies to the right or left of c (i.. Def. if it exists.e. defined in c+h any other number Now. The expression [f(c+h)f(c)]jh which is the ratio of these two changes. Curvature at a point. b).CHAPTER IV DIFFERENTIATION Rate of Change. The limit must be the same whether h tends to zero thcpugh positive or through negative values. number. c+/*> or <c) according as h is positive or negative. all these concepts underlies the analytical definition of differential coefficient. of exists and the limit is called the Derivative or Differential coefficient the function f(x) for x=c. any interval is (a. is said to be derivable for this value. is said to be finitely derivable if its derivative 72 . We consider a function f(x) Let c be any number of this interval o that /(c) h. It is possible that the ratio tends to a limit as h tends to 0. number of physical concepts such as Velocity at a point. Derivability. The function /(x) isftflffe. f(x) is said to be derivable at xc if /r>0 ^. Introduction. is called the derivative of f(x) for x==c and the function. Derivative. is the corresponding value of the function. etc. The value of the function corresponding to it is f(c {/?). The subject of Differenits origin mainly in the geometrical problem of the determination of a tangent at a point of curve. The function will not b&'derivable if these limits are different. Density at a point. is a function of h and is not defined for A=0 c being a fixed 9 . The fundamental idea of Local or instantaneous Rate of Change pervading 411. tial Calculus which had and space. each of which appears as a Local or instantaneous Rate of change as against the Average Rate of Change which pertains to a finite interval of space or time and not to an instant of time 41. has rendered possible the precise formulation of a large. Specific heat at any temperature. Acceleration at a point. This limit. is the change in the independent variable x.
to 1fft & functional +h)*l=2h+h which approaches 2 as h approaches 0. does not Now f(0+h)f(0) h according as h is f(h) =/r = lorl positive or negative. and > Hence. If f(x)=xsin show thatf(x) for is continuous for x=0 x=0.0=xsin X  X . for *=7.  x \ is not derivable for x=0. limit of [/(04/J) f(0)]//J It will be exist. . Hence Ex. is derivable and that \ its derivative is 2 for x 1. Show f(x)= x is \ not derivable for x=0. 1. 2. shown that the when h tends to 0. 1 To find the derivative for that the function changes from Change in the x=l. but has no differential coefficient We have =x sin . Hence /(x) Ex. Let x \ \ s>othat/(0)=0. [f(Q+h) f(0)]/h ~> 1 as h > through positive values 1 as h > through negative values. 3. we change x from 1 2 . 73r Show that x2 is derivable forx=l and obtain its derivative Let 2 /(jc)=x so that/(l) =l to 2 =l.DIFFERENTIATION Ex. Thus [f(0+h)f(0)]/h approaches different limits when h approaches through positive or negative values so that it does not * tend to a limit as h tends to 0.
Instead of considering a particular number c. . we have !/(*)/(0) ! <e when x0 [  <e. Find the derivative of x 2 . lim >/v ~ yv n . limit which is of Derivative off(x) and cient. We suppose here that the limit exists whatever value x may have provi ded \ it belongs to the interval of definition of the function.v=5/2. Find the derivatives of (/) 2x 8 f 3x4 for . have defined the Derived function. 47 lim sin (I/*) does not exist when x > Thus/(x) has no differential coefficient for JC=0. In 411.DIFFERENTIAL OALOTTLUS  x   Bin * <  * Thus if e be any preassigned number. now. 3. Ave of a function /(x) for a particular value. ^his a function of x is is called the Derived function denoted by/'(jc). of the independerivative dent variable. (11) 1/jc for x5. p. Hence x0 so that f(x) is lim /(x)=0 continuous for x=0. consider any number x and determine 4*12. Let /(*)=**. Again jc == x > 8n x 0. for x=*c. as seen in Ex. /'<*)lim &^^ when h > . we. c. and. when h > A . 4. Ex. . is Derivative of function also called its Differential coeffi The symbol /'(c) then denotes the derivative of f(x) Examples 1. where x is kept constant in the process of taking the limit.
Puting x a=l. 1.DIFFERENTIATION _ = Thus 2x is ]i ra ( X ^^I^ ft when h > lim ( the derivative or the derived function of x2 . p. lim = ox when 3x ^ 0. so that 413. of x is denoted by . In this notation the the variables x and y are denoted by the composite symchanges in bols Sx and Sy respectively. 9 lim (Sj>/Sx). 411. </v) ax*+bx+c.x for x=l and agrees with the result of Find the differential coefficient of \/x. the value f'(c) of the derivative cular value. 73. when X We start afresh to find derivative at x=0. Ex. as 8x ~+ 0. Thus < dx . 2. we get which is the derivative of Ex. c. of y=f(x) for any partiAgain. Another notation for the Derivative. Let f(x)=\(m ^ r ' . 2 .e. <\Jh being not defined for nega Find the of derivations (i/y 1/^Jx. (///) x8 . We have when'/* > through positive values tive values of h. . is then denoted by another composite symbol dyjdx. The derivative t.
and/(0)0..e. a function may For be continuous for a value of x without being derivable for that value. its then If f(x) is derivable for every point of it is continuous in that interval. Let/(x) be derivable for x=c so that the expression [f(c+h)f(c)]lh tends to a finite limit as h tends to 0. find (dy/dfc) when *=lEvery 414. Ex. 2.. Construct a function which not derivable for three values of x. continuous mor examples and exercises refer to the appendix to this chapter. y are also known as increments. lim /(x)= x ~> c Therefore /(x) Cor. nition. Show that/(x)=x* and derivable for x=0. 3 1  continuous but not derivable for x=0. We write lim lim J^L^'J^J.76 Note 1.e.  page 73) Ex. is interval of defi Note.   is continuous for every value is Ex. [For when x^0. finitely derivable function 2.when y *f =. ts An important theorem. The converse of this theorem not necessarily true i. is continuous at x=c. 2.K=M(x*il). (! ) x=Q and *.) .x " ii m ( A0 Hence lim fa+h)=f(c). 3. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS dyldx is a composite symbol denoting lim SylSx and is not to be regarded as the quotient of dy by dx which have not so far been defined as separate symbols. Show that the function x + x of x but is not derivable for x=0 and xl. If . example. the function yis 1*1 [Ex. 1. continuous. Note Ex. 2. sin (1/x) is continuous for every value of x but is Ex. 1. i. The changes gx and Sy Find in x.
Cor. 42. 3 4'11. ]  For example. 9 77 Geometrical interpretation of a Derivative. _XRQ is the angle which the chord 0. Find the slope of the tangent to the parabola y=x 2 at thS (2. 8. the point Q moving along the curve the point P. y=f(x) We take two points P\c. f(c)] of the curve y =/(*) is yf(c)=:f'(c)(xc). 0). 4). The equation of the tangent at any point P[c. draw and PN JL MQ. M NQ Here. p. we know that x is not derivable at JC=0. As h approaches PQ of the curve ^ denote by $. and Draw the ordinates PL.e. f(c+h)] on the curve yf(x). 2. 2 Show that the tangent to the hyperbola y^ljx at with xaxis. and 3. Note. On taking limits. the chord PQ approaches the approaches tangent line TP as its limiting position. makes an . Thus f'(c) the slope of the tangent to the curve y=f(x) at P[cJ(c)}. The existence of the tangent demands the existence of the derivative and we have seen in Ex. 73 that every function is not derivable for every value of jc. point 1.DIFFERENTIATION 4*15. t. and XRQ approaches /. f(c)] and Q[(c+h).f(c)] makes with xaxis. XTP which we makes with the A'axis. To show that is the tangent of the angle which the tangent line to the curve at the point P[c. 1) Ex. We QM have yi T L Fig. Ex.   p. The curve y= x Cannot therefore possess tangent at (0. The student should note that it is not necessary for every curve to have a tangent line at every paint thereof. angle 3*r/4 x=2 is 4. This fact may be seen directly from the graph Fig. the equation is (1) gives tan</r=f'(c). Hence the (1. Derivative of x* is 2x and its value for required slope of the tangent is 4. /'(c). 16 also.
are thus led to define the measure of the velocity at J>eing equal to We P as lim if v f . difficulty arises in assigning precise measures to them. velocity 1) moving 4*16* Expressions for in a straight line. 3. The In books not employing the method of Differential at Calculus. however. and let PQ=8s. no such thing as an infinitesimal interval of time. Let P be the position of the particle at any given time /. We can take intervals of time as small as we like and in fact interval with duration smaller than any other is conceivable. The motion of a particle is along a straight line equation analytically represented by a functional where. i. 8s . meaning to the velocity of a moving particle at any by employing the notion of Derivative.78 Ex.e. points (1. The definition as it stands A meaning can.. Let. better approximations will be obtained by considering smaller that The We values of 8t . The precise instant can only be given 4161. 5. velocity at any instant is calculated by measuring the distance travelled in some short interval of time subsequent to the instant under consideration.. for different measuring agents may employ different In fact this is only an approximate value intervals for the purpose. above definition by supposing tluat the words 'velocity' and 'infinitesimal' in it really stand for approximation to the velocity' and 'some short interval of time'. respectively. 4). The smaller the interval. ds T 6t . DIFFEBBNTIAL CALCULUS Find the equations of the tangents to the parabola y=x* at the and (2. some short interval 8t. denotes the velocity. and acceleration of a particle the concepts of Velocity In practice. of the actual velocity and some approximate value is all that we need in practice. be attached to the is thus meaningless. again. fr dt Hence. represents the distance of the particle measured from some fixed point O on the line at time /. Expression for velocity. the better is the approximation to the actual velocity. we have . Every thinking person is aware of and Acceleration of a moving point. velocity any instant is defined as the distance travelled in an Now there exists infinitesimal interval subsequent to the instant. Q be its position after ratio 8s/S/ is the average velocity over this interval and know intuitively is an approximation to the actual velocity at P. Ihis manner of calculating the velocity cannot clearly be precise.
also be obtained" To provide for illustrations of these general theorems. dy By . where. / i. The remaining part of this chapter is devoted to determining the derivatives of functions. 19 Expression for acceleration. Bv . corresponding to any increment Sx. A particle Ff . in this section. Ex.? o 8. 42. Looking at derivative as the rate of change. (b) s= \l(t {!). Let v be the velocity at t. any given time : 8t The ratio SvjSt is the average acceleration during this interval and is an approximation to the actual acceleration at time t. is zero. in Find the velocity and acceleration each of the following cases : at the end of 3 seconds.. The . "* Let . *y 8x . smaller values of St will correspond to better approximations for the acceleration at time t We are thus led to define the measure of acceleration as 7 Jim . as the rate of change of anything which does not change i necessarily zero. V is a quadratic' 2/ a h3f4. is 0. give the position. dv . prove that straight line such that acceleration remains constant. . . dc _ Note. 2 seconds. and lot v\Sv be the velocity after some short interval of time St 8v is the change in velocity during time 8t. is a constant. so that theincrement Sv. f dt (/') Ex. which is a straight line parallel to* xaxis. (c) 5= Ex.e.. Derivative of xa where a is any real constant number. Derivative of constant. c. 1. 4*3. The result may also be geometrically inferred from the fact that the sloper cf the tangent at any point of the curve y=c. (a) j=i*f2f+3. velocity and acceleration 1. To every value of x corresponds the same value of y..DIFFERENTIATION 4*162. this result appearsalmost intuitive. Let V=r. derivative of x a where a is any real' number. 422.. in we obtain.y/ 3 moves along a its function of/ 3. of the particle at the end of 0.x .. Home general theorems on differentiation which are required for the purpose will. 421. (//) initially. 2.
say. 63) ^ V. The derivative of xa for rational values of a can also be obtained without employing the general limit theorem of 365. rational or irrational. * where a is any real number. = 8x Let 8x > so that Sz also > 0.90 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Let 8y be the increment in y corresponding to the increment 8x in x. p. " Sx 8x (x+8x)x ' = Hence d(x lim ( 365. Case I.=a x dx ) a . Let a be any positive rational number. Another method. 1. p\q* Here We write Then z+8z=(x+8x) 8y l lq or (z+Sz^^x+Sx. . y+8y=(x+8x)* .
z p ^ p' ^1 ' also. Subtracting . We have y+Sy^U+Sll+V+Sv. Let a be any negative rational number. v. Let w. ponding u\8u.SOME GENERAL THEOREMS ON DIFFERENTIATION 81 = axoc1 Case II. y become x\8x.(i) Sw. v. say We have being both positive. 8y be the respective increments in u. q (x^bx) v~*Pl4 x * 8x Writing Sx z=x llq and z+Sz=(x+Sx) ^. 1 (/) () dx ar 4*3. Sv oy fYJL&v\~~PlQ ~~ p\q . Sv. derivable sum or difference. corresto an increment Sx in x so that x. we obtain 1 Sx Sx > 1 Let dy so that Sz > Jx "" z*. v be two Denoting their sum by Let y. Some general theorems on differentiation... w get a2^" 1 9 Ex.. r+Sv. As before. y+Sy (i) respectively. u..(//) from (H). Derivative of the 431. and dividing by Sx we get SM Sv ' JSj^ ==s Sx "SjT"^"8jc .1. y. able functions of x. we write . p.
1 " Sw 1 ^ +lim S* . it can be proved that number of derivable functions and application u l} t/ 2. x i. >X (io i """" (l /o .. of the results u n be buy finite then dy dx du = ~dx duz ~dx du 3 ~dx : du n ' dx Algebraic We thus have the theorem derivable functions is itself derivable equal to the sum of their derivatives. and the derivative of the sum of any finite number of sum is Ex. _ 11 . v Sv > dx^dx + similarly prove that dy dv ta We may d(u v) dx ~ du dv dx dx if " Generalisation.82 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Let Sx > 0.1 _ 2 __ _ x z Find the derivatives of J (0 i*. _ TV Ex. .1. 2.. By a repeated obtained above. 1 3 _ I 3 ' dx dx / \ i' = 1 4. =lim /Sw 8u\ du (to+to) . 8y to r .
8v..)+hm3w. ponding to the increment 8x in We y respectively corres have 8y=u. . We first take . It .. .DIFFERENTIATION 432.m dv dv du . x. =hm( )+hm( v. fix + ' v. dx = . The = x The result y dx Note. Directive of the product of any finite number of derivable functions.8v. dx : Thus we have the theorem functions is itself derivable and its other. The product of two derivable is the sum of the twa obtained by multiplying each function with derivative of the products derivative first function derivative of the product of two functions derivative of the second f second function x derivative of the first.8u+8u. . Let y~uv where u. for w.l. u. (i) may also be rewritten as u dx ^ v dx ' . Sx ' when S* . which is a derivable continuous. is 0. / . Then 8u *V : also * . limf W L . f Hto. v.. 8y. Let Sw. l ' e" 1. Sv \ ljc ..8v+v. v f are two derivable functions of be the increments in x. __ "^ .. 8 . du dx dv dx' ' Cor. d(u v) "dx Generalisation. / Su \ . . or 8v 8y Sw 8v Let 8x > function. may be noted that the operations of differentiation and multi plication are not invertible. Derivative of a product.
2. t/x dx (xl2) (2x:3).. where c vable function of x.. v x such that v is not zero . dx t/w Hence d(cu) du v . Let J>=n/v.a 27 r~ . l^ we obtain i dki 1 du^t J_ ^^ .84 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS dy f ( du. Find the derivatives of (0 (x+2)(3+x). Derivative of cu. Derivative of a quotient. (//) 433. where y==w1t/ 2 w3 .t/ n is = TT wr . Let a constant and u any deri dy '3x~~ du dc dx du . Cor. w. a 2. are two derivable functions of for the value of x under consideration. Hi Un * " du On dividing I ~if by y=u u2 u^ we l obtain 1 dy 1 du l du z 1 * du z * dx^U! dy 1 dx u% dx u3 dx By repeated application of this result.
.)] Square of Denominator. supposed at v=o Tor the . ft:\ v* ^x f~5 r *) x* "f x s Being a derivable function..DIFtffiBENTIATION 85 V. Hence v. . v is continuous. continuous Sv > as Sx > 0. therefore.  dx (lJr x). Thus *du d( dv v2 <. x \ d( .8V T(v+Sv)"' By Sx ~ v(v +Sv) is Now.lx. Also.) (Derivative of Denomr . Ex.) (Numer. \l i / +x) ^ dx (1+^) ax 7 . we have value of x under consideration. p.SMM. an interval around x such that v^O for any point of the interval. 54./  (Denomr. (3*51. Obtain the derivatives of ' n\ .:* = . There is.) Note tf 1. being a derivable function of x.l L 1+X*J [i] 2. "~~ dx dx so that derivative of the quotient of two functions = [Derivate of Numer.
Su . soy a function of x. The importance of the results obtained above in 4 3 lies in the fact that the derivative of any function which is an algebraic combination [/. Derivative of a function of a function. vjgv^O.86 Thus ding value of if v. > Sw 5x > S^ jdy ~~ dy du ' dx du dx The result is capable of immediate generalization.*. dy ~ du du ' ' dv dv dx Find the derivatives of (i) We write " w ^ = l +x 2 ."*then dy dx i4r ^ dy du * du dx ' 'and<t> being derivable functions ofu and x respectively.. i  du dy 1 Hence . This fact to lie wittvn this interval then. . We write Sy 8x~~~ Sy 8u Su Sx Let Sx ~> . Thus if be three derivable functions so that >> is we have dy dx Ex. corresponding to the increment Su. Let Sx be any increment in x and Su the corresponding increment in u as determined from u = (f>(x). j=w2. the corresponjustifies division by v+gv in step (/) Note 2. ' \ Sx J sx o ^ Su a Sx lim _ Hence lim 6// 8>L 8u .. is // y=f(u) and 11= <l>(x). so that Su > 0. in u let 8y be the increment in y as determined from 9 y=f(u). DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS we suppose x+ Sx /. nm > f / Sy rL. 4 34. a function of x. n nm Sx > i ( _ Sy \ ^ \  lirv. of addition subtraction.<?. built up through the operations. multiplication md division of several others is itself expressible as an algebraic combination of the derivatives of the latter. Again.
directly l+x Ex. 87 without introducing u. . ( (M {tv) Differentiation of inverse functions. 435. p. 21. we have ' dx _ ~ </(l+x 2 dx (U) Let u=~. (i) Find the derivatives of (ax+b) n . y=u 2 du </x~ . (I*) 1) 2 __ J2 x)* ' (1x) ~~(1 Hence dy C/A: ~~ dy du du ' 1 ~~ /l4x\ dx : or.DIFFERENTIATION or. function derivable in its interval of definition. We have to find a relation Jbetween/'(x) and f '(y). admits of an inverse function We Let y=f(x) be any suppose that it as explained in 2*22.
d[v/rfx Verify the theorem for and dx/dy are reciprocal to each y=x* when x = 2. dx I Thus Ex. Differentiation of functions defined by means of a para meter. two derivable functions other. Ex. when x=a/ 2 y= .function t=$(x) (222) we obtain so that y is a function of x. Assuming that x=f(t) admits an inverse . The increment bx in x corresponds to the increment 8y in y as determined from We have . 1 . as determined from y~f(x). We have .  Sy : Sx by * "A 8x . 'f* is ~dt~T\t) called a parameter. By ( the rule for the differentiation of a function of a function 4*34). we have dy dx AI Also ~ dy * dt ' dt dx dt . We consider x =ft) y=9(t) 9 9 of '*'. t>x ^y dy Let 8x  0. Finddyjdx.88 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Let 8y be the increment in y corresponding to the increment 8x in x. 4*36. _ dt)  ' dx*= Note. 1.
Also o when Sx > T 0. 1 ( a?>0 sin xl sin x. when Bx ~> dy = hm = .DIFFESENTIATION 2. The symbols Bx and 8y stand for the increments in x and y and will always be used in this sense without any frequent mention ^of their meanings. $A a continuous function. whea .. .2 r = 1.. lim ..sm x +iSx)] hm . Let >>=sin x. Derivative of sin x.6 .. 7 *= 2a/ . . (0 I/' . (sin x) v y dx Derivative of cos x. cos. \ve have.flt . sin (x+8x) 8y "" ~ sin _x 8x S^ _2 "" cos %(2x+8x) Bx sin 8x sin iSx gy. / . hm sin iSx . Thus d 442. { 2t . . iC. lim cos r. i* v.. lim sin (x+^Sx) = sin x. 4 41. .. 89 Find dyjdx. Let* By _cos (. ^ UJ\ =lim is S cos (x+^Sx) .v. wo have.. derivatives of Trigonometrical functions. dy = .. when Bx > 0. cos x. ^ O^t $ when Bx > 0. (ii) *= 3at 8.V+SA:)~ cos x SAT 2 sin (2x  'Bx^ _ = As sin A: is +Sx) sin s^ sin sin iS . As AT cos x i a CDntinuous function. 44. *...
y d(2x) .y=w 3 . dy dx ~~ dy dv ' dv du * du *. = smx. Let = sin (ii) cos 3 x. dx . (Hi) ^(sin 2x. sin x.90 DIFFBBBNTIAB CALCULUS Tk Ihus Ex. 1. (/) (i) * (Cos x) / > Find the derivatives of sin 2x.I* JL cos * 4 . \v "" cos w ^ x~~^ 1 COS <\/X VC^ V*) 11 * V^* dsin y/x or. briefly d\/(sm \/x) ~ d\/(sm \/x) dx d sin \/x * =  (sin sss v^*)"""" cos V^. dx __ ~ </(cos x) dx 3 rf(cos x) 3 * rf(cos x) ~ ~d(Qo* x) 2 dx 3 cos 2 x . We write w = 2x. =3 (Hi) (cos x) x( sin x) = sin x Let^^V write (sin We so that u=<\/x=x^ v=sin u. so that >>:=sin w. j= v/v=v2. dy or briefly dy du d(sm 2x) (ii) ~~= Let write d(sm 2x\ ~ } .cos 2x 2==2 cos We t/=cos rfy rfv A: so that . j. du )= or. briefly 3 cos 2 JC .
cos 1 * x sin * 1 cbs~fx +8x) cos :f Sx . y=a x = 3 cos r~ 2 cos 3 /. we obtain 3. sin / 2 sin (D. Let >=tan x ^ sin (x + Sx) Sx tan x _ cos (x+Sx) sin x (x+Sxj"~cos x Sx cos (A: ~ sin (x+Sx) cos x Sx cos (x 4 S^j cos +8x) x sin sin (x4S. (v/0 cos <v//7) 4. 91 Find dy\dx for /=7r/2.DIFFERENTIATION 2. Derivative of tan x. / 3 (sin r / cos 3 /). y=2 sin f sin 2t.r=3 xa cos 3 /. (/>) cos 8 (v) *.f ^ . w (vi) . 1955) 443. when x=2 cos t cos 2/. Find dy\dx when y (/) (i/y (///) x=a (cos /f sin /). cos x. cos / =2 / / cos / 2 cos 2/> dy dx dy dx ~~dTj ~dt . ^. w (//) cos mx.x x) 8x. sin^x. z=r 2(cos ~2(sin cos 2/) sin 2/) Putting / = 7T/2.sin /. 1 (1/1) sin x m . Find the derivatives of (0 sin x. cos (x+ox). We have ^=2 ^ =2 sin /(sin 2/)(2)= (cos 2/)2 2 sin /+2 sin 2/. t.U.
cos x. (iv) tanxtcotjc (v^ A A \ J//I V ( tanx\ i. N tan x cot . proof 1. 444. tan 2x. we write . . \l + tan x/ (v/) y V //"I / i i 1 445. cos x x . [ (sin x) ^ . A A 7 . sin x cos 2 1 "cos 2 / x =sec 2 x. sin x. . ^>=sec* x.c . }>=tan x= sin d . (cos x) ' j dx cos lc cos x.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS dx = cos x cos x =8ec*x J_.l d Thus Or. dx so that . Derivative of sec x. (Ill) x tan x cot 2x._L. d dy dx~~ dx 2 sin x.x) cos 1 x 1 sin i 8x OX) 1 COS X COS =tan x sec x.. cos (x+S. Let >>=sec jc=1 " Sy 1 COS X x cos_(x+8x) ~ cos cos x cos "Sx. cos x Sx 2 sin  (2x+$x) sin bx. Its = cosec 2 x. Ex (i) Find the derivatives of (/i) tan xf cot x. cos (Jtf6x). is left to the reader. cos x+sin x.. / .
x 1 so that x^=cos y. 30 will have to be kept in mind to obtain their derivatives. p. d(sec x) ~ dx write . dx 4y j^ __ ^ 1 _ . Its proof is left to the reader. Ex. of sin"" 1 x.. Darivatives of inverse trigonometrical functions.=tan x / . Hence 452. (Hi) secVfcf&x). dx .D CFFEK ENTI ATIO N 93 Thus Or. Let 1 ^=sin"" x so that x=sin y. ( s2 x sm x) . Derivative of sin"" 1 x. we have 1 7r/2<sinso that cos y is A:<'7r/2. sec x. By the def.e. Derivative of cos Let y^cos. fi = 1 ^/(TT^p x. 451. we v= dy / cos x so that dx A A* 446. (/v) sec (cosec x). The precise 4*5. (/) Find the derivatives of cosec8 3 x. dfcosec x) '= ^. definitions of inverse trigonometrical functions as given in 2*7.  cot x cosec x. sec x. 7r/2<><7r/2 positive.. (//) >l[sec (ax+b)]. 1 1 it where tha sign of the radical is the same as that of cos y. i. =tan x . = cos x 01 cos .
.e.1 x) / = Derivative of tan. ^ c*f\f* i^ //afvr>2 sec ^ V(8e 2 L i 1 \ = ..the same as that of sin y. and TT. then sin y 1 necessarily positive. dfcos. 1 J' 1) ^ // x VCx2 . I 1 . Let "1 x so that x=tan y. dx 9 or 1 4. *>2 ' s ig n before the radical and write (Refer note below) S" Thus d(sec~ 1 = x7(^) 1 ' x) dx .__ 1  _.1) > _ . Let y=sec~ 1 x so that #=sec dx j =sec v tan v dy or y. y lies between . +> . By the < Also if cos" 1 * <TT i. < is y < TT. of cos"" 1 x.54 454 d(cot dx x)_ ~ J^ 1+x* Its proof is left to the reader. . Hence 453.94 f\f DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS dy _._ where the sign of the radical def. we have is . 455. Derivative of see" 1 x.1 x. dy dx sec y tan y _ We take.
dfcosec" 1 x)  1 dx" The sign before the radical 1 xV(xiy the same as that of cot y. This note is intended to show precisely what sign should be chosen before the radical. Let x so that x=cosec y. By the definition of cosec *. 1]. [ oo. in the interval [1.DIFFERENTIATION 95 Note. sign before the radical and write " Thua Note. [1._ [x~ 1 ) x I for every admissible value of x. dx __ ~ _ x V(x !)' 2 Derivative of cosec. dx j = cot y cosec or dx cosec y cot y 1 cosec 2 __ is 1 x\7(x a yl)~^ 1) We take. +. then y lies bet When x is negative so that it lies in the between w/2 and n and so tan y is negative. lies bet . oo]. then y lies Thus the sign of the Hence radical is positive or negative according as x is posi :r"= 2 ^ dx x^(x*l) so that if *> and = . tive or negative. *\ Thus 456. p. [oo . 33]. interval. then y then y lies bet when x ween 7T/2 is and negative so that it lies in the interval and so cot y is negative./ jH(x l) 2 ~ir if * < dy ctx =: i 1 _. we have When x ween and nr/2 is positive so that it lies and so cot y is positive .1 x. oo]. 1]. we have When x ween is and n j2 and so tan y positive so that it lies in the interval is positive . By the definition of sec~ T x. Now it is clear that the sign before the radical is the same as that of tan y. [Refer 2*75.
x. . ^ Jt!~~l\ / X (v/iFcos l4x . Thus Ex. Find rfy/d* when 461. cor. tanH(l +*)/(! x)]. 2. (. 3) Cor._ rrs"^ dx x t iut& 6e c x . tf Now lim ( ^ 1+ X * ) ^ =e. Hence we have and =^br ' if x<0 > so that we can write l for every admissibl e value of x.. (i) (i//) dKcosec^x)^^ Find the derivatives of ^ 1_ 1. ( 363. Devivative of log..96 fckw DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Thus the sign of the radical is positive or negative according as x is posi tive or negative. (/v) tanXcos Vx). Ex. (v. x are both positive) Let J>=log x. sec >t (//. Let a=e so that ^=log^ x=log f . x _ . sinH*.
p. (v) (vii) logV(# t. . 4*71.w.~r' log X (x) logioCsin" (xi7) log(e 1 ('*> v \ V( fl )/ ^1 ). *&*_ JL x dx Derivative of ax . log(sec xftan x) I y. Let e*e~* * . ).. (//) cos (log x). (x/v) eV^7 (jrv) a+b * x losa b tan x Derivatives of hyperbolic functions. log tan (Jx hj"). Thus Ex. l (364. 8x a 8x 8x 2~* Thus Cor.r (jci//) a** sin 1*.D1FFBBENTIATION 97 Thu8 462.t4l). 63) ii? """&T~ log^a. dy _ . fdx . 0^X (V//0 . Derivative of sinh x. (jci") log[x+ f V(jc w *+e. =a* fJ=aLet a^=e so that ^=6^. Find the derivatives of (/) : log sin x. Let y a*. (Ill) * sln * 2 (/v) (vi) log[sin (log x)]. =a &x~ by * ~x f ox a x ax * a &x 1 * .
d(sinh x) d Derivative of cosh x._. 4*75. Derivative of sech x. x= sinh . DIFFBBENTIAL CALCULUS Thus 472.sinh x cosh 2 x cosh 2 _  x sinh 2 x _ cosh 2 _. x . t/x T Jx cosh 2 x cosh x.__ x !t ^ Thus 473. Its proof is left to the reader. ft . *)=sinh dx Derivative of tanh x. >>=tanh .sinh x cosh a x sinh . . Let .98 m.x) '  . Let v=sech 1 x=~ v.S ech 2 x. x= e e. .x) . Let . 474. . d(tanh x) / ~ 2 =sech9 x. Thus A . ~smh x . x. dy d <co h . d(cosh . ===coshx * .x cosh : dx Q ^ "" cosh xO x l. *A d(coth x) / ^^ dx = cosch 2 x.  x cosh x cosh x "" ^(sinh.^  1 cosh 2 x 10 ^^ _.cosh " xsinh x. dx .
' v x) 1 1 . An* 470. dx dy A: 1 or 1 where the sign of the radical is the same as that of cosh y which we know. to the reader. .1 x. y is always positive so that sinh y (371.. Derivative of tanh.e. dy 1 1 dy ^.^ dx ~sech 2 >~ 1tanh2 _r_ _  . dx dy' //~Y* t*^V ^_J_ Gin n Ol 1111 I " 1 ? v X A /^rr^ftri* t ^^ 1 A \/ I v/v/Oll V ^ J i H /iI ^^ I** *Hs ^^ 1 * \ I where the sign of the radical is the same as that of sinh y... cosh.=sech* " V. page 68)._ >> 1 * ~~lx* Thus =. Its proof is left to the reader. Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions. Let j^tanh. 481. l^l T~. Now. x  <1] . Its proof d(cosech x) x _ < is left = coth x cosech x.DIFFERENTIATION Thus d <S h dx *>=tanhxsechx. .1 x.1 x. page 68).. 483.1 x i. . ^ Hence 482. dx =* 1 a x^ .. dfsinh. Derivative of sinh. is always positive.1 x dx so that x=tanh y. ( 3'72. dx Derivative of cosh. Let 3^= sinh. 1 j^cosh""" x so that Let x=cosh y.1 x so that x=sinh}>. is positive Hence ' ll00 ^^^ [ ^ \ .
x ) Let 1 >?=cosech~ x so that x=coseoh y. . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Derivative of sech. dteechr 1 x) . ^(cosech y~+I) x<\/(x*+l)' the same as that of coth y. x. or dy dx sech y tanh y 1 1 where the sign of the radical tanh y is is the same as that of tanh y.e.. TH rhus *2?!*^x) dx ) x  =1 VO for all values of x. Hence 4*86.1 x. and therefore coth y positive or negative according x is positive or negative. This process is which is known as logarithmic differentiation also useful when the . dx T = . tanh y. xyXl x. coth _ when the as .100 4*85. coseoh y . so that _. . But we know that sech. (i) Find the derivatives of log (cosh x). (//) * slnh2 *. tanh x. ^cosech y sign of the radical y. y 1 is always positive. . dx Derivative of cosech _ 1 . or cosech y . coth y. ifx<0. = j sech y 1 . Let 1 >>=sech~ x so that x=sech y. Ex. is Now.. (///) tan x . v a function of the form u Logarithmic differentiation.  .J _.1 always positive. 491. ________ 2 =. V are both variables. i. it is logarithm and then differentiate. In order to differentiate necessary to take its where w._!. is ____ . .
From (1). 3. log sin x.(2) y dy _ du   r dv\ rfx dx^dx log . We Let write y=x * l n *+(sin *. The following examples Ex..c. tana. log & JC + Sin X. log x+ tanx  \ J /ov . log sin x\ x \ y tan * Differentiate [x + (sin cos x x) cos *. we obtain. and (4). x .c tan . (1) and so that *  cos v=(sin x) *..(3) From we obtain.. log sin .. taking logarithm.1. ^ec x . cos^/ dx =(sm x) (3) ^sin x . . . we obtain Differentiate . 1 we dy y TT dx . sin x COBJC dv *e. jc+cosx... 1 du u j. </v == v dx sin x log sin a . log w=tan x .DIFFERENTIATION function to be differentiated is 101 the product of a nuniber of factors.  x Hence Ex. Let log illustrate this process. . log x. =x* ^ = 16g get x sln x (x )=sin x . . ]. ..^. taking logarithm log 1 v=cos x . Differentiate x sin x . =:COS X . / dy ~ = xsin * (cos x . dx rfw =sec 2 x 21logx+tan x . Adding Ex. . / f rfx^^ (2). Differentiating. x) t/=. 1 . 2.
(3j?) (vi/j) (4^ 4 ) 4 log x . xx . t/an _ 2_ ~dx !+*' Differentiate Ex. Putting x=cos 0.c)4(sin 1 (1 *)V (2x)/ 8/4 .c) + 4(2  + 5(34x)" J' 16 "I Ex. and taking logarithms. a preliminary [transformation of the function to be differentiated facilitates the pfocess of differentiation a good deal. A v . 4. ' 5 sin x . we obtain dy ! _ (23*). e x . logx+ log (l2x)f Differentiating. log we obtain log (34x). 1.4x) 9 " 2JC ^3(l2. Ex. examples.J 1 2 2 l2x~~ 9 3 4 Z' 2"3x 5 2 x 4 3 34x _ __ +5(3. we have Yr 1 dy *' =Bini Q (sin 1 2^)=2^=2 tan x. In some cases. Preliminary transformation. (/) (cos x) (in (/vfaanx) cot x f(cotx) tanA: . /C *(v) (log . Differentiate Sin !+* Putting x=tan 6. as is illustrated by the following 4*92.102 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Putting log }>= it equal to y. Find the log differential coefficients of : x . we have 2 ^' =V2 ' cos . 2.
_ sini 2y x=tan we 2 1 see that  3 (tan 20) 1 = 2^=2 tan1 x.efficient of . dy^ dz~dx dz~ Also otherwise. 4. V( !*)+ V(l y*)=a(xy). 4 2 Ex. F/wJ /A^ differential tan~ l . (D.1 2 2= sin~ ( sin 26)^20=2 tan~i x. 1954. we have y***> so that dy . Hons.U. 1952) Putting x=sin 6 and y=ain sin we have )=a(sin B sin + *>(lBm* . Ex.==1. JL co. 1956) _ Putting 2x 0. . '2 sin F l\ cos _ +sin rt ltan l+tan2 7T 4 ~ 1 ^ 2 = 7T J.C7.DIFFERENTIATION 103 = e COS x f\ . z=sin. P.U. prove A that .dx dy // j. 3. j *~2 X  wft/i r^c/ z to sin" 1 J* 2 (P.* J. 1949 <f>.
. ^(0~<)= cot. . 4 93. 5.. .y+Sy^sin. Differentiate sin*x <ab initio'. . Differentiating. . nor is any use to be made of the differential coefficients of standard forms. Ex.*. Differentiation "ab initio". get or <fa Ex.. Ov) tan /\l*vos x\l/2 y [Show that Ex. . products. . Vx x (>.. 1952) (it) . 6.... (D.U.(x+Sx).DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS or cos 0+cos ^=0(sin sin <f>) 2 cos (040) cos \ ~ 2 cos i(0+<) sin~ (V < or . functions of functions etc. Find the differential coefficients of sin~ l . 1955) Let ^sssin 1 1 . We have and so that x=sin y x + &t s= sin (y + 8>>) Sx=sin (y+8y)~8my. this is equal to sin"" 1 * sin Express in their simplest forms the differential coefficients with respect to x of or. means that the process of differentiation is to be performed without making any use of the theorems on the differentiation of sums.(/) tan. 1.1 j^.t/. We have already had numerous illustrations of it.1 a 0^=2 cot" sin^ 1 1 a "** 1 x we sin" 1 y=2 cot" #. % (ltt) tan . To differentiate "ab initio" from first principles.
3. from <'> first principles. 3. cos y ~ ^(F ~x*y* Ex. 1 . x tanx 8 5. (D. sin A Sx TO ' . >/(tanx). the differential coefficients of : sin () sin 2 x. (i/O Vx. the differential coefficient of V Let ~sin*:~ y~ Vsin x.DIFFERENTIATION 105 Thus Sx sin (y+Sy^&'my 1 ' _ cos / $8y >0. 1 Let Sx> ^V 0. . the differential coefficients of 2. \/sin x = Sx sin ' \/sin (x+Sx) sin x 1 = COS (X + iSx) . /rom first principles. : *( * 8) . Find. from * 4first principles. sec^x. \ (y+ %Sy) Vsin ^ Sy ) Let Sx > so that 8y also ~" * ~~~ </x cos 3.U. 2. .^ ~~ ^ ^ 2  COS X Vsinlc Ex. F//irf. 7955) Exercises Find. =cos x .
35. .7) log (15. sin.sin. .1 ~\ tt * 11. 3 16./ f*O^ f t/ V^^Jo TJ b + a cos x 25.106 Find the J>^FFBBBNTIAlj CALCULUS differential coefficients of . xa sinh *. X.) 34. e IJX* . 9x4 sin (3 jc. ^ ' 17. 31. \/(f^H). *^ vv/k t x 33.1 x).1 .. 10 x . ^~ w sin / ^ ^^  . tan * i ** * 12. ^ ^V Mj . sin (x log x). lo 8 sin /7 V 21. Y* A. Find the differential coefficient of . b tan. log [l**i x 37. j^ f <^Q. O 20 . +) : . log(log x). tan* 1+sinjc 14 OfcOjH^*). 1 tan1 L. . sin 22. 7.^^^ . 23. I (l4x) ~ . sin^ 1 f &* / eaX _"~_?_ . / x log x / . : 6X wo 3T T^i __ .*. v^V/O V 26. [lx")" 8 a .1 ^ tan. 18. e aj?cos (^ tan. X* 9. cot x coth x.1^. log [tanh (fcc)]. ^29. (sin x) v y 27.
1949) Differentiate (log x) tan* with regard to sin (m cos. dy/dx^log jc/(l +log x) a . 56) 51.U. 1959) 46.U. . .. (D.. 1950) (P. F(x)= /.U. Hons. 49. 1955.j .1 x. . .. 7955. 1 x 1 1 + ^T tan cos 8 1 t . /<*) S AW fi(x+h)A(x) *) f&c+h) (*+*) . 56) (Differentiate logarithmically) JI5. Find when x=e Differentiate with respect to cos. Differentiate sin* x with respect to (log x)*. Differentiate the determinant.1 x 2 50.U.) U". 107 Differentiate ' (0 00 43. 47.y=a sin /. .1 1 2 with respect to tan[{V(l hx )l)}/x] x (P.U.2x+l ^3 Find dyjdx when (i) x = sin 8 / ^(cos2/) 'a"*/ 6 ' (/f) (///) x=sin H(cos 2/). Differentiate x sm x with respect to (sin x)*. prove that 44. (P.(*) <fr.(x) From first principles we have F(x+A)F(x) . 1956) 48. y=cos /V(cos 20x=a(cos /flog tan i/). If x* **<*. (D. Differentiate tan..DIFFERENTIATION 42. (P.
W Dividing by h and making h tend to zero. Show that /(x)=x /(0)=0 is 8 sin (//x) when x^O is derivable for every value ofx but the derivative not continuous for x=0..V ^ )(_ o=2x sin For x=0.108 DIFFERENTIAL CALCTJLUS <P. f'(x)=2x sin (D. For xr0. We write . Hons. sin x'sin * _ x x > as x and Thus the function possesses a derivative /'(x) is given by f'(x)=2x sin for every value of X cos  X when We have to show that cos f'(x) is not continuous for x=0.U.(1) X =2* sin X (2x \ sin *  cos * Y / . <Pi ! we get ^* ^. 1954) coa( cos . APPENDIX EXAMPLES 1. The rule can be easily extended to the case of determinants of any order. we have 1  X fwm^ _!1 x x =x /'(0)=0..
/'(*) doas not exist. n x in O<X<TT..e. But this not the case. Firstly we consider x=0. x0 existed. In case i.c>0 exist. Examine ( oo . Now lim /(x) 0) = l and lim /(*)= x>(0+0) lim (l+sinx) = lim /x=l=: x=0. 2 7r) in JTT<X< oo. is continuous for for so that Also for x>0 """ 1+sinx^. x<0. Thus we shall now consider x=0 and X=7T/2. 2.cos x ^ (1) x ' ) had would follow from is that lim (cos 1/x) would also . (Mysore) The function /(x) is derivable for every value of x except parhaps for x*=0 and x = 7T/2.DIFFERENTIATION 109 Here lim ( 2x sin y ^Q ' J=0. x . Henca lim THUS x0 for f'(x) is not continuous x=0. it lim (2xsin . Hence /(x) Again. oo ) the continuity the following function /or ) and derivability in the interval =l in oo<x<0.
sin \ t """ lim x TT lim iiiu (}n^ exists and is equal to 0. Now we consider x=irj2. . We have lim W lim /(x)= 0) lim X ^(7T /(x)= lim Hence /(jc) Again.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 80 that lim *>(OH0) M*~ * xKO+0) * Thus xKO~0) * Hence the function is not derivable for x=0. for is continuous for Putting ^TT x=/ we t see that 1 sin x ~" == Isin (JTT "" 1 /) _ so that cos t f _ 2 sin 2 \~t _ sm .
x=0 and x=l.0. Hons. 111 Discuss the existence of/'(x) and/"(x) at the origin for the function /(x)=x 2 sin  x when (B. Examine the differentiability of the function m /(x)= x sin  x when x^r.1 when x^O and /(0)=0/show that /(x) is continu ous but not derivable for x0. 1953 . (D. Determine m when/'(x) is is continuous at the origin. Show that the function 9 . at a point x=0 and show continuous at x=0. Hons. 1952) Determine whether /(x) continuous and has a derivative at the origin where 4.U. everywhere (B.U.U. Show that is continuous but not derivable for 5. x=0. 1953) 1. 1951) 6.U. . 1953) and/(0)=0 8. Find from first principles the derivative of f(x) that the derivative =~ is  when x^0 (B. 1952) 9. D.DIFFBBBNTIATION Exercises 1. (D./(0)=0 continuous but has no differential coefficient at x=0.U. Hons. If /(*)=* tan. 1952) 2.U. Examine the function as regards its continuity and the existence of its derivative at the origin.U. w>0 when x=0 at the point 3. is /(x)=x{lfisin(logx )} for x^0. Discuss the continuity and the differentiability of the function f(x) where o. (D. when x is irrational or zero W ^ en JC== ^ ' a fraction in its lowest terms.
(D. 1 and 2. (D. x=a ? Give your answer with reasons.U. to 4x a 3x when l<x<^2 and to x when ^0. 11 * (ii)f(x)=e 12. (P.U. discuss the continuity of f(x) and the existence" of f'(x) for x=0. 1957) . when x^O and/(0)=0. Hons. 2 . 1955) A function f(x) is defined as being equal Jo 5x 4whenO<x^l.for continuous and differentiate at 11.) Discuss the continuity of f(x) in the neighbourhooi of the origin : when f(x) is defined as follows (/) f(x)=*x log sin x for x?*Q.112 10. U. and /(0)=0. to 3x+4 when x=2 . Is the function DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS f(x)**(xa) sin _.
Ifx=a (cos 0+0 sin 0).... The derivative f'(x) of a derivable function f(x) is itself a function of x. . where each term is the derivative of the preceding one. denoted by/"'(jc) and so on./"(*)... . The symbols denote the value of the nth derivative of y=f(x) for x=fl. d*yldx*.CHAPTER V SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION 5*1.. Examples 1. )>=0 (sin 00 cos 0). which we denote by/"(. ~a (sin =a (cos rfy 0jsin 0J0 cos Q)=a c/v V cos M0 rfy 0+0 sin 0)=0 0sin 0..find cos 0.. We have ./"(*)... if y =/(*). Notation. We Thus..c) and call the second derivative of The third derivative off(x) which is the derivative of f"(x) is f(x). /'(*). ~dx=~d~e rf*v f _dy \dx ~ tan ^ 'dt~dijd7 t/(9 vY=sec a ^~SeC 3 v v1  ^0 [Note this step] sec s "~~ "^~ rsz fl  a cos d ad 113 .. . then derivative of y. Alternatively. Sometimes dny\dx* also denotes the rtth are used to denote the successive derivatives of y. the successive derivatives of f(x) are represented by the symbols. suppose that it also possesses a derivative.
+}> 3. dy\dx and dififerential equation. dy cos* #=0. cos 3 4 ^jco8 . Making substitution.114 2. (P. we see that ^ j^+tan x j. v ^ = = sin (sin x) cos sin (sin x) cos 2 x x cos x cos (sin x) sin cos (sin x) sin x. ^r d ly\dx* in the given Substituting the values of x. prove that Tx +y COS* JC==0 ' (/> * ^ 1953) We have dy . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Ify=sin (sin x). =cos (sm . 1932) We have _dy dt ~de dy^ rt dd__ dyjdx _dy dx ~~~de/de '"del dd Oane.. U. n ' d*y dO = 2 cos 6 sin 2 sin 6 cos 3 cos 2 dy ^T+ cos2 j~ cos 2 = dv 0. I ' dy do ' ' = 2 cos dy +">* . x) cos x. . Change the independent variable to Q in the equation d 2y 2x dy y _ by means of the transformation x=tan 6. we see that it becomes or 2>in or cos8 ^cos 0^42 sin 0. .
for b dy . If (f.  V . show d*y that dx z Solving the given equation as a quadratic in y. If >~[(fl+te)/(c + <fc)] t then 5. y\ If x2 #=a cos /cos It and ^=2 sin /sin 2/. prove that ' If ^(I/A:)*. Show that y=x f tan x satisfies the differential equation /. find the value otd*y!dx* when =i*. \If p ^^ 1 cos 2 9+6 a sin'fl. prove that . 1 show that ^ (1) 0.SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION 4. we get Substituting result. sin 2^ (lfcos 20). . % '4s . ^3. +h from (1).>~log (sin x) show that y9 9  /^/AO . we get the "required Exercises r. Ifax*+2hxy+by*+2gx+2fy+c=Q. >>=a cos 29 (I cos 29). we get x [2(h*ab)x+2(hfbg)] Differentiating again.
1 ]. show that dz*' . If y is a function of x and jc<=l/z. y=sin />/. m . 521.J* If *=sin /. m is a positive integer. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS lfy**x log Kaxyi+fl.. Change the independent variable to z in the equation ^4 cot x by m^ans of the transformation ~J~ + 4>> cosec*x=0 z=log tan 12. d*yldx*> d*y[dx*. yn can be written as (m 7w) m 60 that.116 9. ~dy$x ' "" tf^^^ dy* 4vA/Jc. \ a and the (mfl)th derivative along with the other higher successive. Some standard results. and find the value ofd*xfdy* in terms of Also show that dx* 5*2. Let y=( so that in general jV=w(m In case. Show that dx ~dy __ 1 . prove that . i*. derivatives are all zero. dy* Calculation of the nth derivative. the /wth derivative of (^x+fr) m is a constant viz. prove that 1 j.
2. Cor. ~ Let y=\og(ax+b). Putting *e for a. DTTI ^~ 2 J' 525.. m= 1. 1.. J 3 =a o that.117 Putting. . y =a cos (ax\b) = a l sin (tfxf 6f TT). ax y^=ae sin (6jc+c)+e a* 6 cos \a sin . .. ax+b+ .SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION Cor.. m e ' Let jsin (ax+b). in general log a. Let y=ea * sin *=eax (6^:+c). r mr" 524. .. (n)a"( _ dx" Cor. a yi== a dx* 522. (ax+b)* Let y l =ma mx so that. d* sin(ax+b) _ n . we 7* get ~~ I dx 523. Similarly r d*cos (ax+b) w <=a n cos j\ dx* L . we get JV(lX2) . in general 8 cos (ax+b+i7i)=a* sin (ax+6+7r).
Sometimes it also becomes necessary to theorem which states that (cos apply Demoivre'a 0/ sin 0) n =cos n0i sin n() t where n is any integer. Examples 1. positive or negative. tion. Determination of nth derivative of Algebraic rational funcIn order to determine the nth derivative of Partial Fractions. Find the nth derivative of Throwing it dr '' (x+2)(2x+3)~ 2 L xa "I _ __ into partial fractions. andi=\/( l). 53. rational function.. where 526.fll)]. + W)4^ cos (bx+cfn tan^ 1. m. in general d w 1 * sin (bxf c)] [e l a* ^V___r_y ==r e sm  fl . we detarmine two constant numbers r and f such that a=r cos r^i/ Hence. 1 9 2(2* 8 . b=r sin ? Thus y l Thus arises from >> y l =re sin on multiplying by the constant <f>. ax r and increasing the angle similarly by the constant y 2 ==r*e ax sin Hence.). Similarly ( ffi!. we have to decompose it into partial any algebraic fractions. we obtain " x+2 "2x+3j.118 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS In order to put y in a form which will enable us to make the required generalisation. we have V.
0=tan. 119 Find the differential coefficient of x We have x2 + a2 (jc + <r/j(x f L* a i a. cos(Kfl)fl where r=\/(x 2 a f0 ). To render the result free from T and express the same we determine two numbers r and such that in real x=r cos 9. a=r sin 9.1 (ajx). Find the tenth and the wth differential coefficients of .SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION 2.(cos v / sin 0) y ^ and ^ j= (cos 0\i sin = ^ii Hence t cos x ~" rfx" n (l) n! .^ Find the /ith differential coefficients x+1 2. rrr? n+1 = ' "i i v 1 nl . + 1. ~~ 2 + J  ^x + a/  form. Exercises of ^.
Example 1 below. prove that 54.=A: log X~j~ I ~. Prove that the value of the nth differential coefficient of if /i is even* and ( !) if n is odd and greater that 1. 1951) i) We know that +cos 2x . /* If >.U. The nth derivative of the product of the powers of sines ai*4 In order to find out the nib derivative of such a product. will illustrate the process. 8. _. which has been solved. If y=jc(x+ 1) log (jcf I) 3 . we have to express it as the sum of the sines and cosines of multiples of the independent variable. 6. cosines. (PU. 1 (P./. 1 A: ton ... prove that provided that 10. f s in w (Jn^) sin' (iw+^). show that ! =(nl) 9.. (/>. Find the nth differential coefficients of cos* x.y +(!) ] cos"^.y^tan. () #* 1 cos 2 x sin x. If ^=tani x. 1 Jf cos a . where fl^ x=0 is zero. 1935) Find the wth differential coefficients of N . !) sin <l + 0[sin (n 4. cos [n.120 3. Ex.1)9 cos l (w + (sia for 0fcos 0)*.) Show that the wth derivative of ..1 x is (l)ni (w i) 7. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Find the nth differential coefficients of (//) X 4. Show that the wth differential coefficient of 1 is Kl)w (" 5.1 ]. (i) .
.j=w a t/ 2 v + 2 C 1t/1 v 1 2.2 sin X. Leibnitz's Theorem.. v be two functions possessing derivatives of the nth order. will be proved by Mathematical induction.+4 2x) sin x cos 2* sin x=4(l + cos == sin = J sin x+J.cos 2x x+J (sin 3x = J sin x+J sin 3x. Find the nih differential coefficients of (/) (//) sin 8Ar. sin 2ay 2 x cos cos A: x. By direct differentiation. We assume that the theorem value of n. t + .. ) cos *+. we have and (wv).. so that we have true for a particular mC w a wa vJ + .. (/v) (v) e sin 2 2x.. The nth derivative of the "product of two functions. If w. e* sin 4 x.. say m..SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION cos * 121 2x 2x +1(1+008 1+4 cos 2x+J cos 4x cos .. 55. (i/) 3 cos x cos 2x cos 3x.. Step II. then This theorem Step I. + m C muv m .. Hence sin x sn x = ( sin x)+J sn ~ e (e sn sin sin 2. is Thus the theorem is true for n=l.
(PU) find the ttth derivative of .. V^rC^C.l)2x e x 1 " 1 n .122 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Differentiating both sides. show that (D. . x+n^l J) +w(wl) (/og cos 2. To x cos x. for==2.2* ~2 cos (x+^"2 tanU). Find the nth derivative of x* ex cos 2 x. M W _. Examples 1. i.. In step it I.2 = n x 2k e cos . U^OK^ V. // . um ^+"0.... B. 4. must be true =3 + l.. +i we get va v+u m Vj+^C.V=a cos x)+& ^m (fog x)..2 +2?. we look upon e cos x x 2 (x e* cos x) n ^(e x cos x) n x*+ n C l (e* cos x) n .) !/_! V2 OT + CW ..C7. (x+n tann J a l).x ~ 1) ) e x cos (x+nlj.+ But we know that . 3 and true for so and so for every value of n. 1952) .nx cos f .c e as the first factor and x 2 as the second. m is of tt.e.+ from which we see that if the theorem is true for any value then it is also true for the next higher value m + l ofn. we have seen that the theorem for /f=ii + l. Conclusion.2x t"C 2 (e cos x) w _ 2 .e. Therefore i.tan.
 d (D. prove that sn 3. we obtain * aJ^2+"Ci2x^.= ^(xya+J'iH 1> cos (log x)+6 y or * j>3+*yi+:y=o. (//) x 3 cos e" log x. x+x cos If/(x)=tan x. = sin x and apply Leibnitz theorem. Find the nth derivative of (i) (i/i) jc n e*. Differentiating n times by Leibnitz's theorem. If y=x 2 sin x. 5. tion for x=o.] Differentiate the differential equation dx* times with respect to x. [Write /(x) cos x 4. Examples 1 and 2 below which have 5*6. or xj^ 1 = a sin (log x)+b Differentiating again. Vl 12$ we __ get a sin . be obtained in a convenient form.SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION Differentiating.56)> 2. prove that [P.U.U.J7. 5w/?/>. 4* [a*x* x 2nax+n(n + l)]. Sometimes .(log x) x + b ??_C!.1954.b sin(log x) *sin (log *)]. we get xy*+yi=* or 2 a cos (log x)  x . 7936).fi+^ or x'y n Exercises 1. 1950)1 differential equation Find the nth derivative of the Determination of the value of the nth derivative of a funcit is possible to obtain the value of the nth derivative of a function for x =0 directly without finding the general expression for the nth derivative which cannot. (iv) x (P.o 8^t  x cos (log x}. in general.
to expand a function by Maclaurin's theorem. we and get WO)HHm% we obtain we B (0). Putting n=l. etc. in (4). 3. (2) (3). . we get Putting x=0. get In general ^ 2.124 DIFFBRBNTIAL QALCIJTJS been solved will make the procedure cl *ar. prove f/wf . Also find the value of all the derivatives of y for 1 2 x=0. (P. we get 9 . we get (1x 2 2y.U..x) x (1 2 . Examples 1. 1955) Differentiating y (sin x) 1 .U. x 2 )^x^2:=0 ' ax* dx (1) Differentiate the above equation n times with respect to x. 4. *or (1 msiiTl x x*)y*=nfy*..[(n2) 2 +m 2]. *= 2 sin" x v (!*). the values of the derivatives for x=0 are required..^> . when n is even. 2. m "w=*r )  ox (2) Differentiating. Let y=e m " sin Ax (1) .. '~ fm2 (2 a +/n 2 )(4 2 +/M 2 ).  (3) by Leibnitz's theorem. As will be seen in Ch.. (P. XOHl^OHm^COHin". odd. Find the value of the nth derivative of e m 8in "1 * for x0. 1955) If >>= (sin. Differentiating n times ^ 1 .y 8 2xy1 2ifi f Dividing by 2y t) we obtaain (ljffoxyi^m'y. IX... . .[(n2) +m 3 2 2 ]. when n is (w(lHJ 1 2 ) 2 (3 +m ). From (1)..
But these results may be obtained by proceeding to the limit as x>0 instead of putting x=0. 2 we obtain . we see that In general. .. Dividing by 2y l9 we get 2 (l* )>>2*yi2=0 which is (1)... it is not valid to derive any conclusion from (5) and (6) for x=0..(6) >>i(0)^0. . y.x*) y* = (2 sin. we obtain n( (1^+2+^+1 or (2x)+ ~^y(2)xy ni . 6 . we obtain JWOHa^CO).. which is the case when x=0. Thus.. so that lim ^t and will therefore be always continuous except for and lim ^==^(0). . . l ny n .. Note.. We can x= Exercises 1..1 x)* 2 = 4y.(3) Differentiating again. This may be shown as follows : easily convince ourselves that the derivative of every order of y x 2 ) in its denominator as calculated from (2) will contain some power of (1 1 . From From (2).U.T. (0) /P5> 3. ..6 2 (~2) 2 . (7) Putting H=l. x=0 (M. ) If 1 j>=sin (m sin" x). putting w=2. 1=0. in (6). we get ) 2(lx ^22x^=4^.2 '4 ? . when w . 3.=(2n f IkVnn+V'"')*.. 7 successively in we see that Again.(0) = 2. (P.. (4). (6).(4) Differentiating this n times by Leibnitz's theorem. If u~ tan~ x x. + . 5. The result (5). Find y n when j>=*log [x+ 4(\ { x')]. prove that and hence determine the values of the derivatives of u when 2. if n is even.SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION . >> n (0) = 2. l* Putting x=0. 4. and find yn (0). 125 (1 . obtained on dividing (4) by 2y t is not a legitimateconclusion when ^t=0. show that (1 x')*. as x0.
1953) 1 .c) sin AJC. y=*(ABx) cos .../. Find the third differential coefficient of :5. y n =(a sec n aa! sin ^) ^ Also show that If 3. find If yn (Q). the th differential coefficient of e ax sin bx and n" 1 prove that . Show that __ 23 . If ^(sinh.36^0 then 2. 6.c+(C4/>.U. (Lucknow) 7. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS It y=lx+4(I +**)]". Prove that where P and Q stand for and respectively.) j ' 8.126 4.U.1 *) prove that Hence find at x=0 the value of dnyfdx n . Show that if =sin wx+cos nx then y w r =^[lf(~lKsin2x] i when Wr denotes tht rth differential coelficient of u with respect to x. 5. nx^MilXfl f t 2)jt 4 . Show that if l . Hons. __ n (P. COS"" 1* ys~JM *how that (1 *nd find yn (0). x^+iVn + ^xyn^W+m^y^O (/).. prove that 4.1952) Exercises 1.. If >>n 'denotes (bja). (B.. Prove 'that 6.
. ?( *r*Ji If y=x*e x . Hons. 1. 1949) Rewriting this relation as Jn_ /j ! Ini . then dn where n is ^=(l) 11. (0<0 <n).y satisfies the Legendre's equation 13. r JL n and replacing 12. any positive integer. 2. prove that Wn+t + 14. P. //ow5. 3. (x*l)y n +t+2xy n + l n(n+ l)^ n Hence show that ..) . If U n denotes the nth derivative of (LxtM)l(x*2Bx+C). If y= d n U 2 l) n. D.. we get the required result. Trinity College Prove that if fi .(/. 127 Find the value of nth derivative of U for jx*^x 2 a 4) ( x0.U. 1949 . then z.U.t=cot 0. 1958 Sept. If prove that (D. ~(/ii) ____ .EXERCISES 9.1 (l) ! sin nO sin*0 . 7955) 15. by . show that 0./.. and Pass. If Prove that IifIni+(l) and hence show that ! (D.I/. n. 10. P.
U.(m2n). . (B. If x4y==l. y=sin (m cos" Vx) then 1 22. show that . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS If . If x=^ tan (log y). . Prove that sin .l)2n ^ n . prove where > w denotes the wth derivative of y. 2 2 73 2 ^"f "Of!? th derivative of the product an with the [Equate the nth derivative of x of x n and x n and put x=l]. } 18.) 23. prove that / (D. 19. If w(ml)'w~2). prove that 1 + "!+ is 723 + i* . ^ n(0)=Oand^ 2n+1(0)(l) 21. then Deduce that (Birmingham} 17.U. show >W (0) 4n>>2n(0) + (2. 24.l950\M.' (tan" 1 *)*.U. prove that (1 +*)+ __ y (2n X l)% +(!) that !>=(>.(0) =0.U. 7959) If 2 x y=*e* cos x. Hons it 1947 that 2 : P. I m +y __ _ m =2x. 20.U.Hons. If y =(l+ x rf m gin (m tan" 1^). / By forming in two different 8 ways the nth derivative of* ". (D.128 16.
. show that ().__ prove that Where 9=tan ^ Ifw= 26.EXERCISES 25. If 129 jf=s~. (7.
b]. Let /(c) be different from them. b] is.. When M and m are unequal.CHAPTER VI GENERAL THEOREMS MEAN VALUE THEOREMS Introduction. p. ofx Rollers Theorem. and also f(a) ~f(b). b]. it has a greatest value and a least value in in the interval. in the interval [a. M^m. f'(x) is true in this case. . Of these Rollers theorem is the most fundamental. The number 'c' bsing different from a and 6. (i) . as in case [a. derivable for The function /(x) which is derivable x~c. 76).(//) When case (/). general theorems which will play a very important part in the following chapters will be obtained in this chapter.. log x etc. (353.. f(b).. the greatest value coincides with the least value as in the function reduces to a constant so that the derivative for every value of x and therefore the theorem is equal to (//).. // a function f(x) is derivable least in an (a. By now. b] is con4*14. M ( Now or either M~w. b] such thatf'(c)=Q. so that Hra in the interval [a. in /(c+/t)/(c) wh0nA _. exists and is the sani3 is when h > through positive or negative values/ As/(c) the greatest value of the function. 55) so that there are two numbers c and d such that The function f(x) being derivable tinuous. must be different M lies within the interval particular. 130 . Some Merval 'c' y M &1. then there exists at one value lying within [a. at least one of them from the equal values /(a). The theorems applicable to a class of functions are known as general theorems. p. Thus . the student must have leanrt to distinguish between theorems applicable to a class of functions and those concerning some particular functions like sin x.(I. we have f(c+h)<f(c) whatever positive or negative value h has. . By virtue of continuity.
B. 44. In view of this fact. then. It will be seen that the point where the derivative has been to vanish lies strictly within the interval [a. is This intuitive consideration proof of the theorem. /()=/<. the tangent at which is parallel to xaxis. the theorem is generally stated V shown as follows : If a function f(x) \ . If a curve has a tangent at every point thereof. B M Fig. such thatf'(c)~Q . also sometimes regarded to be "a Note 1. Hence the theorem Geometrical Statement of the theorem. so that it coincides neither with a nor with b. b).. The same conclusion would be Beast value similarly reached if it is the m which differs is from /(a) and/(6).(2) through positive values.. f'(c) (2). b]. and the ordinates extremities A. we get . is such that [a. both be true if. . b).(3) Let h + through negative values. proved. B are equal. .GENERAL THEOREMS 131 and f(c+h)f(c) Let h * >0for h<0. 6].. its P In this geometrical form the theorem is quite selfevident. "X Fig. there exists at least one point V of the open interval (a.. 43. From From (1). It is * continuous in the closed interval 2. then there exists at least one point of of the curve other than A. The relations (3) and (4) will and only if /'(c)=0.we get . It is derivable in the open interval (a..(4) >0. 3. as the student may himself realise by drawing some curves satisfying the conditions of the statement.
  The Fig. which is a point of the interval. The conclusion of Rolle's theorem may not hold good for a function which does not satisfy any of its conditions. Also directly we see that the derivative 2x vanishes for lies within [1. for which /'(x) consideration. verification. Also. (ii) ' [3. the derivative must vanish for at least one value of x lying within [1. for 1^ x < 0. 1] and /(I). Jis is zero. n being positive integer*. are both equal to Its derivative/ (x) is 1 for 1. Verify Rolle's theorem in the interval [a. Ex. . 7 [ 1. To illustrate this remark. () (x 0)*(x 6)* m.c so that /(!)=! =/(~l). 1]. f'(x) The conditions of the theorem being satisfied. 45. Verify Rolle's theorem for in (i) x2 [7. 2. 0]. in as much as the derivative does not exist for jc=0. 0] under x x. Hence the . 2. 1]. /( 1) li lt is continuous in 1. 0]* We have * Putting/ (A:)=0. 2. 73> jc=0. . 1]. so that/'(x) nowhere vanishes. ~%r ^ failure is explained by the fact that x is not derivable in [ 1.1]. 1. we get This equation satisfied by x== Of these two values of 2.c)=. 3. we consider the function >>=/(*)= x the interval  \ m [1. x1 is derivable in [ 1.3) =0 = *nd/(x) is derivable in the interval [3. belongs to the interval [ '3. and 0<z<l and does not exist for (Ex. b] for the functions (0 log[(x+*&)/(<i+&)K]. Hence the Ex. (ii) which value x=O Let We have /(. (0 Let 2 /(.verification.132 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Note 2. p. 1].
b] a write 6 a = h so that h denotes the length written as which may now be The number. Lagrange's mean value theorem. c. jc 4. so that we may write % is a+h]. b] and its derivative is Thus. . by at least one value of x lying between show that the equation 1 and 2. is derivable in an interval [a. 9 6*2. b]. b] such that f(b)f(a) " ba _  1 (C) ' To prove the theorem. 5w/4]. (0 Another form of the statement of Lagrange's mean value theorem. . Q = <e>(c)=f'(c)+A. A = f(c). [a. b] such that f'(c)=0. /(x) constant. then there exists at least one value c of x lying within [a. at least one value the conditions of Rolle's theorem. lying within [a. Also x is derivable and. greater than where becomes some number between and 1. .. where A is a constant to be determined such that Thus ~ Now. A. of the interval is We Ja. log x2 x By considering the function (x2) is satisfied log x. There 'c' of x. <p(x)t satisfies all therefore. we define a new function <p(x) involving and designed so as to satisfy the conditions of Rolle's theorem. there exists at and 1 such that least one number '#' lying between + h)=f(a)+hf(a+0h).. between a and [a.. Ex. is ba derivable in <?(x). which lies a\h by some fraction of A. (/) 133 Verify Rolle's theorem for the functions sin x/e x in [0. is. b]. (//) e x (sin xcos x) in [w/4. is a derivable in [a. a +h]. f(x) Let V(x)=f(x)+Ax. is Therefore. If a function f(x) is derivable in the interval [a. i. Thus the equation (i) or f(afh)=f(a)+hf'(a+0h).GENERAL THEOREMS Ex. *] .e. JWz> If a function f(x) f(a =f (c) . 3.
for instance. Fig. AB= f(b)f(a) L b a  V  Pbe the point (c. being such that ^>M=/'(c). In particular. Note 1. 47.(01 From we see that the AB are equal. then the curve y=f(x) has ar tangent at each point of the curve lying between the extremities The Let slope r of the chord . Thus there exists a point the chord AB. b].Thus the theorem states that the average rate of change of a function over an interval is also the actual rate of change of the function at some point of the interval.f(c)) on the curve .r. velocity being rate of change of distance w.134 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Geometrical statement of the theorem.. 46. This interpretation of the theorem justifies the name 'Mean Value' for the theorem. 01 Fig. Now [f(b)f(a)] is the change in the function /(x) as x changes from a to b so that [f(b)f(a)]l(ab) is the average rate of change of the we Note 2. is theorem* almost . as stated in the geometrical form. . the average velocity over any interval of time is equal to the actual velocity at some instant belonging to the interval . (i7). slopes of the tangent at P and thex P on the curve the tangent at which is parallel to function f(x) over the interval [a. will now see the equivalence of the analytical cal statements. We and geometri Iff(x) is derivable in [a. If we draw some curves satisfying the conditions of the will realise that the theorem. Also/'(c) is the actual rate of change of the function for x=c. The chord slope of the tangent at P~f'(c). c.. If a curve has a tangent at each of its points. to time. then there exists at least one point P on the curve such that the tangent at P is parallel to the chord AB joining its extremities. b].
[a.GENERAL THEOREMS Ex. 6]. lx*+mx+nin 3.1=6.. 1} Ex.. cases : a=0. Ex. .l)(x2) Ex. Verify the [1. a0. Ex. mean ..<1. (D. D. b]. (x4) /(*)=*.. Hons.l: // 135 f(x)=(xl)(x2)(x3) find the value .~a Also = 12 4 ~6 ' Consider now the equation i. e].e. if /\x)=x(x. f(b)f(a) 7. (//) < 1 log ~e " ] ~ . 6=4. Find 'c' so that / / (c)=[/(/))~/(fl)]/(6~a) in fl=2. 6. (i) (ii7) may see that both these values of c' 2. Deduce Jhat (0 0<[log (1 +*)]**'<! . in turn to the funcdeteimine the corresponding values of in terms of a and h. Ex. Find 'c' of the mean value theorem. 3c 2 12c+8=0 or Taking \/3 = 1*732. f(a)=f(Q) = 6. x and ex .U.2. Hons. Explain the failure of the theorem in the interval [1. when .U. value theorem for (//) log x in x3 in [a. &=*. Applying Lagrange's mean value theorem. . a=0. 6=1. 6=3. 3=3c 2 12c+ll. 4]. 1954) We have /(6)=/(4)=3. 1951) the following 4. ( of c. tions log 5. we belong to the interval [0.
Hence proved f(x) is a decreasing function of x. This zero/' is all values of x in an is the converse of the theorem. i. We write Hence.. From JOT. 632. derivable in an interval [a.. We have thus "A function interval is whose derivative is positive for every value ofx in an a monotonkally increasing function ofx in that interval. We have thus whose derivative is negative for every value of x in an a monotonically decreasing function of x in that interval." Letf'(x) (/). . thus prove : "If the derivative of a function vanishes for interval. 633. 631. Let xv x2 be any two points belonging to the interval such that x^>xv Applying the mean value theorem to the interval [xly xj.. Letf(x)>0for From (i). *!*! : Hence proved and/' () are both positive.136 63. The above conclusions remain valid even if/'(x) vanishes at the *n4 points a. b]. Thus we see that every two We values of the function are equal.e. * of the interval. for the V of the mean value theorem never "A function interval is . b] then they differ only by a constant. Letf(x)0 (/) From we get where xl9 x 2 are any two values of x. <Qfor every value ofx in [a. f(x) is an increasing function of x. we see that there exists a number Some We between xl and X2 such that ' f^ftoHfvXi)*'^ throughout the interval [a. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Meaning of important deductions from the mean Value theorem. b]. "Derivative of a constant Cor." Note. for. ^(x). &]. Hence f(x) is a constant. we get X2 : Xi is positive and/'() negative. we get every value ofx in [a. If two functions f(x) and F(x) have the same derivative for every value ofx in [a. b]. then the function must be a constant. consider a function /(x) the sign of Derivative. f(x)F(x) is a constant.
If two functions f(x) and F(x) are derivable in an interval [a. [F(b) F(a)]^0 for if it were 0. F(x) A is a constant to be determined such that f (* = Thus f(a) + AF(a)=f(b)AF[b). hypothesis that F (x) is never r we note that Now. the conditions of Rolle's theorem. a constant. at least one value. in an interval [a.GENERAL THEOREMS 137 6'4. f(x) <f(x) is and F(x) are derivable in [a. then there exists at least one number 6 between such that The equivalence of the two statements can be easily seen as in the case of Lagrange's mean value theorem. f(x) satisfies is. we and designed so as Let where define a new function <p(x) involving f(x) and to satisfy the conditions of Rolle's theorem. c. b] and F'(x)^Qfor any value ofx in [a. then would satisfy the conditions of the Rolle's theorem and its deriF(x) vative would therefore vanish for at least one value of x and the would be contradicted. There therefore. . or f'(c)=AF'(c). f(c)=0. Cauchy's mean value theorem. a+h] and and 1. Another form of the statement of Cauchy's mean value theorem. of :c lying within [a. F'(x)^0. b]. then there exists at least one value 'c' ofx lying within [a. Now. such that f(b)f(a) f'(c) F(a)^ F'(c) : Firstly. Therefore. b] such that Thus. Dividing by F'(c ) which^fO. b]. b]. we get _ F'(c) ~F(b)F(a) Hence the theorem. If two functions f(x) and F(x) are derivable. Also A is derivable in [a. b] and its derivative is f(x)+AF'(x).
F(x) x is the arithe. If. . 2) positive in the interval ( negative in the interval (2. 1. Ex. we write for/Yx). Verify the theorem for the functions x* and x* in the interval b being positive. .138 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Note. x>3 = for x=2 /'(*) . 1. F(x).x show that in each case (i) **. Examples w monotonically increasing in every interval. . in the Cauchy's mean value theorem. . 2. we note the following additional points Hence /(x) is the intervals oo . oo) and monotoni( cally decreasing in the interval [2. If. value theorem. To draw the graph of the function. c. Ex. /'(*)<0for2<x<3 /'(*)>0for () . Also draw a graph of the function. : (iii) /(0)=2. and (3. cos x (///) e metic mean between a and b. oo ) and monotonically increasing in 2] [3. 48. V . we write for f(x). is oo . a. 3). Let Thus f'(x) >0 for every value of x except 1 where Hence f(x) is monotonically increasing in every interval. Taking F(*)=jc. we only a particular case of Cauchy's. and 3. is V* and 1/Vx respectively then. Separate the intervals in which the polynomial is increasing or decreasing. in the Cauchy's Ijjc mean c. it vanishes. Let so that for x<2 . 6*5. is and if we write l/x 2 and then. and the geometric mean between a and b> the harmonic mean between a and . b] may easily see that Lagrange's theorem is Ex. 2. . 3. x (ii) sin *. . [a. /(#)> < (iv) as oo (v) Fig. 3].
* + l) increasing or decreasing. (i) Show that x/sin x increases steadily from x=0 to x=n/2. Show of values of x.% Jw. ( (P*U. [0.J7. 3. so 0. Hence /(x) that positive for every positive value of x. Show write that */(!+*) < log (1+x) < xfor x > 0. We 1 Thus Also /'(x) is > for x > and =0 for x=0. is Separate the intervals in which the function (*+*+!) /(*. /(*) > /(O) =0 /(0) is for x > 0. 4. monotonically increasing the interval AlsoF(0)=0. Exercises 1. F(x) is > > for x > 2 and is for #=0. is increasing: . x/(l+x) for x log (1+*) > > Again. or decreasing. in Therefore F(x) oo]. 5. that x~sin x is an increasing function throughout any Determine for what values of a axsin x is a steadily intervals in which the function 4 interval increas (M. F(x) F(0)=0forz log (1+Jt) for > x 0. Determine the intervals in which the function (4x 8 ) 8 Also draw its graph. 7952) O'v) *>2 ^ < tan" 1 x < y 2. ing function.) Determine the (x + 6jcH 17x a + 32x+ 32)** is increasing or decreasing. we write BO that F'(jc)==l / Thus. (ii) (//i) x/tan x decreases monotonically from x=0 to jc=n/2. [0. Hence f(x) monotonically increasing in the interval = 0. QO ]. Hence F(x) is positive for positive values of x.GENERAL THEOREMS 3. Jn). so that x > > 0.{/. the equation tan x x=6 has one and only one root in tan (.
x5 12. a+h]..140 6. Show that tan^c x x 14. DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS Find the greatest and least values of the function x 8 9x 2 f24xin[0. . 1953) 9. (a+h)2f(a)+f(ah where < t < 1.. [a. // a function f(x) possesses * to a certain or^er n f r every value f'(x)>f"( x )'f'"( x )> . prove that where <^< fl 1 . Show that sin x lies between x9 . such that 66.. /"(*)> UP x in the interval. $. c+h]. If < x < 1. 7957) 13.. and negative for every value of x in [c. Show x 10. then there exists at least one number 0. Show that x1 > logx> and for 15.T. c+h] . show that Hence taking * =2/1 + W 1' > rdcduce that 5. Show Show (/) that x 1 log (i f x) decreases as x increases from to o .. (!+)< xthat *. c]. (jcl)x 1 .*< lo. sm ifo<x< jc . * l\ < x  (//) + < log d+x) < x1 (B. 1xand 1x + Jx 2 11. a+h].) derivable in the interval [ah. b the greatest value of the function in the interval [ch.U. (M. 7. Prove that e~ x lies between . that if x > 0. 6]. between and 7. * of Higher mean value theorem or Taylor's development the derivatives function in a finite form. The derivative of a function /(x) is positive for every value of x in an 16 show that /(c) interval [cA. < log(lx) < x (1 x) for < 1. . jc~l x If /(x) is > 2xlogx > 4 (xl)2 log* > 1.
........ fn (x) designed so f'( ... af^]. at least one number 6 between the conditions for Rolle's theorem. There and 1 such that . (a+Ax) /2 !. it is given that/(x).. (a+hx)"ln I are derivable in [a..Also f'(x)=f(x)f'(x)+(a+hx)f*(x)(a+hx)f'(x) ether terms cancelling in pairs. Let ^ .. .. Thus <p(x) satisfies all exists.... f'(x). . Therefore <t(x) is derivable in [a. a+hx... a+h]..i * where A is a constant to be determined such that Thus we get A from the equation  A Now.. therefore... fn ~\x) are derivable in the interval [a. . involving /(x) and its drivatives as to satisfy the conditions for Rollers theorem.f"(x) . a+h].. 2 Also. .TAYLOB'S THEOREMS f(a + 141 h)=f(a)+hf'(a)+* f" (a)+ f We define a new function 9(x) x )>f"(x).
x] so that we change a to and h to x in (//). . . .f"(x).142 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS f"(a+6h)=A . Taking /?=! we see that Lagrange's mean value theorem is only a particular case of the Taylor's development obtained here..... Note. we get f(a+h)f(a)+hf\a)+~f''(a)+ . Instead of considering the interval [a.. Maclaurin's development.. for (1 Substituting this value of A in (i).. [0. Cor.. ' ' . The formula [0.... Taylor's development of a function with Caiichy's form of If a function f(x) possesses the derivatives /'(*)> f"( x ) .. then there exists between and 1 such that at least one number remainder... fn (x) up to ft certain order n in the interval [a. + ^ The (+l)th term Lagrange's form of remainder after n terms in the Taylor's expansion of/(0f7z) in ascending integral powers of //../(*) in the Mervai f . a+h].. We get is called ' . 67. x] in (HI) is known as Maclaurin's development of /(x) in the finite* form with Lagrange's form of remainder... x]. a +/*]. we now consider the interval [0.7 2 +_ /)i 1) r /i (a) We define a ftew function f(x) as follows f(x)=/(x)f (a+hx)f(x) where A is a constant to be determined such that ..(//I) which holds when the function f(x) possesses the derivatives f'(x).
. /"(*). (x) in [0. we get h* The (+l)th term is called Cauchy's form of remainder after n terms in the expansion of f(a+h) in ascending integral powers of h.TAYLOR'S THEOREMS Thus. y'(x)~ other terms cancelling in pairs. Show that . Changing a to and h to jc in we get which [0. . a+h]. Maclaurin's development. . A in . is known as Maclauriris development off(x) in the interval with Cauchy's form of remainder after n terms.. Hence <p(x) satisfies there exists at least one number the conditions for Rolle's theorem so that between and 1 such that Now. we get 143 A from the equation h n ~i f It is easy to see that v(x) is derivable in [a.A Substituting this value of .. x]. (/). Cor.. 1.. f . o=?'(a+0/o= hn '1 rii)'i f n ( a + 6h ). ^derivatives /'(*). (//). . It holds when x] n f(x) possesses Ex.
. p. 2. Find. the first four terms and the remainder after n terms of the expression of e ax cos bx in terms of the ascending powers of x. 3. 4. we obtain the result. for every value of JC x ~ X*** 1 3 5 JC 8 "2~! + X^ 4! Ex.144 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Substituting these values in (Hi) ( 6*7. Show JC that. by Maclaurin's theorem. Show that Ex. Ex. 142).
side... 2 =2x[log (l+x)] 2 log (l+x). proceed to determine the second 145 .U.. or fn (a+eh)f (a)= n h +l f<*\a+e'h).. vative. (D. We. [log 1 + x)]. [log +x) (l+x)](l+x). ( + x)]*for x>0. The form of /'(*) is such that we cannot immediately 2 decide deri as to its sign. therefore. + nl fn \ These give * hn  /(+*)=n hn .. f n ()+ ./"(+'*). 0=^. (n+l) . lim 2. [log (l 1 Show that x*>(l+x) We .APPENDIX Examples Show that the number 6 which occurs in the Taylor's theorem 1. with Lagrange's form of remainder after n terms approaches the limit n+1 (x) is continuous and ll(n\J)ash approaches zero provided that f different from zero at x=a. Applying Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem to the lefthand we have 1 f '/" + n +i Let h > 0. put f(x) = x*  ( /'(x)=2xl. Hons. 1950) (rtf1) Applying Taylor's Theorem with remainders after n terms and terms successively. we obtain f(a+h)=f(a)+hf'(a) + ..
 2 ].(5) . exist numbers 19 % belonging to the two intervals respectively. (2). 3. we obtain . /'(*) Also i"3 monotonically increasing in the interval [0. then + *(*. 139) ). f [*(*!+*)]< tt*(*i) 2 for x>0.. If <p"(x)>Q for every value of x. Also /(0)=0 Therefore f(x)>0 Hence for x>0. and x z We write Applying Lagrange's mean value theorem to the function X 2 ] we see that there for the intervals [x l9 (x l 2 )/2] and [(x 1 2 )/2. Therefore f'(x)>Qforx>0.146 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS /"(x)=22 log (l+x). x>(l+x)[log (1+*)] 3. . we obtain Applying the mean value theorem to the function 9' (x) for the interval [^. for 'every pair of values of x1 Suppose that xa >xt . which is ' >0 for x>Q. oo /'(0)=0.)].l/(l + x)2/(l+x) (See Ex. . Hence f(x) is monotonically increasing in the interval [0. p. (3). we see that there exists a numer y such that From (4) 9'(&)9'(4i)=(!tSi)9"(*)and (6). such +x +x that and [f K*i+*i)^(*i)] = [K*i+^) *i]^ (i)=l(*i^'(&) f (3) Thus from (1). oo).
7. f(b) Deduce Lagrange's and Cauchy's mean value theorems. 3.] 2. b^n. B such that Now apply Rollers Theorem 4. Show that *0M which 'A' occurs in the Lagrange's 0. 1953) in [a. .] ^^*^^ 5. we obtain the Exercises 1. 1952) (a. to the intervals [a. b] 9 Assuming f"(x) continuous show that where c both lie in [a. approaches the limit i as [It approaches provided that/ (a) (P. (m) (iv) /W=Uc) 3 c 3 when a=0 and 6=2c .(/.U. *how /(*) 9(*) an(* ^U) ar e three functions derivable in an interval such that that there exists a point b) . c] and [c. 6.U. Hons. 1949 is not zero. derivative /"(*) of a function f(x) is continuous for anc^ at eac^ P^ nt x tlle s *8ns of /(x) and /"(jc) are the same.U. Prove that lim / if / 7/ (jc) exists. i 147 ft ll an(* ? "(?) are positive. Prove that The second if f(x) vanishes at points c and d. and (Take <v(x)^f(x)+Ax+ Bx* and determine /4. (C. value theorem) is ). 1949) should also be assumed that f"(x) not continuous. between c and d. where lies and prove that lim 0=J. H+Q specifying the necessary conditions. 6]. where a<^c<d<^b. Hons.APPENDIX Since Jta xl9  2 required result. Show that /(a+/0=/(aH between and 1 V W+4* / / i // (fl+ 0/0. then it vanishes everywhere (B. Discuss the applicability of Rolle's (/) Theorem when /U)tan x and a=0. 6]. mean 7 ' .
again. 148 . i. and S. To be more definite and to avoid the vague words 'Some neighbourhood'. 8 c c+8 f(c) > f(c+h). c+S) around c such that for all values ofx.e. assumed that/(x) possesses continuous derivatives of order that come in question. is This. and 8.e.. Then we say that/(c) is a maximum value of /(*). we say that f(c) is a maximum value of the function. if i. other than c. The term extreme value is used both for a maximum as well as for a minimum value. c _ f(C) is a maximum 8 equivalent to saying that value of /(. every It will be % Maximum value of a function.J(c+h)f(c) 8 > for values ofh lying between small in numerical value.. so that /(c) is an extreme value if f(c+h) f(c) keeps an invariable sign for values ofh sufficiently small numerically.e.c). A knowledge of these values of a function is of great help in drawing its graph and in determining its greatest and least values in any given finite interval. Minimum if it is of /(#). for values of h sufficiently value of a function. of Calculus for determining the values of a function which are greatest or least in their immediate neighbourhood technically known as Maximum and Minimum values.. be any interior point of the interval of definition of a function /(x). i. i.e. f(c+h)f(c) < for values ofh lying between small in numerical value. c. for values of h sufficiently Note 1. if it is the greatest of all its values for values of x lying in some neighbourhood of c. /(c) is said to be a minimum value the least of all its values for values of x lying in some neighbourhood of c.CHAPTER VII MAXIMA AND MINIMA GREATEST AND LEAST VALUES In this chapter we shall be concerned with the application 7'1. if there exists some interval (c8. lying in this interval. Let. This is equivalent to saying that f(c) is a minimum value off(x) if there exists a positive 8 such that f(c) <f(c+h).
. Cor. if and /'(c)=o. we have Here. Thus. In fact a function can have several maximum and minimum values and a minimum value can even be greater than a we compare /(c) with While ascertaining whether any value /(c) maximum value. we obtain from /'(c)<0. 149 not. . the ordinates of P4 which is minimum is greater than the ordinate of P x whi:h a maximum. shows that the ordinates of points P 19 P3 P5 are the maximum and the ordinates of the points P2 P4 are the minimum values of f(x) and that Fig.. graph of f(x) . condition for f(c) to be an extreme value off(x) is that necessary Let f(c) be a c\h is A maximum value of f(x)< if. (0 If h tends to through positive values. be positive or negative. is an extreme value or the values of the function for values of x in any immediate neighbourhood of c. 72. h may /(c+/0</(c). Greatest and least values of a function in any interval. a maximum value may not be the greatest and a minimum value may not be the least of all the values of the function in any finite interval. andf(b). is To prove that a necessary condition for extreme values.. It can similarly be shown that /'(c)=0. /'(c)>0. (/). (iv) The only if relations (in) and (/v) will simultaneously be true. if /(c) is minimum value of f(x). 49. Thus . so that the values of the function outside the neighbourhood do not come into question at all. or are given by the values of The greatest and least value of a function are also its extreme values in case they are attained at a point strictly within the interval so that the derivative must be zero at the corresponding point. ... such that.(Hi) If A tends to through negative values. at the adjoining A glance . we obtain from (). The either f(a) greatest and least values off(x) in any interval [a. c+8). There exists an interval (c S. The theorem now easily follows. around c. '^<0iffc>0. b] are x for w/i/c/i/'(x)=0. belonging to this interval.MAXIMA AND MINIMA Note 2. any number.
[0. and for values of x less than 0. 1. To see this. Change of Sign. Note 3. therefore. The term stationary arises from the fact that the rate of change /'(#) of the function f(x) with respect to x is zero for a value of x for which 9 . 1 x= and Now Also Thus the least value Ex. f(x) ia greater than/(0) which is less than/(0). Find the greatest and least values of in the interval [0. A function f(x) is said to be stationary f(x) is stationary. i e. The value J./(x) is positive and is. . the theorem appears . 2. A function is said to change sign from to negative as x passes through a number c. c+h) of c for every point of which the Def unction is negative. : extreme values obtained above states "Tangent or the necessary condition to a curve at a where the ordinate point xaxis.] The vanishing off (c) is only a necessary but not sufficient condition for f(x) to be an extreme value. Find the greatest and of in the interval [2. is 1 and the greatest value least values is 21.150 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Note for 1. For value of x greater than 0. therefore. c) of c for every point of which the function is positive. if /'(c) = then f(c) is said to be a stationary or a turning value of f(x). almost selfevident. and also there exists some rightfhanded neighbourhood (c. It will be Ex. [Refer Fig. Thus/(0) is not an extreme value even though /'(0)=0. 5]. also for x^cif the derivative f (x) vanishes for x=c. . not. we consider the function /(Jc)==x 3 for x=Q. 2. 2J. if there exists positive some lefthanded neighbourhood (c ft. negative and is. 2] does not belong to the interval to be considered. 149. noted that a maximum or a minimum value is also a stationary value but a stationary value may neither be a maximum nor a minimum value. Let Thus /'(*)=0forx=l." P is a maximum minimum is parallel to When Note stated in this geometrical form. Geometrically interpreted. 1. therefore. Stationary value. 48 p.
Case I. 2. negative to positive as x passes through 4 and 1 and from 72. Let f'(x) change sign from negative to positive as c.. /(c) is a minimum value of /(x). f'(x) righthanded neighbourhood. the ordinate of P is neither a maximum nor a minimum. by def. In some righthanded neighbourhood of so f(x) is p. To prove that f(c) is an extreme value off(x) if and only iff'(x) changes sign as x passes through c. Let f(x) change sign frcm positive to negative as x c. passes through In some lefthanded neighbourhood of c. in a certain complete neighbourhood of c and so. as x passes through c".l)Cx~3) <?(x) changes sign from positive to negative as x passes through 4 and from negative to positive as x passes through 2 or 3 . i. . monotonically increasing Therefore /(c) is the greatest of is in this all negative and neighbourhood ( 6*33.f'(x) is positive and so /(x)is monotonically increasing in his neighbourhood. If /'(x) does not change sign. It is clear that if a continuous function /(x) changes sign as passes through c then we must have/(c)=0. 136). the greatest of all the values of /(x) in a certain value complete neighbourhood of c and so. Case II. (6*32. has the same sign in a certain complete neighbourhood of c> then /(x) is either monothis tonically increasing or monotonically decreasing throughout so that/(c) is not an extreme value of/(x). Show that the function y x = (x + 2)(xm2x. by def.. Show that the function changes sign from positive to negative as x passes through . neighbourhood Note.e. and to show that f(c) is a maximum value if the sign changes from positive to negative and a minimum value in the contrary case. Geometrically interpreted. the values off(x) in this c. also show that it does not change sign as x passes through 1.* and 2. 136). Sufficient criteria for extreme values. Therefore /(c) is the greatest of all the values of /(x) in this is left handed neighbourhood. the theorem states that the tangent to a curve at every point in a certain left handed neighbourhood of the point P whose ordinate is a maximum (minimum) makes an acute angle (obtuse angle) and the tangent at any point in a certain righthanded neighbourhood of P makreJJ an obtuse angle (acute angle) with xaxis. x passes through the least of all the values of /(x). f(c) is a maximum Hence f(c) of/(x). In case. It can similarly be shown that in this case/(c) is Case III. 1.MAXIMA AND MINIMA 151 A similar the statement "A meaning with obvious alterations can be assigned to function changes sign from negative to positive.. the tangent on either suit of r makes an acute angle (or obtuse angle). Ex. p. Ex.
/'W>0 .t)=0 for x=0 and x=2 values of f(x) for #=0 and 2 only. for / (x)<0. 2. passes through 2. 3 only. Find the extreme values of and distinguish between them. 2. 3. since f'(x) changes sign from negative to positive as 100 is a minimum value. forO<x<2 forx>2 3 /'(x)<0. so that Here. . forx>3. f'(x) changes sign 7 is a maximum value. . therefore /(2) x = Ex. for* <1. from positive to negative as Again since. Also. forx<0. /'(*)> 0. /(x) can have extreme values for *==!. Therefore. for2<x<3. /'(. I. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Examine the polynomial 10x6 for 24x 5 +15x 4 ~4Qx 8 +108 values. 50 therefore /(l)8 and/(3)=8 Since /'(x) changes sign from negative to positive as x passes through 1 and 3. pig. maximum and minimum Let t 2) =60x*(x +l)(x2) Thus.152 Ex./'(*) does not change sign as x passes through /(O) isjieither a maximum nor a minimum value. /'(*)<<>. Let 24 / so that /(x)=0 for x=l. therefore. are the two minimum values. 2 so that we expect extreme Now. Now. 2. x 1<*<2.fl2) passes through 2.
of the first (D. 153 Find the extreme values of 5*+18.MAXIMA AND MINIMA Ex.e. p. . a minimum jc 8 value when x=3 and neither when *=0. 54) ( Let point of ft c+h th''s be any point of this interval. The derivatives order only have so far been employed for determining and As shown distinguishing between the extreme values of a function. Ex. that come in question. find its 2]. the same thing can sometimes be done more conveniently by employing derivatives of the second and higher orders.f(c)<f(c+h).. 3. is also and accordingly /"(C +M) positive. in the present article. in the neighbourhood of the point c.c 2 +l is maximum when x= Also.1/9 respectively. is positive for X c. f(c+h)f(c) is positive. 4. there exists an for every point of which the second derivative is 351. positive.c4 +35. Theorem 1. 5. . and least values in the intervals [2/3. interval Then. a Also a /2 ! is positive. i. greatest and [2. c.c 5 +15. point/ +A. Show that the maximum and minimum values of are 9 and . Show value that has a maximum 74. Ex.c3 l when x = l. we get f(c+h)^f(c)+hf'(c)+ r(c+0ji) . 2/3 and minimum when x=0. All along this discussion it will be assumed that f(x) possesses continuous derivatives of every order.c 8 fl5.Thus we Hence /(c) is a minimum value of/(x). Ex. 7*41.U. 1948) Use of derivatives of second and higher orders. 6. 5x+5. is c+6 2 h. 0]. As the value f"(c) of f(x) interval around.c*10. Applying Taylor's theorem with remainder after two terms. Show that 9x5 +30. f(c) is a minimum value off(x) if y f'(c)=0andf"(c)>0. see that there exists an interval around c for every of which.
iff (c)<0 and n is even neither a maximum nor a minimum value ifn is odd. f(c +h)f(c) = Asf"(c) is negative. .f(c)>f(c+h) . f(c) is a maximum value off(x) 9 if As in theorem 1.. as in the preceding cases we have the criteria as stated. Hence /(c) 743. preceding case. h n \n or negative and when nis odd. fn (c + 9 n h) has the is positive.. i. there exists an interval around c for every point the nth derivative fn (x) has the same sign. The result proved in 7*41 and 7*42 is only a particular case of the general criteria established in^ 7*43 above. whether. cfA. there exists an interval around c for every Thus as in the point of which the second derivative is negative. c for every point. Hence.*.154 742. there exists an interval around c+h of which /(c+/0/(c). iffn (c)>Q and n n is even . is negative. i'. General Criteria. viz. h n \n !. x of which Thus sign of f n (c). n h). DIEFERENTIAL CALCULUS Theorem 2. be positive Also when n is even. h. ! . is a maximum value of/(x). Note. we so that because of the given conditions. As/n (c) ?^0. () a maximum value of(x). Let Thenf(c)is (i) a minimum value off(x). we have by Taylor's theorem.. changes sign with the change in the sign of h. that of for every point.e. (iii) . of this interval. Applying Taylor's theorem with remainder after n terms.
df^/rf^^sin which is x4 (12 sin 2 x) = 15/4 negative. f'"(l) = l20 which is not zero. 2  and ^ J j 1 and TT sin* 1 J. is 2 /'"(*)= 480x 360x. the function Investigate for 'maximum sin JC+cos and minimum values Let dy fdx = cos Putting x+cos 2x.MAXIMA AND MINIMA Examples 1.. neither a maximum 2jc. 3 4 /'(x) = 40x 60x +20x =20x(2x 3 ~3x* + l) Hence Again 20x(xl) (2x+l). . we have to examine / (1). d 2y/dx 2 = 5 which For x=sin~ 1 J and TT sin* 1 J. for the given periodic with period 2?r. Now and sin*" 1 cos sin x~ Ogives x= gives x= x = siii" Tr/2. positive so that/(0) //. x 2 sin 2x =cos x 4 sin x cos % dyldx=Q. J lying between 2 and d*y/dx Now = sin x 4 cos 2x. d y/dx*=:3 which For x=37r/2. Now Hence /(I) 2. nor a minimum value. /"( maximum value.(i) x. 155 Find the maximum and minimum values of the polynomial Let 4 2 5 /(x)=8x 15x l10x . Again. )= 45 which is is = TS is a value.. negative so that /( I) Now. /"(x)=160x 3 2 . we get >>=sin cos . /"(0)=: 20 which = is a minimum As/"(l)0. is is For x=7r/2. x=0 or sin x= J.. /'(*)=0 for x=0. positive .. positive .J.180x 2 +20 9x 2 +l). 1. and 2ir We function consider values of is x between only.
(0<a<6). (PU. (i) Find the minimum and maximum (i"0 values of sinxcos^x. Show 16. 15.36x20. 37T/2. . Show that (x + !)*/(*+ 3) s has a maximum . 7].  are the two 2 are the two minimum values. 12. 14. (/) (//) that sin x (1fcos x) is a maximum when x=$n. 1939) least Find the maxima and minima as well as the greatest and the values of the function 6. (P. Find the extreme values of x 3 /(x 4 f 1).1941) (P>V. 8. n] of the sums sinxfisin 2x+ j cos K^\ cos 2x + $ cos 3x. Putting these values of x in (i). Find the maximum value of (log x)lx in 1 <x<oo (a> 1). Determine the values of x for which the function 12x 5 45x<+40x 3 f6 attains (1) a 4. y=x* 12x 2 +45x in the interval [0. = sin~" 1 J4 TT sin" 1 J and is a maximum 1. 11. 5. ' 2. flsecxf&cosecx. Show Show that x x is minimum for x=e~ l (1 that the maximum value of l /*)* is e l*. Find the maximum value. interval [0. (/v) Show that (3 x)e** 4x^x has no maximum or minimum value for x=0. in( *^jc5^0.U. Find the maximum and minimum values of x+sin 2x in <S x ^ 2*. 17. 18. values. value 2/27 and a minimum value 0. maximum value of (xl)(x2)(x3). is a maximum or minimum 7. ex cos (x a). has minimum 3. Exercises Investigate the maximum and minimum (/) values of 2x 3 15x 2 + 36x+10. 10. sinxcos 2x. Also.I945) (it) 3x*4x 3 +5. we see that . obtain their greatest and the least values in the given interval. (2) a minimum value.156 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Therefore y is a maximum for x minimum for x=7r/2. sin 13. 1955) Find the extreme value of a 3* ~as x. values and 0. . Find : for what values of x the following expression 2x 3 21x 2 4. Find the values of x for which Find the x x cos x is a maximum or a minimum. Find the values of x for which x e 6ax 3 f 90 2 x4 f (a>0).U. (P. 9. in the Discuss the maxima and minima sin 3x. (Hi) 19. maximum and minimum x values of sin 2xf J sin 3x.
Volume = ?Ttr*. Cone of height. Curved surface =2Trrh. In the following. ax*+2hxy+by*=l. . face Trr 2 . 76. tan" 1 (/*//*). the volume of the open cylinder. be seen that. h. If y is for x=a and owe stationary value. Find the maxima and minima of the radii vectors of the curve ra P ~ _a?__ + "cos sin*0 l "fl (Delhi. Examples 1. y = rs'm 0. then the stationary value is necessarily the minimum and the least. Volume =7rr 2 /?. and radius of circular base. then maximum and the greatest. in general. cones cylinders the following results would be often needed : 1 . b. we shall apply the theory of maxima It /will and minima to solve problems involving the use of the same. = Volume = TT r 2 h. it will be found useful to determine the limits between which the independent variable lies. Find the maximum and minimum 0. In this connection. Application to Problems. The area of each plane 3. 2. . Suppose that these limits are a. S 9 the and K. Show r greatest volume is that the height of an open cylinder equal to the radius of its base. . 47ir. Curved 8urface=7Tr\/(r 3 +/j 2).EXAMPLES 20. Let surface be the radius of the circular base h. we shall not need to find the second derivative and complete decision would be made at the stage of the first derivative only when we have obtained the stationary values. Semivertical angle Slant height. xb and positive otherwise and has only the stationary value is necessarily the If y > QO as x > a and as x > b and has only one stationary value. of given surface and the height Therefore. [Taking x=rcos treme value of r 2 where . r. Aligarh) values of x*+y* where 21. Surface h. and radius of circular base.V( r2 +/* 2 ). r. the question reduces to finding the ex 2 T=fl cos 0f 2/i cos $ sin + sin 2 0] 7*5. . and Sphere of Radius r. Cylinder of height. In connection with the problems concerning spheres. Here cones and cylinders are always supposed to be right circular.
Substituting this value of r in (i). Show that the radius of the right circular cylinder of greatest 2. curved surface which can be inscribed in a given cone is half that of the cone. Let r be the radius of the base and h. cylinder. 51. dV __S dr~~~ ' 2 : so waat ur /u/=v only when r =\/(Sl37i) negative value of inadmissible. the interval (0. > Trr 3 or r > y" (S/Tr). Thus V has only one stationary value. r as obtained from (i). in which gives V in terms of one variable r. . 3 we have Sr Srnr > Thus r varies in 0. Now F=0 for every other for the points r=0 and admissible value of x. the height OV of the given cone. Substituting the value of (')> we get V h. the radius of whose base is OP=x as shown in the figure. We inscribe in it a cylinder. S is a constant and are variables.158 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Here. h. is a variable. Also. To determine the height PL. We note that x may take up any value y between and r.e. as given.. Hence K get ^/ (S/n) 9 and is positive greatest for is r=V (S/37T). we c h = 2?rr 3?r _2S ~ 3 1 27T Hence hr for a cylinder of greatest volume OA and given surface. i. V (5/7:)). r being As V must be positive. we have of this PL PA = ~' PL ro: ' r Fis.
As tan 20X =2. 52. Thus S has only one stationary value. 0j. S=27T. p. dS =27r/ 2 ( 2 cos sin 0+2 cos 20) = 27rr 2 (2 cos 20 sin sin 20). AB=OBsm 0=rsin 6. Fi/irf //* = ?5^?L ^^ (r2x) =0 for x=r/2. PL ^J^ dx r 3. 5=27rr2 (1+^^+ . we have (rxx 2 ).149). be a root of tan 20 = 2.(2) Let. From (1) . =0 gives 2 cos 20 20=0.. =27rr 2 (cos2 0+sin 20). . i.. sin when 0=0. we have 5=27r. OA* +2v. 0...BC.we see that when 0=0.OA. OP. S=27rr 2 when . We OA lies Let Z_AOB==0 so that between and 7T/2. 0=r cos 6.. positive for values of x circular cylinder of greatest surface of the right in a sphere of radius r. lying Therefore S is greatest for x=r/2.. Q = OB cos AB =sm OB .. t OA ^ =008 0.e. 5=0.EXAMPLES If 159 S be the curved surface of the cylinder. 0=7T/2. radius of the base and CB is the height of this cylinder. . IfS be the surface. 20. Now S is for x=0 and x=r and is between and r. surface which can be inscribed is the construct a cylinder as shown in the figure. tan 20=2.(1) Fig. sin 20 1 = 2/\/5 and cos 20 1 =l/'V/5. . (Cor. .) which is 2 greater than Sirr Hence wr is the required greatest sjurface.
The two tangents from A . Putting this value of x in (/). BL=BP) "dx =2 2{x+r)(x*r z )x(x+r} z so that dpjdx=0 admissible.160 4. 1934) We take one vertex A of the triangle at a distance x from the centre O. for x 2r . u. Hence p least for x=2r. Let AO meet the circle at P. BP=AP tan /_BAP B p Fig. negative value. r If* P> denote the perimeter of the triangle. From (i). DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Prove that the least perimeter of an isosceles triangle in which of radius r can be inscribed is Qr^/3. and the tangent at P determine an isosceles a circle We triangle ABC have OL~r. Also circumscribing the given circle. r. (P. we have p=AB+A C+BG =2AB+2BP =2(AL+LB)2BP =2AL+4BP. dividing the numerator and denominator by x2 we get . so that p x also as X>QO is . we see that p > oo as x > r. 53. so that varies in oo ). we see that the least value of p is . r r (for. x may take up any value >r the interval (r. only. of x being init Now. Again.
p. find the maximum We . 160). distance x from the By drawing tangent lines from A.= x OA . tan 0= A Again.BP*. 1930) A cone is when the volume of the cone centre We take the vertex A of the cone at a O of he sphere. for minimum volume. the altitude of the cone and the semi vertical angle = sin6. as shown in the figure.vertical angle BAP of the cone be 0. =tan AL * 0. slope of the normal at * 1 P=t b cos  . slope of the tangent at r & is p . ^ (x+r)= . we have V=i7T . AP. which will if v be the volume of the cone.EXAMPLES 5. 1935) take any point P(a cos 6. >> r and Hence. when x > QO .. ^ Normal is drawn at a variable point P of an ellipse distance of the normal from the centre of the ellipse. Now. 161 circumscribed to a sphere of radius r . 1 x ~sin. b sin 0) on the ellipse being the eccentric angle of the point.1 r 3r = sin~ 1 i. 53. P. since BP . show that is a minimum. its altitude is 4r and its semivertical angle sin~i f (Madras 1953 . .(See Fig. (P. >ve construct the cone circumscribing the sphere. The equation of the tangent at P Therefore. mi Thus v=ir\. is minimum and least for x=3r. P~ a sin  Hence. r =1.'. . Trr v ' r) Thus dvjdx is for x=3r.U. . Let the semi.92 (r+x) 2 r2 9 2 . be now expressed in terms of x.U. Here x can take up any value ^r and v * cc when x Thus t. We have Since sin =7=r.
y> of petrol burnt is given by The is a constant. c . v*d vc 7 =fo/ . Thus v=^c gives the . a sin 0=^~ 0=(a 2 2 ) (xa sin . >P> be its tance perpendicular distance from the centre we obtain jm  (9 cosj? *~6+b*^o& . we see that the maximum value of 7T/2.  8 petrol burnt per hour=A:v where k the total amount. dv 2 (v c) Putting dy/dv=0 admissible. it is enough to consider only those values of 6 which lie between and 7r/2 so that we reject the negative value of tan 0. Thus y=k ' . Let v miles per hour be the velocity of the boat so that (v c) miles per hour is its velocity relative to water when going against the current. sin 0by cos cos 0. />=0 when 0=0 between or 7T/2 and p is positive when lies Therefore p is maximum when tan 0=v'(^0Substituting this value in (/).=0 ./ ( CL 2 ka\ u \ ^ 2 cos4  2 <    (a 2 sin 6} ft 2 cos 2 Putting dpld6=Q. is in Also y _> oc when > c and when least value of y. (0. we get Because of the symmetry of the ellipse about the two coordinate axes. 0). .DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Therefore equation of the normal at / <5r : P is yb sm " 0x : . . Now. Assuming that the petrol burnt (per hour) in driving a motor boat varies as the cube of its velocity. 7.. and p is a b. Therefore the time required to cover a distance of d miles d 3= v u hours. t8 VC . show that the most economical speed when going against a current ofc miles per hour is  c miles per hour. . y we t? get 0=0 and # _> oo Of these r.
1955) cone of height ft and semivertical angle a. A. 16. (D. Show that the right cone of least curved surface and given volume has an altitude equal to 42 times the radius of its base. The strength of a beam varies as the product of its breadth and the square of its depth. 100 is 4 J tons of coal per hour at Rs. (PU. Find the rectangle of greatest perimeter which can be inscribed in a of radius a.EXAMPLES Exercises 183 1. per hour. A thin closed rectangular of another edge and the vojume of the box is given to bev. Show volume and least 14.V.) a semicircle with a rectangle on its diameter. B are fijced points with coordinates (0. is 20 feet. a) and (0. Prove that the least surface s is given by .. (Patna. Given the total surface of the right circular cone. the edge of the cube. surface is that the height of a closed cylinder of given equal to its diameter. /. Find the most economical speed and the cost of a voyage of 1980 miles. Show maximum volume (D. its volume as well as its greatest when its altitude Find the volume of the greatest cylinder that can be inscribed in a 18. find its dimensions in order that its area may be a maximum. Find the dimensions of the strongest beam that can be cut from a circular log of wood of radius a units. A cone is inscribed in a sphere of radius r curved surface is . When the speed is 15 miles per hour.U. Show that of all rectangles of given area.U. 4 per ton. The amount of fuel consumed per hour by a certain steamer varies as the cube of its speed. the square has the smallest perimeter. (D. 11. Show that the curved surface of a right circular cylinder of greatest curved surface which can be inscribed in a sphere is onehalf of that of the sphere. 5. 17. that the right circular cylinder of the given surface and maxisuch that its height is equal to the diameter of its base. (P. Allahabad) A figure consists of 6. b) and P is a variable point (x t 0) referred to rectangular axes . then the semivertical angle will be sin 15. 7. . 4.*. box is to have one edge n times the length 19. find the dimensions so that the capacity is greatest possible. prove that is 4r/3. Divide a number 15 into two parts such that the square of one multiplied with the cube of the other is a maximum. 12. 1949) that the semivertical angle of the cone of and of given slant height is tan~N2. with a rectangular base and semicircular ends. 1953) 10. The sum of the surfaces of a cube and a sphere is given show that when the sum of their volumes is least. given quantity of metal is to be cast into a halfcylinder. the diameter of the sphere is equal to . If 40 square feet of sheet metal are to be used in the construction of an open tank with a square base. 1952) Show mum volume is 13. 9. Given that perimeter of the figure. Show that in order the total surface area may be minimum the ratio of the length of the cylinder to the diameter of its circular ends is */(*+2). (Aligarh 1949) A 8. the fuel consumed The other expenses total Rs. circle 3. show that when the l volume of the cone is maximum.V. 2. prove that x*o6 when the ( p # 1935 ) angle APB is a maximum.
it is impracticable to use vessels in which the diameter exceeds threefourths of the height. N 25. Prove that 2 2 the maximum area of the triangle OPN is (a i )/4. If f'(x) exists throughout an interval prove that the greatleast value of/(x) in the interval are either /(a) and/(fc) or are given by the values of x for which /'(*)=0. It is required to cut from it a beam of uniform square section. 28. (Agra . 1940) 29.U. (Banaras 1953) The parcel post regulations restrict parcels to be such that the length plus the girth must not exceed 6 feet and the length must not exceed 3 feet Determine the parcels of greatest volume that can be sent up by post if the from of the parcel be a right circular cylinder. is folded over so as to just reach the opposite edge of the sheet . what should be the radius of the base A of each vessel 27. 31. P. each to contain exactly a given volume V. b are the sides of the original rectangle. If. a^x^b. est 26. One corner of the rectangular sheet of the paper. . rectangular sheet of metal has four equal square portions reat the corners. Show that if he wishes to be as economical as 8 possible in metal. the radius r of the base is given by 2wr =V.164 DIFFERENTIAL CALOVLUS JO. find the minimum length of the crease. (Patna) is Show that the maximum rectangle inscribable in a circle (P. is the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the centre O on to the 2 2 tangent at a variable point P on the ellipse x*la +y lb*=l (a>b). Prove that the area of the triangle formed by the tangent at anj 9 point of the ellipse x*la*+y*lb **l and its aves is aminimuu for the point 21. feet long is in the shape of a frustum of a cone the radii of its ends being a and b feet (a>b). ? (P. Will the result be affected if the 30. Show that when volume contained in the box is a maximum. for other reasons. greatest length permitted were only If feet. width one foot. (Allahabad 1939) from the centre to a tangent to an ellipse. A perpendicular is let fall show 23. Find the greatest value of the intercept between the point of contact and the foot of the perpendicular. A moved the depth will be where a. and the sides are then turned up so as to form an open rectangular box. tangent to an ellipse meets the axes in P and least value of PQ is equal to the sum of the semiaxes of the ellipse that PQ is divided at the point of contact in the ratio of its semiaxes. and grocer requires cylindrical vessels of thin metal with lids.C7. the triangle having its vertex coincident with one extremity ef the major axis.U. Prove that the beam of the greatest volume that can be cut is alll(ab) feet long. Find the volume of the greatest right circular cone that can be described by the revolution about a side of a rightangled triangle of hypotenuse 1 foot.) A tree trunk. 22. Suppl 1944) .) /. A Q that the and also 24.U. a square. (P. Find the area 9f the greatest isosceles triangle that can be inscribed in a given ellipse.
For example.x) form will also In what follows it will always be assumed that /(x). we have lim/(x)=lim [fe . lim (I I x) does not exist.0= Thus we have a contradiction. letit tend to finite limit.x) and possess continuous derivatives of every order that come in question in a certain interval enclosing x^=a. We know that x > a. F(x) lim . For. that the denominator F(x) > as x > a. say /. =+oo (//) lim(l/Jt )=:ao a . of interest to notice that the determination of the dyjdx is itsolf equivalent to finding the limit of a fraction 8yjbx which assumes an indeterminate form 0/0.CHAPTER VIII EVALUATION OF LIMITTS INDETERMINATE FORMS 8'1. if possible. we say that a fraction whose numerator and denominator both tend to zero as x tends to a. A general method of deter mining the limit of such a fraction will be given in this chapter. 165 . If it does not tend to zoro. . assumes the indeterminate form 0/0 for x=a. (so that the limit of the denominator in each of the . hmF(x) F(x) so that this theorem on limits fails to give any information regarding the limit of a fraction whose denominator tends to zero as its limit. 8 (i) lim (I/* ) (Hi) we see that . Three types of behaviour are possible in this case. F. suppose. tend to + oo or may when JC > 0. It differential co efficient may be Other cases of limits which are reducible to this be considered in this chapter. Now. The fraction oo or it 3 limit may not exist. following cases is 0). For the sake of brevity. then f(x)/F(x) cannot tend to any finite limit. lim ] F(x)=/. zero is The case where the limits of the numerator of a fraction is ale more important and interesting. The numerator f(x) may or may not tend to zero. We write so that. in this case. <(.
case when F'(a)=Q but Now. with remainder after one term. F(x) are assumed to be continuous for x=0. As/(x). ~ has already been discussed in The 81. Hence lim ^li = as before* lim h^( The case of failure which In general. lQtf'(a)=F'(a)=0. Again.186 DIFFABBNTUL OALOVLV8 82. let = arises when F"(a)=0 can be examined f(a)=*f'(a)=*f"(a)=* F Mid . The Indeterminate form lim [ ^ . by Taylor's theorem with remainder we get after two terms. To determine x*a when lim /(x)=0 Urn F(x). we have f(a)= lim yfr0 .\ \f ttli J \ ) Tflf/**\i Jj \CL\ u :f pt This argument fails if F'(a)=0. we have By Taylor's theorem.* = lim Fx=Q. Hence r i f y._ f.
r ~. 1. 2. /(0)=0. f( a +6n h) + ^Lfni l ] h F^(a)+ ~. Determine lim x . e'ea +2/(l+x) 8 z x sin x+2 . we get An /itii .. { F'(x)=x cos x+sin x. Again '. F'(0)=0. ' where x >0. .+ (a )JL.. with remainder after n terras.> The process may be conveniently exhibited as follows : *. f'(x)=e*+e*. /'(0)=0.b sin x f fim nm ^ *3 x~>0 + ' ay be equal to L ' U. cos x~ 2 _ ~ Find the values of a and b in order that x(l a cos x) . . F(0)=0.. .F(a+0' nh) n ~ Hence F(a+6' nh) Ex.e_21og(l + x) x cos ^o Ex. . x _. 1959) . sin x . . /" (0 )= 2> F"(0)=2. { F(x)=x sin jc .. .INDETERMINATE FORM 3 167 By Taylor's theorem.. 1944. _hm ~ )= x sin JC+2 cos x.
1957) i " ' \ 1' 0*1* ^v / r\ T (D. 6 3a = 6. 1955) .U. ax sin x 3x 2 JX b cos x : ' The denominator being for x=0. x > >i. //b/i5. we have Ex.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS The function . i.. (vi) Jog(146x) . Evaluate the following Jim *" . (D...* *v Af . 1951. 3. f .e.(D. 2# sin  xax cos x+& sin x   x*a bx 30 cos x+tf* sin x+fe cos x . U. v .v ..1952) (//) lim (D.. Hons. l+a cos x x > . is of the form (0/0) for all values of a and 6. 7952) Ex. This requires Again supposing this relation satisfied.v sm x x _ .. cos x cosh A: cos f A: ( V) 7 log cos x (x>0). A =1. we have l+a cos xax sin x 3x2 6X . From (1) and (2).hm x(l+acosx) 3' x frsinx = finite .... 4. the fraction will tend to a limit if and only if the numerator is also zero for x=0..U. b cos x = hm .M .U. lv x.C/. P.. Determine the limits of the following C X . A *}/ As given. : ^^ .
a good deal. 101 + sin x cos x+log x tan 2 x 1jsin x) xcos x+log (1 x A3 x) x* 1+sin   ~ xcos~ x+log  (1  x) ~ ... * 1. hm sin x . x> x =1 may .H. x x+log (1x) J 2 x tan 5x (x ~> 0).) as x tends to zero. The inconvenience of continuously differentiating the denomiwhich involves tan 2 x as a factor. tan x x > simplifies the process lim * =1. such as . find the value of a and the limit..INDETERMINATE FORMS Ex. 5.T . .. finite.. Sometimes a preliminary transformation involving the use of known results on limits. 1 We write + sin ~~ 1 x 1 cos x+log (1 x) x tan^x + sin xcos x+log x 3 (1 x) " / x \2 \tan x/ (1 . 169 If the limit of sin 2x+a X9 sin x (P. ITFind j hm 1+sin . v ' nator. hm x3 cosx fsuiv 1 cos x^sin  _x.U. l+sin x cos x + log (I x) . we notice that the numeraand denominator both become for x=0. L x >0 1 lim jc^O tor + sin x cos x+log(l 3 x x) To evaluate the limit on the B. be 8*3. Preliminary transformation.S. These limits cos also be used to shorten the process at an intermediate stage. i? Ex. may be partially avoided as follows.
lim . ( > 0). asx+a. xsmx . 2. 00 Tc? determine lim /(x)= I oo = It //m F(x). I* Another proof is given io the following subsection.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Ex. cosh x lira . Evaluate the following cosh # cos x .] ... te  0).. ..(.. mil be shown that f(x)/F(x) Suppose. cosh x cos . 3. Determine the limits of the following functions : (i) "J~. *Let f'(x)IF'(x) + also > /..o.x x* hm x cosh x cos x Since the numerator therefore i I* and denominator are both zero sinh __ . Aim ^ . : x un x We have cosh xcos x = cosh x cos ^g x ^  x x * g n sin x . *. . and a+8. say between a.. we make it arbitrarily near / by taking x sufficiently near a. x>a.... The Indetermine form ton ~. 84. rvi CQ sh _ x cos x x *+sin~~ OY cosh x+cos x lim iim ____J x>0 =1. dV) log (1 ) cot x. for x=0.cos x = . Ex. when x > a.. As f\x)IF'(x) > /.
values less than it sufficiently near a so that W may be shown that/(x)/F(x) * / as x > a through a. x). by Keeping 1 F(c) 1 Therefore. F'U) both exist f'(x)IF'(x) has a meaning for values of and F'OOs^O for such values. between a and a (/) We rewrite as '/'(I) F(x) lFWlFWJ'F'fc) 7"T~T~I x a c a+S c fixed. Tlien/(c) and F(c) are fixed our hypothesis. f(x) and F(x) tend to infinity.. /'(*) when lim /x= oo =s lim Note. We thus have We now a+8 and where lies F(x)F(c) between c and x and. and. This part of the hypothesis necessarily implies that x near a so that f'(x). Hence hm .INDETERMINATE FORMS 171 and take any two numbers c and x which lie between a apply Cauchy's mean value theorem f(x) and F (x) for the interval (c. as *~* 00 ' Thus Yf(c{ f(x) a. therefore. The above investigation rests on the hypothesis that /'(x)/F'(*) tends to a limit as x + a. ^)/^W can be it made arbitrarily near / by taking x as x > a through values greater than Similarly. A proof of the above result oo is also often given as follows oo . ^ hm .. we make x > a. : lim /(*):= and lim F(x)= A*) F'(x) 3BES f'(x) . This justifies the use of Cauchy's mean value theorem in the above investigation. 8*41.
. = 30 ^. F'(x) r < ' i)*' Hence we see that always . Note 1. = I where /^O and from (1).. otherwise we may go on indefinitely without ever arriving at the end of the process. F'(x) / = m Finally let /=*> ^  )  . Note 2. While evaluating Urn j~r* when it is of the form . 0=hm ... The above second proof is incomplete in the sense that it assumes that Urn lf(x)IF(x)] exists.. for. .172 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Let lim [f(x)IF(x)] .(8) ) so that By the preceding result.(4)  when lim/JC .  =lnn . . The first proof did not assume this existence.. /+. we must try to change over to the form 0/0 as soon as it may be conveniently possible..^ "m <> lim JPx.U ^ + l Applying the above result. we get Supposing now 1=0. F(x) .
we say that /(*). Determine the limits of the following functions : w. as x>0. Inn x a =* = lim JT e* Ex. we write and the form so that these new forms are of the type 0/0 and oo /oo respectively 84. . 173 Determine lim yp^ I L. 86. limit can. Hint. (v/) A i log tan x tan 2x = ^ log tan 2x log tan *  1 J . be obtained by 8*2 or by In this case.v) cot (xw/2). therefore. f(x) assumes the indeterminate O'oo at 1. lim T ~JT L log(xa) = . The indeterminate form Urn [/(x). as oo Here. Ex. 1. x>a 0*oo 7b determine when lim /(x)=0. To determine this limit. 2.. x=a. log (l~. as x . f/i lim (x log lim ^ r= (*) lim .INDETERMINATE FORMS Ex. the numerator and the denominator both tend to tends to a. U > 1).. Determine lim (x logx).. We write x log xx) _.
1.!)(*' (x1) is new form (x1) of the type 0/0 when x * log (x2) r 2. 1 tog (X. : Determine the limits of the following functions 0). it is necessary to express the same as a function which assumeg the form 0/0 or oo/oo. In fact we lim =00. 2. The limit may now be determined with the help of 8*2. In this case. (a~x) tan (nxfta). (x > 0). x tan (w/2x). (x * 0). (//) x log tan x. that 1 really means x > (0+ 0) so (x * /* does tend to a limit. here x <+ Ex. F(x)] assumes the indetermi Note. 86.DIFFERENTIAL The reader may see that writing xlogx= ' * (I/log x) which is of the form (0/0) and employing the corresponding result of 82 would not be of any avail. Ex. *(0+0) * *(00) is x is defined for positive values of x only so that there * * question of making x > through negative values while determining ' Ag ~ in log no x>0 Thus. we say that [/(x) nate form oo oo for x=a. In order to evaluate the limit of a function which assume! the form. The Indeterminate for lim oo 7b determine x > a [f(x)F(x)l when lim /(x)=<x> X>fl We write so that the numerator and denominator both tend to as x tends to a. oo oo . <*> . (/) (///) lim (xlogx). Note haye  w e know that 1 lx does nottend to a limit as x * 0. Determine We write _1 x2 and see that the ___ log *. _ __L__1 iog(y~i)(y~2 .
. therefore. .FORMS 175 for x=2. be determined by the method given in 8*5. ^ e see that the right hand side assumes the indeterminate form 0. lim F(x)=0. we may show that the required limit is using Ex. (fl) limf(x)=0. On The numerator and the denominator are both the method of 82. To determine L when (i) ^ ' x J limf(x)=:Q .log /(*)]==/.\ [^(*).=/. The Indeterminate forms. lim F(x)=0. we say oo that j/(x) ^1 assumes the indetermi forms . respectively for x=a. lim F(x)=<x> (Hi) //w/(jc) = oo . Hence lim or brevity. oo . Let lim x> . 2. as ' 1 . oo and its limit may. a limlogj. Determine the limits of the following functions : 8'7. 1. We so that write In each of the three cases. log lim or y=l or lim y=e*.
Here it is understood that x tends to a through values greater x ~ a would for otherwise the base (xa) would be negative and (x a) have no meaning. 7923) ii ) (cot x) ^ .. Hence Thus than a. log lim }>=0. Ex. lim tan x s~ ^JT = T 1 JL 2 = i or lim x~>0 y=e ' Hence Ex. hm logy= hm .. Let lim log>>= lim { ^~^ } I ~~ . 2. = lim (xtf)=0. . (/) x>0 3. (x > sin ~' x 0).e. (0 form). 1). (P.. lim (cos x) = x  e *..176 DIFFERENTIAL CALOVLVS Ex. (/v) (sin x) (x > 1. . Determine lim (cos x) 1/x 2 ' tfs 2 x > 0. lim y~e<> = : lim (x x~a a) =I when Note. Determine Urn (x x~a a) os x > a. Determine the limits of the following functions (l s x*. (//) )~\ (x > tan x . i. 12). Let . 1/x y=(cos iv'fti x) \f\Ct IT y log cos ^^ o x "~ . I.C7. log cos ^ x = log (lim y) . (x >> 0).
: log AC & > ^3 ' . (cos ax) . a* 10. . (2jc tan x n sec x). (P. 1+^cos A:~cosh x log(lf x) ( > 7.x 12. (cot *) . 13. (x^ 1). S (*>).C/. . o v ^ 2 sin A: (x >0). 7957) Exercises Determine the limits of the following functions e_e. 21. (x >1). ( sin 2 ^ .C7.INDETERMINATE FORMS (v) 177 (vii) . sec 2 _ cot x (sec x) _ (x > n/2). 7949) (viii) x* * . (B. tan 16. 14. 9 . ( (2O \w Ct ^ = 2a '.V. ' 3.1953) 17. (D. (x>0). u > o). (A: v > <>. 20. 15. (A: > n/2). j_ 8 log x . (x > 0). (2x) tan ff ^ .
+. sinxi lim 32. u .<?.(*> co) a Evaluate 31. '*. show that tho derivative of every order of /(x) vanishes for x=0.foralln.' 178 DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS a t5>*'.). / 33. 1955) . (fl. (D. Hons. n (0)=0. 185 log sect*_ sec ijc ( * 28..U. Hons. 26 by Infinite series refer cos 95.tf. /. 25 and Ex. Discuss the continuity of f(x) at the origin when /(*)=* log sin x for x^O and/(0) =0. (. 26. 1959) ] [For solutions of Ex. p. If /(0)=0. * !+ ..
however. Illustrations. and thus go on adding each term to the sum of the previous term. A meaning is assigned to this expression by employing the notion of limit in the manner we now describe. Let Sn denote the sum of the first n terms of the series so that a function of the positive integral variable n. we say that the series series The question of the sum of a nonconvergent does not We may find an approximate value of the sum infinite series of a convergent by adding a sufficiently large number of its terms. we will never arrive at the end of this process.. In the case of a finite series. Thus. and then add the sum so obtained to the third.CHAPTER IX TAYLOR'S INFINITE SERIES EXPANSIONS OF FUNCTIONS 91. Consider the infinite geometric series l+r+r*+r* + . series'. Its convergence and stun. Then a symbol of the form Here each term is followed by another so no last term. If Sn tends to a finite limit S. howsoever large a number of terms the series is called an infinite series. that there is may consist of. this process of addition will be completed at some stage. Let be an infinite set of numbers given according to some law. We know that #n .. finite limit. the expression 'Sum of an infinite has no meaning. in the ordinary sense. Sn does not tend to a does not converge. Sn is In case. as n tends to infinity.= 1 JL r* *f Sn =n 179 when . as there is no last term of the series... then the series is said to be comergent and S is said to be its sum.. arise. we see that. Infinite Series. If we add the first two terms of this infinite series.
lying between H may be. p. 1/(1 r). It is then clear that lim so that Sn =f(a+h). exists number Then. r^ lim and. < r> 1. we see that the series f(a)+hf'(a)+ converges and that *". (ii) (/*/(*) possesses derivatives of every order in the interval a+H] and the remainder tends to as n tends to infinity. however large a positive integer n and 1. a+h]. 57]. lim r"=0. Sn =l/(lr). as n > ao . then . its sum is equal to /( Thus we have proved that (0 [a. therefore. Taylor's f(x) possesses derivatives of every order in 9 2. Hence." infinite We suppose that a an interval given function [a.) We write so that Suppose that R n > 0. S n =n which tends .180 DlFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS We have now to [Refer 361. 1. examine lim Sn when n > to oo oo . there a f(a+h)=f(a)+hf'(a)+ where *^ n R =^ (Taylor's development with Lagrange's form of remainder. therefore. so that lim For For only if r \ \ lim r r w n =oo and. 1. such that 0. lim infinite Sn does not exist. is < 1. lim S n =oo . For For r k  r=l. we see that the geometric series converges if and infinite series then. and the sum of the series.
i.. the Taylor's infinite Putting for a and x for h in series. we see that if in and (0 /(*) possesses derivatives of every order the remainder the interval [0. It may be seen that instead of considering Lagrange's form of remainder.. To put down R n we require to obtain the general expression for the nth derivative of the function. series (1) is known Maclaurin's as Taylor's series. But to deal with these methods is not within the scope of this book. x] (ii) tends to as n tends to infinity. accordingly. power series in x. Formal expansion of a function as a power series may. Thus we have the result tend to : then Iff(x) can be expanded as an infinite Maclaurin's series. /*(<)) + . We have seen that in order any given function can be expanded as an infinite Taylor and Maclaurin series it is necessary to examine the behaviour 94. . /(*)=/(0)+*/'(0)+ **. it is for To obtain the expansion of a function. be obtained by assuming that it can be so expanded. we have only to calculate the x=0 and substitute them in (1). Formal expansion of functions. ..(1) Such an investigation will not give any information as to the range of values of x for which the expansion is valid. been discovered to obtain such expansions whenever they are possible. R n does as n tends to infinity. we may as well consider Cauchy's form.EXPANSIONS This is 181 for the known as Taylor's theorem series of j(a+h) in an infinite power series in h.. infinite series.e. The series (2) is known Note. development of ascending integral powers of h. however.. is known as an expansion of/v x) in Maclaurin's theorem for the development or infinite series of ascending integral powers of as Maclaurin's series.. to find out if of R n as n tends to infinity.... i. i.e. on the assumption that values of its derivatives possible.e. so that we fail to apply Taylor's or Maclaurin's theorem to expand in a power series a function for which a general expression for the nth derivative cannot be determined Other more powerful methods have.. . then This x. The 9'3.
(l+x) m without assuming the possibility of expansion by actually examining the behaviour of R n for the functions. AOJ^O.0.0. cos x. may also Cor 2. 1.4. Putting. sin x. Let Thus Substituting in the Maclaurin's series.. 1 for x. may obtain the values upto any number of Expansion of sin x. by assuming 941. Cor. Expansion of e*. however.LI + + 2! L ! L. (1). we obtain \ ~3! . a Changing x into x log a in * log * . we obtain these and other expansions the possibility of expansion. 942. e. Let /(*):=: sin x mr Thus /(0)sin 1. . we get =e = 1+(x log a) + be obtained directly by employing Maclau This result rin's series. In the following. we shall obtain the expansions of e. etc.182 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS In the Appendix. as Exponential Series. * /'(0)0. n so that we see that the values of / (0) for different values of n form a successively appearing periodic cycle of four values 1. v3 we obtain v which is known 1./^)^!. log (1+x). + ~4! + '" JL of. from which we decimal places.
/'''(0)==2 !. 2f In case right.x^+^+ Expansion of (1 . (ii) the Logarithmic Series is valid for Kx<J.. Making substitutions Logarithmic Series log in the Maclaurin's seriep../"(0)=l : .. in each case assuming the possibility of expansion.\/'(0) = l.. Note 1. we obtain sin *=*__ similarly obtain the cosine series : 943. +x) OT . sine and cosine series are valid for every value x. Expansion of log +x).. Let Thus Making substitutions. 9 45. . and (in) the Binomial Series is valid for Note 2.. wo obtain the (i+x)=. If we examine the behaviour of R n as is done in the Appendix../""(0)= 3 land so on. can show that (i) the Exponential. we obtain ..... we ..EXPANSIONS 183 Making these substitutions ths sine series.. n\ a finite series on the m is a positive integer. In the following we shall consider some more cases of expansions of functions...... we obtain^the Binomial Seriesj .. + . + (i)"i. It will be seen that in some cases we may also obtain the expansion by vsing any of the series obtained above. Let Thus . + (1 x2 xl x 2n (!) 944. in the Maclaurin's series. We may cos *=:!_ +__ .
. . the possibility of expansion. / v (jc) Thus = 16 tan x +tan x) f 24 tan x( = 16 tan x f40 tan x+24 tan x. = 16 sec x + 120 tan x sec x + 120 ( 1 2 3 1 +tan 2 x) tan 4 x sec 2 x. x. 3 5 2 2 2 Substituting these values in the Maciaurin's series obtain 9*4. p. In Ex. expand. 124 we proved that I m sm x (w 2 (2 2 +w 2 )(4 2 +w 2 2 2 2 2 (m (! +m )(3 +m ) ) [( 2) 2 fw 2 ] . / '"(x) = 16 tan x sec 2 x+24 tan 3 x sec2 * . find the expansion of upto and including series. tan x. we anxx+ 2. Lot 1. x + x + e in Assuming the possibility of expansion. 1. The required expansion can also be obtained by employing the Exponential and the sine series and thus avoiding the process of calculating the derivatives which is often very inconvenient. as far /(x)=tan /. sec 2 x /"(x)=2 tan x =2 /'"(x)=2 tan x(l+tan 2 x) 3 = 2 tan x+2 tan sec 2 x. n even w odd. x+6 tan x sec 2 * 2 4 =2 (l+tanx)+6 tan 2 x (l+tan2 x) = 2+8tan 2x+6 tan x. or otherwise sin the term in x4 by First four derivatives are neaded to expand the given function Maciaurin's theorem upto the term required. /'(x)=sec 2 x=l+tan 2 x. we ) get i m 2i 2 2 \ w(l fw o ! 2 8 m 2 2 (2 +m ! 4 Use of known 3. By Maciaurin's theorem (e*l). 56. expand /(x) ascending integral powers of x. [(w2) 2 ) 2 +m 2 2 ] . Substituting these values in the Maciaurin's series.184 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Examples Assuming as the term inx*.
EXPANSIONS 185 =z. Ex. ii (0 L 1 Eh (//) lira x) 1 ' I _e ie v : .U.U. we obtain x x .1953) x . 25. p. Ex. Using the infinite series for e sin x and log (I .v). 178) . Hons.x 2 = lim =lim = lim 2. Examples 1. 26. 1954) (Cf. minate form?. Now. find Urn ?*? e" sin **** (D. z5 O v*2 I "vS "v4 + 2T 3~"T + 4l + 9*5. Use of infinite series for evaluating the limits of indeterThe following examples will illustrate the procedure. say. sin (e x l)=sinz z O I . x>0 x (D.
/V \ ^ +STV e 2 / .186 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Let log y=(i+ X l lx ) 7= log(l+x) 2 or L o (T> '6 t o a a i as e.e. JL i . 5 "" 24 ' Exercises (/w f/w following . 1. x 2 e ( llx + "24 . Q 2 1^ O 3 2 24 IX ' . //re possibility of expansion may also be assumed) Prove that w ! .
. 3.^!i 2"+fi l 1 "" 3 X* 4"! 2! 30 + *"+ (D.. . ' ' ' ' (P. If >>=sin log 2 }2xM). Obtain the following expressions (/) : log tan (l (i"fx)=Zx+*x 3 f JxH  + sin 1 1+ . 6..V. 4.1951) Show that cos 2 x=*lx 2 +$x*^\x 2 . 187 Prove that e a * sin bx=bx+abx*+ 3 b ~3 *+. ... 5.c + T' 4 ~5~~ ~2~' 4 6 '+ . Show that 2) .C/. . 7P57) 7. Prove that If >>=log e x sin *= * 2 f * f 3 4 Jx ____ 2 [x+ >!(!+ x )]. T~ 2T~ 7 "90" 30" 47 . X X 1 ' A' 2 (v) e. 1 A: 2 =^ + ' ^c xM "" . prove that Hence or otherwipe expand 8.1953} . ..EXPANSIONS 2.v in ascending powers of x as far as Prove that . (v/) . prove that powers of x Differentiate this n times and deduce the expansion of y in ascending in the form yss *~ 1 x3 3 1 3 ' x5 1 3 ' 5 ' x7 7 T* (. 4 x2 * I ' x4 .....U. 9. log tan ^ __. (P.1 sm^^xl log sec y ^8 ' x5 "5 3 2 f2^ 4 (vi7) *=2> + 12 ^+45 x% +" . m 2 (m 2 8) 10. Obtain the wth term in the expansion of tan" 1 x in ascending powers of*. ' . (iv) ..
sin Show (/) that Uin ~ *55=. cos x.. 1955) of e x l(e x 1) as far + as the term in x 8 14. Therefore. 2 Expand 3x3 2x 4x4 and A by x~3 in in powers of x2. three terms of the expansion of log to find the expansion (1Manx) in Powersoft 13. Obtain the expansion of e Obtain the first sm X in powers of x as far as x4 (D. . when zcofr^x. Appendix obtain the expansions of sin x.sin3z 8 3 . 16. (D. x//i ! > (See 3*62. x>0 17. (l + x) m without making any assumption as to the possibility of expansion. 58) whatever value x may . x n Let /(*)=*. we have .. r Expansion of e . .. xsmx =1. Taking Lagrange's form of remainder. ^ 3 * . 11. > oo . 1955) sin Expand log x in powers of U3). ' deri V! We know that when have. +JY (/AT) 2 cot x cosec 1 sin z) 1 8 x. tanMs+AJtan^+Asinz  ~? 2* (A ^ 4(Asmz) . App]y Maclaurin's theorem . log (1+x). *3 theorem. .. smx 7  =3. 3 [Write log sin x=log sin (3+ x3) and replace x by the expansion of log sin \x+h) in powers of h. 12.U. x ^ (//) lim ".I/. p.188 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (v//7) log sin (x+/i)=log sin x+ h cot *yT /i 2 cosec x 8 . Hence or otherwise show that lim _ ~Ax xcosx x0 We shall now e*. v. f (x) = e so that/(x) possesses vatives of every order for every value of x. U. the ^ 16 first Obtain by Maclaurin's S four terms of the expan sion of e X x in ascending powers of x. (P.] 15.
EXPANSIONS 189 . possesses derivatives of every order for for x>~l. Rn Also > as n >oo Conditions for Maclaurin's infinite expansion are thus satisfied. Making these substitutions in the Maclaurin's series. which is valid for every value of x. i. for Thus the conditions satisfied. x.e. /(0) = e=l substitutions in the Maclaurin's series... of jc. . x.. Expansion of cos cos x for As above. + .. Expansion of log (1+x). Let We know that log (1+*) (l+x)>0. Moreover . j we get sinx=x f _ * . Expansion of sin Let f(x)= sin x. so that/(x) possesses derivatives of every order for every value We have Since * x" n\ we see that Rn > as n > oo for every value^of x.!+" valid for every value of x. + +. f n (x) = sm (x + ^nn). v2 Making we get y3 vn l+*+ which is 2! + 3.. Maclaurin's infinite Now n* expansion are /"(0)=sin .. it may 2 x4 x6 _i x 2 j easily be shown that +4 ? 6 + j every value of x.
we have <./> ..^ . (l+x) w possesses continuous deri/. is any real number. vatives of every order only when l + x>0.i. is have.~T~ + .x) and.. p.190 If DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Rn . <v2 A. In this case x/(l+fix) so thafc . v3 A: x* . also. we have Here (1 0)/( ! + #*). the conditions for Maclaurin's theorem are satisfied for Making these substitutions _ in the Maclaurin's series. Also > oo . therefore. (mn+l)(l+x) ~. m Expansion of (l+x) . . We notice that if m is any positive integer. as n > oo we see that R n > 0... ( 3'61. is positive v and less than 1. denotes Lagrange's form of remainder. so that x/(l+0. when x> 1. 1/n ^ 0. Since. may we to draw any definite conclusion Taking Cauchy's form of remainder.^.. not be numerically less than unity from Lagrange's form Let fail 1<JC<0. and r i_ as n + as n > Also x n > co . Let /w=(i +*r Whenm Now. 57) Rn Hence. then the derivatives .2+$. Thus /? n (ii) > as H > oo when 0^x<J 1. we get log for (l+x)=x. m f(x)=m(ml)(m2) . (i) Let n + < x also. whatever value n may [xl(l (tx)] positive and <1. (m is any real number).. !<*<!.
fied. (l + fl*)l^(l_ we know that m(m l).. Rn denotes Cauchy's form of remainder. i. > Ifwbe If not a positive integer. so that (l+x) is expanded in a finite series consisting of (m+l) terms. < 1.e. since ml be negative. 1  Thus.. Now < l+9x < Let. we get Let 1 < x < 1..EXPANSIONS 191 otf(x) of order higher than mth vanish identically and thus.. therefore. for m n w. (wn Aefer to the foot note on the next page. .. < 1<( ~ t < . . I I < . The conditions for Maclaurin's expansion are. now... then no derivative vanishes identically so that we have to examine this case still further. 0< Let (m 1) be positive. Now.. Also 0<0< or 1. Hn as n > oo when  x \ < 1.(w w+1) ""* ^ when _J \ \ ~> 1 / "ZTiri ^ . x x I I . x   < 1. or *Also X )!. x . satis Now /(0)=w(wl) .} l+Ox. R n identically vanishes.
.  '>  7 . 178. 1) ____ (w "^ Changing n to wf 1. 3 .] when x^O and /(0)=0. 32. 9 2. *To prove that when \ x \ < 1. x ! we can find a positive number k < 1. Show that the Maclaurin's expansion is not valid for where e~ [Refer Ex.. p. when Ex. < A: < 1. Show that log x and cot x cannot be expanded infinite as Maclaurin's Ex. ft JL v + m(m l)(m2)x 3 . As x  < Wn 1. Thus * k I K 2 I W < I I n Multiplying we get up //c^ is Now    a constant and k* > ' as n > oo. and a positive integer p such that < k. . n  and so also Un > as w > oo. . for > />. we get m(ml) a . we get or x  as n >oo. . Ex. f(x) 3. f .. Justify the Maclaurin's expansions of 1 e ax sin bx e ax cos bx.192 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Making substitutions. tan" x. series.+ xm t L__/x (l+x)*=l+mxH 1 1.
(/) The relation between x. y . y) is called the domain of the point (x. we say that the relation (1) determines z as a function of two variables.x. TWO VARIABLES PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION relation to functions of this chapter. Functions of two variables. c^yt^d determine a rectangular domain bounded by the lines x=a x=b y=c. Now. z.CHAPTER X FUNCTIONS OF 10*1. Now (a x)(x . limit and differentiation in variables. we see that the points (#. relation (2) determines a value of z corresponding to every Thus z is a function of x point (x. y. y. The points (x. p. will be briefly explained in few theorems of elementary character will also be proved. y) for which X 2 +J> 2 <1 lie on or within the circle whose centre is at the origin and radius is 1. The 193 . geometrically by a point on a plane as explained in 17. (/) Consider the relation where is a<b c<d. The region determined by the point (. of numbers x. determines a value of z corresponding to every pair which are such that x 2 + y 2 ^l. i Denoting a pair of numbers x. we introduce the notion of functions of two variables by considering some examples. x 9 y defined for the domain bounded by the unit circle >=!. b) is nonnegative if a^x^b and (cy)(yd) nonnegative if ct^y^d.y=d. and y defined for the domain. y). 102. y) of this rectangular domain. 14. y) for which a^x^b. Only a few examples dealing with functions of three or more variables may be given. As in the case of functions of a single variable. The notions of two A continuity. The sub ject of functions of two variables is capable of extension to functions of n variables. y. but the treatment of the subject in this generalised form is not within the scope of this book.
e. The points Neighbourhood of a point (x. called S. if it has a value corresponding to every point (x y) of the domain. b). so that we may </(*. 10*4. determines z as a function of x. write z=f(x. square. b). y) can be made as near f(a> b) as we like by taking the points (x. y) such that (a. b). Let 8 be any positive determine a square bounded by the lines x=a Its centre is S. This square (a. y) sufficiently near is > (a. b). where small. 8. b). x=fl+S. ? the case of functions of a single variable. Ex. Let (a.y). hood of the point bourhood. however .b) 8 such that I f(*> y)f( a b ) > I <e for all points (x.194 (ill) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS The relation r2 V2 z=e x y . there exists a square bounded by the lines x=a such that. y is at the point (a. y^b any point between 8.. y The etc. y) lies f(a. the value f( x y) of the function is near f(a. y) near (a. if. f(x. etc. y defined for the whole plane. x = a+8 . In general. e is any positive number. j. y) /(x. number 1 P(a. y) continuous at (a. we say that z is a function of two variables defined for a certain domain. For every value of. if for points (x. y=^b~8. b). b) i. b) be any point of the domain of definition of As in tho case of functions of one variable. b). Determine the domains of definition of 103.. y). p. Formally. number. we say that /(A: y) is continuous at (a. corresponding to any preassigned positive number e. fc)e. we will get a neighboura neigh Continuity of a function of two variables. we say that f(x. b). y=b+8 of this for (x. there exists a positive . as in relation of functionality is expressed by the symbols /. y) in the square Thus for continuity at (a.
also be expressed by saying that . continuous in 195 a domain Continuity in a domain. y) is said to be if it is continuous at every point of the same.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 10 41. Limit of a function of two variables. if and only if limf(x. the numerical value of the difference between f(x b) and f(a. Also. 6). Comparing the 1051. y) tends to (a. y) said to tend to the limit /. b). y) of this neighbourhood other than f(a. lying within the square. Limit of a continuous function.>'= S. line value of the if we consider points of this square lying on the see that for values of x lying between a 8 and a 8.f(x. however small. of a single variable x for xa. that/(x. 10 5. y). y)=f(a. 1042. lim/(x. b) is less than e. as x tends to a andy tends to b. y) be continuous at (a.. Then there exists a square bounded by the lines let e x=a8. ie. b). we have as (0. tions of limit and continuity as given in y) is continuous at (a. may be similarly shown that f(a. y=b. other than (a. y) lies between / e and /+e.e . we + t It of y for y = b. be any positive number. as (x. for conti The same thing may nuity at (a. y) is a continuous function Thus we have shown that a continuous function of two is also variables a continuous function of each variable separately. b) is a continuous function . In particular. as (x. . the limit of the function^ actual value of the function. b) as (x. //. y A function f(x. y) and f(a. b) is less than e. b) and Special Case. A j"unction f(x. 104.0). the numerical difference bet ween f(x. This means that corresponding to every positive number e. and 10'5. x = a\8 . y) of the square. 6). y) is = l. i. ft). >' = / such that for points (x. such a choice of S is possible for every positive number This is equivalent to saying that f(X.y)l\ < for all points (x. y) > (a b). 6). Let /(. there exists a neighbourhood such that for every point (x. there exists a positive number 8 such that \f( X . corresponding to any preassigned positive number z.x. y) defini we see > (a.
r.r.r. and denoted by 15 the ordinary derivative off(a. b) \ or f . 10 61.r. toy which is denoted We by gz/8^. b) and is denoted by f_ V 8x /(a. Thus <* fix ") lim Jx\x> v]\im f(X+h ' y) f. y) possesses a partial derivative w. It will be seen that to find the partial derivative of/(x.(a. This function is called the partial derivative of the function w.r.r. b) w. to x and is denoted by gz/gx or fx (x. DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS Partial derivatives. b) is the ordinary derivative off(x. we put j equal to b and consider the change in th& function as x changes from a to a \h so that /(*. to x at every point of its domain of definition. If f(x. to y at (a. f*(x. y) or fy .t. to xfor x=a. y) w. ' x at (a. then the values of these partial derivatives themselves define a function of two variables for the same domain. b). b).r. is said to be the partial derivatives of f(x. can similarly define the partial derivative of/.r. Then if it exists. if it exists. w. y) or simply fx . to y for y=b. Partial derivatives of higher orders. We can form partial derivatives of 3z/gx and dzjfty just as we formed those of z. Again. y) w. y) w. where y is kept constant in the process of taking the limit. is is called the partial derivative off(x. Let *=/(*> J>).196 106. A b). x at 3z (a. .t. f(X ' y)  as/z^0 as AI > u. y) w.
9 f lvx Similarly the second order partial derivatives aj \dy are respectively denoted by Thus. Thus to each point of the domain in the XY plane there corresponds a point P. y. we draw a line Z'OZ perpendicular to the 10 7. To each point (x. The aggregate of the points P determines a surface which is said to represent the function geometrically. we draw the line perpendicular to XY plane qual in length to z. . Geometrical representation or function of two variables. y) be a function defined in any . Fi g 55 . y) of this domain. given in the Appendix. domain lying in the XY plane. z). lying on one or the other side of the plane according as z in positive or negative. is But. partial d3rivatives 3 z/g>> 3* and 3 z/dx $y are distinguished the ordzr in which z is successively differantiated w. b). OX XY Any one sense. viz XY. so that we arrive at another point P denoted as (x. and OY. Let z /(#. The proof We take a pair of oall it Zaxis. general. of the two sides of Zaxis may be assigned a positive z. or f v.r. YZ and ZX which are taken as the coordinate planes. there are four second order partial derivatives of z at *tny point (a.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 197 Thus we have which are called the second order partial derivatives of z and are denoted by Z oZ Y> respectively. there corresponds a value of z. Through this point. they are equal. will be measured parallel to this axis. The three coordinate axes. to x and in Ths 2 2 by y. Through the perpendicular lines plane and point 0. taken in pairs determine three planes. Lengths. it will be sesn that.
we see that ( is ) \OX the tangent of the angle which J(a> 6) the tangent to the curve. Let Geometrical interpretation of partial derivatives of the first that the functional equation (/) represents a surface We now seek the geometrical interpretation of the geometrically partial derivatives . We have seen z=f(x 9 y). Hence. Fig. f(a. Thus n. n. if is a homogeneous function of order in Ordinarily. to x for x=a. in which the plane y = b parallel to the plane cuts the surface at P[a. dent variables If a x.(/> The point P[a. 56 On this curve x and z vary according to the relation *=/(*. / ZX )T V  Similarly. Homogeneous Functions. . T (C5 ) 3* Aa> is &) the ordinary derivative of/(x. /(x. makes with Xaxis. starting from P r A changes its remains constantly equal 1o b position on the surface such that y y then it is clear that the locus of the point is the curve of intersection of the surface and the plane y=b. y. b)].. b)] #. it may be seen that ( is ) > the ^ oy /( a tangent of the ft) angle which the tangent to the curve of intersection of the surface and the plane x=a makes with Yaxis. y) is said to be the degree of each of its terms x and y equal to n. we say that z is a homogeneous function of order or degree n. is a homogeneous function of order This definition of homogeneity applies to polynomial functions To enlarge the concept of homogeneity so as to bring even only. if it is expressible as xf(ylx).r. transcendental functions within its scope. on the surface* corresponds to the values b of the indepen variable point. b. order.198 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 10 71. b) w.*). bj(a.. . 108.
then x We have Thus Cor. a homogeneous function of order n according to the The functions new definition are homogeneous according to the second definition only. . // z y a homogeneous function of x. Euler's theorem on Homogeneous Functions. 7/z be a homogeneous function of.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 199 The polynomial function (/) which can be written as is also. n degree of x sin (yjx) is n. Also Here the L so that it is ' * J 1+ of degree J. Differentiating / ^"r ^T ?! i.(i) .x. 10 81.. y of degree n.. y of order n.
we obtain 8 * where we have employed and (1) and assumed the equality of Examples I // 2 1 ^ ^v v _ 2 f 1 * v y ' prove that 2 _9 " = x 3x3^ l~ y 2 x 2 +>' \  (D. /955.t/. // .2v tan 1 1 _ dxdy * = 12. y respectively and adding.200 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS partially with respect to x and y separately.f/. (3) by x. P.) v 7 Wa have rtA l . d z z we obtain 32 9*' 8z '" ( ' Multiplying (2).
(i) But ' *)=2z=2 tan cos 9 < Substituting in sec 2 w (1). 1952 .. 1949) We have Similarly or by symmetry 2 3 w =: .. 3. // prove that =sm . x 3w +y ax . W~ 3w 2 sin w cos M= . ft d* dy Here u is not a homogeneous function. dy .PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 201 show that 9 3 i^ __ "+ a"^  (D. y of order 2. we obtain  d* J w. P. f J Adding.U. we obtain the result as given. ' write z=tan so that z is u=  xy >? l(ylx) %7 a homogeneous function of x. We.U. however. 2u.
U.x Xy y log (y sin (Hi) 4. Verify that 2 a // a*a> when u is (/) sin..L/. P. 7950 .1  /. (AC/.202 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Exercises 1. Verify Euler's theorem for liii) z^sin. e ax sin by. (iv) z=jc log ~. (D. r^ 3. If u=f(yjx). Find the l first order partial derivatives of (//) (/) tanr (x+y). . 1945) 1 If r=tapr (y/x). dZ  j^r. 1954) If z=xyf(x/y) show that t x~~^ dz .U. * (v) 2= rj7l' 6. p rj ^.) . find the value of J!^ >.[/. 2. show that *!"_ 1./ i \ 8. (Hi) logU 2 j>> 2 ). If z=tan (y+ax)+(yax)'* . .x  y . Find the second order partial derivatives of / X V / .1 xy + taxri. x+x sin y Find the value of 1 a2 when 5. =2z. +J 8_ =0 . ^J!?. verify that 1^41^ 0. (P.
) 9^ 17.= 9y a* 2 ' m (P. 2 _9 z\ 2 9y9^y 2 ^^^ \9y * 2 If w=/(cix f 2 2/7^+^ 9^ . ( fl ) If wsin.1 ^^"^ ^x+>!y show that / 14. prove that a 15.+ 7 . If =/(r) where r= VU 2 f j/2 ). r<) 8r 9^ 18.U. A =1. prove that /9 2 z V9^ 16. If 205 z(x+y)=x 2 y 2 .t/. p.r.1 . Tr If w =log i ^. lfz=3xyya \(y 2x) i t verify that 11 12. If 3 A: ^^ . If =log UHyhz f a 2 ). If 9zax 2 dxdy' K=r m where r =x2 Fy + z 2 show that . 13. . show that * 3w A: >> y ^ 9x^9^ =tan w.EXERCISES r 10. prove that &+C. 7955) z=f(x I ay)\<f>(x ay). (P. If V. ).V x V e~ r2/4/ i f V f \ 9^ x which will 9=t n find the value of n make r 2 .y . v^(^ 9* 2 f2/?xyh^ 2 ).1 x ^ f 2 ' . . 4 ( \* 1  az   9Z  dx dy \ J (AlhLatcd) 11. 3. prove that ^ ^. 201] .dY^ao^^ao / V 9r (M . ltz = (x{y) + (x+y)<9(ylx). find [Refer Ex. show *L 3y that V J 1 = . 1954) (A) If wsia. 4 .^m 19. prove that _ 2 = 2 9 2 w 3>az 20. 21 .Jr. prove that (M. If w = tan.
Suppose A x=r cos a<jid 6.^. we obtain / ^ ]=2 tan 2 sec* tan . y. If w~sin~ show that 10 82. Before beginning partial differentiation. new notation. . we have to ask ourselves a question. 2 8* . we new Notation. 9* * = 2 ? 2 =2 <> 2 * sec w tan w /0~ ( } \9^ / Y +sec . by two connected In the present case we have four variables x. "What are the independent variables ?" Hitherto the notation has always been such as to suggest readily what the independent variables are and no ambiguity was possible.> w  2 ^sec w . introduce the that Choice of independent variables. . y=r sin 6 . sin 2 2u. we obtain Using (3) p. relations so that any one of them may be expressed in terms . To consider a particular case. (0 we are required to find 9x/9r. we get ~ 2 sec w tan 2 A w ^ 9. r. 2 a^ As P. 201. 10*81 Making substitution. y of order 2. 22. by Cor.r. to x and y. z is a homogeneous function of jc.204 Differentiating DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (2). 199. w. we have.
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION of two of the remaining three. If * rcos r 8 5. s the curved surface. From we obtain r2 =x +y 2 z so that x= \?(r z y*). Ldr of x w. Prove that .x/9r has no meaning. y are the rectangular cartesian coordinates of a point and polar coordinates.t/. the height and radius of the circular base of a right circular cylinder. For the sake of distinction. Thus means L r. rax J0. and ar/Jx where are its Explain the meanings of the partial differential coefficients x. we have To find Ldrjy (/). h. 0? Jv the partial derivative to r when are the independent variables. (a) r. find the values of *! >' fl *! r^i L'w L ar Je' V r 9x a< i Jfl 1 L r^ L'w (P. y. 205 Thus. may or be expressed in terms of or (b) y . 3. In case (c). 3. Ex. x r. 1938) r Ex. 1. 2. r. are equal. where 9x/gr has a meaning there is no reason to suppose that the two values of (9x/3r) as determined from them. From x r cos . (c) 0. therefore necessary to distinguish between these two values. these two values are respectively denoted as i. show that the Ex. .we have to express x in terms of r and y. v is the volume. >'=' sin 9. In cases (a) and (&). r. where we regard and>> conSome modification of the notation is stants respectively. e .
y). w. depends upon 8x and. 4. to be assumed that x and y in the func 10 91.  1 F cos 2 > yr sin 109.ruly. Let t We have From (/) and z+Zz=f(x \Sx. we have f(x+8x. y).ylUx.ilue .(') be any two points so that Sx 8y are (x. so that by the mean valu? theorem. Sy. because of the assumed ontinuity offx (x y). tso .. y) as a function of y only supposed constant.y)~f(x so that y)] .. aid because of the assumed continuity offy (x y) tends to zero as x and Sy both tend to 0.**! ..~ 0. .(Hi) we have subtracted and added differences. to eaoh of Here the change Sz has been cxpresse 1 as the sum of two which we shall apply Lag range's mean v. y). Lst Sz be the consequent change in z. ^} e a so that e 2 depends on $x. theorem. We regard f(x\8x. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Prove that ) to \vhere &r x=rco5 .206 Ex. it will f( x y) possesses continuous partial derivative domain of definition of the function. we get (//')... so that by the mean value theorem.. tion Theorem on Total Differentials. y+OWf^x. tends to as 8x tends to 0. r. 0*(logr) 8 / 0. We that t write Ux + OJx. We write x \x being . > For the following developments. y)f(x.y+8y). (x\8x.. We consider a z=f(*.y). y feeing sup*posed constant.(/v) fy(x+&x. t = Again we regard f(x.(v) s. y+8y) the changes in tlie independent vnriablcs x B. y)=Sxft (x \Ojx.(//) tix... y) as a function of x only.
y)+Byfv (x. Approximate Calculations. but the differential dz of the dependent variable z is not the same as the change Sz it being the principal part of the increment Sz. semiminor axis and area of an ellipse respectively.(v/) v =x so that dx=dz=l 8x^8x. Thus the change Sz these the first is called in r consists of two points as marked. . Find the percentage error 1 + TT Here . (iv).. Thus (v/) dz=^dx n a/ + ax ay It should be carefully noted that the differentials dx and dy of the independent variables x and y are the actual changes 8x and &y. A denote semimajor axis. dATrbda+Tradb. (v).. Of Thus dz=^~8x + dx Let z 9 S>>. dy . v y . dz 8r </>>. Since we are given that j a . Similarly._ =7rV T ^ =7m JL . .EXAMPLES 207 Prom (i/7). the differential of z and is denoted by dz. we get . b. If a. dx + ^ dx 2y which has been denoted by dz. V A . is made in measuring the major and minor axes. y is Cor. by taking z=y. we show that 8y=dy. takes the form dy. From above we see that the approximate change dz in z corresponding to the small changes 8x and &y in x. we have the relation 1. Examples error of in the area of an ellipse when an per cent.
As the positive. Here . b.*. we know 2 cos that A~  be a. . degrees approximately. equation be . .A t/c At . a(cos C . be sin A dA~ . where p is small. The sides of an acuteangled triangle are that the increment in due to small increments in a. T. A is a function of three variables.208 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULI! S dA Too + ioo ""loo ' Therefore the percentage of error in A = 2. ~ i a*) ' ^c . prove that the limits of error in A are approximately 1 2 5(fjLa jbc sin A ) degrees. c/6+cos B dcdd). Jc... Prove b c is given by the y 2. JA <M= 2 2 222 . b'c* 2ab cos (7 2 c# cos . c<*/100. c. sin A S/l =a(cos CS&f cos J3&c$a). > From elementary Trigonometry. da are &/i/100.' db . 2a or O 2 sin A ^ . Supposing that the limits of error in the length of any side are M per cent. A . measured. cos C are cos fff a) 0(6 cos 6c sin"^ C+c ^ 'TOO' sin a( 6cos Cc cosj8a) A M ' Bc"s5tt 100 ^ ' * 100 u ' or 180 100 or IT ^ ( 1 15 ) . ' 9 2 sin A A A 2b*cc(b*+c*a*) A dA=*~ >. . sin A. (M. triangle is acuteangled. Therefore the limits of the error therefore cos dA are JB. Tho limits of the errors d&.
. Prove that the error corresponding to errors 8a. 8b. v. is Show In a triangle ABC. (/v). (M. 8A small increments in 6.. anyplace and A. 2.s8q .T. Show further that if a=n/6. . y^(u t 9 v) . If Ac. Composite functions. Let =A*.abcSs. v. which is called equations (i).PABTIAL DIFFERENTIATION Exercises 209 an Find the percentage error in calculating the area of a rectangle when error of 2 per cent is made in measuring its sides. The area of 2 A S A = S 8p . find the corresponding error in the area. 0") so that x. 2 Avhere 6.. y are themselves functions of a third variable t. (///) are said to define z as a composite function of t. that the error in calculating the time period of a pendulum at zero if an error of +/* per cent be made in measuring its length gravity at the place. 2s=a+b + c. If Sb. c is A. the vertex A is given small displacement S* parallel to EC.) so that x y are functions of the variables u. 3? to propel a ship of displacement that must be done rZ>f/ 2 D for a distance s in time is proportional to . (i) c8b+b8c+bc cot /I S/l0. A/* are the small errors in these measurements. (//). Sc. Here the functional zas a function of w. The work / 2/?=0 2 f 6 2 +c 2 . 8c in the sides is approximately given by 5.T. A/4. in h will be approximately compensated by an error of (M. let x=^(ii f t>. c. B and length a and SB are a is an acuteangled triangle with fixed base EC. and from them A. 7. the total area of the cone including the base. (//) cSBhsin BSjt=0. measurements are taken of the side c and angles is calculated from these measurements. show that the error Atf in a is given by 3. A and 5 respectively. and let y) . The height // and the semivertical angle a of a cone are measured. and the distance diminished by 3%. an error of fl per cent 0'33 degree in a.(h) . (v) define a composite function of u and v. 1.) a triangle whose sides are a. is calculated.. prove that 4.). The functional equations. (/).(*. ABC. the time diminished by 1%. Find approximately the percentage increase of work necessary when the displacement is increased by 1%. Again..) 10*92. If h and a are in error by small quantities S/z and 8* respectively. b.
y). DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Differentiation of composite functions. y=$(u. Sx. 207.). z f. y+8y)f(x. Let ***f(x>y)* possess continuous partial derivatives and let * possess continuous derivatives.210 10*93. we have Urn ( fJx+Ol fi limit. y.y+*y)f(x. . t Sx. Because of the continuity of partial derivatives. y) + [f(x. Let z=/(^. possess continuous first . Then Jz = dF 'Let in x. Sy. Let X=>(. to the two differences on the right. order partial derivatives.r. y )1 10'91.y)=&. gz ' dx dt ax~ + 8y~ Let t. (/) Bx y+Sy)=fj(x. first possess continuous order partial derivatives w. gz dy ' ' dt ffSf be any two values. in the becomes 9z ' dz dt _ "~ dx dt 9x + 8z dy ' ' ' 9y dt *' ' Cor 1. Sz be the change* consequent to the change St in We have . to x. y. v). p. 0) W lim Hence. As in we apply Lagrange's mean value theorem and obtain Let 8f>0 so that ?x and 8y*Q. 8y)>(0.
Find dzjdt when z=xy 2 +x*y. p. we have az similarly be az a* . we regard v as a constant so that x and y may be supposed to be functions of u only. by the above theorem. x=at 2 y . 210. Verify by direct substitution. a* ay It may shown that ax * _az __ az ~av ~~ax a_z^ * j?y av ay av"' Examples 1.8j> . Then. . verification. we get *L = (yZ+2xy) 2at+(2xy+x*)2a Again ~ Hence the 2. Prove that if then We look upon z as a composite function of u. Now . 10*93.211 To obtain 3z/gw. ' 9" " 3V . z / a function ofx andy. Substituting these values in . v. (//).
prove [This is Euler's theorem for a homogeneous function of three independent variables. we get du ~"av ^a 9* . H=f(u. vzx. xy) ^c prove that. y.212 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Subtracting. 3. where yjxu. ^ z Let u=y so that z. th(it H v is a homogeneous function of x. >>. w). we get the result. 2. w=xy. ' 9* Similarly __ ' ' 'dy 9M ' 3" Adding. ( . zx. JfHf^yz. 9>> . z of ordern . 4. z 'x=v. v.] We . We have expressed H as a composite ' function of x. have v) H=xnf f j=x/\w.
IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS 213 But 8w = . the equation (/) must determine one and only one value of y so that the equation (/) always determines.. fines ' . variables. /V ' ' v) ' ~ x*  ( v V '9W 8 +z  8 0V / Again dH^xnfdf a^ \8 ' + 8v~ 8. we shall now obtain the values ofdy/dxandd 2yldx 2 in terms of the partial derivatives 3//3X.r. df + dy~ its dy ' a/ *' df dy ' dx ax +9* x dx ' Also/(x. There arises a theoretical we cannot say Assuming that the conditions under which the equation (/) dey as a derivable function of x are satisfied. as a function of x and in fact. f(x y) is a function of two variables x. Ordinarily. aw Similarly 3J!. in general. this is not the The investigation of the conditions under which case. y and y is again a function of x so that we may regard f(x. Without investigation that corresponding to each value of A'. Its derivative with respect to x is 9 3/ ' dx ~dx 3x equal to 0.. ?/. y) as a composite function of x.y for 8".  . A. difficulty here. to x and y. within the scope of this book. d*f/dy* of / w. ay 3 two 10*94. the equation (/) does define y as a function of x is not.(0 (/) y)=o defines we can an obtain y as a function of x. ?/ 8B a>> ' ? v > aj/ 1 . Let /(jc. the equation y as implicit function of x. _y) Implicit functions.o.. Therefore derivative w. Now.JL ~~ . 3 //8* d fld*dy.c a Hence 0* = njt'/(. since f(x. to  is identically is 0.r. we say that. y. however. be any function of on solving the equation . y) considered as a function of x alone.c*~ > ? v ^ _ z ' a* a* ~~. 2 2 2 3 //ay.
so that f(x+Sx. then . .or or . we get ' _ ~dx _ ' >dy dx\dxdydy* dx dy dy a. regarding 9//9X composite functions of x.214 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS __ dfldy /v . Let 8x > 0. y+Sy) Sx fy (x. and 3//8y as Differentiating again w._ Without making use of follows : .r.^__ 10'93.. Example Prove /fart i// 3flrx 2 +x3 =0. .y 2V 8*A >3 3 Hence __ ~ dx and ftf ' _. we may obtain dyjdx also as Now f(x>y)=0Let Sx be the increment in x and Sy the consequent increment in y._. tox..
EXERCISES 2J6 f(x. 3z/ay. 214. . x=w 2 .=^ v find . v=  smy : . Substituting these values in (Hi). 1955) (tan x)* +y eoi x =a. find If If i cosv" . yeot(r 2j). is If 2=xyf(vjx) and z a constant.  sin* .r. 5. differentiating the given relation w. . <7r. find ar/ v / 4. (j/0 (cos x)f (sin >^)*=0. z)=0 find 0z/ax. (P. (2a2x)y*2y(2axx 2 )(2axx 2 )ty as before. show that . directly. ( 1 2.U.y .JC=2r35 + 4.v. find Find dy/dx in the following cases (/) x sin (x^)(xy)=0. 3. y. we get _ dx* _ . If F(x. (//) (i v) y x =sin x. (v) x* ^y*. If z=(cos y)/x and y=r+855. Ji=(x+ y)l(l*y) x=tan (2r5 2 ). 6. on p. y. >>)=>> 3 3ax2 +Jts =0. Exercises 1.a)(3ajc2 (x 27>> y Thus j 5 . to x. "7. Ifii=Jt.
prove that r . dy 2 If is a homogeneous function of the nth degree in (x. Ifax 2 } 2hxy + by* \2gx\2fytcQ. w. Z are the first differential coefficients of.. 4L= ?/..) (//) x 4 i y*= jc (Hi) 6 +^ 5 =5fl 8 5 ! Jc. 1935\ .. C are the angles of a triangle such that sin 2 /1 + sin B] tan 2 sin 2 C=constant. "dx* 13. z)=0. y.  show  that y?=dX 2 10. prove that dA^ 12. Clan B p .y. 1950) . B. show that 9 . prove that .)> If JH(lyH^(l* 8 )=fl.U.. ff~z = r L "" 1 X log "I" tfX .216 8. I //*! Show that at the point of the surface where x=yz. ?/ 9.. (P. If/(jc. xu + e~ prove that sin w.4. a .xM y ' 3ax>>:=0. respectively. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS y)=Q. (/>. J : 14. v yv\e~ cos d^ = dv dy 11./. y> z) and if where X. (/) Find dy/dx 2 in the following cases x *+y*=laxy. =_ /y d 2x ' ^_S^fv}*2fa . show that _ dx 2 17.j _^ z' 3 J If u and v are functions of x and >> defined by w.. prove that dx dy 16.U. ?. >>)=. Y. 1* .. >^)=0 and/. dx (P. Jc (P. 1936) If . If AX. with respect to x. fx dy 3 2 (/ Given that /(x. <p(y.U. (iv) y 5 = 15.T ^0.
) are repeated limits of the same expression taken in different orders. 0)=0.. /. rent from/^ (a. as. Prove that fxy ^ fyx at the origin for the funct ion x. 1954) We have/_(0. b). . ll A>0 and A Iim Iim . ft) and/^ffl. Jim li A >0 r Inn A > < = /7 r Iim _> /7/c 7 . (D.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 217 APPENDIX EQUALITY OF REPEATED DERIVATIVES It has been seen that the two1. say. 0)= Iim ' ^ . They repeated ate not. Hons.(1) . It is easy to see & priori also whyfyx (a. .b) k . A>0 L * 'J v^ 9 ' ..U. &)= / / t. however. Inn k * i /K yv b\k) '  f(a. It may similarly bo shown that Iim > rj!/ A > //fc /z Thus wo sec that/ (a. We have Iim A > and i /y (0. for example r lirn v Jim ^ j fc . b) may bo diffe A. y are not simultaneously zero andf(Q. Also the two repeated limits may not be equal. = = v Iim '' i 1. always equal as is shown below by considering twoexamples._> o/j^0 n hk +K _k Iim A:>0 7 ^ = Examples 1 . Equality of fxy and fyx second order partial derivatives are generally equal.
2 1 /(x. 0+k)fM . Thus 2. .. . (5) and (6).4) Also fl( 0. 0)= lim /(0..( lim  = m li K =0..= l.U. Again /..(0 ( lim == . 0)= fin /x (0. MH OH 0) lim Thus from (1). =0. 1953) and is zero elsewhere. We have . 0). /c)= to lim lim h^0 lim lim " A>0 " .(5) ** and  From (4).>. 0)=!^..1 ^/ (B.218 Also DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS /. I /.y)=* tan. (2 ) = and /. (2) and (3) /((>. OH *>o *= K V /JO. ... lim t.1 =/^0.(0.x 2 >^ tan.
. so that <?(h. h ( /ta.. A. for [tan */*] > 1 as * A:>0 * We may similarly show that Hence the result.l klh\ ' . y)]. Also ji. Thus Again considering proceeding as before. we write t(x)=f(x. h 1 /c J * 0. y) instead of </t(x) and we may prove that . Again applying the mean value theorem to the right side of we obtain ) 0<0 t <l. . y) f(x. fcoL \ .y+k)f(x. .1 1 .. 2.(2) By Lagrange's mean value theorem. Ifz=f(x.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 219 = hm . Theorem.(5) (5). klh J ) k tan.. /r(^)=/(A:+/j. r \ . Equality of fxy and f^. .. y) possesses continuous second order partial derivatives d^ld^dy and d*?ldydx.(1) k)=$(x+h)t(x). then Consider the expression For the sake of brevity. ..n. 1 0=/J..y). .. =A .
such that b) V /(* f(a+h. by dz 10'93.y)=fz V (x. we obtain fvx (x. d . we have. b+k) be any point of this neighbourhood. 210. Now. b) Lemma. * d form of the operator L h ax +k . order in 3. y) . y) possesses continuous partial derivatives of the nth any neighbourhood of a point (a. is a function of t. 8z * dx_ ~dt di'^'Wx dz + dz ' dy "di . Taylor's theorem for a function of two variables. 1 operating on the operand z. .y). This equality shows that the operators d are equivalent. A. p. because of the assumed continuity of the Partial Derivatives. dz 8z dz Now. dy . then there exists a positive number 9 which is less than J. Then. we agree to write dz in the / . b+k)=f(a. + h +k A/(<7.220 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Let h and k > 0. V) and if (a+h. We and so that z write =/(*.
this becomes (0 < 6 < 1) . We variable write 9 f(x. : //. then z ' By) Proof of Taylor's Theorem. we see that dn z ( 8 . z 8y) lx +k . now. are cons tants. k. 8 \w * ' where the operator implies the repeated application of the operator /i times.TAYLOR'S THEOREM FOR TWO VARIABLES 221 Employing the equivalence of these two operators. we obtain d / dz \ d*z__ dt^ dt \dt ) d 8 d \ ' . b. y) and x=a+ht. where 8 \n result a. y = b\kt. Thus we have arrived at the following Jfz=f(x. 8 7 8 If. we agree to write we have d*z Continuing in this manner. g(t) of the single 1 There exists a positive number 6 between and such that For / = !.(/) . .y)=f(a+ht b+kt)=g(t)< and apply Maclaurin's theorem to the function t.
l show " that .h K f.n n rkr "nr 3. 4"c.y 2 u +. 9 + _3_\" A" 3. Show > that (* 2. b+k)..(3fl ^ ^6^) cos where u~a9x. Substituting these values in as stated. .. f(0)/te Also since b).t C.7 +/t V a>/ 3^ 3^" 8 z^^ A^ a^^r + 4 on.. / h . v~b$y. we have the Taylor's theorem's Exercises 1.222 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Now )=/te+A... . < < K ]. (W) e* sin 6^A>+afrx. Show (i) that sin K sin ^^ary T[(**+ 3x^ 2 ) cos 0a sin sin ex cos a 0.. e [(a*x* 3ab*xy ) sin 8 v.y] . By mathematical indication or otherwise. (i).
Def. f(a. Maxima and Minima of a function of two variables. a max. y)> if there exists some neighbourhood of the point (a. y) are that fx (a b)=Q. v) = l elsewhere. Minimum if there value. f(a. /. b) to be an extreme value offix. b)<f(a+h. 9 If f(a b) is an extreme value of the function /(. The necessary conditions for f(a.fv (a. b) of one variable x for t x=a f x (a. b) such that for every point (a+A. For example. Similarly we may show that *)=0. not an extreme value. b) for x a must necessarily be zero. y) if is Thus every extreme value be true. ifACB*>0 y f(a. 41. y) r some neighbourhood of the point (a. and f*(a.c. b) is said to be a stationary value of /(jc. y) of two variables x and y then. b) is said to be an extreme value of f(x. value b)=B. clearly.(M)=O //a.b)>f(a+h. 42. As are necessary and and/(x. b+ k) of this neighbourhood f(a. 4. Maximum value. exists if it is a maximum or a minimum value. if It may be noticed that A^O if . Note 1. b) such for every point (a\>h.y)Q when jc=0 or y=0 but/(0. y).0)=:0. /(a. b) is a maximum value of the function that fix. A. y=b Stationary value. then in the case of single variable./V(0. Note jc=<i. f(a> b) is not an extreme value if ACB*<O (iv) the case is doubtful and needs further consideration. it is also an extreme value of the and as such its derivative function/(jc. if f(x.b)=0.0)0. 6+fc) of this neighbourhood. A function f(x.(*.b+k). value a min. f To show that /. b+k). y) is said to be stationary for or f(a. the conditions obtained above not sufficient. 2. then (i) (ii) (iii) b)=AJxy (a. 0) is /*(0.MAXIMA AND MINIMA FOB TWO VARIABLES MAXIMA AND MINIMA A. b) is minimum value of the function f(x. a stationary value but the converse may not A. Extreme valuej /(a.tf(a. b)=C f(a b) t is ifACB*>0 and A<0. Sufficient conditions.&HO. b) is and A>0.
b+k)f(a. (a. 2 In this case neither A nor C can be zero. negative t . we. zero. 6)=0. b+k)=f(a. (a. the is the same as that of Case write 1. &)+( h ~ +k or f(a+h. 6)=0. k. We sign of assume that for sufficiently small values of h. i. b)+kf. we see that is always positive except when Ah+Bk=Q. we have written where p is of the third degree in h and fc.(a. Also./. Now fx (a. ACB* is positive. when it is Thus we which see that Ah?\2Bhk\Ck 2 always retains the same sign a that of A. b) b)+k%* (a. b)=hfx (. b)] where u=a+0h.224 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS By obtain Taylor's Theorem with remainder after three terms. fta+h. fc=0.e. We =r Since [(Ah+Bk)*+(ACB*)k*].will be or positive. is Thus f(a>b) an extreme value according as maximum or minimum A is in tbja case a^J . o=b+6k.. b)+2hkfacv(a. when is /*=0. Let ACB >0. fc=0.
Firstly. } ACB A=Q up Thus in this case/(#. b) is not an extreme value. We write /(*. b) is not an extreme The proof is similar when Cr^O. We now solve the equations f x ~Q and/y=0. We write 2 Since is negative. doubtful. Find the extreme values of xy(axy).b) depends upon If. The case is. f(a+h. zero when fc=0 whatever h may be! The Examples 1. 225 Let ACB*<0. Let ACB*=0. A = Q then. is so that the expression case is again doubtful. . . we have and so that the expression does assume values with different signs accordingly f(a.EXAMPLES Case II. Case HI. therefore. A^Q.\y*. the consideration of p. Suppose that We have Here the expression becomes so that the nature of the sign of zero. y) =xy(axy)=axyx*y. \ve see that this expression lakes values with different signs when fc=0 and when Ah\Bk= Q.b+k)f( a. now. In case as well as value. we suppose that A^O. when . C=0. we must have 5=0. because of the condition AC=B 2 .
. 0) is negative. according as.. y which make Solving these. a. i#) is an extreme value and will be a maximum or a minimum according as.. .xy+y*) =0. f(a. is negative or positive. is also not We may For (\a. y)=4t We now solve the equations fx =zQ fy=Q which y are .y =0..226 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Thus we have ay ax 2xy x2 2 . 0). These are equivalent to so that we have to consider the four pairs of equations. >>). a). 5= a. we obtain 4(x3 +}")=() or (x+y)(x*.. 4. C= \a so that AC J3* is positive. C=0 is Thus/(0. For (0. j. (/>. a). A2a. similarly show that also not an extreme value of the function. Thus/\0. B= ^r) a. Thus /(0. B \a. Ja)=^T^ 3 2.) fy*(x. A\<t.[/. ^1=0. (a. la). 0). JVmf write f/ie extreme value of 2(x^) a x ^4 4 .) We /(x. we obtain the following pairs of values of x and the function stationary : J" 1 (0. The extreme value /(^a. y). (0. Hons. (0. Jfl). viz.(1) . i. C=0 so that AC U2 is an extreme value of /(x. (J*.e.. 0) so that AC B* is negative. not an extreme value of /(*. is positive or negative..(2) Adding these. 0).
viz. to consider the two pairs of equations.e..c=.c which which is positive for points in the neighbourhood of the origin. For points.. follows: as well as . A =4. C=4 so that ACB*^Q ) accordingly this case needs further examination. (v/2. a is positive. (3) x give the following pairs of solutions : (0. 0) and there are points where the function assumes negative values i. X= is V 2 20. 0) there are points where function assumes positive values i. We rewrite this relation in the form . \/2) is maximum be disposed The when x=0. (0. where . 3. a also a maximum We may Note. A. as. 5= 4. and For(V2.t'(2. (V2. We have. >/(o. > and The equations The equations For (0. similarly see that/( case which arises y2. value value. /(\/2. V2). (x 9 0) along xaxis.e. y=*x the value of the function negative. V2).  viz. an extreme value and in fact.EXAMPLES which shows that either 227.. C=20 so is that 4C B is. x \y~Q x 2 or xy+y*=0. Find the minimum value of when We write so that we have to find the minimum variables x.0). 0). 2x 4 Thus in every neighbourhood of the point (0. 0) (4) give only as the real solution. Hence /(O.y=0. \/2) negative. the value of the function 8 ) =2x. Again is for points along the line. 0). </(0..y=0 can of by an elementary consideration as Now/(0. 5= 4. thus. 0) is not an extreme value. y z which are connected t value of a function of three* by a single relation. .0)=0..
1952) 2. The minimum value } of.hy) > <>b u(x. first Equating to zero these two obt&jn order partial derivatives. (D. independent vari x and We have (*> . //) for extreme values: (11 ) ^ x*+xy+y*+ax+by. (x) x*y (\ 2x*y+x*~y*+2y.a * . (iv) (vi) (vi/i) ( (v/i) (ix) 3x 2 ~^ 2 4x a 2 sin (jc+2y)+3 cos (2xy). Examine the following functions (/) ^+4x^+3**+ x. therefore. ables w. Hens.U. we have 2 * 2^2 2 C' x 2ab a  t Since 4C jB 2 is positive and. w. 1952) . is Exercises 1. is in question. has been expressed as a function of two y. y)=2y~c t[(p. We now obtain where. w. minimum for the values of x and y A is also positive.U.>)=?* "* (p. Find all the stationary points of the function examining whether they are maxima or minima. 4). . (B. we Again. therefore.228 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS as so that z has been expressed a function of x and y. z xy).axby).
w (2) and (3) as determin two. To find the stationary values of u=f(x. w. we shall obtain two eliminants.w). F.(5) (2) and with respect to .. z and w for which u (11) determine the is stationary.(10) ^t(^. . z..(3) ing Now.. Equating to zero the partial derivatives of. w. y.. say. 9z <>. . are respective^ zero.(7) ..(4) 0. Thus u is a function of x. w where z and w are functions of A: and y so that u is essentially a function of two independent variables x and y.(x y z w)=0.. where the four variables x. 9 9 .. 9 '.. conditions r. (3) partially . now. We may in terms of the remaining suppose.. z..STATIONARY VALUES 3.. Therefore for stationary values of. >v)=0.. (10) and values of the unknowns x.(11) Then the four equations (2). that (2) and (3) determine z and w as functions of x.(8) ^0. y. Again.v and we obtain "=0.. V. 229 Find the shortest distance between the lines A. 9z/3j^. the two partial derivatives of.. 3Z/3X.y. y..(9) If. y. 5.. . +/.0. with respect to x and y obtained after z and w have bo3n replaced by their values in terms of x and y. z. differentiating v. 3w/9>> be eliminated out of the six equations (4) (9).(2) . (3). w.. 3>v/gx.. we can look upon the equations any two of the four variables x. . for the sake of definiteness. z. y. . with respect to > x and y\ we obtain . Stationary values under subsidiary conditions.(i) w are subjected to the two subsidiary .
which render u stationary. section by Xl we multiply the equations (7) and and A. We the equations (6) and (8) of the preceding section by Aj and multiply A 2 respectively and add to (4). The method outlined above is applicable to a function of any number of variables which are subjected to any set of subsidiary conditions. the equations (12) and (13) give . make .. all the four variables are being treated on a uniform basis. y. by the plane lx+my+nz^Q.. y> z and w so that In practice. ox . Let (x.230 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Note. 51. the necessary equations are to be put the auxiliary function g.. This method is explained in the following Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers.. we write we see that the equations (14) to (17) are obtained by equating to zero the four partial derivatives of g. suppose that A t and A 2 are determined so as to . (15). Examples Find the lengths of the axes of the section of the *+z*lc*=l.(12) Again.(13) We. now.. This defect has been remedied by Lagrange who has given a symmetrical method based on the introduction of m certain undetermined multipliers. ellipsoid . so that we (9) of the preceding 1AalM ~ =0. so that we obtain A.. (16). . y> z) be any point of the section. We write 1. . now. and add to (5).(16) The equations (2) and (3) of the preceding section along with the equations (14). with respect to x.(15) With this choice of the values of A x and A2 .. down by setting up Note.. *) ~=0. If. section. therefore. (17) determine values of A x A 2 and of x. This method for determining stationary "values of a function under subsidiary conditions outlined above is unsymmetrical in character regard to its treatment of the variables involved..(14) .. z and w.
y. We where x.2 1 c ~ 2z Ai A" Multiplying these by / /..EXAMPLES have to find the stationary values of subjected to the two subsidiary conditions jfrVa' 1. to The equations AI. >> Equating to zero the and z we obtain 9 derivatives of g(x. y. () We g(x. that. (/v) and r2 . These values of x. x. 231 r 2 . Wo multiply (///). z. the two . (iv) and (v). (///). as its roots. m. y. (11). (11). we obtain a a quadratic in 8 stationary values of r which is r* and (Jetermines. (v) will determine the values of substituted in (/). z. y. z are /x=0. . z respectively and add so on making use of (/) and (//). (iv) and (v) by x.. when will determine the stationary values of eliminating ^^ These operations amount to y and z from (/). write zM partial x. . y.r. A lf x. z) w. (///). n respectively and adding. y. With the equations / (//'/). we obtain this value of 7^. (iv) and (v) can be re written as 2x n r^~ !_'.
in question. (D.. 1953) (a> b. y. we obtain . y. now show that these two 2 stationary values of r are the squares of the semiaxes of the section. tbepohU{2.232 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS The geometrical considerations. g(x. x. 2A 2 =0. determine (/) .U. (/) along with the given subsidiary condition z.v a h^ 2 fz 2 when 2. 8. y and Exercises 1. 4. If u where x show y is z ' that the stationary value ofu.. to y and z. z) w r. Find the greatest value of axby when x*+xy+y*^3k*. y  =0. 2. Find the? extttme Va lues of . These give or ax=by~cz. xyz=a*. Which point of the sphere 2x*=l is at the maximum distance from 5. ' 7. The equation =1. z)=flx'+&V+c'2 a +> ( I + y f I 1 ) Equating to zero the partial derivatives of x. In a plane triangle. c) Find the perpendicular distance of the point from the plane b^the Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers. Find the lengths of the axes of the conic z ax*+2hxy+by ~l. find the maximum value of ens A COS B COS C. Hons. Find the extreme value of xy when (MI) 3. given by We write g(x. . 1.3)? 6. Find the minimum value of (w) .
U. (D.l>.C/. to i x whenO<x<J 7.I/. . if r = i (/I.MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES subject to 233 9. to three points of discontinuity which when %xare 4<x<l to you required and to whenx=l. 7957) Miscellaneous Exercises 1./9J5) show will that two variables x and y are connected by the relation ax*+by*=ab.U. has (Patna) find.*. 10. ifi</<l. 3. Show that the maximum and minimum values of. / 2 lim (///) ( n /I (') tan^/ which is ~> oo \ 6. //ww. 1947) . Determine the points of discontinuity of (0 [*] + [*?.2 2 >7_^ + i. to J when * = . r 2 where 2 r =a*x*+b 2y 2 + c 2 z 2 jc'+yH z ? =l and /xf iny+wz=0 . are given by the equation 72 . Find the points of continuity and discontinuity of the following : functions 2. (D. Examine the continuity of the function /(0)=0. (D.0. 1)52) where n is any integer. Determine the points of discontinuity of tan X f" i L 4. when x=0 1 .v + f . 5. Show : that the function fPU) equal to . Hons. Determine the points of continuity and discontinuity of the function f(x) defined by fin l/)o. the maximum and the minimum values of the function If be the values of given by the equation 4(0a)(0 b)~ah. (B. Draw the graph of and find the points of discontinuity.
can be expanded in a series of ascending powers of . (a) Give the first (B.U. 14.. is constant.v.T. Itax*+2hxy+by***l. where. W 1 2 cos fl+a 1 show that * 13. a DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Find d0W4 J/H where .) three nonvanishing terms in the expansion of sin"" 1 ( J sin x). prove that x 11. 10. 9. prove that (M.) If prove that Assuming prove that that . If >>=cos (w sin" 1 ^:). (b) Show that the expansion upto x4 of x/sinh x is . )' / when r a ~a*cos 20. ^ cosa in ascending powers of or.234 8. 00=0.. prove that If ^ when iw=6. Find ^ V i+ / 12. (2m)  show if e cos (jc sin a) can be expanded that the coefficient of x n is cos wa/w ! 15.4. J0. /r..y flo can be expanded as a series 2 + QiX+ a z x \. 16. If j. #!=! and for ivm =(^i / 24 6. Care relation the angles of a triangle and satisfy the sin S 5/it Cf sin C sin A+sin A B=h. Find V + ^0'(~r \ in terms of r.
g= is /(*) for /(O)  1 .MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 17.. prove that the equation <*>) g+f*y)j. Prove that if w is homogeneous function of the wth degree 9w then x . 18. given by /W=1 ~^!+4T . 22. nM . 1952) Prove that whatever the functions /and (I) g. If ii^sin' 1 .*?+ y 3x+ + ay +. /'(0)= 0. Given that z is a function of u and M t?. 20..ois equivalent to 9z/av^0. satisfies the relation 19. r = v. 8?l .. ' tv = dy* _ dxdy a 4cos 2 w in x. a^ Prove also that /* ^2 ^2 ^2 \ (bF+a7 where ^)(*> 2 9* w 9 " 9 2u i / "+ 3 J*' ( 3x + 3? + 'a?. y..2 W J_7w . prove that 21. then . adinf ' (D. show that 3'/(r) 9 V(r) 3 V(r) 3? . Hons.U. If M = (l t2 2xy F3 r^. Use Taylor's theorem to satisfying prove that the only f unction /(x) all x. 2 i 13.. while = jc 2 /2xy. z**xf(x+y)+yg(x \ry) satisfies the relation (//) z=xf(ylx)+g(ylx).
b. 6=~5. . sin B sin A C da . when (i) a=3. which decreases steadily from to increases from 27. Hans.cot C ~. the error dc c in the angle A. ^ 33. 6=~4. </) Obtain lim . to oo . Show /*.236 24 If DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS ^^ = 9* 2 Ir dV 97 ' has a solution of the form Ae~ a prove that sin (\vt~bx). c =4 . prove that ' 26. H=Io (x 3 +y* x*yxy*). If the three sides a. the least value of the error is 647TR3  75 V5 * a ' 29.wherel<x<0. Show that (/) *<log [1 /(I *)!<*/( I . due to given small error in the sides. Find x >o 35. 31. lim tan(sin^sin(tan^) z sin x "" x cos ^^ sm x 2 (D. sin r~ir. (ii) a=3. 28. for a given Sac. 1955) Exarr i le where the following functions are continuous for *=0. (///) 34. '0' of the Lagrange's a continuous function of. db a cot . .U. 25. B . A slight error x is made in measuring the semivertical angle of a cone which circumscribes a sphere of radius R. and /U)=log 1 (l + x)then A. c=2 . A c/A= .Y) where 0<x<l. c of a triangle are is A measured.(//)lim 32. Find the approximate error in the calculated volume of the cone and show that.. ~. that is if =0 mean 1 value theorem as.7. Findlim ~~.
where 1 and (adbc)y*Q. 47. prove that n must be equal a  ( Indian Pol ice 1932) 37. sector has to be cut from a circular sheet of metal so that the remainder can be formed into a conical shaped vessel of maximum capacity. Find the maximum and the minimum values of (1 x)"e x ./(0) 1/>U?. and . Show is that equal to Given the volume of a possible.MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES cot2 x (/) f(x) = (cos *) ^ U 237 .) 51. An ellipse is inscribed in an isosceles triangle of height h and base 2k and having one axis lying along the perpendicular from the vertex of the triangle to the base. is \3/3 times that of the sphere. Draw the curve r=a(2 cos 04cos 39). =i sin x tan A: log sec x is positive and increasing in (M. *0 to 39. Find the maxima and the minima 2 cos If x+ >'.cf 2)/(x 2 + 3x+ 2). Sketch the curve A: from if indicating correctly the positions of any. has one and steadily decreases as x increases from only one minimum for values of x between x=l oo and Prove that (35 sin 4 * 40 sin 2*} and has also  as a maximum value. 52. Prove that the volume of aright circular cylinder of greatest volume which can be inscribed in a sphere. /3>/3. Find the maximum values of the function 2 3. required its dimensions when the surface is least 48. Show that the maximum area of the ellipse is >3nM:/9. maxima and minima Show that the function 4(jcl) 1 has a single maximum and a single minimum value and that the function does not lie between its maximum and minimum. 40.T. The sum of the surfaces of a cube and a sphere is given. (M. right cone . Show that the extreme 44. (B. 9 values of the radius vector are 3a and 46. *= + <.U.) of. of the function.) . Draw the graph of the function. Find the angle of the sector.U. (P. A Find the greatest and least values of (sin x) sm * (B. Having given that the fraction sin v ' maintains a i finite 5 n +jc +BJC 3 )/x (tanxA:e nonzero limit as x tends to zero. when the sum of their volumes is least. (B.) 45. 49. Show to 1 that e x it (1 + x)j(l~x) and that 41.U. the diameter of the sphere the edge of the cube. sin 38. (*?*0). Find the greatest rectangle which can be described so as to have two of its corners on the latus rectum and the other two on the portion of the curve cut off by the latus rectum of the parabola.) 2 a x*axy* oPy = Q prove that y is maximum where 3xy+ 4o =0 and minimum where * = 0.U. Show that #(*) the interval <jc<n/2. 1938) ranges in value between unity 8) 42.J. 36. U. 50. 43. ==2rr.
therefore. the slope of the tangent a so that the tangent is parallel to xaxis at A (0. It will. I is. Hence (ii) (111) the curve is When x=0. Also. then its ordinate also increases. Explicit Cartesian equations of Curves. Fig.e.x \j =0.axis. . c). we see that y=c cosh c =c cosh (. y=c so that A (0. oo x=0 J. 57 238 . ~j. which is positive when x ). c) is a point on the curve. Also since y > GO when x ^ oo the curve is not closed. A few curves whose equations are of this form have already been traced in Chapter We now trace another very important curve II. Thus. such types of properties of curves as are best studied with the help of Differential Calculus. is positive. The curve being symmetrical about >>. be useful if we acquaint ourselves at this stage with some of the important curves which will frequently occur.=sinh symmetrical about yaxis. y is monotonically increasing in " \ [0. i. for \ ^^ / / Hence if the point P(x. particulars about the The following it (i) curve will enable us to Since cosh =s "ol on changing x to x. 112. which trace is known : as Catenary. 0. c) such that its abscissa increases. \  \ c J' so that the two values of x which are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign give rise to the same value of y. ..CHAPTER XI SOME IMPORTANT CURVES The following chapters will be devoted to a discussion of 111. we have its shape as shown in the adjoining figure. y) on the curve starts moving from the position A (0. .
Thus the two equations associate The two equations (i) and to each value of. two functions of t defined for some interval. (i7). y there corresponds a point in a plane on which a pair of rectangular coordinate axes has been marked. The point P on the curve corresponding to any particular value. 2ir) respectively. 59. Fig. y) which arise for different values of the parameter t. The Ellipse. We assume that the reader is familiar with the standard parametric equations of a parabola and the Ellipse so that we may only restate them here. TT). The point P(0) describes the parts AB. The parametric equations x=at a . 6. . the point of the parabola in the describes the part direction of the arrowhead as the parameter t to oo continuously increases from OCD . F(t) be Parametric Cartesian Equations of Curves.SOME IMPORTANT CURVES 239 Note. B'A of the ellipse in the direction of the arrowhead as the parameter. Afterwards the parametric equations of a Cycloid. Again. Parabola. (I?r. 58 x=a y=b sin represent the ellipse whose axes lies along xaxis and yaxis and are of lengths 2#. t. BA'. (ftf. 113. 26. continuously increases from oo to 0. of the parameter is denoted as the point P (t) or simply 'f. 1132. there corresponds a pair of numbers x. a point in the plane. f. f=0. TT) (TT. y=2at represent the parabola having its axis along xaxis and the tangent at the vertex along >>axis. For the vertex 0. continuously increases in the intervals (0. write To each value of /. Epicycloid and Hypocyoloid will be obtained from their geometrical definitions. respectively. A'B. 11*31. ITT). To this pair of numbers x. The point P(t) describes the part ABO of y. We Let/(/). and latus rectum equal to 4a. the parabola in the direction of the arrowhead as the parameter. y as determined from the equations (/). In books on Statics it is shown that the curve in which a uniformally heavy fine chain hangs freely under gravity is a Catenary. The parametric equations cos 0. f. (ii) then constitute the parametric equations of the curve determined by the points (x.
Let O be the centre and. While the circle makes one complete revolution. a fixed straight Let the rolling circle start from the position in which the line X'X. CP We sin x=OL=OILI=OIPM=aOa 6) . a. Note. The curve traced out by Epicycloid and Hypo cycloid. generating point P coincides with some point O of the fixed as origin and the fixed line as *axis. a point marked on the circumference of a circle as it rolls without sliding along a fixed circle. are the parametric equations of the Cycloid being the parameter. a be the radius of the circle. Thus x=a(0sin y=a(l cos 6)) 6)) . Cycloid the circumference of a circle as it rolls without sliding along line. The Cycloid evidently consists of an endless succession of exactly congruent portions each of which represents one complete revolution of the rolling circle. the generating point has moved from O / *X to P(x. Let the rolling circle start from the position in which the generating point P coincides with some point O of the fixed circle. y) so that Fig. the radius of the fixed circle. We take the puint O as origin and OA as A^a is. = <j(lcos 0). We shall first consider the case of an Epicycloid. to its present position. When the Take the point circle O rolling has rolled on to the position shown in the figure. is called an Epicycloid or Hypocycloid accord jpg as the rolling circle is outside or inside the fixed circle. be the angle between Let. and C/so that it is the angle through which the radius drawn to the general point has rotated while the circle rolls from the initial have Thus arc PI=a0. . so that increases from to 2n as the point P moves from O to O'. 0. 60 O/=arc PL Let. the point describes one complete arch OVO of the Cycloid.240 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS marked on The Cycloid is the curve traced out by a point 11*33. 1134. P The position K of the generating point which is reached after the circle revolved through two right angles is shown as the verttx of the Cycloid.
Z_40C=0. equation can easily be in the equations of the Epicycloid. . are the parametric equations of the meter. OCP. Epicycloid being tbe paraif The tracing point would describe an Hypocycloid. Its Thus x=(a y b) cos cos = (ab) sin 0+b sin b * b 0. 0. y) when has rolled on to the position shown in the figure so that rolling circle arc J/~arc PL /_ICP=<f> arc Let a0 i. y LP sin 6 sin 6 sin b cos (0+^ fl+fc Jir) b sin (0+<) ft sin b Thus x=(a+b) y=(a+b) cos b cos a+b . is the angle through which the line joining the centres of the two circles rotates while the rolling circle rolls from its initial to its present position. arc ^47 PIb<t> (/>=aejb./_ OPiV T Therefore x=OL = OP cos + OP sin cos 6 cos TT) b cos b cos . are the parametric equations of the Hypocycloid. Here. 0. .e. Fig.. were within the fixed obtained by changing circle the rolling btob 0+b circle. A PP= /.SOME IMPORTANT CURVES 241 The generating point has moved on from the A to P (x. a+b ' 0. sin b sin . /_ 61.
9 between the parametric Eliminating of this curve. ^= Now.242 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS In making one complete revolution the rolling circle will circle.. the equations of the x=2a cos 0a cos 20. the rolling circle doscrib3S the circumference of the fixed circle q. 6 y2a sin return to Fig. cos a sin \a sin 30. A' B' the values are 0. B. we obtain equations . sin 30 =3 3 sin 0.e. identical portions.p. TT. Some Particular cases of Epicycloid and Hypocycloid. complete revolutions. the tracing point will never return to and so the path will consist of an endless series of exactly congruent portions.q. its a sin 20. The thickly drawn curve ABA'B' gives the path of the point. In case a\b is its original position irrational. Therefore the path consists of the repetition of the same. will roll In this case the generating point original position after the ing circle is has made one complete revolution. Here 0//?=4 so that the path consists of the repetitions of four portions.~27Tb. 62. 30=4 cos 8 3 cos 0. p. in the adjoined figure. For a epicycloid become (i) b. aq~bp or 2na. times and then the generating point returns to its original position. i. the equations of hypobecome cycloid jt= a cos + tf cos 30. If a~4b. known four cusped of For the points A. This relation shows that in making. 04 sin 3 0. x=a cos 3 0. Tr/2. des cribe 2bno the length of the circumference of the fixed circles p\q in its lowest Let the ratio a/b of the radii of the terms so that be a rational number v a b p =q . y=a sin are the parametric equations of a curve hypocycloid or astroid. /?. 3?r/2 respectively. The shape of (//) the curve shown Four cusped hypocycloid.
degrees of each term. y in that The degree of any term means the sum of the indices of x and term and the degree of the curve means the highest of the Branches of a curve. when arranged according to ascending powers of x and y. fa. replace y. goes on taking different values. is > The same equation may. x. x by any fixed value. u k represents the general homogeneous polynomial of the degree in x and y. x. . In the following. increases or decreases. is many Curves whose equations are of the form f(x. many values of. points on the curve as are the difTeront As. we an equation in. will vary as x starting from some fixed value. In each case we have to examine how. If. } We . function of the two variables x and y. as abscissa there will be as many real roots of the equation. On as of. then 114. then there will result whose degree will bo less than or equal to n. the implicit equation of the curve determined by the points whose coordinates satisfy it. If f(x y) be a f Implicit cartesian equations of curves. in the rational algebraic equation of degree w. y. as is its degree. solving. y)~Q possess points of interest not offered by curves with explicit equations of the form y=F(x). in a concise form. becomes a straight line for a=2b. each of these points will separately describo what is known as a branch of the curve. Show that hypocycloid Ex. this equation will give Thus with the given value now trace a few important curves. we consider only rational algebraic functions f( x y) so that the form of the equation. y)=0. be written as where. y.SOME IMPORTANT CURVES h is 243 also the cycloid is form in which the equation of a fourcusped hyposometimes given.
. we see. The values of the admissible values of x. We write the equation as so that. It is important to notice that origin a point common to the two branches and the two branches have a common tangent there. Hence the curve and x=a. the* two symmetrical branches lying in the first and the fourth quadrants. the value of dy\dx is positive so that the ordinate increases. We consider one branch.(ill) the interval x=0 or %a. The two values of y determine the two branches of the Cissoid which are symmetrically situated about xaxis. . (x 2 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS +y2)xay 2 =0. y=> and the form of the other branch can be seen by symmetry.244 1141. y monotonically Also as x a. Thus for y to be real. x must lie between between and a. is Fig 64. We have dx =~ The following trace it : particulars about the curve will enable us to xj(ax) under the radical is negative when (/) The expression x is negative or when x is greater than a and is positive when x lies and a. Note. that to a value of x correspond two values" of y which are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. Cissoid of Diodes. (iv) is For values of x between and a. y Hence we have]" the shape of the curve as shown. a] so that the ^branch passes through the origin. a of x is outside Thus the slope of the tangent at the origin to the branch so that the branch touches the xaxis at the origin. (ii) is entirely situatedjjsetween the lines A'=0 When x=0. (a > 0). when [0. >>=0 dy/dx=Q.
SOME IMPORTANT CURVES
1142.
(x
2
245
Strophoid.
+y 2 )x~a(x 2 y 2 )=0,
We
write the given equation as
i.e.,
so that we see that to a value of x there correspond two values of v (giving rise to two branches) which are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. The two branches of the curve are, therefore, symmetrically situated about X
We have
dy
__
dx
Some
particulars which
enable us to trace the curve will
now
be obtained.
(/) The expression x)l(aix) under the radical is positive (a a and a. Thus the curve entirely lies and only if .v lies between between the lines x~ a and x = fi.
if
(ii)
When .x=0
and
(a,
or 0,
lie
points
(0, 0)
0)
both the values of y are on both the branches.
so
that the
I so that the slopes of the two tandy/dx (///) gents at the origin to the two branches are 41. Hence y=x and x are two distinct tangents to the two brandies at the origin. v
When
.x=0,
=
at
For both the branches dyjdx tends to is (a, 0) the tangent to either branch
(/v)
infinity as
x ~> a so that
parallel to j'axis.
dyjdx0
a8
a.x
for values of
.v
given
by
.x^O,
f
i.e.,
for
x=a(liV 5 )/a, a]
0(1 belong to the interval [
The value
\/5)/2 does not of the ad
missible values of x.
Thus
for
for
both the branches,
only.
(v)
When x>a,
v>foo
for
one branch and
as shown.
oo
for the
other.
Hence we have the shape of the curve
Note.
distinct tangents there.
Both the branches of the curve pass through the origin and have
246
1143.
Clearly,
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
ay2 x (xf a)^0,
(a
>
0).
are the
two branches of
dx
this curve.
Also
(/) The point (a, 0) lies on both the branches. negative value of x corresponds a real value of y.
To no other
not real
for
The value of dyjdx
(*,
0).
is
()
(0, 0)
lies
on both the branches.
Also, dy/dx tends to infinity for either branch as x ~> 0. Thus .yaxis is a tangent to the two branches at the origin.
(Hi)
As x takes up
is
one value of dy/dx
for
positive values only always positive and the
other always negative.
Thus the ordinate y one branch monotonically increases and
(iv)
for the other monotonically decreases,
Fig. 66.
When x
oo
oo
y >
oo
for one branch
and >
a
4i
;
for the other.
Also when
x >
oo
1
/
,
dy
= ^ t rf*
~T~
P3V*'
y'tfL
\ 2
V* J
j 1 tends
j.
c x to inanity.
*

This shows that as we proceed to infinity along the curve, the tangent tends to become parallel to j^axis. This is possible if and only if at some point, the curve changes its concavity from down
the curve may be This point lies on either branch, but no point in its immediate neighbourhood lies on the curve.
carefully noted.
wards to upwards. We have the shape of the curve as in Fig. 66. Note. The peculiar nature of the point ( a, 0) on
1144.
x3
ay
2
=0,
semicubical parais
y
discussion of this equation which very simple is left to the student.
Its
The
shape
is
shown
in
the
adjoined
Pig. 67.
11 45.
cartes.
x 3 +y 3 ~3axy=:0. Folium of DesFig. 67.
It will be traced in
Chapter XVIII.
SOME IMPORTANT CURVES
Important Note we obtain
Putting
247
the
y=tx
at*
in
2 the equation y (ax)=x* of
Cissoid,
at 3
which are
its
parametric equations
similarly
;
t
being the parameter.
We may
show
that
*~
respectively.
3af
'
1+Y
3
^
__
3af
2
'
1+t 3
Folium
are the parametric equations of the Strophoid, Semicubical Parabola and
applies only to such curves as
This method of determining parametric equations we have here considered.
is
not general and
115. Polar coordinates. Besides the cartesian, there are other systems also for representing points and curves analytically. Polar system, which is one of them, will be described here.
line
and a
If
In this system we start with a fixed line fixed point on it, called the pole.
OX,
is
called the initial
vector
P be any given point, the distance and /_XOP~0, the vectorial angle.
OP=r
The two together are
If
called the radius re
ferred to as the polar coordinates of P.
11 51.
Unrestricted variation of polar coordinates.
we were
concerned with assigning polar coordinates to only individual points in the plane, then it would clearly be enough to consider the radius vector to have positive values only and the vectorial angle 9 to lie between and 2ir. But, while considering points whose coordinates satisfy a given relation between r and 6, it becomes necessary to remove this restriction and consider both r and 6 to be capable of varyx oo ). The necessary conventions for this will ing in the interval ( be introduced now.
,
The angle, 0, will be regarded as the measure of rotation of a which starting from OX revolves round it the measure being positive or negative according as the rotation is counterclockwise
line
;
or clockwise.
To find the point (r, value, we proceed as follows
0)
:
where
r is
negative and,
6,
has any
revolve though 0. We Let the revolving line starting from produce this final position of the revolving line backwards through r is the O. The point P on this produced line such that OP
\
\
OX
required point
(r,
6).
(1, 97T/4),
The
(
positions of the points
(1,
9ir/4),
(1,

1,
97T/4)
have been marked in the diagrams below.
248
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
'X
Fig. 68.
Fig. 69.
v\
Fig. 70.
Fig. 71.
It will be seen that according to the conventions introduced here a point can be For represented in an infinite number of ways. example, the points (1, ir/4), (I, oir/4), (I, 2/17T 57T/4), (n is any integer), are identical.
+
Transformation of coordinates. Take the initial line as the positive direction of Jfaxis and the The positive direction of pole O as origin for the Cartesian system Kaxis is to be such that the l\neOX after revolving through ?r/2 in counterclockwise direction comes to coincide with it.
11 52.
OX of the polar system
Let
(x, y)
and
(r,
9)
be the cartesian and polar coordinates respectively of any point P in the plane.
From
the
A
OMP, we
i.e.,
get
6
.. ..
OJf/OP=cos o, AfP/0P = sin 0, The equations
'X x=r cos
y=r
(//)
(i)
(//')
sin d
(/')
and
determine
the
cartesian coordinates (x, y) of the point terms of its polar coordinates (r, 6) and
Fig. 72
P
in
vice
versa
6. Polar Equations of Curves. Any explicit or implicit rebetween, r and 9 will give a curve determined by the points whose coordinates satisfy that relation.
11
Thus the equations
determine curves,
fnitial line
The coordinates of two points symmetrically situated about the or of the form (r, 9) and (r, 9) so that their vectorial
angles differ in sign only.
SOME IMPORTANT CURVES
Hence a curve
changing f) to curve /=#(! +cos
It
0,
249
will be
its
0)
j
s
symmetrical about the initial line if, on equation does not change. For instance, the symmetrical about the initial line, for,
/=tf(l
+ cos
0)
= a[l+cos(
its
0)].
may r=a represents
be noted that
a circle with
centre at the pole and radius
a and
;
9=b
the
initial line
represents a lino through the pole obtained through the angle b.
by revolving
A
curves,
few important curves
we
To trace polar will now be treated. varies. generally consider the variation in r as
r=a(l The curve
cos
is
1161.
(/)
(//)
(/'//)
0).
Cardioide.
initial line.
symmetrical about the
When 00, r = 0. When increases
from
to 7r/2, cos 9 decreases from 1 to and, therefore, r increases contito a. When nuously from 7r/2, r a.
=
Tr/2 to
a
When 9 increases from to cos 9 decreases from 1 and, therefore, r increases from to 2a. When IT, r='2a.
(iv)
TT,
~..^
Fig. 73
=
The variation of 9 from TT to 2ir ne^d not bo considered because of symmetry about the initial line. Hence the curve is as shown.
Ex.
Trace the curve
r
2
r

0(11
cos
0).
11*62.
^ a
cos 20.
Lemniscate of Bernoulli!.
It is symmetrical about the initial line and so the variation in r as 9 varies from to TT only. values of r only. We consider positive
(/)
(//)
we need
consider
When 0=0, r=a. When increase from
2'y
so that cos a to 0.
decreases from
1
to
to ir/2 to ir/4, 20 increases from and, therefore, r decreases from
y4
'
,
When = ir/4, r = 0. When increases from (in)
^v
Tr/4
to
.*''
I
to 37T/4, cos 20 remains 7T/2 and from ir/2 and so r is not real. Thus no negative to these point on the curve corresponds
values of 0.
NX
;
X
When = 3ir/4,r=0. When increases from (iv)
fl
Pig. 74
TT,
20 increases from 3ir/2
to
2rr
3ir/4 to to that
250
cos 20 increases from
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
and, therefore, have the curve as shown.
to
1
r
increases
from
to a.
Hence we
curve even
It is easy to see that the point will describe exactly the if we take, r, to be negative. The curve consists of two situated between the lines
P
same
loops
To obtain the cartesian equation the polar equation as
r2
of the lemniscate,
sin 2 0)
r 2 sin 2 0).
we
rewrite
=a
2
2
(cos
2
or
r4
=a
2
(r
cos 2
Therefore,
we obtain
is
which
is
a wellknown form of the equation of the lemniscate and
11 63.
rw
of the fourth degree.
for
(1)
m = \, 1, 2, For w 1, we have
r=a
cos
r
2
=a m
cos m0,
2,
,
J.
^
Fig.
*
'
1T^
or
/.*.,
=0rcos
(Fig.
(a/2).
x 2 +^ 2 =^x,
is
which
75
(2)
a
circle
75)
with
its
centre at
(0/2, 0)
and radius
0),
For
m=
a~x
1
,
we have
(
r^sstf" 1 cos
or
# = r cos
a
which
a,
is
straight
line
perpendicular
at a distance,
(Fig. 76) to the initial line
and
from
it.
(3)
For
w~2, we
r*=a
2
have
Fig. 76.
cos 20,
which
is
lemniscate.
(4)
/w m=
r2
2,
2
we have
=a cos(20)
or
a 2 =r 2 cos 20
=r
or
2
2
(cos
sin*0)
,
a 2 =x
y
>X
which is known to be a rectangular hyperbola (Fig. 77). To trace this curve, write its equation in the form
20
Fig. 77
SOME IMPORTANT CURVES
and note the following points about
(0
(//)
251
it
:
It is
symmetrical about the
initial line.
When 0=0, r=a.
.
When
increases from
to
7T/4, r in
creases from a to oo
(iii)
(i'v)
When When
F0r
varies from Tr/4 to 37T/4, r remains imaginary.
varies from 3?r/4, to
TT,
r
decreases from
oo
to a.
(5)
m=
J,
we have
or or
=a cos 2
2r=a(l+cos
a Cardioide. For (6)
is
0),
which
w
,
we have
i.e.,
or
=r
cos 2
i
=r(l+co"s
or
v/hich
is
0)J2
Fig. 78.
= l+cos0,
known
trace
To
form
to be a parabola (Pig. 78). this curve (Fig. 78), we re write its equation in
r ~~
2a
1+cos
and note the following points about
(/)
it
:
It
is
symmetrical about the
initial line.
(//)
When 0=0, r~a.
ra0,
When
r
decreases from 2 to
1164!
(/)
(//)
and, therefore,
to increases from increase from a to oo
TT,
.
1+cos
(a>0).
When 0=0, r=0, When increases,
when when
Spiral of Archimedes. so that the curve goes through the pole.
r increases.
Also,
~> >
+
oo
,
;
oo
,
,
oc
Thus the curve
starting fron*
the pole goes round it both ways an infinite number of times. The continuously draw n line corresponds to and the dotted positive values of
r
one to negative values of
Fig. 79.
0.
252
1165. Here
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
r0:=a,(a>0).
Hyperbolical Spiral.
r=flf/0.
(i)
r is positive or
negative according as
r
[
\
is
positive or negative.
(iV)
When
6

\
increases,
decreases.
Also
when 0 when

0,r>x>.
oo
,
r
>
0.
(ill)
Now
r sin
or
0=(fl sin 0)/0
or
>>=(a sin 0)/0 which
;>
a as
> 0.
The ordinate of every point
on
the
curve
0.
approaches as drawn.
We thus have the curve
line
0,
approaches
a
as
The continuously drawn
Fig. 80.
corresponds to positive values of
while the dotted one corresponds to negative value of 0.
,
1166.
(/)
(ii)
J>0 r=ae
(a,
b>0). (Equiangular Spiral)
r
When 0=0, r=a. When increases,
>
GO
,
also increases.
;
Also when
r is
r
> GO
when
>

x
,
/*
>
.
(i/i)
always positive,
We thus
The
have the curve as drawn.
of the
adjective
justification
'Equiangular' will appear in Chapter XII,
Ex,
1. p.
269.
Fig. 81
1167.
r=asin30,
(a >$}. Three leaved rose.
(D.U. 1949)
The discussion of this equation is shown in figure 83. the point P (r. . therefore. r decreases from a to 0. r=a Four leaved rose. increases from ?r/2 to 7T/2. When 0=0. increases we do not beyond TT. 1168. remains negative and numerically decreases from a to 0. As As As As increases from from to 7T/2 and. 0) describes the second loop 57T/6 above the ted and initial line. the same loops of the curve are repeaget any new point.SOME IMPORTANT CURVES (i) 253 7T/6. (///) r remains negative and r numerically increases from (iv) 27T/3. only is left to the reader. It may 57T/6 and from If increases from 27T/3 to similarly be shown that as to TT. 30 increases increases from 7T/6 to Tr/3. r increases (ii) from to to a. Its shape Fig. r=0. increases from 7T/3 to to a. sin 20. 83.
y of degree n. Therefore. then (x. y)=0.. tangent. It was shown in Ch. !//'( jt). 1212. For any point (x..(i) Y are the current coordinates of any point on the The normal to the curve y=f(x) at any point (x. the equation of the tangent at &ny point (x.CHAPTER XII TANGENTS AND NORMALS [Introduction. makes with xaxis.] Section I Cartesian Coordinates 12 1. EQUATIONS OF TANGENT AND NORMAL. _(Vn =0.y) on the curve /(x. y) a homogeneous function of Cor. y) is the straight which passes through that point and is perpendicular to the line tangent to the curve at that point so that its slopa is. tan *= j =/'(*). y) on the curve y=f(x) 12 11. rt the normal at any point =0. y) to the curve y=f(x) is (Xx)+f(x)(Yy)=0. This and the following chapters of the book will be devoted to the applications of Differential Calculus to Geometry.n d(Xx. A 254 . Hence the equation of the normal at (x. . The part of Geometry thus treated is known as Differential Geometry of plane curves. Explicit Cartesian Equations. y) be a rational algebraic function of x. where X. We make f(x. y)=Q where dfldy* ' 0. p. y) on the curve y=f(x) is Yyf'()(Xx). respectively. 77 that if ^ be the angle which the tangent at any point IV 415. symmetrical form of the equation of the tangent to a rational Algebraic curve. y) on the curve /(*. we have dy dx Hence the equations of the tangent and are (f. Implicit Cartesian Equations. Let f(x.
The symbols differentiation. "^ so that the equation / z ' d'y~~'~ dz V_ Y\ df . Parametric Cartesian Equations. Find the equations of the tangent and the normal at any point (x. Then by Euler's theorem. y.F(t)]f '(t) =0.has been replaced by Z. z by multiplying each of its terms with a suitable power of z. for the sake of symmetry.x or X f cx ? +Y 8f 8y +Z? 8z f =0. ( 10'81. At any point *f of 1213. where. 199) we have i. p. ..e. we have y dy ~ dy _ dt ' _F'(t) ' dx dt dx ^f r (t) Hence 9 *t of the curve *=/(/). (Catenary) (ii) x m la m \y m lb m = l. the curve x=f(t) y=F(t).[Y.j 9. the coefficient r of 8//8. Examples 1. Z and r are to be both put equal to unity after This elegant form of the equation of the tangent to a rational algebraic curve proves very convenient in practice. y) of the curves (/) y=c cosh (xjc). where/' (0^0. and [Xf(t)]f'(t)+[YF(t)]F(t)=0. respectively. the equations of the tangent y=F(t) are and the normal at any point [X f(t)]F'(t) .TANGENTS AND NORMALS 255 three variables x. / v yr__ 8/ ^Q of the tangent takes the form or x.
y) or y for (x. Let y)^* ~~ + a tt 1=0.. Also. ax point (x. i. y) lies m _ on the given curve. we have . y). X. the equation of the tangent at (x. +>*". Making homogeneous. sinh x c . (x.256 (i) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS For y~c cosh (xjc). Hence the equations of the tangent and the normal cosh xjc) are at any y and x c cosh r =(A \ ) x x) sinh (x y c cosh sinh c J x c ^ +X x^O.e. Y being the current coordinates. respectively (//) .y) is or xx Another method. /(x. we get M **)%. it yv is The given equation of degree m. the equation of the normal at (x. c dy = . df my m * dx Hence Therefore. jW yw so that .
for 7T/2. (cor. Hence the 1). a0 a( \ cos ) = 2a .. dy civ =a .TANGENTS AND NORMALS Hence the equation of the tangent is 257 ^ Putting \~/ti Z. 254) Z=z = l. 1) and j a. Find the equations of the tangent and normal at 6=n/2 to the Cycloid x^a(9sin Wejiave r 6). 12*12. 2. dy dx ~ dy d9 dd " dx = dy rftf . we obtain bm ' am ' as the required equation of the tangent. y=a(lcos 9). sin n 2a sin rt 9 2i 6 cos 2i . sin 2 ~i . p. we have jc=0(7T/. dx rf^ __ C ~" 9 ' 2 Thus Also.2 i.mz 1 ^. 3. Prove that the equation of the normal to the Aitroid may be written in the form x Differentiating sin <f)y cos (f> +a cos we get . at the point [0(7T/2 a = ^Tris or =aTra t and the equation of the normal ya=l[*<i(i7rl)] or Y+r=Jair. a] is equation of the tangent at 0=7T/2.e.
. We write .(/I) In Ex. 1. sin 2 ^)(cos 2 ^+sin 2 ^)=0 ? x i. i. it tangent at any point (x. ..e. (//). (in) The equations and (/v) represent the same line.268 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Therefore the slope of the normal at any point (x. y) =**/A But the slope of the given line = tan <f>. the slope of the normal at (a sin 3 ^. was shown that the equation of the (11) is where X. y) of the curve . a cos 3 <). Find the condition for the line x cos to touch the curve 0+y sin 6=p.. . sin 2 y cos ^+fl(cos </> x which is sin </) y cos <^f a cos 2^=0.. the equation (/) in the sin form XGOB 0+Y 0~p=0. Fare the current coordinates. We rewrite taking X.(/) x/a+ylb m =l. Y as current coordinates instead of x. }>=0cos 3 <. we <f>. (//) page 255. . cos <f>acos*<f>~x sin < <f> a sin 4 ^. >>. They give or y$=a* Substituting this value of y in cos 2 ^. Y/ y i.. equation of the normal at the point is Thus tan <f> is The y or a cos 3 <i=^^(x T cos <f> a sin 3 <i).() Equations (/) and (11) have now to be solved to find x and y. get i. 4.. x*=flrsin x~a sin 3 <.e.e. the given equation.e.....
we get .''*+ dy !''y* (x.X yt ). free of x. 6. (x. constant. y) lies on the given curve. p.y r (X. SViou' that the length of the portion of the tangent to the astroid intercepted between the coordinate axes is constant. y) is. 1) i Therefore \w/(w 1 /6* sin r or (0 cos 0) ' + (&sin0) ^ ==P which is the required condition. Equation of the tangent at any point (x. Therefore the equation of the tangent at any point Yy=. The of the ordinate of the point the point The length of the perpendicular from __x sinh x/c (x. y and therefore. (x. constant. 0). Differentiating the given equation. y) of the Catenary 1. is X sinh x/c foot F+(rcosh xjcx sinh x/c)=0 (See Ex. . Show that the length of the perpendicular from the foot of the 5. y) is 255). 0) to the tangent + (r cosh * x/c x sinh x/c) _c which is cosh x/r __ ~~ cosh x/r is. ordinate on any tangent to the Catenary y=c is cosh (x/c).TANGENTS AND NORMALS a m cos 6 b m sin ' p /6 W sin 0\l/(m 1) or X (a* cos 6 \l/(m ) 1) > ~\ 1 p~ cos S y ~( _ p 1 J The point (x.
(v/i) x = 20cos^ 2 0cos 2^. i 2 xy=c f U a +/)*0>> 2 =0 at x0/2. Hons. 0). 7957) . 3xy*2xy=l at (1. (/) y*=4ax at (0. yl($). we find that its intersection with Faxis is 5(0. A(x^ on putting ^=0 in 9 0). (Folium) 6. 2 ? <v/) x (jc^)f0 (x+>>)=0 at (0. : <iii) at (cp. (P. (iv) 2 2 <v) (x +^ )A:~0(jc >' )=0 for jc=3a/5. Show that the tangent to the curve 1/20). (0 intersection (/)cuts JVaxis where y=0. 4. Therefore AB=<x$a which is free of x and y and is. a constant.260 or DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS =x* The tangent with A'axis is y* fl*.1) . (x 4y 2 2 )=^V at (c/cos 0. therefore. 1957) again at (m\ y~3mx4m is Find where the tangent 5. c/sin ^). /). if sin n ^. (Delhi 1948) Show that the line x cos O+y touch the curve sin /?=0. cuts JTaxis. Prove that ths equation of the tangent at any point (4m 2 8m 3 ) of the 2 3 semicubical parabola x 3 =y is and show that it meets the curve m 1 ).. (/). 2.I/. (D. meets the curveagainat (16/5. 20). c/p). where it is a normal if 9m a =2. Exercises I Find the tangent and normal to each of the following curves (//) x*l<P+y*lb*=l at (*'. (//) x 3 4^ 3 = 30xy. Faxis for the following curves : parallel to yfaxis and where it is parallel to (/) x*+y*=a*. Hence its Similarly. = c.^=2a sin ^ a sin 2^ at (9=^/2.C/. Find the equations of the tangent and the normal to the curve it at the point where 7. Find the equation of the tangent to the carve c*U 8 fy t )=JcV 3 0f>> sin in the form x cos 3 3.
Prove that the portion of the tangent to the curve a y is intercepted between the point of contact and A'axes 12.TANGENTS AND NORMALS 8. \)a+mx and . >>=c(lfsin /) 2 . 16.U. D. Show that the length of the portion of the normal to the curve 13. y=ae origin. fl u (sin are equidistant from the Show that the distance from the origin of the normal at any point of the curve is x=ae^ (sin i0 12 cos twice the distance of the tangent. 7955) .U 7955> 18. Show that the normal at any x=acos Q+aQ sin 0. Show that the tangent and the normal at every point of the curve 14. Tangents are drawn from the origin to the curve v=sin x.2 sin 10) Show that the tangent at any point of the curve x = a(/f sin t cos /). x=ae u 15. 1941 . constant. If p~ x touch the curve cos 0+y sin 0. =x 2 /. their points of contact lie on xY Prove that (D.U. Show x*/a +y /b that the tangent at any point x. 261 Tangent .4 at ordinate axes in coordinates is and any point of the curve Oc/a)l +(ylb$ =1 meets the coShow that the locus of the point with (OA. prove that p n = (tfCOS (P. OB) as 2 li 9. ya point of the curve sin cos QaQ is at a constant distance from the origin. + 2/) with A'axis. y=a 3 (4 sin 09 sin 0) + cos 0) intercepted between the coordinate axes is constant. fl (sin 0cos0). 0). 3 x=a(4 cos 3 cos 0). y=ae^ (cos i0. ay  m(a\x) Prove that the sum of the intercepts on the coordinate axes of any tangent to is constant. 11. 10. y) 1 2 = on the curve y m =ax m l \x in t makes intercepts ax (m on the coordinate axes. (* makes angle i 17.
1) is also a normal at two points of the curve.262 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS cuts off lengths The tangent at any point on the curve x3 +y*=2a* 7tm die coordinate axis show that . (0. 4a*b*) are the two . The tangent at any point P(x v y^) of the curve y=x* nusefcs it x3 again at chat its locus is g . p and 20. We or have .) y=l9x \2Zx* ~28x*. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of PQ and show (B. 21. Show at ( 1. Find the angle of intersection of the parabolas /> and at the point other than the origin. tangent at the two points where that the tangent to the curve it meets the curve again. Def.U. 122. 22. point. Angle of intersection of two curves. Prove that the distance of the point of contact of any tangent to 2a mxy m ~~i =zy2in a 2m t from the tangent. 23. 0) for x= points of and (4a*6 f . The angle of intersection of two curves to at intersection is the angle between the tangents the two a point of curves at that Examples 1. x=0 x and Substituting these values of in (#). we get >=4a^ Therefore intersection. origin as the segment of the Acaxis between the origin and the Show 3) is that the normal to the curve at (0.
JF/w/ //?e condition that the curves should intersect orthogonally. (/). v we get dy ax . for the curve (dyfdx) at 4(0M. get Differentiating (//). Thus. be the slopes of the tangents to the two curves. 40M) =^12$. 263 we get or dy/dx=2a/y. wi .i (//). we n ^L 2x=46 ^V ~t/x or / = 26 !dx t/y x Therefore. if /. 4a^) =2a*/A*. (4a%$. 2ydyjdx=4a Therefore. y')~ .TANGENTS AND NORMALS Differentiating (i). Let (x r . we have The required angle ft^ 2. y') be a point of intersection so that we have or Differentiating the first equation. =_ by" dx](x'. for the curve (dy/dx)Q.
' For orthogonal intersection. MG are called the and subnormal respectively. Let the tangent and the normal at any point (x. y' in (/).C7. y) of the curve meet the A'axis at Tand G respectively. Then sub. subtangent and subnormal at any point of a curve. (//) ^=ax and ^f^^ (P. 3. \ J x'.*. we have * 0ijc'__ ~~~~ l' e ' 9 hy' aa ^ x Substituting the values of *.. normal. 7955) 2.264 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Similarly for the second curve G ax' by' *L1 __. we obtain !' r=0 or /. b as the required condition. Draw the ordinate PM. Find the condition for y=mx to cut at right angles the conic ax*+2hxy+by*=l.tangent the lines TM. Hence find the directions of the axes of the conic. bl a a^ Exercises 1. **. PG are sometimes referred to as the lengths of the tangent and the normal respectively. Lengths of the tangent._. Clearly Also dy . _r L. 12*3. Prove that the curves interesect at tan" 1 (88/73) at {3a.. 2a). The lengths PT. Find the angle between 2 2 2 (/) x /=a and x +/=a^2.
is constant. Prove that the subnorrral at any point of the parabola y*=4ax is constant. Prove that the sum of the tangent and subtangent at any point of 9. 1941} prove that the length of the normal is v /c. 3.U. the sum of the tangent and the subtangent varies as ordinates of the point. 2. 8. [Compare Ex. 1938} the product of the abscissa and the subtangent is constant.C/. 1952} . Show that the subtangent at any point of the exponential curve 7. the product of the co(D. Show that the subnormal at any point of the curve y*x =a*(x*a 2 2 ) varies inversely as the cube of its abscissa. on the four cusped hypocycloid x=a cos 3 0. length of the normal. 5. For the catenary yc cosh U/c). [ + V( &'>>)] V(6 a >' 2 ). Exercises 1. 2 (PU. Q rn+ n yti varies as the abscissa. is sum of the subnormal and subtangent Show that for the curve constant. (Banaras} Show that for the curve x=a+b log 6. y=a sin 3 0. 4. 10. Show that in the curve y=a log U 2 0 a ). 9 above].TANGEENTS AND NORMALS 265 From the (i) figure. (/'//) Normal =GP==MP V (iv)  dv . Find the length of the tangent. subtangent and subnormal at the point 0. Show that the subtangent at any point of the curve ^m _. (P. we have Tangent ^TTWMPcosec ^= ( /i ) Subtangent = TM = A/P cot ^ = y sec /r= =? . the curve * /< = *<!. varies as the product of the corresponding coordinates.
y) is Yy^. and the length of the perpendicular* p. of any point on the wrvefrom the origin (or pole).. we obtain the required pedal equation of the curve Example Find the pedal equation of the parabola Tangent at (x.268 12*4. y) is Yy=f'(x)(Xx) or If. and (m). p be the length of the perpendi} cular from (0. 1241. To determine the pedal equation of a curve whose Caris tesian equation given. yxf'(x) Also r*=x*+y 2 Eliminating x t . from the origin (or pole) to the tangent at the point is called pedal equa* lion of the curve. r. 85.. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Pedal equations or p. . we have Fig. y b3twe3n (/). Del A relation between the distance. 0) to this tangent. Let the equation of the curve be Equation of the tangent at any point y> (X. is p 9 of the perpendicular from the origin to the (/') given by < ISO . r equations.(Hi) (il) (/).(XX) or The tangent length.
Exercises 1.sin cos 0). y=a 2 s (3 sin 0sin 8 0). 6. . 4. Show that the pedal equation of ellipse . IP. 43 2 9(/ ^)=8//. 1955) Show that the pedal equation of the astroid x=a is y=a 3.. Show that the pedal equation of the curve x^ae (.  j 4 1 . Take any other point Q(r+8r. Show that the pedal equation of the curve A' 2a cos Q a cos 29. . Angle between radius vector and tangent. cos 3 0.. Produce OP to L. sin 8 0.y=2a sin a sin 20.*. Show that the pedal equation of the curve x=a as (3 cos 0cos 3 0).TANGENTS AND NORMALS 267 From which is (//) and (///). 2. 6+80) on the curve. d) Let P(r.)'=^ (sin + cos 0). is r= 5. s is l/P*+3/r'=J/r . . we obtain the required pedal equation. Show that the pedal equation of the curve <*(*' f >')=**>'. V2p. be any given point on the curve. Section II Po/^fr Coordinates 125. 3/> (7fl ^) s 8 =(10fl r) a .
If <^. positive direction produced) has to 9 increases. <p. the direction of the radius vector rotate to coincide with the direction of the tangent in which direction of the tangent in which. 0. Precise meaning of For a point P of the curve. Angle of intersection of two curves. The positive direction .. 8r > 0. Cor. and a Therefore dr __ cos ~~ dti (^ " < r sin or . tan cj=r ^ r dr . i Note.<?. increases is taken as the of the tangent. then their angle of intersection is < i #1*.268 Let CALCULUS PT be the tangent at P and let ^LPT= ^_ Let Z_PQ=a so that Q > P. be angles 2 between the common radius vector and the tangents to the two curves it a point of intersection. =<> is the limit of a as We have Also Applying the sine formula to the "\ we Fig. 86 get OQ OP sin r (TT = sin sin or a) sin a * sin (a 80) sin (a 80) 8r r _ sin a """ sin (a 8^) sin a sin (a 89) 8 sin (a =2 or 1 ' t cos sin se 2 sin 5r = r 80 ~~ cpsJa4S0) sin (a 80) sin ' ^ Let Q * P so 1 that 80 > 0. q> is precisely defined to be the angle through which the of the radius vector (/.
TANGENT3 AND NORMALS Examples 1. which is a constant. we have _b 'd9~~ or 8m . p. adjective 'Equiangular'.r. . at a constant angle to the tangent at any point on the equiangular spiral Differentiating (i) w. r=6(l  cos 6).GOs 0/2 / . Let <^ 1 which OP makes with the tangents to the two curves.1T  * 2 /) \ tan or =tan ( \ + ** \ / *^ Hence For the curve ^i=*f + 2 r=6 (I cos dr 0). b .. 2. ' tan cA= Y t/0 r t dr fe(l =. 269 Show that the radius vector is inclined.  cos0) b sin tan . P (r 2 be the angles dr or  * dO dr __ _a(i+cos0) ~~ a sin 2Ujos* 0/2 ____ "~ 2 sin 6]"2. = tan" 1 .'  dO dr b <= <i . For the curve r=a(l +cos 0) we have t .. < . This property of equiangular spiral justifies the il'66. OJ be a point of intersection. . i we get do tan or . 2 Hence . to dr . hfi * 6. 252] [Refer Find the angle of intersection of the Cardioides r=fl(l+eos Let 0).
Length of the perpendicular . Q lying show that to each other of the cardioide r=a(Hcos 0). Let OY^p 126*. r=alog0. each other. w. r. The tangents at two points P. (//) r=flfl/(l 2 + 0). a very useful expression for p. (11) r (Hi) 2alr=*\ f 2. (i) Find the angles between the curves r=aO. m m 3. r . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS ^^ cos 0) Tr/2 and hence the curves cut each other Exercises afc 1. Show that If two tangents to the cardioide (Agra 1952} from pole to the tangent. 2 . the line joining their points 10. and the derivative of. express. rS=a . P' (AfC/. are perpendicular line subtends an angle n/3 at the pole. and perpendicular on the same side of the initial 7. r=<i(i + cos 0) are parallel.270 Therefore. =sin r <f> or p=r which is sin <. (vi) re 19 =ft. r a intersect at an angle 3 sin. r w. (Hi) Y (iv) =a cosec (0/2). 2 r=0((lf a ) .(3/4)*. * From the &OPY. . r0/log0 r=ae .> Show that the tangents to the cardioide parallel at the points r^=(l+cos 0) whose vector ial angles are rr/3 and 2^/3 are respectively to the initial line. Show that the curves r =a cos mfl.16 sin 20 . P and P' (sec 0Jtan 0). then 6. the line PQ chord of the B Show that the tangents drawn at the extremities of any cos 0) which passes through the pole are perpendicular to cardipide r=a(lf . show that of contact subtends an angle 2"/3 at the pole. 5.w sin cut each other orthogonally. we r p  get . r. right angles. (v) r sin 204. if a radius and if the* tangents at P. cutting the curve in TP= IT'. 9. Show that in the case of the curve r=a npp' be drawn meet in T. p. to We have . 4. (Parabola) (/v) that the two curves 2 a r =a cos 20 and r=a(lf cos 0) 1 m =a rn cos m 6m m (cos m$ + sin wifl). Show cos 0. 2 r=6 sec (0/2) . From the pole O draw OY perpendicular to the tangent at any point P (r e) on the curve r=/(0) Y being its foot. in terms of the co~ We now ordinates 9. (i) Find for the curves r=0(l (Cardioide).r.
w= Fig. Let the line through the pole 0.TANGENTS AND NORMALS tan O j cfc=?r ~j 271 d v which we can write as 1 2 *7\* __r +(dr/d0)_ 11 1 2 /dr_\ if Yet. drawn perpendicular to the radius vector OP. dr = d# where j du . we get OT OP =tan or Hence polar subtangent =r z d^ . Lengths of polar subtangent and polar subnormal. meet the tangent and normal at P in points T and G respectively. another form of p will be obtained. OT. OG are respectively called polar subnormal at P. the polar subtangent and From the &OPT. 88. polar subnormals ~A* where dtf du . From the A^PG. we write r=l/. or OG=OP cot <A Hence. we get = cot ^. we get 12 7. w= 1 r . Then. so that dr ^ ~"~ w2 ^ </6i ' Substituting these values in (//).
pol^r subnormal varies as 9 2 ' polar sub. Prove that for the curve the polar sub tangent 3. Let r~f(6) be the given curve.. sin <. we obtain the required pedal by eliminating The pedal equation is sometimes more conveniently obtained between (/) and 6 and <f> tan <=/ r dQ .(/) We have 1  1 1 fdr Eliminating 6 between equation of the curve. . Find the polar subtangent of (/) ra(Hcos0). (Conic) (Hi) r~a0 1(01). is constant. the polar subnDrmal is C3nstant. The lengths PT and PGara sometimes called the lengths of the polar tangent and polar normal at P. r Show that for the spiral a9. Find the polar subnormal of (/) r=aje . 1. Find p for the curve . Show . Pedal equations. (//) r =a+b cos Q. (i) and (//). 4. is To obtain the pedal equation of a curve whose polar equation given. Exercises Show that for the curve the length of polar tangent 2. that for the curve : 2 V 5.272 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Note. is constant. r f 2 ( fa ) 1. (Cirdioide) * rae L/)2 (i7) 2^/r^=l +e cos Q. 6 . dr ' p=r 1.tangent .. We have / > r=OPseccp=rV[lftan q>]=r/\/rHr 8 2 a * VI (' PG=OPcosec<p=rV[l+cot <p]=<\/r 128.
Logarithmically differentiating. 1940) the equiangular spiral a? w^ is another equiangular spiral. rci(Mcos0). . iwfl. Allahabad 1943) is Show that the pedal equation of the spiral r=^a sech of the form . . (iv) (v/) (viii) r= o0. Henoe show the curve that the locus of r extremity of the polar subtangent of (H tan 10)/(m fwtan 10) ( is a cardioide. we get tan/n 9 =~m =r or dQ . 273 Find the pedal equation ofr m =am cos m0. Hence show 11. =cot w0 = ta f^ pr sin Thus mm p=r P (sin Jfi}m0)=r cos m9. (v) r(lsinj0) 2 (ix) r^a + bcos$ m =u m sin mO~\ b m cos 10. r rasin/ii0. 9. 12. that tlie locus of the extremity of the polar r subnormal of (P. or which is the required pedal equation. Find the pedal equations of (iV) (v) //r 1 j <? cos 0a. Prove that the locus of the extremity of the polar subtangent of the !  curve r it 4/(0)0 u /'(R4 ttie 0). Prove that the locus of the extremity of the polar subnormal of the curve r=/(0) is the curve r=/'lfll").U.KXERCISE8 8.
An important deduction from the axiom.CHAPTER XIII DERIVATIVE OF ARCS On the meaning of the lengths of arcs. 89 PQ<arc PQ<PL+QL 9 PL and QL are any two lines enclosing the curve. lim so To prove it. which is not analytical. If P. Q be any two points on a curve. . be any two points on a curve such that the arc PQ is throughout its length concave to the chord PQ. .. chord a. then Chord where Fig. The intuitive 13*1. chord . chord or ^ PQ PQ cc+sm . Hence we have to base our treatment on an axiom which concerns the numerical measure of lengths of arcs and we now proceed to give it. 90 274 . Let /_LPQ=a. If P. This assumption. then arc . Q+P we take Q chord PQ = l. Q. rfxs PQ near P that the  arc PQ is everywhere Draw QLPL. notion of the length of an arc of a curve is based upon the assumption that it is possible for an inextensible fine string to take the form of the given curve so that we may then stretch it along the number axis and find out the number which measures its length. Fig. concave to the chord PQ. Let PL be the tangent at P. * Ai/) we have PQ <arc PQ<PL+LQ. Axiom. cannot be the basis of analytical treatment of the subject of lengths of arcs of curves. Also to define lengths of arcs analytically is not within the scope of this book.
91 MX or fchord PQ\* ' ( 8s \ L~a?cPe J Let ^J Q > P so that in the limit '  or ()'='+() . Length of arc as a function. 9 f(x) to this pair of number x and/(x) corresponds a point P on the curve. r=f(6). and is x=f(t) y=F(t). point P(x 9 y) from some fixed point We take another point Q(x+8x so that 9 yiBy) on the curve near P. we can see that 's* is a function of the parameter '*' for the curve .DERIVATIVE OF ARCS Let 275 Q * P so we that chord 0. a function of for the curve 9 (Parametric Equation) (Polar Equation) 13*3. Let an arc arc AQ=s+Ss PQ=Ss. viz. To any given value of x corresponds a value of y. 132. arcPQ ~~ ^^* for (cos _^ ^ chord PQ > 1 ' a+sin a) as a > 0. Thus 's' is a function of x for the curve y=f(x). PQ tends to the tangent PL as its limiting position and a > get From (/). we by N or L Fig. Similarly. rt. and this point P has some arcual lengths 's* from A. From the have angled &PQN. To prove that for the curve Let V denote arcual distance of any A on the curve. Cartesian Equations. Let y =f(x) be the equation of a curve on which we take a fixed point A.
Parametric Equations. Let Let B.PQ = SS. . p. it can be shown that 's' is a> Cor. 2. positive Let NPQ dx J^ _ .91. We make a r is s. as above. with x.276 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULI^ convention that for the curve >> =/(*). 1= dx ds Hence 003 *= i dx ' ds Similarly. PNQ. If x=f(y) be the equation of the curve. where j2 direction of the tangent at jP'nmkes with A'axis. Q(t+St) on the curve. the We be take another point its coordinates. Hence ds\dx is positive. L NPQ= pQ = s/ chor is the angle which > ^ so that > //.TC. we h ave arc &* Aror. thenfunction of y and. cos d/= r . . ds 134. we get From the A PNQ> (Fig. x. 's ed positively in the direction of. Cor 1. 275). increasing so that. From the cos / rightangled A . we can show that . sin r dt= dy . measurincreases Thus we have taking positive sign before the radical. To prove that for the curve Let *s' denote the actual distance of any point P(t) on from a fixed point A of the same.
flf 80) on the curve near P. J) from some fixed point A on the curve.DERIVATIVES OF ARCS 277 ' Bt St or /chord PQ\*( &s 1.r cos 80 =:rl cos 80 + 8r . Q Fig. arcPQ / ( St 2 / ^Uf 2 8y \ / Let Q > /* so that in the limit We that dsjdt measure ie V positively in the direction of. /. Now JP7V/OP=sjn 85 so that PJVW sin S^. To prove for the curve denote th'3 arcivvl length of any point P(r. We take another point Q(r+Sr. NQ^OQON = r+8r~. Lot s '5 Let arc AQ=s+$s so that arc PQ^bs. Again ONjOP^cos 89 Hence so that OJV^==r cos 89. Polar Equations. Thus ds : dt It )'+(dt )*T that 135. increasing so positive.OQ. 92 Draw PN.
1. cos 2r sin2 TQ . I Again. If 0=f(r) be the equation of the curve. we get /chord ~~^ PQ^ f _ ~~ 2 Let Q > P. then function of r and. 1. the positive directions Let Q > P so that /_PQN > sm ^=r. .. Thus 2 V c Cor. . j~ . <. . . ^ or /. as above. 2. is the angle between of the tangent and the radius vector.. .278 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS From the &PNQ 9 we get Dividing by 2 (S0) .. sin PN r sin = T sin 80 ~8lT 80 " arc * Us chord PQ ^ where.. Therefore We that dsjdff measure ^' positively in the direction of Q increasing so is positive. it can be shown that s' is _ Cor.
I 1 ind c/5/c/y for the curve 3. Show r0=a. (Cycloid) d'v) sin 0. ' ^ chord PQ PQ arc 80 Sr \ 80 8T Let chord G > P f r\ cos r <i=( r. rfr . (///) (Equiangular spiral) (v) (iv) r=a(0 l). (v) jc==fl(cos 0f0 sin y=a(sin : cos 0). y=ae" 0). (Cosine spiral). (//) r a =fl cos 20. (Astroid) sin ^). y^b sin ^ (Ellipse) (//) (111) x=a cos 3 x=a(9 x=ae ^. 0). (/) being the parameter : x=^a cos ^. r=>ae r =00. r =a that for the hyperbolical spiral 6. V i i 1+ . ^r N do . (v) (v/i) 2 (a jc (v/) 2 . . Show that ydsjdy is 2 constant for the curve ) j^jhi^jz^ fl _i g ~ tf^^rr) > 4. Find dsldQ for the following curves. (Cardioide).1 . 8 (v/i) r (v/ii) w =aw cos nt0. 0. Find dsjdB (/) for the fo'lowing curves r=a(l+cos0). logx=x 2.EXERCISES 279 arc ~ 2r sin 2 JSj+Sr 80 sin  * ' 80^ S7~ . y=c cosh 5 (//) ^==a log 3V=^ (~ x). (Lemniscate) 2 cot a . 5. y=a(lcos cos 0. dQ ) as ) or . dr Exercises 1. . 8ayx 4^f 2 2 2 (iv) 2 ). Find (i) (///) t/5/d[x for the curves jc/c. m m (cos w0+sin w0). x 3 =ay*. ^=sin 3 ^.
prove that p^x sin ty~y cos ^. 10. Show that .is dr constant for the curve If /?i and /? 2 be the p^rp^ndicular^ from tlv^ origin on the tangent and 9. ~ r 2 dr 2 ) " V(r /? .=a: cos ipiy sin ^f . Show that for any pedal curve ds pf(r]. hence prove that and /i a =. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Show that r ds/dr is constant for the curve 8.280 7. and if tan ^ dy/dx. y\. ^r . normal respectively at the point (x.
. POINTS OF INFLEXION 141. P[c. at every point between Pa Q Fig. In tliis case \vo say that the curve convex downwards at P.. (See Fig 93).CHAPTER XIV CONCAVITY CONVEXITY . 96 P2 and P 3 are flexion the points of in on the curve. (//) concave upwards or A be. Thus.f(c)] thereon.e. 95). In this case we the curve crosses the tangent a point of inflexion on the curve. 93 (/) Fig. however small it lies above the tangent P (i. 281 .. 94 Fig. the curve in the adjoined figure 06 is concave upwards at every point between P and P2 and concave 1 Y downwards and Po.e. P lie on different sides of the at P. (See Fig. 95 may of be. Definitions. 94). towards the negative is direction of Xaxis). Consider a curve y=f(x) and any point the tangent at P. is We suppose f'(c) is that this tangent not parallel Xaxis so that some finite Now sider : there are three mutually exclusive possibilities to con V" Y +X Fig. it may portion of the curve on both sides of P. Draw number. (Hi) concave downwards or sides of The two portions of the curve on the two tangent at say that P P. portion of the curve on both sides of P. (See Fig. towards the positive direction is A Xaxis). however small lies below tho tangent at P (i. is / e. In this ease we say that the curve convex upwards at P.
The point h is Q[c+h. concave downwards. Criteria for concavity. The point where a curve crosses the tangent is an inflexional point so that its existence in no way depends upon the choice of axes./(c)]. or has a point of inflexion at P [c. moving along the curve. convexity and inflexion. To determine whether a curve y~f(x) is concave upwards. The property of concavity or convexity of a curve at any point From these direction is not an inherent property of the curve independent of the position of axes. QM The equation of the tangent at P is yAc)=f'(c) (xc). it is easy to see that the curve changes the of its bending from concavity to convexity or vice versa as a point. positive Draw \_X axis meeting the tangent at P in R. are fixed 14 2. as also positive and negative directions of by convention and have no absolute meaning attached to them.282^ DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS figures. We take a point the point P[c. directions. But this is not the case for a point of inflexion. and therefore the ordinate abscissa c+h is MR of this tangent corresponding to the f(c)+hf'(c). Upward and downward yaxis. This property is also sometimes adopted as the definition of a point of inflexion. f(c+h)] on the curve y=f(x) lying near Q lies to the right or left of the point P according as or negative. Note. passing through a point of inflexion. .f(c)].
i.CONCAVITY.e.e. Let /"(c) is > 0. inflexion at P. Let c+h be any point of thisThen c+yji is also a point of this interval and accordingly interval.. RQ. RQ Q lies is positive when Q P. INFLEXION Also. CONVEXITY. (Fig. Case HI. is positive. at P. RQ < for sufficiently Hence the curve is concave downwards at P iff" (c) <0. is positive when Q when Q lies on either side of P. lies on one side of P and negative when? on the other side of Thus. Let f"(c) < 0. Hence Case the curve is concave P iff"(c) > 0. we have to examine the behaviour of RQ. we* .. II. 99).. f(c+h)f(c)hf'(c) for values of. For concavity downwards i. h. For concavity upwards at P. (3*51. Let /"(O^O fy///'"(c):0. Also /* 2 /2 !. RQ is negative lies on either side of P. By Taylor's theorem. which are sufficiently small numerically. In this case we may how. for sufficiently small positive and negative values of upwards at h. (Fig. there exists an every point x of which the second derivativef(x) ia positive. As the value f"(c) of/"(x) interval around c for positive for x=c. that small positive and negative values of h. with remainder after three terms.e. the ordinate 283*' MQ of the curve for the abscissa c+h is = MQ~MR=f(c+h)f(c)hf'(c). we have Case I. i. (Fig. RQ >0. with remainder after two terms. 54). By Taylor's theorem. 98). as above. 97). MQ > MQ < For MR. /"(f 2 A) is positive. MR. p.
e. changes sign with the change in the sign h. Let c+li be any point on this interval. 143. Then There exists an interval around c frr every point X of which the sign of/"'(c). as a point moving along the curve P such passes through P. or vice versa. I Also h n fn changes its sign or keeps the same sign while the sign of. i. Generalisation By Taylor's theorem. it Hence if n is odd th*. changes. sign c. n concave upwards or downwards according as f (c) > 0. We know that inflexion at P if it changes from concavity upwards to concavity downwards. c\Q.Ji is also a point of this interval and accordingly f'"(c{Pji) has the sign of f"'(c) But A 3 /3 ! Thus RQ Jhe curve has inflexion Case IV. the curve is concave upwards and at every point on the other side of P a curve has . Thus /i RQ changes sign ifrcis odd and keeps tho sign of/ n (c). /i. according as n is odd or even. is Another Criterion for points of inflexion. with remainder after n terms. Let changes sign with the change in the sign of h. lying in this neighbourhood. such that / n (cf0 n /i) has tho off n (c) or every point c4h of this interval. or <0. if is even. at Hence P iff"(c)^0 andf" .:284 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS have h* 3 so that ! RQ= f'"(x) has 3* f'"( c +e * h )> f r /"(c)=0. if there i a complete neighhourhood of that at every point on one sid^ofP.. ** we have ~ 1(C) f(c+h)=f(c)+hf'(c) + f"(c) + + ^7! /n so that There exists an internal around. curve hxs inflexion atP\ifn is even.
has iff(x) changes sign as x passes through c. a straight line not passing through Then the curve is said to be concave or convex at P with respect P. Thus the points of inflexion may also be For pomts \vhere determined by examining d z xldy 2 just as we examine d zy/dx 2 the tangent is parallel to Xaxis. ary to examine d*x/dy instead 144. 102 Fig. we deduce a test for concavity and convexiwith respect to the Xaxis.CONCAVITY. /. 100 Fig.. Let P be a given point on a curve and. concave downwards. the positions of x and y axes may he interchanged witnout affecting the positions or the points of inflexion on the curve. the axis of. it becomes neces. 98 and the figures 102 r (i) A is positive) curve lying above. 103 103. CONVEXITY. We thus see that the curve. i e. to /. in'n Note. Fig. according as a sufficiently small arc containing P and extending to both 'sides of it lies entirely within or without the acute angleformed by. in particular. and the tangent to the curve at P. convex to / at P in Fig. INFLEXION the curve IR flexion at P[c. We have already remarked that the position of the point of inflexion on a curve is independent of the choice of axes so that. From the examination of we deduce the following : the figures 97. 101. 101 is Thus the curve Fig. Concavity and convexity with respect to a line.f(c)]. o Fig. 100 and concave inr In the noxt section. A test of concavity and convexity with respect to the Xaxis. where dy/dx is infinite. /. x (so that the ordinate y is convex or concave wit h respect to the axis of x according . ty 1441.
e.r. Find if the curve .e. Fie ju^ rig. yd*yldx is positive and for x>\.. (ii) negative) ding as it is is below the axis of x (so that the ordinate y is convex or concave with the respect to the axis of x accoris concave downwards or upwards i.P with respect to the axis of x according as convex or concave at y ds positive or negative at P. Hence the curve is concave downwards. according a.yd*y(dx* negative. i. 0).. is always negative. determine its points of itfft&xion.. . (P. Thus. Thus for 0<x<l.286 as it DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS is concave upwards or downwards. but positive at Therefore the curve 3. concave upwards at the origin. to a?axis if 4 is 5Aow //ra/ j=x concave upwards at the origin.r. according as d 2yl<tx* is A curve lying negative or positive.e. we see that a curve .ad*y/dx* is positive or negative. #>1.is concave or convex upwards throughout. convex upwards throughout. Find the ranges of values of x for which as concave upwards or downwards* Also. is (0. so that *k e curve is convex w. to xaxis if 0<x<l and concave iy. in either case.U. 104 2. 1932) Now dy dx d*y _ 1 ~~~ x 1 ~ which i. Note. 2 tive according as We know that y=Iog x is negative or posi0<x<l or x >1. We have = dx that ~dx* 24. d*y dx* Examples I.
It has inflexions for [ oo. >0. 1 . passes Hence the curve has inflexions at the ach of these values. x=l (2. 2]. for V~>0 . (1. CONVEXITY. dz v =0. for <(2. ponding points. 1<*<2. ' Here dy dx dx* " _ ~ ~~ a 2 *=Q for x= ^3^. Find the points of inflexion on the curve is Here. . 4. 33) are the 2 Therefore the curve. forx = l "'=0. forx<l. the independent and. GO ] Thus the curve is concave upwards in the intervals and is concave downwards in the interval [1. INFLEXION 287 We have Now. x. ( the three points of inflexion of the curve. x. 19) and two points of inflexion on in Show that the curve (a +x 2 )^=a 2^ has three points of flexion. 1). through corres 2 2 It is easy to see that d y[dx changes sign as. y. the deper\deit variable. *>2. V3a/4). and x = 2. 5. (0. dx 3 xl . (logy). 0. 0).CONCAVITY. <0. forx=2. Thus (V3a.
y^sin x for concavity and Find the ranges of values of x in interval (0.1) and' Exercises 1. 5. Find the intervals in which the curve y= (cos* i sin xie x .e. 2n). 3. Find the points of inflexion the curves (i) yax*\bx +<QX 4 2 \d.288 DIFFERENTIAL CALC0LUS d'x > 1 3 2 =0 if log .U. """ Qlocry 3 3 ^~ 3 Therefore Hence 9 (8. Find the ranges of the values of x in which the curve is concave upwards or downwards. so that (0. which the curve is concave upwards or downwards. Hons. ~~ 121oj. Also.x log ( [xi) (xii) y*^x(x\\)*. x~(y~\)(y2)(y3)" ajx 2 ' y ~~a 2 +x 2 ' Vl ' . =l and".v f 5. if =e= e*. .x f !) 2 (Hi) * V' A*=^3. convexity in the 2. i.U. (n) (iv) y=(x* *)/(3. (D. 1947) (D. Also find its points of inflexion. (x) 2 y.y=0 or or log y~2.. y~ I inflexion. . Show that y~e x is everywhere concave upwards. (ix) xy^a* log f (yla). e ) and e 2 give points of are the two points of inflexion. i* concave upwards or downwards 6. fin 1 the points of inflexion. 7955) ny =jc f (fl 2 x).y 3 4. x varying in the interval (0. Rons. Thus we expoct points of Again 6 3 inflexion oti the curve for J . Examine the curve . 4. 2*).
9. making the (MT. (ii) y~a sin / cos 2 f. 1.. h. obtain the equations of the inflexional tangents jjto 289 the curves (it). y=^2a sin 0 12.) Show line that the points of inflexion of the curve y =(jffl) (. for which the curve 54. x. Show that in the curve the abscissae of the points of inflexion are 8. .EXERCISES Also. y*=f(x) that the abscissae satisfy the equation Show of the points of inflex on on the curve [f'(x)?=2f(x)f''(x). Find the values of. Find the points of inflexion on the curves (/) jc=0(2<9sin 9). 10.)j Show that the curve ay*=x(xa)(xb) has two and only two points of inflexion.v6) lie 2 2 on the 4/>. (PV. has an inflexion and draw a rough sketch of the curve for inflexions. x=a tan /. 11.y=fl(2cos 0).y=U+ 5)^10). Show that the line joining the two points of inflexion of the curvs y*(xay x*(x+a) subtends an angle w/3 at the origin. 13. (Hi) x2a cot Q. (7) and (xi). 6<x<3. (Luckjow) .
This we proceed to do. depending on the degree of sharpness of the bend. In our everyday language. According to our intuitive feeling. a numerical measure to it and this has to be done in a way which may be in agreement with our intuitive notion of curvature. PQ is defined to be the angle 8$ (//) the average curvature . at ing or curvature of a road at two of its points. This suggests the following definitions Fig. "The bend of the road is sharper at this place than at that. Definition of Curvature. 8^ denotes the angle through which the tangent turns as a point moves along the curve from P to a distance 8s. AQ=s\. In order to make 'Curvature' a subject of Mathematical investigation. be the angles which Let i/s i/'+St/'. The symbol. we make statements which involve the comparison of bendFor instance.8s. by some suitable definition. the positive directions of the tangents at P and Q make with some fixed line. arc so that arc PQ=Ss. we say. times." Here we depend upon intuitive means of comparing the curvature at two points provided the difference is fairly marked. But we are far from intuitively assigning any definite numerical measure to the curvature at any given point of a curve. 15'1. we have to assign. take a point Q on the curve near P. lying Let A be any fixed point on the curve. We Let arc AP=s. 8$ will Q through be large or small. as compared with 8s. 105 : (i) the total bending or total curvature of the arc . of the arc PQ is defined to be the ratio 8(pj8s and (ill) the curvature of the curve at Ph ds defined to be lim '" Q>P 290 .CHAPTER XV CURVATURE EVOLUTES Introduction.
We must. 106 !_ Us Let r Q > P so that in the limit. Polar. x. by def. the positive direction of the tanthe one in 'which. direction of the pectivelyis tang&j^ . r. therefore. etc. Pedal. Curvature of circle is constant.CURVATURE Thus. The expression ds}dfy for radius of curvature is suitable for those curves whose equations are given by means of a relation may between s and (p. decreases as the radius 153 Radius of curvature. thus. ~~ we have ds its r circle is Thus the curvature at awjy point of a radius and is. = dThus the radius of curvature of a its radius. larger the radius of the It will now be shown that Let P. L We QT at P and be the point where the Q meet. a circle. Q be any points on the ' and let arc T Also let tangents PT. 0. the fi^ed line will be taken as Xaxis and initial line res For the curve y=f(x). have From Elementary Trigonometry r top """" Fig. a constant. r increases. p. we feel that the curvature throughout its circumference and that the circle. To prove curvature oj is Intuitively. in case ature at the point and is reciprocal of the curvature curvis called its radius o generally denoted by. circle at any point is equal t<? only it 1531. transform it so that be applicable to other types of equations such as Cartesian. of a circle uniform the smaller will be its curvature. so that we have it is The =0.. It may be remarked that in the case of Cartesian and Polar equations. of a curve at any point. Tangential Polar. circle Consider any circle with radius. 1/r. increases. clear that the curvature. and centre O. and for r=/(0) the positive* gent is the one in which. it is the reciprocal of Also. A/r/ds is the curvature 291 of the curve at any point that the P a 152. these intuitive conclusions are consequences of our formal definition of curvature. increases.
p. y)=0. 275}* where the positive sign is to be taken before the radical. The radius of curvature. 15*4. 15 41. y=f(x). p.292. d2y ~ y2 dx 2 is positive or P. Cor. Find the radius of curvature (j) at any point of the following (//) : (///) j=c tan (Catenary). negative or negative ie. Implicit equations : f(x. dy dx / . Radius of curvature for Cartesian Curves. Explicit equations : $ (Tractrix).42. ^t points where dfjdy^fyjkQ. the equation (A) shows that curvature is zsro at a point of inflexion. Now. to s. w. (/v) s~c log sec (v) sa log (tan 1^4sec t//)fa tan ^ sec ^ (Parabola). Hence _ ~ ~"d^ . Also.r. s4a sin ty (Cardioide). we get dx But. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Ex. i s=4a sin ty (Cycloid). curve is concave upwards or downwards.. (JlO94/ p. according as the d*yjdx* positive. 213) . tan \b = Y Differentiating. is according as iSi S'mss the valus of p is indspendent of the choice of Xaxis interchanging x and y we see that. we have (133. we have. is also gfcven by and Tfhis formula is specially useful when the tangent is perpendicular to? K^axis in which case L5.
.. Here we obtain the values of y l and y% at the origin..)* 2 2 Substituting these values of dy\ dx and d yjdx in the formula A) above. " (/. Parametric equations f'(t)^0 9 : x=f(t). At points where we have "' .. we get Lf(t)+F'(t)]*_ vhere the sign Note. will retain the ame form for the points where /'(0=0 but F r U)^0. as x > rives the radius of curvature at the origin. + or ~~ according as/'(0 is positive or negative. The form of the formula etain the same format points where / y ^hich arises for the points where fx and fv onsidered in chapter XVII. The exceptional case become simultaneously will be 1543. we get the sign Note. 2 Now.. x l'2y. 1544. Iim *= Urn ^ 1 () 1 = hm . *L_^/_>dx~f'(t)' (l w / 2 yf'(t)F"(t)F'(t)f"(t) 1 2 2 Substituting these... is ' >t<l . then origin and the axis of ... = .values of dyjclx and d y/dx in the formula above. y=F(t).CURVATURE 293 _ <*** " . The formula (C) shows that the expression for. (B) shows that the expression for p will ^0 but/^0.. p. assumes the indeterminate form 0/0 as x > 0... through the If a curve passes Newtonian Method. x is tangent at the origin. " is + or according as f v is negative or positive.
the length of the perpendicular drawn from any point P to the tangent at O. = Um shown that at the origin where Yaxis is a lim (g). is the distance of the y) point P from the tangent Xaxis at O. j. =OP . 107 'X 2y = p. 108 Note. and If OT be the tangent at any given point PAf.) : of a curve. X +J n the curve from the origin O and.= cos t). j.~=lim[ =lim +~^2 J \2y x  SX^ V \ ] M Fig. 332 that the tangent at the origin lying on a curve is obtained by equating to zero the lowest degree terms in its equation.= It can similarly be tangent. In the cycloid x=a(/+sin t). P( x * Interpreted in general terms this conclusion can be stated a follows (see Fig. 108. Examples 1. 1545. . then the radius of curvature at O lim OP 2 2PM' to when the point P tends O as M its limit. at the orgin. on p. Fig. If a curve / through the origin and Xaxis tangent at the origin.204 DirFBBBNTlAL CALCULUS Also. we have at the origin Thus at the origin where xaxis is a tangent. <. These two formulae are due to Newton. Generalised Newtonian Formula. 2 2 2 is the square of the distance of any point Here. we have passes is the X 2 4V 2 lim 2y . from the formula (A) of 15 41. It will be proved later on in 1731.
y. we get Hence the curvature * ( V ..CURVATURE prove that 295 P=4acos L & /. (/). . dyjdx respectively. differentiating we get x +V [*J^. */ '~ __ 2 * +0087) QPO .. 3fl/2..  _ 1 11 cos 2a cos 2  _ 4a * __ " =4a > C08 .(/) Again..__ ' 1 g  _ / A 2 1 s 2 < rfx' ^sec T . 8^2/30. 1 for x. 5Aoif f/iar /Ae curvature is of the point (3a/2. 8ec 2"ooB772 . get we or xl+^^^ + flx.g. 3a/2) on Folium x*\y*=Zaxy Differentiating.U.. (P.1944) We have > s t). 2 COS* 2. Substituting 3a/2. ~a dy sin _ fc a sin a( I * _ 2_8i ? . "o ) 8V2 f .
U. (tic) sinh (//c). Show that the radius of the curvature at any point of the curve . Show that the radius of curvature of the Lemniscate parallel to xaxis is at the point where the tangent is . (D.U. c is. t . y^~2c cosh  t . Exercises 1. is. Show that for the curve ). 15*45.0. or p=4/5. (P. equal to three times the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the (Andhra 1951) 4. at the point for which the value of the parameter 5. Prove that the radius of curvature at the point ( 2a. y^a sin 3 is tangent. 7. Find the radius of curvature at any point on the curves c cosh (xlc) (Catenary). t . a.2p8=0. y^a(sin t t cos t). (Astroid) t)it. where is the parameter. Supp. the radius of curvature is TT/4. (/) y (//) : x=a (cos tlt sin . >>=flsin (H cos 0). 294] [Refer note Dividing by y y we get Let x  so that lim (x jy) 2 = 2p. 2. 1953) y^=(a sin Find the radius of curvature at the origin for (//) x*yxy*\ 2x y 2 2 (ill) 2x*'\ly*\4x y+xyy 2 \2x.296 3. 2c cosh 2 6. y=a? * fi (sin 0fcos 0) twice the distance of the tangent at the point from the oiigio. /). Show that the radius of curvature at a point of the curve x^ae is * fi (sin 9 cos 0). Show that the radius of curvature of any point of the astroid x=a cos 8 0. (W)x% Kyf =fll (iv) x^(a cos t)lt. 1939) 3. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Find the radius of curvature at the origin of the curve It is easy to see that Xaxis is the tangent at the origin.2p+5. p. x>0 0. . x=tc smh . 2a) on the curve jc f l y=flU i +y i ) is "~2a 8. c cosh c t .
U. is the semiconjugate diameter to CP. show that if p lf p a be the radii of curvatures at these points.1 is equal to 3 (normal) __ 2 (scmiidtus rectum) 19. 11. the point x^a and its value there Prove that for the ellipse is 9a/lO. Show that the radius of curvature at each point of the curve #=a(cos /flog tan J/). ture is 7. Show that the radius of curvature of the curve given by is least for 16.A fl(sinh u cosh u if the fi/). 13.pC> 3 /a& where CD 18. 1944) Prove that for the ellipse x*la*'r y*lb* l. 12. p be the radius of curvature any point P on the parabola y*=4ax and S be its 2 3 focus. The tangents at two points P. y=a(\ cos 0) are at right angles . (B. 22. = p. y=a sin f. i lfa l . Find the point on the curve y=e x : : 15. (Rajputana 1951) 14. at which the radius of curvaat . y) meets the axis of x in G. Show that 3V3/2 is the least value of for j?=log x. 20.U.CURVATURE 9. being the perpendicular 17. from the centre upon the tangent at any point (x. (P. y). P is equal to 3 PG. and sh^w that the tangent at this point forms with the axes of coordinates a triangle whose sides are in the ratio 1 V2 ^3. the is inversely proportional to the length of the normal intercepted between point on the curve and the Xaxis.i l 21. 10. a then Pi +P.1952) a focal (b) Pi Pi''are the radii of curvature at the extremities of chord of a parabola whose semHatus rectum is / prove that . Q on the cycloid ___ . the radius of curvature at normal at P(x. f 297 Prove that the radius of curvature at the point (2a. Show that the ratio of the radii of curvature at points on the two which have the same abscissa varies as the square root of the ratio of the ordinal es. Find the radius of curvature for 4(xla)4(ylb)=l at the points where curves it touches the coordinate axes. then p varies as (SP) (PC/. Show that in the curve x=. p  j at which the curvature is maximum. 0) on the curve is (65)1 n/(536).c=a(0 sin0). y=a cosh 3 w. (a) Prove that if.1954) . Find the points on the parabola y a =8x . generalised (Madras 1953) Employ Newtonian Formula to show that the radius of curvature at any point of the ellipse x 2 /a 2 ! j 2 //> 2 .
d<f> = ae ' I _T dff* tie > i. y Show that for the curve s=f(x). terms of r and derivatives From the figure. we see that _ _ ~ IT Fig. tan ^= T . _ [V~ VA / 25. I I r. A. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS y are given as functions of the arc s 9 show that ' p~ also. If x.298 23. ( f^\_ Prove that for the curve s=ce xlc > Find p for the curve s*=8ay. . its Here we are to express with respect to 0. " s _ tt TT _^V J 77a \ r.. 860 .. T" Also CII+" . 1952) : Radius of curvature for polar curves ds\dty in r=f(0). LS+ V(c*+s 8 )]. (Patna. 15*46. 109 _> ds ds dO ds + de di ' dQ ds Now. or .(3. dylds ** ( dxjd* d*ylds* show that jL/^iY Find p for the catenary *2y x=c log 24.
From (1). p. to r. the relation ^.CURVATURE where positive sign is to be taken before the radical. f J Therefore where and r= Cor. Now sin ^=r . 278)  ~~ds r . thereforeat a point of inflexion on a polar curve. (3). Radius of curvature for pedal curves. Differentiating w. ra +2r1 2 rra =0. Cor.r. /?=r sin we. cos ^= dr . 1547. ( 135. Since curvature is zero at a point of inflexion. (2) and we obtain] ds __ dr f do dp * . // We know that = 6 +<f>. have =sm +r cos A .
with #axia. AT Note. keeping in view the following conventions : 6 is the angle through which the positive direction of the initial line has to rotate to coincide with the positive direction ot the radius vector . 112 P is o p=sX sini/' y cos & : . The perpendicular drawn to the tangent at any point (x. y) from the origin makes angle. i// Also p. 7 or A 15 48. is called between p an'd relation holding i/>. increasing. 0. it we examine a few different curves. for every point of a curve. 111. pendicular. Tangential polar equation. or For Fig. We can satisfy ourselves on this point. is the angle through which the positive direction of the radius vector has to rotate to coincide with the positive direction of the tangent which is that of. Radius of curvature for tangential polar equations. ?r/2. The relation $^0+$ is true whatever be the position of the point on a curve and the tangent at it relative to the initial line. $ is the angle through which the positive direction of the initial line has to rotate to coincide with the positive direction of the tangent. is the length of this per Therefore the equation of the tan gent at Fig.300 or DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .
=? cos dip dy (p.r. dr ' we obtain m r r. cos (p . we get dx COS COS = = p=x or x sin x i// f>' cos sin i/^+j cos sin ip y cos i// For the Example m =a m cos curve r md... 1 ~~~~ dO m9 m6 cos sin =  dd . dx =>rfs a^ ^ ds . sn to ^.CURVATURE .(/>> a relation between (/). rm*'Qd(fi m0+r tah 2 mtf. . to i//. y) lies on this tangent. we get sn XT Now dx . dV* = *s} rtn sec 2 f md tan dr rn9.. Differentiating w r..= } ds d t// dy TTP d*p /> ds sin <// T =x cos ^f^ sin f i//f p cos sin j// sin ^ cos = x cos i^+> Differentiating (//) H'. we have p=x which is sin i//. ipy .. i//. prove that First Method. y for any point on the curve. Y being the current coordinates of any point on this tangent. x. >.. Since the point P(x. By logarithmic differentiation. = r tan md.301 X.
. as obtained in Ex. Find the radius of curvature for the ellipse 7. (P. 8.) Also. 298> mQ 1 r 2 (cos mtt Second 273 is tpage Method.U. constant. r) on each of the 6. Show that at the points in which the Archimedean spiral r=a$ interthe hyperbolical spiral rQa. (//) a /(+) sin 8. . their curvatures are in the ratio 3 : 1 . Hence *~ r~~dn r. (Allahabad) 4. Find the radius of curvature : at the point (r.DIFFBBENTIAL CALCULUS Hence gec 2 _______ m 0_ tan m g r2 2 (See r a sec 8 _ 1546. 0) on each of the follow ing curves Kl+cos 3. p /r is 2 at the origin. 1955) the point (p. Find the radius of curvature of the curve r=a cos H0 as a function of 2 (P. Find the radius of curvature of the curve r=a sin n$ Prove that for the cardioide r=a(l +cos radius of curvature at 0). Find the (/) radii of curvature of the curves p=a sin # cos pwA'm+1) ^.a m Exercises 1.(/. Find the following curves : />.C/. show that at a point where r=a its values is a/( 1 + /i ). Its pedal equation. 2.r. 1954 5. p.
cos 0) in the points P. 299) 13. that the radii of curvature at P and 11. Prove that any curve. then 10.. prove that Pn any radius vector in the consecutive denotes the radius of curvature at P n . If Delhi 1948) if the equation to a curve be given in polars r=/(0) and e pola is u*= prove that the curvature given by sin ' ? is ($F+ U ) Deduce or otherwise prove that the curvature given by 18. a point of inflexion on thecurver=0e0/(l{0). Find the radius of curvature to the curve point where the tangent is parallel to the initial line. pn n. 1947) Prove that in the curve r a a f sin 20. and and they are given by 0=^[/i(/if 1)]. the tangent turns three times as fast as the radius vector and that the curvature varies as the radius vector. r=a (1 +cos 0) at the r==fl(l line is drawn through the origin meeting the cardioid a*id the normals atP. n between 15.. from it.. The curve r=ae" c a . p. lies Show that the curve 1 r=aQ n has fi points of inflexion if and only if.. (PU. lies must be taken with a proper sign so that the pn the positive or negative direction of the positive or negative. 1949) is is Centre of curvature for any point P of a curve which lies on the positive direction of the normal at P and point 155. _i_ mn is log j*. 16. where p is the radius of curvature and tan <p~rd$ldr... r/p=sin 9[l+<fr/</0]. (See Cor. show are proportional to PC and QC. A Q Q Q 12. in polar coordinates. (Delhi. p.. the cardioide r=a(lfcos which passes through the pole. 0).. is 15'46. normal of /curvature centre according as. Show that the curve re for =a (1+0) has no point of inflexion.. p. If Pi> P2 303 be the radii of curvature at the extremities of any chord of 0). Find the points of (0 raJVW'l) inflexion (11) on the curves r 2 0=a2 . constant for all integral values of m and 19. . 14.. Pi. The distance. the at a distance. . p. meet in O.. (Delhi Hens. cuts If Pn points PI. Show that (a.CURVATURE 9... is .1951\ 17.
1551. 116 From an examination of the figures above. To find the coordinates of the centre of curvature for any point P(x. Y> : fir . 114 Fig. 115 Fig. $ 9 with Xaxis so that the positive direction of the normal makes angle j^/2 with Xaxis. we see that thecentre of curvature at any point of a curve lies on the side towards which* the concavity is turned.304 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS thepositive direction of the normal is obtained by rotating direction of the tangant (the positive direction of the tangent positive to y~f(x) is the one in which x increases) through ir/2 in the anti The clockwise direction. r is the variable distance. of the variable pbftit (X. Let the positive direction of the tangent make angle. X o Fig. \jf The equation of the normal is Xx cos ($ +7T/2) _ "" 'sin Yy (4r +7T/2) or Xx sin \p COS wheje X. y) of the curve y =f(x). Y are the current coordinates of any potrit 6nthe mal and. 113 o Fig.
cos w. circle The circle is whose centre of curvature of any point of a curve is the at the centre of curvature G and whose radiu P The circle of curvatura Will Clearly touch the curve at Curvature will be the same #3 thdfr of the curve. cos ^ and and Y. y) are (x r sin ^. Hence.CURVATURE Thus the coordinates (X. cos X=x have ' ^~h ~ If Y=v4 * r we Another method. y\r cos ^). Y) be the centre of curvature. 1553. 117 L Substituting the value of sin ^. r from (x. values of X p. Y) of the point on the distance. Chord of curvature drawn in a given direction for any a curve is the chord 6f fche circle of curvature through tu ~ point of point drawn in the gaid direction. we can obtain the curve Evolute. T M Fig. The locus of the centres of curvature of a 15*52. we know that sin ^ = ^ 1 1 . be the centre of curvature for P. ^ . nrn  /ft ' * TD/1f Also. . . we hare =y+p But. is called its evolute and a curve is said to be an involute of its evolute. Pand its 15 54. if (X. 305 normal at a For the centre of curvature. ^ =x p sin ^LP+POcos^ =}>+P cos </r.
119 <?> PS=PQ cos /_SPQ2p cos Examples Thus. PQ=PS cos the chord is Z_S?# = 2p  cos <Jr. (*> J') / ^ JTwrf /te coordinates of the centres of curvature at any point' pcrabola y*=*ax. RSP= $ == /_ SPQ . Thus. any point Pof a curve. the chord of curvature J_ wrf/wj vec/or=2 p co^ i//. Clearly /. . sin /_TQP=:2f sin <f>. PT=PQ f/ie TQP=<l>=:^SPQ.306 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS determine expressions fpr the lengths of someimportant particular cases of the chords of curvature. we get d*y 2a Jf (X Y) be the y centre of curvature . Hence obtain its evolute. Now. the circle with C as centre and circle PI? to A'axis and PQ are chords of this and Yaxis respectively. Thus. PT is the chord of curvature through the PS is the chord of the circle of curvature perpendicular to the radius vector OP. (i) We will now Let PT be the tangent and C thfr centre of curvature for We draw PC as radius. Thus (ft") of curvature Yaxis =2/ cos i/>. of the pole O. PR=PS sm_RPS=2p \\ sin t//. sin i/>. Fig. 1. chord of curvature through <f>. /. circle the pole. parallel Clearly. the pole=:2p sin Also. the chord of curvature Xaxis =2p Also. Differentiating.
of (x/tf). (ii) eliminate 0. .3=a?.. (/). we have to eliminate x from and (//).. sec* g coseo . (/) .CURVATURE 307 4*2 14 (0 Y= 4a* UOX}t = ^^~. find the evolute. . 3 or 0sin 0) squaring and adding..(> To Thus.. =a sin3 0+3a To fore cos 2 sin 0.. 1 .4 sec 4 cosec ^ . we separately add and subtract 3 There X+ Y=a (cos 0+sin 0) XY=a (cos 0sin 0) On or (X+ 7)*=a* (cos (^7)'=^* (cos ^f sin 0).^.= sec* cosec 9. (//). ^ +j.... In the curve to Yaxis is y=a log sec constant length. cos g. We can easily show that dy tan d 2y . the chord of cuivature parallel . 3. sin 2 (/) . we obtain as the required evolute. ^ .F/n J //i^ evolute of the four cusped hypocycloid 2 2 ^_^ w ^.. v. . a or is 27^r2 the required evolute. 2. .
.308 TT DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Here AI tan ^^r .'. Supp. Show tint the evolute of the ellipse $9 y=b sin 18 2. (1. O being the the curve origin of coordinates. 1 Show that is the circle of curvature of the curve ftt the point (a/4. Shaw that the evolute of the tractrix xa (cos it f Hog tan J/). p=a . (a) Show that for the hyperbola ad the equation of the evolute is (axfi (6) (byfi ( Prove that the evolute of the hyperbola s 3. Show that the centre of curvature of the point P(a. Show that (210/16. *=.9 2 /. IProve that the centres of curvature at points of a cycloid lie on an (P. (14. 1944) equal cycloid.U. constant* Exercises 1 . 6. tan 8 xla)* ' sec x/a = a sec X x a chord of curvature parallel to Faxis =2p which is X cos i/>=2a sec cos = 2a. 210 (16) is the centre of curvature for the point 5. a) of xi +y*=2cPxy divides the line OP in the ratio 6:1. 9 dx* ^0=  a sec* a * . d)> x =tan X . 3n/2) of the Folium x*+y*=laxy.yf have the same circle of curvature at thQ point 8.K2 f. a/4). y= sin / the catenary >>=0cosh 4. . Show that the parabolas j^aHx+l. ^= X * Also. (3a/2. 1). (xla). 7.
{P ' U ' 1948) If Cx and cv point of the catenary y=c be the chords of curvature parallel to the axes at any cosh (xlci. (Guj rat 1952) 21. . at the point (am 2am) of the parabola y*=4ax has for its equation x*+y*6am2x4ax+4am*y=3a*m*.U. Show that the chord of curvature through the pole for the curve is 2/(r)//'(r). (Lucknow) br the chord of curvature through the 22. the origin to the circle of curvature at any point is r^3/ 3. (D. 13. Hons.U. evolute at corresponding points are equal. prove that of the cardioide 18. r=ae 15. 11. b) of + ^= (P. then 20. cos 0).U.OTJKVATURB 9. Show that m that the chord of curvature through the pole of the equiangular the chord of curvature through the pole of the equiangular spiral r=ae 16. spiral Show is 2r. 1957) 9 (b) the ellipse 12. show that the length of the tangent 23.U. Find the equation of the * 2 circle of curvature at 1 the point (0. Show that for the curve p~ae . Show that the chord of curvature through the pole of the curve r m_ m C08 m Q fl t is 2r/(ro4l). For the lemniscate r 2 =fl2 cos 20. ^ is bisected at the pole. Find the radius of curvature at any point P of y=c cosh (x]c) and show that PC=PG where C is the centre of curvature at P and G the point of intersection of the normal at P with xaxis. (Delhi Hons. 1959) Show that the radii of curvature of the curve x==ae^ (sin cos^). (D. 0) and c * be the chords of curvature of the cardioide r=o(l 4cos through the pole and perpendicular to the radius vector.) . is Show Lf c r that the chord of curvature through the pole Jr. pole is of constant length. Hons. 309 Find the circle of curvature at the origin for the curve x+ y=ax*+by*+c**. (Allahabad) its and 14. r=0(l 19. prove that 17. 1951) Show that the circle of curvature at the origin of the parabola is mx ).^=a^ (sin 0+cos 0). 1955) 2 (a) Show that the circle of curvature. from (B. 10. If cx point of the curve and cv be the chords of curvature x a parallel to the axes at any y=ae l .
310
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
24. If P is any point on the curve r 2 =a2 cos 29 and Q is the intersection of the normal at P with the line through O at right angles to the radius vector OP, prove that the centre of curvature corresponding to P is a point of trisection
ofPQ.
25. If
(L.U.)
Pis any point on the curve r=a (1lcos 9) and Q is the intersection of the normal at P with the line through the pole O perpendicular to OP, prove that the centre of curvature at P is a paint of trisection of PQ remote from P.
26. 1 he circle of curvature at any point meets the radius vector OP at A, show that
P of the
Lemniscate
r2
=a2 cos
29
OP: AP=l
:
2;
O being the pole.
27. p lf p, are the radii of curvature at the corresponding points of a f 8 cycloid and its evolute ; prove that Pi +p t is a constant.
28. Show that the chord of curvature through the focus of a parabola is four times the focal distance of the point and the chord of curvature parallel to the axis has the same length. (Rajputana 1952)
29. Prove that the distance between the pole and the centre of curvature n w is corresponding to any point on the curve r =a cos
1555.
Two
important properties of the evolute.
If (X, Y) be the centre of curvature for any point P(x, y) on the given curve, we have
X=x
Differentiating w.r. to
p sin0,
9
Y=y+p
cos
X we obtain
dX
.
=1
.
ds dx 
T
=
dif>
ds dx
dib y
.
sin
,
rfp
=. * dx
dY
dx
^x
= dy
cos Jxd* dsdx+
rfp
dy
ds dy
dip,
,
+
dp dx,
...
COS ^ fc
(//)
From
(i)
and
(//),
Now, dY/dX is the slope of the tangent to the evolute at pf cot </>, is the slope of the normal PP' in the and, original curve at P. By (//) the slopes of two lines, which have a point P' in common, are equal, and therefore they coincide.
v
CURVATURE
Thus, the normals to a curve are the tangents
Again,
to its evolute.
311
we square
(/)
and
(//)
and add.
one
Let, S, be the length of the arc of the fixed point on it upto (X, Y) so that
evolute measured
from
Here, x
is
a parameter for the evolute.
dx)
...(/*)
dS
dx'~
dx
or
constant.
f
where,
c, is
on the , 2 be the two points evolute corresponding to the points L 1? L2 on the original curve. Let p lf P 2 be the values of, p, for L l9 L 2 and S 19 S 2 be Afa the values of 8 for 19
Let Af
M
M
.
Thus
arc A/,
i.e.,
M = difference
2
between
Fig. 120
the radii of curvatures at
L L9 L 2
,
that difference between the radii of Thus, curvatures at two points of a curve is equal to the length of the arc of the evolute between the two corresponding points.
Note. We suppose that 5 is measured positively in the direction of x, increasing so that dSldx is positive. Also, dpfdx is positive or negative according as, p, increases or decreases as x increases.
we have shown
Thus
ax
according as,
Tt is
p,
.= T
dx
or
dx
,
increases or decreases for the values of, x, under consideration.
easy to see that the conclusion arrived at in this section remains the same if we consider dSldx^dpfdx instead ofdS'dx^dpldx. It should, however, be noted that the conclusion holds good only for that part of the curve for which p , constantly increases or decreases so that d?/dx keeps the same sign.
312
Ex.
which
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Find the length of the arc of the evolute of the parabola
is
intercepted between the parabola.
The evolute is
Let L,
M
27a^=4(x2a)
be
8
.
(Ex.
1,
p.
30)
the points of intersection of the evolute
LAM
and the parabola.
To find the coordinates of the points of intersection L, M, we solve the two
equations simultaneously.
We get
^
*i I C*
07/7
A /ry ^IM^V

A.("Y  ft/r\*^ *1 *\^^ AC*y y
X
*
this cubic
*
Fie 121
/.
a are the roots of of which x=Sa is the equation on ly admissible value a being negative.
Now,
8a,
fl,
;
(84','4\/2a), (8a,
4^20)
are the coordinates of L,
(x, y)
M.
on the
306)
If(Xt Y) be the centre of curvature for any point parabola,/we have
/
X^3x+2a,
is
Y=y
3
I4:a*.
(Ex.
1, p.
/Thus A(2a, 0)
L(8<t,
4\/2a)
is
the centre of curvature for f the centre of curvature for P(2a,
O(0, 0) and
The radius of curvature at/? = 0.4=20. The radius of curvature at P=PL=(
/;
arc
1).
Hence the required length Af4L=4a(3 v'3
Ex.
2.
Show
that the
whole length of the evolute of the
ellipse
Ex.
3.
Show
that the
whole length of the evolute of the astroid
x~
it
120.
CHAPTER XVI
ASYMPTOTES
161.
Definition.
A
straight line
is
an
branch of a curve, if, as the point the branch, the perpendicular distance of
infinite
said to be an Asymptote of recedes to infinity along from the straight line
P P
tends to 0.
Illustration.
The
line
#=a
is
an asymptote of the Cissoid
y\ax)=x*.
from the
It is easy to see that as (x, y) line xa tends to zero.
(Seell41>
moves to
infinity,
its
P
distance
Ex.
What
arc the asymptotes of the curves j>=tan x ; ,y=cot x ; .y=sec x and >>=cosec x.
We know that the equation 162. Determination of Asymptotes. of a line which is not parallel to Xaxis is of the form
ymx+c.
The
abscissa, x,
...(/>
must tend to
infinity as the point P(x, y}
recedes to infinity along this line.
We shall now determine, m, and, an asymptote of the given curve.
c,
so that the line
(i)
may
be
M
X
Fig. 122
Fig. 123
Ifp=MPbethe perpendicular distance of any point P(x, on the infinite branch of a given curve from the line (/), we have v mx c
p >
as
x >
.
oo
.
lim(>>~ mx
c)=0,
which means that, when x >oo
313
314
Also,
DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
lim (yl*
or
w)=lim
(y
mx). lim l/x=c.
0=0
lim (yly)~m,
when
x >
oo.
Hence
m=
lim (y/x),
c=
lim (y
mx),
X >
oo
X >
oo
We have thus the following method to determine asymptotes which are not parallel to j>axis : Jet lim (y/x)~m. (/) Find lim (yjx) X  oo x  oo
;
(11)
Find lim (ymx) X  oo
;
let
.
lim
(ymx)^c.
X >
oo
Then
y=mx+c is an
asymptote
The values of y will be different according to the different branches along which Precedes to infinity, and so we expect several values of lim (yjx) corresponding to the several values of y and also Thus a curve may have several corresponding values of lim (y mx). more than one asymptote.
This method will determine all the asymptotes except those parallel to 7axis. To determine such asymptotes, we start with the equation x^my+d which can represent every straight line not parallel to A'axis and show, that when y ^ oo
whiah are
m^lim
The asymptotes not
way.
Ex.
1.
(xjy)
and d~]im (xmy). any
axis can be obtained
either
parallel to
Examine
the Folium
for asymptotes.
The given equation is of the third degree. To find lim (y/x), divide the equation (/) by X s
,
so that
x J
Let
Jc
xx
(m+l)(/n
2

oo.
We then get
3
l[m
=Oor
m+l)~Q.
real.
The roots of w 2  m + 1 =0 are not
ASYMPTOTES
315
i.e.,
To
put
y+xp
find lim (y so that,
mx) when
/?, is
m=
l,
to find lim (y+x),
oo
.
we
a variable which > c when x >
(i),
Putting
p
x
for
y
in the equation
we
get
or
which
is
of the second degree in x.
,
2 Dividing by x
we
get
Let # *
oo
.
We then have
or
3(c+a)=0
Hence
>>=
is
c=
a.
x
a or .*+}> 40=0,
the only asymptote of the given curve.
If
we
start
with x=my\d, we get no new asymptotes.
Thus
is
the only asymptote of the given curve. Ex. 2. Find the asymptotes of the following curves
(i)
(ill)
:
16*3.
Working
rules
for
determining
asymptotes.
Shorter
In practice the rules obtained below for determining asymptotes are found more convenient than the method which involves direct determination of
Methods.
lim (yjx) and lim
(ymx).
Firstly we shall consider the case of asymptotes parallel to the coordinate axes and then that of oblique asymptotes.
1631.
Determination of the asymptotes parallel to the coordi
nate axes.
Asymptotes parallel to Yaxis.
Let
x^k
..(t)
be an asymptote of the curve, so that we have to determine k. Here, y, alone tends to infinity as a point P (x, y) recedes to
infinity along the curve.
816
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
The
line
(t) is
distance equal to x
PM of
k.
any point P(x,
y)
on the curve from
fc)=0 whenj>
oo
,
the
lim (x
or
lim #=fc when y 
oo
,
which gives fc. Thus to find the asymptotes parallel
Yaxis,
fc
to*
we find
the
2,
etc., to
which
Then x=fc,,
asymptotes.
Fig. 124
x=k2
definite value or values fcr x tends as y tends to oo .
,
etc. are
the required
We will now obtain a simple rule to obtain the asymptotes of a rational Algebraic
.
curve which are parallel to Faxis.
We
y, so that
arrange the equation of the curve in descending powers of it takes the form
where
are polynomials in x.
Dividing the equation
(i)
by y
m we
,
get
Let y >
oo
.
We
(ii)
write
lim
x=k*
The equation
so that,
fc,
gives
is
lf
a root of the equation <(x)=0.
fc
Let
fe
2
etc.,
be the roots of
<j)(x)
=0.
Then the asymptotes?
parallel to 7axis are
x~k
From
l9
x=fc 2
,
etc.
etc.,
(x fc 2 ), fc,), algebra, factors of ^(x) which is the coefficient of the highest in the given equation.
:
we know
that (x
are the
power y
m of y
The asymptotes parallel to Yaxis are Hence we have the rule obtained by equating to zero the real linear factors in the coefficient of the highest power of, y, in the equation of the curve. The curve will have no asymptote parallel to Faxis, if the coefficient of the highest power of, y, is a constant or if its linear factors are all imaginary.
Asymptotes parallel to Xaxis. As above it can be shown that the asymptotes, which are parallel to Xaxis, are obtained by equating to zero the real linear factors in the coefficient of the highest power of> x, in the equation of the curve.
ASYMPTOTES
1632.
317
of
the general rational
To determine
the
asymptotes
algebraic equation
where,
Ur is a homogeneous expression We writo Ur in the form
,
of degree,
r,
in x, y.
where
<f>,(ylx)
is
a polynomial in y\x of degree,
(i)
r,
at most,
So we write
in the form
x
"+("x
)+*""*' ()+*"<*
(i )+
Dividing by x*, we get
On
taking limits, as x^oo
,
we obtain the equation
which determines the slopes of the asymptotes.
Let
m
We
l
be one of the roots of this equation so that
write
Substituting this value of yjx in ('),
we
get
Expanding each term by Taylor's theorem, wo get
..(wJ+^f ..,(111,)+.,
.
.
]
therefore.)=0 and then dividing by x". Therefore or Therefore is the asymptote corresponding to the slope Similarly W A. We write lira />!=!. If ^' n (m. we get  K . if <f>' n (m 2 ). Exceptional case. provided that . Let ^(m. are. etc. c. we see that q is a root of the equa which dejf'ermines two values of c.318 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Arranging terms according to descending powers of x.. if ^( etc.) =0. are the asymptotes of the curve corresponding to the slopes 2 m# which are the roots of ^ n (m)=0.. say c. . w not 0. we get 1 Putting ^ n (m.. then the equation (vi) does not determine any value of c l and.".'. In this case. =0 Let x  oo . (vi) becomes an identity and we have to examine the equation (v) which now becomes re On tion ' taking limits.. as x > oo . . ^' n (w 3 ). tho/e is no asymptote corresponding to the slope m v Now suppose fl #'n('i)=0=^ _ 1 (m 1 ).)=0 but ^1(^1)^0.
. etc.1 (^/x). x ~^ n ^(yjx). separately. power y of y is x a.ASYMPTOTES 3 1 fr* Thus y=m. Find the asymptotes of the cubic curve 2x 3 x 2^ +2xy* +y* 4x 2 +8xy 4x + 1 =0. 1. The polynomial J n(m) is <f> ^n. is given by cf 1 4i+3/ I )+(4+8m)~0. 1 Hence is 0. The coefficient of the highest power x3 of x is 1 which Hence there is no asymptote parallel to x ax is. x=l andy=m similar way. in a' <f> obtained by putting Fxunples 1. stant. These are This is known in as the case of parallel asymptotes. rfence x are the a=Q. y 4^=0 are the twoasymptotes parallel to xaxis. The or slopes of the asymptotes are given by 111= 1.x+ c/. It may similarly be shown that>> #~0. 2 Again.2 ( m ) etc > are obtained from x the highest degree terms n^1 xn n (ylx). (//) (i) The coefficient of the highest the asymptote parallel to y axis is (i) xa jcyd*(jt+y)=<). n ^ n . Also. and n i(tn). c. Important Note. Find the asymptotes parallel 2 to coordinate axes. w l . of ther curves : (x +>>*)* tfy*=0. Putting x=l. . yare t he two asymptotes corresponding to the slope clearly parallel. y=m in the third degree and second degree terras we <f> get 3 (m)=2m ^3 (w)=w 3 2m 2 +m 3 2m2 . (//) a con The coefficient of the highest power y^ of y is x2 a2 . 2. x+a~ two asymptotes parallel to }>axis.
For w=s 1. c+0=0 is which is identidetermined from the i.. a2 /*2 y=xl(x*l). Putting Therefore the asymptotes are m= 2. 10. 12.) 9. 2 (P.) (B. 2 (c /2)(2+6m)+c(28m)+l(l+m)=0.) 11. For /w = l. :  ytxa^xa^O. < 3 (w)=0. cally true.. 1952) (P. Find the asymptotes of x2 4y* l m) m (l 2 m) The slopes of the asymptotes. ^V^ 2 /) 2 . 3.U. we have i. Exercises Find the asymptotes parallel to coordinate axes of the following curves 1. 1.(0 x+1 is the For equation w=l. x 2y+xy*+xy+y*+3x=Q. 2..U. 1. 8. this becomes 2c'~6c?+2=0. c=(3v^5)/2.e. 2 6.e. x*y~3x*5xy+6y+2=Q. y*x*y+2xy*y+l=Q.. 2.) 5. given by To determine c. . ylxy) =x+y. 1. 1. 4 respectively. asymptotes cor We have thus obtained all the asymptotes of the curve. Find the asymptotes of the following curves : +W=i. c. parallel Hence y~x+(3<\/5)l2 are the two responding to the slope 1.U.U. the equation (/) becomes In this exceptional case. c(~l~2m+3m 2)+(2+2m4w 2 )==0. (xy+l)(xy2)(x+y)=Sxl. this gives c=l and therefore.320 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 1. 4. ' (P. j>= ^corresponding asymptote.e.) (P. we get c=2. x\xy)*\o?(x*y*)=o?xy.. 3. x(yx) =x(yx)+2.U.U. i. are 1. (D. (x~y)*(x*+y*)W(xy)x*+l2y*+2x+y~0. 0.
degree cannot exceed The slopes of the asymptotes which are not parallel to Faxis are given as the roots of the equation n (m)~ which is of degree n at the most.. x. In case the highest degree terms contain. ^SyVx'^SxM^ZJOH. 27. y Let. as a little . } x~1y\ 1 0. i 20. then it Hence the result. xy***(x+y)*. xy*x*y3x*2xy 2*(>'3) 2 I y* . sometimes defined as a straight line which cuts the Criticise this definition and replace it by a (P. to . 2 : jc^f^^^^).3* 2 4>f50.(wt) = 0.) (L.v\2aJC).e. <f> In casa the curve possesses one or more asymptotes parallel to is easy to see that the degree of ^ n (/w) Q will bo smaller than n by at least the same number. correct definition.v3r)2a(A' v )2aV2v)Ul>')^0.. an algebraic curve are parallel to the lines (//) 77?e asymptotes of obtained by equating to zero the factors of the highest degree terms in its equation. 28. y m x x.U. 25.) Show 23.U.U. 0. 1955 Supp.) 16. 1955 Supp.e. yW 2 /(fl * 2 ). <f> ^. (P. 19. 2 3 3 (A:j) (. 2 3X*l) 2 2 (^ra) a*. is a factor of U n then m v is a root of By <f> . (y~a) (x a*)=x'\ (Lucknow} ! Uf/r(x y 3 2 tjty f^ 2 )o 2 JC 2 a*:y~x). 21. (y/xrn^ is a factor of n Also converse! y. then a consideration will show that the curve will possess asymptotes parallel to x=0. m. we see that if.U. 17. Kaxis. yr^x. ^ n (^)0. y x(xfl) 2 . is a factor of x n (ylx). so that the line n (yl*) elementary algebra.) 16 33.) Xj>l) 2 ~* 2 l. 321 (L.yaxis.I7. be a root of the equation ^1^=0 is parallel' to an asymptote. 1950) 4 22. The number of asymptotes of an algebraic curve of the nth n. t/ n hence. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve parallel to its asymptote.ASYMPTOTES 13. 14 15. (L U) (x+y)(xy)(2xy}4x(x2!*)+4x (L. that the following curves have no asymptotes 24. (/) Some deductions from 16 32.v2v)(. 26. 18. factor. x3 I 2 3 ^ 3ax which is An asymptote is curve in two points at infinity. i. aV 2 . i. (DehiHons.
parallel asymptotes. Since ^ n (m) and its derivative ^' n (m) vanish for by elementary 2algebra. since (AI m^ is a root of l)th degree terras Un _ v _ 1 (m)=0. In the limit.y m L x is a factor of the Thus.e. us to shorten be no asymptote with slope m l9 butw>* of ^ n i(fH)0. we see that in the exceptional case of 16*32. Also. formed of the Examples 1. y+x. <' n (w)=0 factor of C/ n Note. .. when x > <x> and yjx > 1.e.. The The first step mil always consist in fact or i sing the expression highest degree terms in the given equation. Find the asymptotes of the Folium The curve has no asymptotes parallel to coordinate axe*. i. In this m iy satisfies the three equations fore. to the line y\~x~ Hence the curve has only one whose slope is asymptote which is parallel We have. and >> fl^x is not a factor of Un ~i if if w is a root of (ym^) is a 1 2 results obtained in the paragraphs (11) and (///) above enable the process of determining the asymptotes as shown in the following examples.322 (iit) DIFFERENTIAL OALOQLUS Case of case. now We have to find. we have y= is xa y i. terms. /w^) is a factor of the highest degree terms >n <f f/ n . tha only real asymptote of the folium. we get so that. m l is a double root of (>> m=m lt there <^ n (m)~0 and therefore. is the only real linear factor of the highest degree real 1. Factorizing the highest degree terms. a twice repeated linear factor of U n is also a nonrepeated factor of U n _ r There will ^ n (m)=0. lim (y+x).
e. (ty+x)*+5(2y+x). Dividing by x. the +5(x +y)(x +2y) . 4>>f 2x and + l=0.e. y. one asymptote. lim (l+y/x)+ lim i. or .Km IB 323 (i).. x and yjx > 4cM5.(0 _ t 5. Factorising the highest degree terms. 2y+JC~0 if (2y+x) is not a factor of the 2nd degree terms also. (i) ified simplified easy to see that we could have eliminated the step the process by sayi saying that the asymptotes are and (2y+xy+5(2y+x).. more asymptotes. There will. be no asymptote parallel to i. .e. 3rd degree.2y + 1 . curve has two asymptotes parallel to 2 f*) We have now to find lim (y+\x) when x > Let lim (y f Jx)=c so that lim (2^+x) 2c. 2x+5=0. i 1. we get Here 2y +x is a repeated linear factor of highest degree terms. oo and yjx > 1.ASYMPTOTES It is easy to see that we could have eliminated the step simplified the process by saying that the required asymptote v 4. which gives J +10 =0 or 2(2>> fx) 2 +5(2>>+*)+20. Hence are the two It is y= J^~J and. But this is not the case. the equation is x(2y Therefore. In fact. is i.y= Jx 1.lim y+X =.x ... therefore.y 2 ^ f 1 0. Equating to zero the coefficient of the highest power y* of we see that 4xH10=0.2c(li)2(i)+0=0 4c 2 +5c + l=0 r C > . and is i when x > 2.. Find the asymptotes of f 5x 2 + 15xy flO. the equation becomes In the limit.0.
y) 8 y 2=0. Similarly. provided that no equating to zero any other linear factor of n is F it. is as the limit zero because of the factor 1/x. Therefore the i.e. The asymptote parallel to ax +by 40=0 . The asymptote parallel to xjH2=0 is . ax+by+c=Q is is be a nonrepeated factor of Fn . If the equation of a curve of the nth degree can be put in the form where Fn . 4. on dividing it by (x 2 +^ 2 ).. //^ ev^r. 4x. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Find the asymptotes of The asymptotes parallel to the two imaginary lines are imaginary.. i.* v/x > i . We \*rite where Fn _ t of degree (w 1). /7m/ /Ae asymptotes of (xy +2)(2jt. an . when . 164. 56^/xf7/x ' ' I .3j +4)(4jc . J x~^+20.. 1+0 . v =0.. Fn _ a is of degree (w when equated to zero Let straight line obtained by parallel to it or coincident with 2) a^ ///^ wort. we can show that 2x 3j>+4=0.5y 6^0 are also the asymptotes of the curve.. . To obtain the two asymptotes parallel to the lines x y~Q. t+/jr)  2 We take the limits when x > asymptotes are oo and yjx > 1 .e.y /me^r /ac/or of will give an asymptote.v (x. ..v > x and . A'v42fhm or T f .5y +6) +5* ~fi v 47=0. ^!^) . 4 "" 5 . Asymptotes by Inspection. we rewrite the equation.. "1 L^^/^+^WC . x 3>3=0. 1 .324 3..
16 5.ASYMPTOTES 32& p ax+by+c+lim /~^0. Thus is on asymptote. limit (/ rna/' rni)> w ^ divide the numerator as well as the denominator by x n ~ l and see that 1/x appears as a factor To determine the  so that jPn _ 2 /Fn ^ 1 > a* x > x . > 6. 0. ..(/) by Taylor's theorem to descending powers of x..2 (m +cjx) + . The equation abscissae of the points of intersection are the roots of the xn <l> n (m +clx) +x ^ni(m +c/x) +x**<f> n . (xi)(. 2 (3>'^. 5.c2)(.4y(x~\)*. jc)7/ 2 l9xy23x 2 hx f 2/  3^>. x(y ~lby+2b*)^y*3bx*+b*. 2 9.. 8. y 3 *M .cKx)+* 2 jx+1 0.X +\^Q. x(y3)*^.v)MM3vfAr)(xHr)h9^6A7f9y^6x+90. Intersection of a curve and asymptotes. 10. in (n Any asymptote of a curve of the points. ^ 3 f6..x (7\l/. 2 2 ) (y HA7^2x 2 2 }(y + ^2x 2 )(2>' 2 . 2 9 4. we have to solve the two equations simultaneously.y2 + X + y.. we get according Expanding each term and arranging . Exercises Find the asymptotes of the following curves : 2.. fni when x > oo and y/x > a\b.v 2 ^MlA:/h6^43^412x^f 1 ly^ZxfSy f50.. 7. . nth degree cuts the curve 2) Let y =niK\c be an asymptote of the curve To find the points of intersection. 3. 2 (/? (a}x) 3 >< }A' 2 )xV 3 5Ay 2 h8^^4jc 3/f 9A7 6A' 2 its i2^ 2x f 1 0.
the (11) coefficients of x n and x*~ l Thus the equation Cor. joint equation of the asymptotes is x 2yxy*\xy+y*2y=Q. Particular cases 3.e. n. as may be are (P. asymptotes. and therefore the asymptotes cut the (i) For a cubic. it The. determines (ttr2) values of x.. is an asymptote. therefore. n curve in 3(3 2) =3 points which lie on a curve of degree 1. in 1..U. 1955) that they cut the curve again in three points which lie on the x+y^0. therefore the curve in 4(4 2)~8 points which lie on a curve of degree 4 2=2 i.U. asymptotes of a nth degree cut n(n2) points.e. Find the asymptotes of the curve x*yxjP+xy+yP+xy=Q and show line (P. nonrepeated linear factors. At the points of intersection of equation Fn =0 and the curve and its asymptotes. i. curv^e of the and.. on a conic. the two equations Fn n _ 2 ~Q hold simultaneously and therefore at such points we have The +F *=<>. 2. on a straight line.e. reduces to that "of (n 2)th degree Hence the result. n=4. 1940) easily shown The i. the form F Fn +Fn _ 2 =0 9 result follows at once from the fact that Fn =0 is the joint of the. The asymptotes of the given curve. /i. If (he equation of a curve of the nth degree can be put in where Fn _ 2 is of degree (n 2) at the most and n consists of n. The equation of the curve can be written as Here F^tfy Henee the points of intersection lie on the line . and. 32 = asymptotes cut the (11) For a quart ic.326 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Aay^mx+c are both zero. then the n(n2) points of intersection of the curve and its asymptotes lie on the curve Cor. Examples 1.
In order that it we must have 1). 0). Fjsx+y+1. 327 Show that the asymptotes of the quartic 2  1 =0. (1. 6+6=0 or Thus the required cubic is . Find the equation of the cubic which has the same asymptotes as the curve and which passes through the points (0.ASYMPTOTES 2.Gxy + 1 1 xv 2 . 0). x3>'=0. cut the curve in the eight points which lie on a circle. so that their joint equations is . 1948) We write Fjssx 8 . x as The equation of the curve can be written X X 5V 2^^ ( 2_4^2)( 2_9^2)__ Hence the points of intersection lie on the circle 3. may pass through the points (0.x2 y+l=0. (Delhi Hons. (/. The general equation of the cubic is of the form or where ax \~by\c is the general linear expression. 0) and c=0. The equation of the curve can be written in the form /rs +jF1 =0 where F% has non repeated linear factors. 0) and(Q. I).. The asymptotes of the curve i are x+2y=0. Thus 7^=0 is the joint equation of the asymptotes of the cubic. (0.6y 3 = (xy)(x2y)(x3y).e.
(Delhi Hons.c 2  2) . in three points. Find the asymptotes of the curve 3x 3 f 2x*y Ix Show on a straight 8. prove that the portion of the line intercepted 2. Hons. 5. Hons. Show that y ^x + a is the only asymptote of the curve A straight line parallel to the asymptote that the midpoint of PQ lies on the hyperbola x(xy)+ay0. 0) parallel to the asymptote of the cubic (Jc a) 3 x 2y=Q. 4. which He on a (D.17x 2 2 >' . a straight line is drawn parallel to the only asymptote of the curve x 3 f. 1952) Find the equation of the cubic which has the same asymptotes as the x* 6x*y\ curve \\xy*6y*ix+y+\ 0.v 20x 2 i74>' 56vf 4. meet the curve again in three and find the equation of this line.C/.y3 =30.v>>0.y points which lie on the line x9 0.2(. meets the curve in P.v f 16 0. show Find the equation of the straight 2 8 xVjn' . To show c that y=mx\ is an asympotate of the curve (I) . and which touches the axis of v at the origin and passes through the point (3.2r line on which f lie three points of intersection of the cubic i 4r 2 I 2xy v I and its asymptotes. Show that the asymptotes of the cubic 2 xy . Q . If a right line is drawn through the point (a.) 2 2 Through any point P on the hyperbola x / ~ 2ax.2xy f 2x . 1957) Asymptotes by expansion.4x(4y 2 ~ x*) 4. 2). 10.U.U. and show that they pass through the intersection of the curve with (D. and show that they pass through the points of intersection of the curve with the a (Delhi Hons. is bisected by the curve. Hons.328 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Exercises 1. 6. Obtain the equation of the line. 1953) 7. (C. Find the asymptotes of the curve 4. by the axes 3. 1951.x* ~13*V+V ail a 3 f32xV42. 1949. cut the curve again in 3. Find the asymptotes of the curve 4(*H y 1 ) .U. 1959) ellipse x + 4/4. 1955) 9. Find the asymptotes of the curve 90 and show that they intersect the curve again straight line.t2 meeting the curve in A and B show that Pis the midpoint of AB. points which lie (D. 166. that the asymptotes line. .
. . We have By taking . the curve lies below the asymptote. B^O we have . yiy. . . . .2 is negative.ASYMPTOTES Dividing by x we have 9 329 y\x=m +C/X+A/X* \Blx*+C/x* + so that . the position of the curve with respect to To find its asymptote y=mx\ f c. Let > t and >' 2 denote the ordinates of the curve and the asymptote corresponding to the same abscissa x. lini so that when x>x (2) (ymx) = r. Let A^O. As above we can show that values of x.v + C/A" 2  D/.v. +. then J^ >' 8 is positive.. we may deduce that if A be negative. from (1) we deduce that when x is ciently large lies positively sufficiently large. Let A=Q.(3) From is and (3).. suppose that x this expression is numerically less than A. . be pjsitive.) we can rnako . Also from (1) (y . the expression for numerically sufficiently large has the sign of B. i. the curve above the asymptote and when x is negative but numerically large. .e.v sufficiently large. Position of a curve with respect to an asymptote.. i.. is negative but sufficiently lies large numerically.(2) we have jc .v 3 + ... we deduce that (1). jc. the expression (1) is positive for suffivalues of A* so that.r. for sufficiently large (2) A lias + B/. an asymptote of the curve 16*7.(1) as small as we like.. is positive but sufficiently large and lies above the asymptote when. .t2 f Cj 8 + ... values of . then the curve below the asymptote when. ]im(ylx)=m. . the sign of A..e... the expression We is so large numerically that Thus.mx) = c +A/x + B/.. if Thus A Similarly. when x *x> ..
= i a a* . viz. case (1). Ex.. the curve lies on the same side of the asympotate both for positive and negative values of x it will be above or below the asymptote according as B is positive or negative. The difference between the ordinate of the curve and that of the asymptote y=x3a being above the asymptote when x is we see that the curve lies it positive and below It when x is negative. l ~2x ~8& x Y A a i *~ Y 2?" A a2 ' 3fl i 2^ + 27aS 8. Substituting this value of x in the equation of the an asymptote of the curve........ and determine on which side of the asymptotes the curve We have lies. may is asymptote when x It the second similarly be seen that the curve lies below is positive and above it when x is negative.. If 5=0 and C^O.330 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS In this case...v u Thus we have two values of y.. curve. y=x3a+Therefore l a 2 x . y=sx+3a*Ja*x ____ y=x3a y= 9 x+3a are two asymptotes. Find the asympotates of the curve ' y*=x(x~a)(x2a)l(x +3a).. we have 5*+ + . To find the position of we suppose that x= 3fl +A/y +Bjy* +C/>* + ... easy to see that *=: is also 3a the curve relative to this asymptote. we will have a situation similar to that of .
for the between the abscissae of the curve and the same value of y. Lamma. be any point on the we have Now.. Fig.(it) p~r is cos(0 the asymptote of the given curve. Ex. is the length of the perpendicular from the pole to the line angle which this perpendicular makes with the initial line. being which curve is lies negative whether y be positive or negative. #:= 60a 8 . The asymptote difference x~3tf. where. any line is The Polar Equation of a Line. the asymptotes of the curve To determine r/(0). we have 4: = 0. Find : the asymptotes and their position with regard to the following curves (Hi) x*(xy)i 2 >> 0. 2. 6) Z_ line. is the a). be the perpendicular on the its foot. p. 16*8. ~p= C oS /_YOP.(0 and. 125. /?. we have to obtain the constants. />/r=cos(0 a). p=r cos (0 a).ASYMPTOTES 331 Equating the coefficients of like powers of y. and Let given line OY . The polar equation of pr cos (6a. a). which is the required equation of the line. etc. Y being We If are given that 0y=p.. we see that ths towards the negative side of JCaxis.. i. Asymptotes in polar coordinates. so that any line . . . P (r. .e.
=pr cos (0a). the (///) Without employing the notion of the polar subtangent and the value of p.(ill) Now >0 t r>oo as the point recedes to infinity along the curve. r>. p. and J_ Draw OY Draw PL Now.. ff) be any point on the curve J_ the line (n). 127. . This gives a. by def. OYOL Fig. may also be obtained as follows : From we have. when [r [r r> oo.oo. r lim cos (0 or or a)=0 lim (0 a)=7T/2. 126. at infinity on the curve. OY PM J_ the line (ii).. Draw through O a line perpendicular to the asymptote meetis the polar subtangent of the point ing it at Y. This line is the radius vector of the point at oo. P(r. Again. Then. This may be seen as follows : through Join the pole O to the point at infinity on the curve i. the point at inanity on the curve. >> Oso that l >and r 0. 271).e. p O Y is the polar subtangent of the point at which the asymptote touches the curve. i.e.. />=lim lim cos (0a)] cos (eOi 4*/2)l lim which is of the form (0/0). ( OY Thus > Note point at infinity.332 DIFPffiUBNCIAL CALCULUS Let (0. Let when We have Now when r oo. draw O a line parallel t'> the asymptote. =~ PM cos (6 a). .
(0 L TT) Through the polo O draw a line making angle on this line take a point Y such that with the OY=\im(d6ldu). where ii= i J J r limf *~ = rcosf r sin 6Oif ^ = where Oi is (Oi0). the limit r to l\n in the given equation and find out of 9 Let be any one of the several possible limits of its 0.. 1? rule for obtaining asymptotes to polar curves.. r L ^i . Then p=r is sin (0i0). To draw initial line . r sin 0. I.?. hm Hence the asymptote is r L orfei r*j </r > p =iim .. . Here a\r an so that ~> as u > 0.ASYMPTOTES 33$ .. Working Change as u > 0. as >0. The line drawn through Y perpendicular Examples to OY is the required asymptote. a=r sin (00) sin d = a. Here Since w = 0/0. /.<fo . the limit of o as r+ oo re.dOjdu) and Let this limit limit as u > 9 and 0+6i be p. Find the asymptote of the hyperbolic spiral rd~a. the corresponding asymptote. the asymptote. we have dujde^lla Therefore r or dOjdu^a. Determine (. is the asymptote.
. 13.) sinno=? o 8 w . f 8)2oO. (P. rologOr(le )=o.(PI/0 r sin 20=a cos 3e. 3.. Hons. (P.334 2. r de 2a TT and d0 2a \ i. touch the circle 19. 16. 7. (Delhi Ho*s 194%) . 9. Exercises Find the asymptotes of the following curves ' : r 2 " r= C()s 9 ""el" sec 4. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Find the asymptote of the curve a __ r ~cos0 f ' Here "= When Now. rlogO==o.C/. 6. 11. i..C/. t/w = ~(iCOS0). ro/fi. 4tf / = r(A/3 sin + 3 cos 0). 1938) Show that all the asymptotes of the curve r tan n$a. a du . 14.e. +/t(e)0 (P. sin 8 efccs 8 9' 8). r(Tr+0)^o^ 17. = sin0 . rO cos 0=0 cos 20. r=o r(o 2 tan 0. \ ^ o ). ( cos 0) > rr d9~ = 1 . TT __r and  2a / TT ar sin^g J. Find the asymptotes of the curve r cos 2o~o sin 30. sin 0=o*e . 6 . 15. oos =r sin ( \/3 are the two asymptotes. r 12. 8. 5.tf. Find the equation of the asymptotes of the curve given by (he equation ryW+r'^/nitoH 18. Q+b tan 6. x sm . 10.e. so that cos w > 0. r sin /io=o.) rn r=o rt =o2 (secl e+cosec 2 2r 2 =tan 20. sin or .
In fact. recall to ourselves the following three curves considered in Fig(i) 127. Nodes and Conjugate points. and the two branches have a common tangent there. y)=0 may not define. These peculiarities arise from tho fact that the equation f(x. 128) and the two branches have different is tangents there. and these different values of y give rise to different branches of the curve. Such a point on a curve called a node. as a single valued function of*. p. Origin is a point common to the two branches of the Cisaoid ( (Fig. >'. 127) y*(ax)=x*. Cusps. Such a point on a curve is called a cusp. 128 . 243 show that curves with implicit equations of tho form/(x. j>)=0 exhibit some peculiarities which are not possessed by the curves with explicit equations of the form y=F(x). We 11*4. Introduction. to each value of x corresponds as many values of y as is tho degree of the equation in y. Origin is a point common to the two branches of the Stro phoid (Pig. The cases of curves considered in 114. (ii) n 41) . 335 . DOUBLE POINTS 171. Fig.CHAPTER XVII SINGULAR POINTS MULTIPLE POINTS.
a cusp or an according as the two tangents are different and real. Node. 129) ay*x(x+a)*=^Q and the two branches have imaginary tangents point in the immediate neighbourhood of the point lies on the curve. simple rule for writing down the tangent or tangents at the origin to rational algebraic curves is obtained in the following article. A branch. isolated point coincident or of a curve has. no 0) which called an isolated or conjugate Fig. a. curve has two tangents at a double point. A point through which there pass. sometimes. 129.0) is a point common to the two branches of the curve (Fig. called a singular point. Multiple point. Definitions. Cusp. imaginary. algebraic 17*31. multiple point of the third order is also called a triple point.336 (Hi) ( DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 0. Here. branches called a multiple point of the rth order so that a curve tangents at a multiple pDint of the rth order. A Tangents at the origin. Conjugate point. A ^A multiple point is also. A point through which there pass two branches of a curve is called a double point. is ( 1143) is there. Double points. ( There a. 172. is Thus a double point is a multiple point of the second order. The general equation *>f rational curve of the wth degree which passes through the origin 0. 17*3. is positive. Such a point on a curve point. . r. one for each The double point will be a node. r.
(v) m is a root of (iv). The slope of the chord <OP is y\x. y) be any point on the curve. . we get =0 Hence so that m= bjb 2 .... tangent at O so that when x > lim is the slope of this tangent. 6^0. In this case the second degree terms.o } . and determines as its /wo roots the slopes of the two tangents so that the origin is a double point in this case.. by x.. t.x+b 2 y^Q is the tangent at the origin. The equation (vi) becomes an identity if c l =c2 =c3 =0. it then. when x > 0. .. x* C1 +.(/). where the constant term is absent.. It can now be similarly shown that the equation of the tangents can still be written down by equating to zero the terms of the lowest degree which is third in this case... If& 2 =0but reference to Faxis. if ylx^bjb* d. when P + O. we c^+CiXy+Csy^Q. of the . also. . This can be written down by equating to zero the lowest degree terms in (111).. get . The equation of Tvhen obtain either tangent at the origin is y=mx. . form. =0. Limiting position of the chord OP. after dividing On taking limits....SINGULAR POINTS 337 is when form arranged according to ascending powers of x and y..(iv) a quadratic equation in.. Eliminating m between (iv) and (v). 0. is the and y > 0. From (/). ()>/*) =m.(vi) as the joint equation of the two tangents at the origin. ..e. we have. b. Let P(x... m..(wi) Dividing by ^diich is and then taking limits as x > we +c 2m+c 3m 2 =0.(ii) This zero the lowest degree (first may be written down by equating degree) terms in the equation (i). do not appear in the equation of the curve. considering the slope of OP with can be shown that the tangent retains the same Let 6^62=0 (c A x 2 so that the equation takes the form ) +c2 xy +w*) +(4* 3 +djc*y + .
. 2. (rJf) 2 ==0. To do so we have to write where X. y*(a 2 x 2 )=x2 (bx)^ . is The origin a triple point on the curve are the three tangents thereat. 2) to the curve and show that this point is a cusp. The origin will be a multiple point does not. x=y. are the current coordinates of a point on the curve with "reference to the newaxes. origin is a Illustrations. origin is The an isolated point on the curve and axiby=Q are (iv) the two imaginary tangents thereat. : (xH. we see that the equation of the tangent or tangents at the origin is obtained by equating to zero the terms of the lowest degree in the equation of the curve. 2 2 2 2 2 8 (x +/) =a (x >> ) 4. (i) The node on the curve and x=0.y (x 2 a 2 ) ==4fl jty. We will shift the origin to the point ( 1.338 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS In general. The transformed eqation is or Y Equating to zero the lowest degree terms.e. . xy 2 Find the tangerts at the origin to the following curves 1. a*(x*y*)=x*y*. Exercises and x=0. at on a curve whose equation contain the constant and the first degree terms* least.3. i. 2).. Example Find the equation of the tangent at ( 1. we get y 2 =0. y=0 are the two tangents thereat. +y2 )(2ax)=b2x. 5. (ii) The origin is a cusp on the curve and y=Q ( ill) is the cuspidal tangent.
zero or negative. and. can b^ Thus we see that the necessary and sufficient conditions for any point (x. we have therefore to find the values. y) which simultaneously satisfy the three equations . p.SINGULAR POINTS 339 which are two coincident lines. y). 1). dy/dx is by the equation At a multiple point of a curve.0./w (x y)=0. : rV+x (. 0) and (20. 2) is Exercises Find the equations of the tangents to the following curves 1.. dyjdx. therefore. if. }>)=0 to be a multiple point are that /. satisfied The equation (1). curve 2 2 y =ax +ax* 9 according as. being of the first degree in by more than one value of dyjdx. 2.(^y)=0. 2 =X>>l) at(2. is positive./f =0. a. 4. the curve has at least two tangents and accordingly dy\dx must have at least two values at a multiple point. (x. In curve /(*. and only /. f To find multiple points (x. 1950) 17*4. the tangent at the cusp with reference to the new axes is To find the equation of the cuspidal tangent with reference to the given system of axes. y) to (Delhi Hons. 10*94. if.e. 2 0). 213. a).y)=0.c2) 2 2 )=*V* )at(a. given the slope of the tangent. we have seen that at a point (x. 4 x*4ax*2ay* + 40V+3aVa ==0 a t (a. of(x. 3. Conditions for any point be a multiple point of the curve f(x. the point is a cusp and the cuspidal tangent. i. Show that the origin is a node a cusp or a conjugate point on the . y) on/(x. we write Hence the tangent at (1. y) of the y)=o.
0) are given by f 8a z = 0.. fJ therefore.0). to x. where / =0.(fl. To follows : find the tangents at the multiple points. a. <0. 0) <0. find the tangents at the multiple point. y) will be multiple point of Example Find the multiple points on the curve Also. will 2 (/*. y a d? the values of dyfdx not all zero andf =Q=f the point (x. the values of dy/dx at a (a. by the equation (2). Of these the only points on the curve are (fl. y)= gives j. Differentiating (1) w. according as .340 17*41. >0. . . we have \ f*+r J* +J** Ay dx so that at the multiple are the roots of the quadratic equation <( f +J* +1 Jv* +f**y dx~) dx point. 0).=0.e.fl).n) f (a. we proceed as First method. a. 2 If/a =/art =y^ =0 the point order higher than the second. Hence the two partial derivatives vanish for the points (0. (a.a). On the curve.a). . cusp or conjugate according as the values ofdyjdxare real and distinct.0). Let /(*. We have Since at (a. 0. 0).=0. Hence these are the only three multiple points. y) =x4 f*(x> fv( x * J>)=0 gives *=0. (a. (fl. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS To find the slopes of the tangents at a double point.. equator imaginary i. a. 0).r. (x. (0./ . y) In x v casef^tf^fy*.) 2 . 2 2 /* /. are be a double point and will be a node.
3. 0) and a) are Second method. .) (P. To find the tangents at The transformed equation we shift the or The tangents at the new origin are The tangents It at the multiple point (a.1951} (D. (/) for (a. 0) is a node. The may similarly be shown that the tangents at ( a. is Knowing the equations. therefore.e. we get From we 6ay*y 2 see that 6a*y\ J .. which identically vanishes 12x 2 . 0). for (fl. 0) are It (0. (ii) ^= /.*. (iii) for(0. U. a). origin to this point. 0). ^we can now put down (a.4a 2 2 =0. to x. ( 0. 0). may similarly be shown that are the tangents at the multiple points tively. U. are y= \/(4/3)(*). 0) and (0. their Third method.U. slopes of the tangents. a) respec The three mutiple points on the curve are nodes. 0)^^=1. the point (a.r. Differentiating again.Qa yy 2 . (D... get. x*+y 2x 8 +3>> 2 =0. Exercises Find the position and nature of the multiple points on the following curves : 1. 4x 3 Qay^ &a 2yy l 4a*x =0. \950\P. we Differentiating the given equation w. y*=*x*+ax*. real. x*(xy)+y*=Q.^ /. . i>.SINGULAB POINTS 341 The two values being both tangents at (a.12ayy^ this for the multiple points. ^^f. U.) 2.
x*4ax*+2ay*+4a*x*3a*y*a*=Q. 9.y ) .c sin <x.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 4. U. ay*=(xa)*(xb)*. 18. 1953) the multiple points of the 19. There are five different ways in which the two branches stand in relation to the common tangent and the common normal as illustrated by the following figures : Fig. 5 4(l~x) =0. xy 2 >> 2 =(jcl)(jc2) 2 . 5. 2 8 (jc+>>) ^2>>*+2) =0. (B. 2 .+y cos a) .V. 17. equations of the : tangents at (D. 12.) (P.) (P. Hons. We know that two branches of a curve have a common tangent at a cusp. U. 14. 10. 130 Fig. cusp show also that all the cusps lie 3 : on a 17 5. U. (y2)*=x(x\)*. 6. xV 2 =(a+}0 2 (& 2 distinguishing between the cases b^a. Find the following curves 16.) (/a^hx^f 2 30) ==0. 1st species 133 Double cusp of Double cusp of 2nd species . U. 2 (P (70 (P. 2 =c(. 11. Show that each of the curves (x cos cc y sin a6) for all different values of a.) X*+2x*+2xyy*+5x2y=Q. 131 Single cusp of 1st species Single cusp of 2nd species Fig. 15. (2 y+xfl) < 13. Types of cusps. x*+y(y+4a)*+2x*(y5a)*=5a*x*. has a circle. 132 Fig. 7.
SINGULAR POINTS 343 Fig. . Since x cannot be negative. sides of the In Fig. the two branches lie on the different sides of the different sides of the tangent. Find the nature of the cusps on the following curves : (i) y*=x\ (ii) ^xi^o. See Fig. are the ndj>+x a =:0 which two parabolas y x*=0 y=0 and different sides of the common tangent extend to both sides of the common normal x=0. the two branches lie on the same side of the nor mal and on the same side of the tangent. (0 y=0 is the cuspidal tangent. correspond two values of y which are of opposite signs and hence the two branches lie on different sides of the common tangent and the cusp is species. 134. Thus on the origin a double cusp of first species. the two branches lie on the same siue of the comnormal and on the different sides of the tangent. the two branches lie on the different sides of the lie on the same. Also it is of the first or second species according as the branches lie on the different or the same side of the common tangent. and on the other on opposite sides of the common tangent. different In Fig. 131. 132. 130. the two branches lie on the normal and on the same side of the tangent. 130. One branch has inflexion at the point. In Fig. 132. 133. See Fig. y=xf 3 of first (11) Two is branches of >>* lie * 4 =0. Point of oscuinflexion mon In Fig. normal and on the In Fig. so that to each positive value of x ^gain. Examples 1. normal but on one side they It will thus be seen that the cusp is single or double according as the two branches lie on the same or different sides of the common nor mal. the two branches lie only on the same side of the common normal eo that the cusp is single.
For positive values of #. II Thus. so that to positive values Thus the of x correspond two values of y with two branches lie on opposite sides of xaxis when x > is positive.y is always positive and.c 3 >. Since x cannot take up negative values. therefore.344 D1FFBBENTIAL OALOTTLTJS (7) Here where the two signs correspond to the two> "^"^ Fig. there. Again. the two branches lie only on the sime sideof the common normal and the cusp. quadratic in y y y*y so that _ _. one value of . the corresponding branch lies above Xaxis. Thus for negative values of x which are sufficiently small in numerical value. 135 x \ branches the cuspidal tangent. positive. (Delhi ffons.c 1 (2+. Now. the corresponding branch lies above Yaxis in the vicinity of the origin. 2. y~Q is fore. for the same > 4 when x > 0. for the values of x lying between and 4^. therefore. . origin is a cusp and y=0 is the cuspidal tangent.c) 2 or . 1949} Equating to zero the lowest degree terms. given equation in the form. the second value of y is also positive and. Show that the curve has a single cusp of the first species at the origin. is single. opposite signs. Again JT QX ^> X . Thus the cusp is of the second species. we have sufficiently small in For values of x which are is numerical value. we have *4 (2+x) 2 +4. we see that the We rewrite the and solve it for y.
SING o LAB POINTS 345 is negative so that the values of y are imaginary. becomes meaningless at a multiple point where/a. as obtained in 1542. 5. 1955) Radii of curvature at multiple points. take up negative values. corresponding We get p^P or . x *+y*2ay2 =Q. for singularities. 2 (y~x) +x'=0. has a single cusp at 176. Show that the curve 9. x\xy)+y*=0. 8. are the three tangents it is To find.e. To do we write p l9 . 1950} 10. as its order.. i. page 292. y)~Q. p. x^Q. for the this. (D.e. )>=(1/V 2 )* a triple point. 194SY Prove that the curve jc s +y 8 =ax2 has a cusp of the first species at the origin and a point of inflexion where x=a. x a* 6. At a multiple point we expect as many values Of course. these values of p may not be all of. y^~0. x' (Delhi Hons. (Lucknow Hons. P. (a. method of determin Find the radii of curvature at the origin 0* the branches of the curve Here. Exercises Find the nature of the cusps on the following curves 14 3. branch which touches jc=0. 4. : 7. Lim is the radius of curvature of the branch at the origin. Examples 1. Thus x cannot Hence the curve has a single cusp of first species at the origin.U. X= and substitute this value of x in the given equation. 0). The formula for the radius of curvature at any point (x y) on the curve f(x. t distinct.y 2 /2. Examine the curve 2. x*ax*ya*x*y+a*y 2 =Q.x). 2*y*=* at the origin so that 8 . wa find Iim(.. Tho following examples will illustrate the ing the values of p at such points.
of. point. p. 2. a/2. r=0 when 0=7r/3. p. D1FFEEENTIAL OALOTLTTS so that we have 1 +a/p=0. r. cos cos or cos 0=0. Show that the pole is a triple point on the curve 30). To find./"(0) = <7. 1)=0. p*+2apq=l. V30/2.346 Let y * Thus. Also ere /(0)=0. ?r/2. Thus we have Making substitution in the given equation. YTe have.3V2 ' for the two branches. we write /'(0)=p.. cos 0= J. for the other branches we proceed is as follows. These give =< 1 =. Suppose that the equation of either branch J>=/(0)+x/'(0) given by +^1/"(0)+ . we get Equating coefficients of x* and x*.. The radius vector. 0= J. vanishes for the values given by 2 cos !>. r=a(2 cos 8+ cos and that the radii of curvature of the three branches are V3a/2. we get 2ap*=a. 0+ cos 30=0. is Thus. 2 cos tpr 0+4 cos 8 2 (4 cos 03 cos 0=0. 0... 27T/3 so that the pole a triple . for this branch= a.
r2 = 8a. Exercises 1. Putting these values in the formula (r'+r. . y3a. r2 =8a . 0). r=0 for each of these branches. Find the radii of curvature at the origin of the two branches of the curve given by the equations y=tt\x=\t 2 (For the origin /== values of /). 3^y5 jc +ox JC 2 7. We have 2 cos 1 =a(2 03 sin 30). is a triple point on the curve r=a(l42sin and find the radii of curvature at the point. Show that the radius of curvature at the origin for both the branches of the curve is 2.*)* we get the required result. .2) for the curve 3. : x*+y*=*3axy. 5. For 0=7r/3. Find the radius of curvature at the point (1. (Folium). Jo). r^ for 0=7T/2.U. (P.SINGULAR POINTS 347 We now proceed / to find sin p. r 1==a y^Sa.) so that the two branches correspond to these at the origin of the following curves two Find the radii of curvature 4. Show that (a. r2 =0( 09 cos 30). r^ Also. in polar coordinates. 1. 6. r2 =0 . or 0=27r/3.
In case the origin is a multiple point. if IV. Find out if the origin lies on the curve. (It may not always be neces Find out multiple points. and their nature. I. if the powers of the powers of y x curve its which occur in symmetrical about equation are all even is . Procedure for tracing Cartesian Equations. IX. At such point. its equation does not change. Find out dyjdx and the points where the tangent is parallel coordinate axes. detected. the following rules. and XII. find out its nature. on interchanging x and y. III. Find out the asymyplates and the points in which each asymptote meets the curve. Some equations which are not solvable for y or x may be rendered solvable for r. Also obtain the tangents at such points. will be taken up in this chapter. Find out if the curve is symmetrical about any line. Find out such points on the curve whose presence can be easily VI. aspects. on transformation from Cartesian to Polar system. write down the tangent or tangents thereat. VIII. 7axis if (MI) A curve is symmetrical about the line y=x if. sary). If it does. Find out if there is any region o?the plane such that no part VII.CHAPTER XVIII CURVE TRACING 18*1. axes to Find out the points common to the curve and the coordinate there be any. in Chapters II in its elementary It will be seen that the equations of curves which we shall trace are generally solvable for y. x or r. V. whose truth is evident are helpful 2. Find out points of inflexion. In this connection. II. of the curve lies in it. : 18 (/) A A curve its which occur in (ii) is symmetrical about A'axis equation are all even . the ordinate or abscissa generally changes its character from increasing to decreasing or vice the versa. Such a region is generally obtained on solving the equation for 348 . We have already traced some curves The general problem of curve tracing. if any.
tf respectively. solve the equation for one variable in terms of the other and find out. 0) axis at (0. Thus the only It has real values of x for which dyjdx vanishes ar (v) (vi) no asymptotes. Equations of the form 1. double points. jt=. Solving the equation for y. Important Note. and find out the set of values of one variable which make the other imaginary. We see that. in terms of another and then to examine how y varies as x varies continuously.. 0) ( two tan gents thereat. The student must remember that a mere knowledge of symmetry. when x2 =(l v'2)fl s . asymptotes indicate the nature of the curve in parts of the plane sufficiently far removed from the origin and the tangent at any point gives an idea of the curve in the neighbourhood of the point. i. 0) only. To draw a curve completely. (0.. 0) and ( and fl. 0). X. will not enable him to trace a curve. Trace the curve We (i) note the following particulars about this curve It is : symmetrical about both the axes. the ranges of the values of the independent variable for which the dependent variable monotonically increases. If possible. 2 r A( fl when fl*2a x 2 x4 =0. Hence the entire curve lies therefore. The tangents at (0. (in) It Thus the origin a node. etc. it may be necessary to solve the given equation for one variable. x must lies between between the lines x=a and x= a. 0) are and meets Yx=a and /M (V) which becomes dy ax zero. say. Examples 183. we rewrite it as 2 x 2 must be nonnegative and y to be real. this knowledge being only piecemeal. or otherwise. meets A^axis at (a. for . y. by examining the sign of the derivative. asymptotes. through the origin and is (11) It passes y=x are the a.CURVE TRACING 349 one variable in terms of the other. For this purpose th& examination of dyfdx proves very helpful. a a and a.e.
137 The variable x cannot take up values greater than a... 0). is parallel to Zaxis.e. y where dyjdx=0 decreases. lated point. 136. y is not real. we firstly consider the part of the curve lying in first the quadrant where x. 0) and >axis . y are positive and '* A o (a. where the tangent Fig. 2 i.e.350 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Conclusion. goes on increasing VL f /P 2 then ^=0. then. 0) and (0. for.. whenx=J . x meets Jaxis at ( a.e. Trace the curve It (/) is symmetrical about A'axis only. In order to trace the curve we have to connect the above isolated facts. The curve being symmetrical about both the axes. its complete shape is as shown in Fig. 137.at the a is the tangent at (a. then y > which is positive. We proceed to do this now. Since . () and yz +xz Thus the Q. starting from 0.y=0 when we see that when x increases from \/(l + \/2) a to fl. *axcP ivhich vanishes when Since x 2 oxa =0. When increases. also increases and till x=v / ( l+y'2)^ x=a t i. It passes through the origin are the two imaginary tangents thereat.o) r x When x=0. Thus the part of the curve in the first quadrant is as shown in Fig. 136. 2. /A <* Fig. origin is an iso (Hi) It origin only (IV) . i. The curve being symmetrical about the two axes.
138 Conclusion. Then. or s ig n according as x a. + a. since tfy/flbc notO tote. must Hence no part of the curve lies between a. for 2 > a and < a 2 must be nonnegative. jc we be see that. we consider the part of it lying in the first two quadrants where y is positive so that we have T where we consider tive. 0). and x== xa Fig. 138. y is not real. The curve being symmetrical about the A" axis. a and fl. .. (vi) y= x*^* =x **^^> y to be real. (v) y=(x+a) Since and x=a are its three asymptotes. which lies between y is not reaL below]. a. \S5)aj2.e.CURVE TRACING For x=(l See (vi) 351 a and a. and y= (x+a) is an asympwe have the part of the curve in the second quadrant as shown for in Fig. is is positive or nega When x= responding point y=0. any of these values of x. a. i. For values of x lying between Since jc=0 is an asymptote and dyjdx^Q for JC=(l+\/*>) fl /2. * Also jc= the tangent at the corao ( Let is JC vary continuously from a to .
0) but it does not meet (111) It meets A'axis at (a.2a/>3) are its two points of inflexion. 3. 2a/>l3) and ( 2a. 0) and ( 'yaxis at any point x=a and .c = a are the tangents at (a. Conclusion. by actual calculation. again goes on increasing and. 0) and '. 0) respectively. Trace the curve '(/) It is symmetrical about both the axes. A" axis. 0) where it touches x= a. a. . x <a <y or x > a and 1y* > 0. In fact. we The curve being symmetrical about the shape is as shown in Fig. Note. it Prom ibut it 1631. 319.e . 138.l <1. we see that y. it appear*? that will be seen below that x=0 is also an asymptote. As x increases from (l+<\/6)0/2 to oo y . <2fl. y=x fa being another asymptote.. we have a2 > 0. Consider >which corresponds *to the part of the curve in the first quadrant. p.{0. (n) It does not pass through the origin. The curve appears to have two points of inflexion. i. mo As no part of the curve lies between the lines x= fl. i. (vi) Writing the equation in the forms we see that for x and y jc 2 to be real. . and branch of the curve can possibly be asymptotic to x~0. we see that . apparently necessitated by the fact that the curve could not be asymptotic to the lines y= (x+a) unless it changes the direction of its bending after leaving the point (a.*. have the part of the curve in the first quadrant as shown. starting from oo goes on decreasing as x increases 'from a to (1 4^5)0/2. its complete We thus have the curve as drawn. ' _ ~~ dx JC 2 v (x2 __ ^ 2 }' which never becomes zero.352 ' DIFFEBBNTIAL CALCULUS . cannot be an asymptote. (0) J>=1 are the two asymptotes.
. no part of the curve between the lines x=6. t must con stantly increase . some value of x between a and. (/?) a^b^c. the part of the curve in quadrant can now be easily shown. (c. 4. 139 Trace the curve y *=(xa)(xb)(xc). If x=a.. 0) is a point "on thfc curve seen above. 0). (iv) x=a x=b. i. ^ <0.CURVE TJUGINQ and a^ y is values of x lying between y=Q so that (a. 139.(a.. whena<x<&. . 0). y which is positive . A'axis at (a y 0). Hence. a<b<c. (6. b c are positive and in ascending order of magnitude so that we have to consider the following four cases y : We (/) a<b<c. suppose that a. . 0) t nnd (c. i (v) When x<a. dyjdx being never zero.Yaxis. Since the line the first y=l is an asymptote. y*<Q 2 whenx>c. its complete is shape as shown in the Fig.y 2 >0. y*<0. (Hi) It meets . Y* Fig. x=c are the tangents at. it must have a maximum . As x increases from a onwards.e. 0). The curve being symmetrical about both the axes.y is not real . (/) (//) (in) a<b = c. y is not real . (b. Case I. x = c. is the tangent there. but it docs not meet 7axis respectively. It does not pass through the origin. for lies to the left of the line x = a and 2 (vi) As y vanishes for x=a and x=fe. when b<x<c. (//) a = b<c. e. 0). It is symmetrical about . It has no asymptotes.&.
inflexion. The equation. where the tangent is parallel to Faxis. is (a. in departing from (c. 140 have S~2(a+b+c)(\lx)+(ab+bc+ca)(\lx*) which > oo &s x > ao . must again tend to become parallel to Faxis.oi Fig. We Fig. an oval and an infinite branch. Hence. It consists of Case II. we see that the curve must change its direction of bending at some and as such must have a point of point between (c.354 (viii) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS As x increases beyond c. Thus the curve tends to become parallel to 7axis as x > oo Since the curve. for each of the three factors then increases. a=b<c. 141 . 0) and oo . 0). . now. we have the curve as shown in Fig. 140. y* also constantly increases.
it can be shown that the curve has two points of Case III.CURVE TRACING It is easy to show that (a. As inflexion. 143 . in case I. The equation. (Fig. a<b=c. w>w. 0) is an isolated point. easily drawn. Fig. now. 0). 142). (Fig. 142 It is easily shown that (b. is Fig. 141 on the preceding page). if 355 the oval The curve consists of an isolated point and an infinite branch and can be easily drawn. The equation. is a=b=c. The curve may now be Case IV. as of case I shrinks to the point (a. 0) is a node and are the nodal tangents.
therefore. (Fig. 0) is a cusp and "j^O is the cuspidal tangent.e. easily drawn. y is real only when x lies between and which vanishes when x=f# or 0.. 1 The student would do well to learn to trace the curves given in 1*4?. Trace the curve It is neither (/) symmetrical about the coordinate axes nor about the (if) Origin is a cusp. .e. The curve may b3 5. This curve has already bsen considered in (See Pig. 244 also. Now. y*dyldx=x(%dx) and. ! asymptote at (t. (10) y+x=aia ' its only asymptote and the curve meets the (a/3. p. (v) y*x*/(ax). we see that a. But X Note. 143).. 2 through the origin and y =0. J>=0. 6. 0).(0. jj=0 are the two coincident tangents at the origin. i. 1 143 also by the methods of this chapter. we may easily see that the shape of the curve is as shown in Pig. Trace the cissoid y*(ax)=x*. j 2 is positive. 0) and (3a. p. i. for x=2a. 64. 0) bjut meets he origin only x=3a is the tangent at (3a. fais outside the range of admissible values of x. y . dyjdx Combining all these facts. (Hi) It (iv) meets the coordinate axes at the origin only.) (vi) x and y cannot both be negative. Faxis at (HI) It meets A"axis at . p. 1141. 20/3). Thus vanishes at no admissible value of x except x=0. is x^a Since the only asymptote of the curve. 64.356 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS It is easy to see that (a. 244). 244. and x=0 is the cuspidal tangent. Thus the origin is a (ti) It passes cusp. We note the (i) following particulars about the curve : It is symmetrical about xaxis.
We i). is a cusp and y =0 is the cuspidal tangent. It meets the coordinate axes at the origin only. y is positive and constantly goes on increasing as x increases numerically. y+x=a is the only asymptote of the curve. we aee that the complete curve is as shown in Pig. then >>>0. Origin (tv) y=x\l is the only asymptote of the curve. <JC<3a. Taking all the above facts into consideration. 1 184. y will constantly be decreasing y=0 for x=3a and is negative for x>3a. Equation of the form y +yf(x) + F(x) = o.write it. . i.e. 7. and if x increases from 0. as x varies from to oo. in y and solve yx*+x*~ 0. If *=0.OtiBVE TRACING 357 Solving for y. Also. If creases . If x is negative. 144. or .. We now consider the negative values of JC. y also inwill go on increasing with x till x =2a where dyfdx=Q. nor about the (ii) (///) line y=x. the It meets the curve at (v) (. When x increases beyond 2a. re. 144. We have equation as a quadratic. we obtain Fig. then y =0 and y 7axis is the tangent there. Trace the curve (i) It is symmetrical neither about the coordinate axes.
positive and <\/(x*4cX*)<\/x*=x* and.e* 9 where #=0 Thus the two branches meet Consider the branch (i). When x < 0. When x>4.) is negative i. if x lies between and 4. at the points (0.. starting from 4. (vi) x=4 y and are the or 4. when x. i. for both the branches. x4 4. and . 0) and (4. increases.c=4 is the y=8 when at the point. Also. Also. consider the branch (//). there is no part of the curve lying between the line x=0 and x=4.e. y is is 3 decreases in the beginning. when x starting from decreases. They meet where x 4 4x 8 =0. starting from 4. Fig. x 4 4*3 positive and \/( x 4 4x*) > y/x 4 =* x 1 so . increases. then and takes up negative y is positive and con stantly increases. y= two branches. values whose numerical value increases. Now. tangent The following additional remarks about the two branches of curve will facilitate the process of tracing the curve. When * x. therefore.358 so that DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS y is imaginary if x s (x4. Thus.c y is positive. 145. then y is positive and also constantly increases. 8).
146. Also. starting from its initial value 0. dr 2a0 We have ^0 _ = (fjL02)2> r. a.CUBVB TRACING 359 that y is negative. r=0 when 0=0. . The circle is shown dotted in the Fig. we have the shape as shown in Fig. \ cos 9 ]=^a / 1 + cos cos 2  The curve r (ii) cos symmetrical about the initial 0=a. constantly increases as > oo so that the point (r. as nearer and nearer the circle whose centre is at the pole approaches and radius equal to a. Thus. is always positive so that constantly increases as. 146. i. Trace the curve r~a(sec d+cos 0). 185. Trace the curve \ Fig. starting from 0. decreases.. Here 1 v \cos (i) x~ + . Again we have  s=  _2  which > a as > oo. The figure shows the part of the curve corresponding to the positive values of only. when x. 145. We first consider positive values only.e. which creases. x=rtis its asymptote. Thus increases is its reflection in the initial line. is line. and the part of the curve for negative values r. then y numerically increases. 8. in Also. 9. 0. Polar carves. 0) and approaches.
remains negative and decreases in numerical value from oo to 2a and so the point P(r 6) describes the part of the curve as shown in the fourth quadrant. so . . Trace the curve (/) It is symmetrical about both the axes.is positive when lies between Fig.360 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS ~ and ir/2.that 4. or monotoni0) describes the part When 6 increases from TT to TT. Curves whose cartesians equations are not solvable for x and but whose polar equations are solvable for r. therefore. r=2a. Some facts it is found convenient to polar as well as the Cartesian form of their equaare obtained from the Cartesian and the others from the Polar form. is When 0=0. In the case of some curves y. t As the curve point will is symmetrical about the be obtained when 6 varies from TT to initial line. no new make use of the tions. dr/dOQ so that <=Tr/2 and. and r > oo as > Tr/2. 18*6. Also. 0) . r. . 10. 147. the tangent perpendicular to the initial line at the point (2a. of the curve drawn in the first quadrant. when 0=0 Hence we see that when increases from cally increases that 2a to oo and the point P(r. are generally dealt with in this manner. 2ir. to TT.
a therefore. As the curve is symmetrical about both the axes. (i) (P. 11. 0* cos 2 "cos 4 0+sin 4 0' (v) We see that 4 (cos ~0f sin"* cto~~ ___ 0)~ ' so that drfdQ remains negative as varies from to ir/4 fore r decreases from a to as increases from Q to ?r/4. ! and ( a. (Hi) Faxis at meets Jfaxis at (0. r to w/4. we get ra tan 20. : It passes through the origin JC=0. 148). (iv) On (v) asymptotes. thereat so that the origin is a node. 0) and ( a. (vi) and there 2 changes from ir/4 to ir/2. 0). 148. shape as shown. transforming to polar coordinates. 0). y=x. and. r remains negative and therefore no point on the curve lies between the lines 0=7r/4 and 07T/2. (iv) On no asymptotes.) It is line neither symmetrical about the coordinate axes. 20 increases from to oo. its Trace the curve y*~x*+xy=Q. gents (1/1) y~Q are the two It cuts the coordinate axes at the origin only. 0) (a. 0) (0. the equation becomes It has I . increases from monotonically to . but meets x=a andx= flare the tangents at (a.U. y=*x are its = When increases from ir/2. nor tan about the (ii) y=x. we have (Fig.CUKVE TRACING (//)* 361 are the nodal Origin It is a node on the curve and y* tangents. As Fig. 0) only . changing to polar coordinates.
sin 3 46 ~ 3a(cos '" 0)(l+sin "(cos ^ 81 cos 3 2 0+sin 2 cos2 0) +sin 0) . (i) y=x and meets it in the )>=0 are the tangents (11) It passes through the origin and there so that the origin is a node on the curve. When $ increases from ir/2 to 2 37T/4. Y4 Fig. lies only asymptote. 149. Trace the Folium of Descartes It is symmetrical about the line point (3a/2. r=0 dr^ __ for cosM~+sin 0=0 and 0=7r/2. It meets the coordinate axes at the origin only. 30/2). (Fig. and no part of the curve lying between the lines 2 0=TT. r remains negative and so = 3Tr/4. We from TT can similarly consider the variations of r 2 as $ increases to 2?r. thus. (//i) x0. When there is 6 increases from 3?r .362 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS rf When increases from ir/4 to ir/2. r increases from to oo. there is no part of the curve lying between the lines 0=ir/4 and =ir/2. y on the third quadrant. tan 26 and therefore also remains negative and. cannot both be negative so that no part of the curve 00 x./4 to TT. 149) Hence we have the curve 12. as drawn. (iv) x+y+a=Q is its ^ On transforming r to polar coordinates. we get _ ~ 30 sin cos ' Now.
origin Thus we see that fx and / vanish at the points (0. 0) describes numerically increases from the part of the curve shown in the fourth quadrant. r remains positive and decreases from oo to so that the point describes the part of the curve shown in the second quadrant.get increases from TT to 2?r.I 95 5) Let fv (x. i. is the only double point of the curve. . 0=7r/4 or 57T/4.  i.CURVE TRACING which vanishes only when cos sin 363 0=0.. (a. is easy to see that we do not . For 0=7T/4. Find the double point of the curve it. Putting /JC0 y) and /y =0. 150). when. and trace (P. we have or (a. tan 0=1. increases from Tr/4 to Again as Q increases from ?r/2 to 37T/4. (Fig. r:=3a/ V2 Yt .e. to 3a/\/2. As increases from 37T/4 to TT. r remains negative and to oo so that the point (r.. 0) is a point of the curve so that the a). 0. 150 Thus from to /* 7T/4. as Q increases monotonically increases from and monotonically decreases from 30/ y'2 to 0. It any new point on the curve 13.U. Fig.e. 0). a) Of these only (0. as 9 Tr/2.
we have r2 sin cos 0/(sin 4 0+cos 4 0). The following examples will illus Trace the curve x=a(Q+sin as* 0. 152 . It x and y cannot have values with opposite signs. y0. TT. trate the process. It has no asymptotes. 2 2 4 dr r ' ^ 2a 1 ' (cos 0~ sin ~ 0)(cos 0+sift 0f 4 sin " " 4 4 2 4a co* 2 0) so that dr/dO^O if and only tan 0=1. (vi) On transforming to polar coordinates. Fig. for such (v) Thus values make 4fflxy negative whereas x*+y* is always positive.. (it) 151 It passes through the origin and X 0. are the two tangents there. the curve lies in the first and fourth quadrants only. 14. 151). varies in the interval ( 0).e. y=a(\+cos Yt 0). Thus we have the curve as drawn 186. (Hi) (tv) meets the coordinate axes at the origin only. if i. Parametric Equations. (Fig. 0=7T/4 and 57T/4.364 DIFFERENTIAL OALODLUS To (i) trace the curve It is we note the following particulars aboht it it symmetrical about the line y=*x and meets at Fig. TT).
v will in the interval positive for every value of 0. 0. x and y are both parallel to Faxis when increasing so that the point P(x. It is easy to see that the point P(x. (3?r. from TT y) describes the curve AV A' as increases to TT. STT). STT). TT Intermediate '. = = When to TT. .. ir). the tangent is parallel to Faxis. 2a decreases CO oo and dy/dxco. TT).. y=a cos 2o(l cos 20).. 0. 0) corresponding to 0~7r where.. (37T. lies and negative when. we see Since for air. the tangent is parallel to A'axis.. 2a) corresponding to where. always increase. 0. lies in the interval TT. y TT. Therefore}* constantly increases as and constantly decreases as. (57T. Trace the curve x=^a sin 20(1 +cos 20). y) describes congruent portions to the right and to the left of the portion AVA' as varies in the intervals . ^ dx * ten?^ 2 increases. x. dy\dQ is positive when. 15. . Thus the point F(x. we have x= that the point A( an. y) moves to the right and upwards till it reaches the position K(0. we see that as. dy/dx : .. increases from to TT.. 5?r) .. Also. We have : =40 cos 30 cos d0 4a cos 30 sin 0. 0) lies on the curve and the tangent thereat is increases from TT to 0. dyjdx being 0. Intermediate I 7T an y dy/dx i increases increases increases an i .. (TT. y.. dyfdx being infinite. 0. Since dx/</0 is The following arid table gives the corresponding values of 0. x increases but y decreases so increases from that the point moves to the right and downwards till it reaches the position A' (an. ~= U0 ~ VjtlJL asin0. dx This shows that . 0) ( increases from TT to (0.CURVE TRACING 365 We have dx de dy ~0(l+eos0).
x. 3?r). A o X 6 Fig.r. y and 7T/2 00 7T X With the help of shown. the values of x. 153). A. so that the same curve will be traced.. . (2. y are periodic functions of 0. (Fig. 27r). following table gives corresponding values of 0. B and C. y will repeat themselves as varies in the intervals (TT. etc. 153 The curve has 3 cupps viz. this table of values. we have the curve as Since x.366 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS The dyjdx.. with TT as their period.
41. 2 (L. (B. 49.c=0 8 (ajc).tl).) 48.v +x*). r=a(0 sin Trace the following curves 35. 36. 4. 17. x a (y+l)y2 (x4). 2 2 a2 ). yV+x )=0 y x=a(x 2 2 2 2 16. 20. <flx?&lf**\. 30. : x(yl)(y2)(. (/*{/. 2 has a cusp at the origin and a 46. 29. 3. x*=ay*axy*. 2. 25. 2 m2>fy . x(x 2 +y2 )=a(x*y 2 ). 43. 5. r cos 8 2 0=a cos 20. : 34.v3).U. 9. (D. 39. 32.U. Give a sketch of the curve. 38.) (B. axy=x*a*. 2 x(yx)=(y+x)(y s .) Trace the following curves 27.EXERCISES Exercises Trace the following curves 1.v . r cos 0= sin 30. 2 24. r=alog0. 52. +x2)=a2x. 1955) 8. 45.c 14. r 28.) cos 0=a sin 30.U.cl)=x(. *=x 2 (4x*). (B. : 367 3ay'=x*(xa). 23. 22. one in the second and quadrant and the other in the first and fourth. 37. 2 . Show that the curve x*(x+y)y rectilinear asymptote x+y=*\ and no part of the curve lies between the lines 4 and that it consists of two infinite branches.U. 19. : Trace the following curves 40. x*+y* = 5ax y 2 2 . e).U.U. =Q x0 x= Trace the following curves 47.t 2 26. flVx^a 2 * 1 ) (# ^5) 13. 6.C/. /x =x K a y 2 >> 21. 2 =x (2ax)(xa). 2 2 . r log 0=a. r=a^ sin 0. 2 . yx(* x4 . 42. rat6cos0. 2 ) 8 . 33.) (P. 44. 18.> ^(jc 2 l) (7. (2. 31. y(xy)*=(x+y). 36.) 2 2 2 2 X (y +x )=a (x*y 2 y(a 2 ). 2 a: (jt}a). 10. ay*=x(a y 2 2 x 2 ). 15. . : **(* +J0 a 2xy=x*+y*. 51. (L. 50.
r(l 55.  x/a=2 sin 0log . 0+0 x/=log (1+cos log  ^^=a(sin 0. 0/(3+cos 67. y=a(cos 20cos 0). ylb=2 66. .>'=a(l"cos0).T. (sec 0+tan 0) sin . 6in 0). 0). x=a cos 30. 63. tl find its : asymptotes and sketch the curve. \x=a(0~sin0). y=a (sin 30+9 sin 0). x=a cos 8 0. 0). x=0(3 cos0 x=fl(co$ cos 3 0). 61. x=a(0+sin 59. y^a (1cos 0).y=a(2+sin sin 30). sin 0). y=a log I i cosec 0+cot C03 0). 1 00 0) 2 0)~cos 0) y/a=sin  x=a (sec 0+tan I .) curve. 65. 1) . Trace the following curves ' 5758. 0) . 0log  (cosec 0+cot 0) x=a cos x=0(sin *==0(0+sin . that no part of the curve lies between 56. x= 4 and x=~l or between x0 and x=3 . 64. +i cos j=a (cos 0J cos 30). DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Xl~*2 )(2~*) 2 ==*(l*). has double point at (0. Show  54. y=a (3 sin 0sin cos 8 0). 62. 60. give a sketch of the (Af. y=b sin 8 0.368 53. Show that the cubic xy*x'*ylx*2xy+y +x2y+\=Q. 68.
a. a. obtained by assigning different said to be a oneparameter family of curves.*)=o.CHAPTER XIX ENVELOPES One parameter family of Curves.. are ~ m i . The variable. Here.() 369 .(i) the parameter and. next article. (i) The equation determines a family of curves which are circles with their centres on A'axis and which pass through the origin. a) be. is some constant. which is different for different curves is said to be the parameter for the family. ' * Consider the family of straight lines y^mx+afm. Illustration. (//) The equation y=mx 2am. a. w.. of these curves. metric values The two members of this family corresponding. . to. the param l and Wjf 8m of the parameter.y. 191. m. then the equation f(x.am 3 . If f(x y. determines a curve corresponding to each particular value of a. is .. where.any y The totality is values to a. is the parameter. introduce the concept of the envelope of a oneparameter family of curves by means of an example CDnsidered in the We now 19*2. function of three variables. determines a family of straight lines which are normals to parabola the Here the parameter is m. .
y) t where As 8w > tion on the 0. shall keep tends . the limiting position of the point of intersection latter tends The lie a point. The envelope of a oneparameter offamily of Definition. we notice that of such a point lying on the line *m are given by y) j x= a  m* .370 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS We 4ine (ii).y.y. ^corresponding to the parametric values a and oc+Sa. (///) intersect at (#. j^be any given family of curves. tends to the point its posi 1 N 1 which lies on (ii). similarly. in the limit. This point is of the line (ii) with another lino of the family when the to coincide with the former. 8m as a variable which l so that the line (///') tends to coincide with the m The two lines (//). .towards fixed and regard. Let . To find this locus for the family of lines (x. a+Sa)=0. 193. Determination of Envelope. ooordinates the (//). on every line of the locus of such points is called the envelope of the given family of lines. y= m 2a Eliminating m. obtained.. is the locus of the limiting position of the points of intersection of any two curves of the family when one of them tends to coincide with the other which 19*4. Consider any two members and f(x. There will family.a)0. we obtain as the envelope of the given family of curves lines. this (//) line point of intersection goes on changing and. is kept fixed.(/) /(x.
y. y <x. a. where fax. between f(x. a)=0. y. to a.J>. .r. Let the elimination of a between tion (i) satisfy the and (/v) lead to an equa This Rule. a) w. *=#(). (/) on solving the equations and (/v) for x.. If. then (w) (v/) being the parameter.(v) . The eliminant which 9 is the envelope of the given family of lines.)=0. common viz. _ g JF.r. to (/) and (11) Therefore the limiting positions of the points.. a. the required envelope. 192.ENVELOPES 371 (/).(/v) Thus the coordinates of the points on the envelope equations (i) and (/v). y. a) is the partial derivative off(x. then. and are the parametric equations of the envelope a To find the envelope of the family of lines  Tve eliminate. y=*(a). This conclusion agrees with the one already arrived at 'ab initio in . y. a) _ . a)=0.J>. andfa(x> y. between (v/7) and to a. Illustration. satisfy the equation which is the limit of (ill) /a(*. Let Sa > 0. is. The points common to the two curves equation (11) satisfy the f(x. To obtain the envelope of the family of curves /(*..(vi) . y. a +8a) /(*. eliminate. (w'O which is obtained by differentiating is (vii) w.x fl/a=0.a)=0. we obtain .
372 195.=/w=0. 196./?gP > Lim P/?=sin . LPRQ = LTLT'=W. we will also have /a=0. ~~ 1 = P. Geometrical relation between a family of curves and its Hence the theorem. PR. for such a point. We have to show that any point on any member of the we have /. . then. we get /_RQP or P:=sin /_RQP. 1 . envelope. arc PQ=Ss. Hence the result. DIFFEKENTIAL CALCULUS Theorem. Applying sineformula to sin PRQ. we get Putting dfldx=dfldy=Q. From (i). ^ Thus the limiting position of R which is the intersection of the P and Q is the centre of curvature at P. 1961. Q+P normals at 2 L RPT^ir/2. the tangents at two of a curve. L is the point of intersection of the tan QT / T gents. the A. we get 9//9a=0. so that Z. points P. QR Q are the normals and PT. . To prove its that any singular point of any curve of a given if for family family is a point on envelope. The evolute of a curve is the env3lope of its normals. ~ ^ sin chord Let Q ^ P.
The equation every value of a. the envelope of a family of curves touches each member of the family. to a. i. Thus the slopes of the tangents to the curve and the envelope at the common point are equal..r. We see from (iv) that these two slopes are the same. we obtain 3/ dx which. This means that the curve and the envelope have the same tangent at the common point so that they touch. y) of a curve Also the slope of the tangent at the same point to the envelope <///)iB*'(a)#'(a). locus of the singular points of the curves of a family in general.. so that the envelope may not touch a curve at points which are the singular points on the curve. To prove that.. 7 know that a straight lino and a conic cannot have Cor. (Hi) satisfy the equation (i) identically. a We .(IV) ^f()+^*'(a)=0. then the above argument will break down.?. becomes . 1962. singular point.ENVELOPES 373 Thus the is a part of its envelope. The slope of the tangent at an ordinary point "V of the family is (x. Hence we can say that the envelope of a family of straight lines or of conies touches each member of the family at all their common points without exception. 1. regarding jc. N ote.. . for We o that differentiate (/) w. a)=0.e. with the help of ' dx_ </<x df ' dy 'da ^dy + 9/_ a<x (//). y as functions of a.(/) Let be a given family of curves. 3 ffox and 3 ffoy are both zero. If for any point on a curve. Its envelops is obtained by eliminating a between (/) and Let =$ (a) (/) be the parametric equation of the envelope obtained by solving and (//) for x and y in terms of a.. /(*.
to a. (i) and we is get y=o. (i) the parameter.r.. Considering the evolute of a curve as the envelope of its 2 2 2 normals. Find the envelope of the family where a is a constant and m is a parameter. to m we Eliminating m. is Differentiating (/) we have .. we get which ines is the envelope. If we trace the given curves Fig.e. 2..374 DIUFBBBNTIAL CALCULUS Examples I.r.r.v ax sin 2 cos <T + by GOB sin 2 __ "* l) . where partially w. which  the required envelope. consists Thus the envelope of two x0 and x=a. 155 the locus of singular points O f i and also it touches each i. Eliminating a between (//). b sin 0) on ax cos ^Jby^^tf^ip "~~sin 0~~ //v Thus. get Differentiating w. is the equation of the family of normals. Find the envelope of the family of semicubical parabola* / *Y Differentiating (/) w. cusps. We already know that y=0 iff . to 0. member of the family. (x=0) is the locus of its singular points and to each curve. we . The equation of the normal the ellipse is at any point (a cos 0. 156 x+a we will find that jaxis x=a is tangent 3. find the evolute of the ellipse x /a +y /6=l.
U. we have From (ii). To obtain the envelope. to a we have y a. flre /z^ connected by the relation . we get or or which is the required envelope . a. tz fomg We will & so that =c We a.ENVELOPES 375 (i) (//). ~0 which gives or ca  =  . or or which is the required evolute. 4. we get to eliminate 6 between and tan. Substituting these values in [(<*x)% (/). 1954)* eliminate one parameter and express the equation of have given family in terms of the other. we get +(by)$] [(**)* +(*)>)*]* =**&*. Find the envelope of the family of ellipses two parameter constant. 6.van v = ()* . a+b=c c. (B.^ /( Substituting these values in (/). ia the equation of the family involving on parameter Differentiating (i) partially n\r.
OALOTTIJJ8
f'W>
$) ,:$w4';&?
ewehpt
off he family of "
lines
,(0,
the parameters
a and b ore connected by the relation
Here, if, as in the example abo^e, we eliminate one parameter, the process of determining the envelope will become rather tedious. This tedio^sn^ss may be avoided in the following manner.
We
pohsider, b, As a 'functibq. of, a, as determined
(/)
fr6m
(//).
Differentiating
and
(11)
w.r.
to the parameter,
a,
we
get
b
'
_
.
,
da
eliminate db\da and get
^
N
'
From
(Hi)
and
(iv),
we
.x
y
elimi
The equation of the envelope will, now, be obtained by nating a and b from (/), (11) and (v). Now (v) gives
x'/a ^
y\b
xfa+y/b  r =n
1
L
n
[From
L
(/) v
y
and
(//)] /J v
=:xc w or a
=
(//),
^n
or
^^
we
get
Substituting these values in
or
xn/(n+l)
as the required envelope. Show that the envelope of a circle whose centre lies on 6. parabola y*=4ax and which passes through its vertex is the cissoid
the
Now,
2
(a/
,
2at) is
is
y*(2a+x)+x*=0. any point on the parabola.
(B.U. 7953)
Its distance
from
the vertex (0, 0)
Thus, the equation of the given family of circles 2 2 (x at*)+(y2at)*=^a t*+4a*t
,
is
or
Differentiating
(i),
Substituting
x*+y*2at*x4:aty=Q. t, we get 4a/x 4oy=0, or /= y\x. this value of t in (/), we get the required
w.r. to
...(vi)
envelope.
ENVELOPES
7.
377
radii vectors
Find the envelope of straight of the Cordioide.
lines
drawn at
risht angles, to the
through their extremities. Let P be any point on the curve. then its radius vector OP=^a(l +cos a).
If a
be
its
vectorial
angle,
The equation of the
radius vector
line
drawn through
a)=tf(l
P at
right angles to the
..(I)
OP is
r cos (6
+cos
a).
The angle a
is
different for different straight lines.
Differentiating (1) w.r. to a,
we
get
sin a.
,
.
rsin (0
a)^
and
(2),
..(2)
To
eliminate
(r
(a)
from
(1)
we
rewrite
cos
Qa)
cL
r
sin 9 cos a
cos a\r sin 6 sin a) sin (r COR
0/(r cos C S
(3),
2
them a=a. a =0,
as
.
.(3)
..(4)
Now,
'
(4) gives
tan
__
= r sin
Qa).
a __
r sin
~
r cos
2
0a
'
cos
0'
Substituting these values in
2 (r cos 0tf)
we obtain
+r
sin 2
0_
"~~
y(r
or
2
+a
a
2ar cos 0)
2
,
'
r 2^02_oar cos
0a
i.^.,
r=2a
cos
which
is
the required envelope.
Exercises
Find the envelope of the following families of lines 2 2 (i) y^wx+^cFm ^ 6 ), the parameter being m x cos 3 Q\y sin 3 0=a, the parameter being o (//) (iii) x sin y cos G~flO. the parameter being o n n (/v) xcos Oi>>sin 0^=0, the parameter being 6 p the (v) y=mx + am , parameter being m ^cot o~c. (v/) xcosec o 2. Find the envelope of the family of straight lines xla+ylb=\ where 4, 6 are connected b> the relation 1 2 2 2 (m) a^c (/) a+ 6=c. (//) a +6 c c is a const ant. 3. Find the envelope of the ellipses, having the axes of coordinates as principal axes and the semiaxes a, b connected by tne relation
1.
: ;
;
',
;
;
.
,
4.
Show
that the envelope of the family of the parabolas,
under the condition
(/)
a6=c 2
is
a hyperbola having
its
asymptotes coinciding with axes.
,
(11)
af 6==c
is
an astroid.
378
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
its
5* *~A*I> 9on5idcri ag the evolute of a curve as the envelope of find the evolute of the parabola y*=4ax.
6.
normals,,
Prove that the equation of the normal to the curve
be written in the form x sin fy cos #+ cos 20=0 and find the envelope of the equation of the normals. (P.U. 1944} 7. Find the equation of the normal at any point of the curve *=0(3 cos cos8 0, y=a(l sin t2 sin 8 f) and also find the equation of its evolute. [P.U. (Supp.) 19361 8 Fromac y point of the ellipse x2 /a2 f >2 /6 2 =l, perpendiculars are A drawn to the axes and their feet are joined; show that the straight line thu* formed always touches the curve
may
t2
*
,
9.
UAO* +(ylb)% =1 Find the envelope of the curves
x*loP cos Q+b*ly* sin
(B.U. 1952)
6=1.
2 y =4ax
Circles are described on the double ordinates of the parabola as diameters prove that the envelope is the parabola y*=4a(x+a).
:
10.
[P.U. (Supp.) J935] that the envelope of the circles whose centres lie on the rectangular hyperbola x*y*=a* and which pass through the origin is the
11.
Show
lemmscate
r2
=4a2
cos
20.
(B.U. 1955)
13.
Find the envelope of the circles described upon the radii vectors of '*V+y a /6*= las diameter. Find the envelope of a family of parabolas of given latus rectum and
parallel axes,
14,
when the
locus of their foci
is
a given straight line
(P.U. 1931) that the envelope ol the straight line joining the extremities of 2 a pair of semiconjugate diameters of the ellipse * 2 /a 2 +rV6 =l is the ellipse
.
y=px+q.
Shnw
15. Find the envelope of straight lines drawn at right angles to the radii vectors of the following curves through their extremities n n cos n. (i) r=*a+b cos 6. (//) r =a
:
(///)r=<* (B.U. 1953) 16. Find the envelope of the circles described on the radii vectors of the following curves as diameter
.
:
Gcota
17.
///= i + e cos 9. Find the envelope of the curves
(/)
(//)
r
n. n cos a
jfQ,
where the parameters a and 6 are connected by the relation
18.
Show
b =c . (P.U. 1955) that the family of circles (x0) 8 +V 2 =fl 2 has no envelope. (P.U. 1942)
a+
v
v
Miscellaneous Exercises II
1.
Show
that all the curves represented by the equation
*~a~
+ ~~b
VflHhfr/
'
for different values of n. touch each other at the point x^y^abl(a the radius of curvature at this point is
f b) and
that
(DV.
1956)
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
H
37 9*
its
2. If the polar equation of a curve be r**a see* ie, find an expression for radius of curvature at any point.
3.
Show
that
cos x=a(cos 0+0 sin 8), y=0(sin is the involute of a circle. 4. Find the radii of curvature of the curve nVa 1* 4 **, for the points *=0 and x~a. 5. If a curve be given by the equations
06
0>,
'
2
2
2=f 22,
2 
of curvature in terms of to the axis a curve passes through the origin at an inclination, of x, show that the diameter of curvature at the origin is the limit of (x*+y*)l(x sin <ty cos a) when x * 0. Hence show that the radius of curvature at the origin of the curve y*+ lay 2ax 0,
find the radius
6. If
t.
,
is
242a.
7. If P,, p f be the radii of curvature at the extremities of two conjugate semidiameters of an ellipse semiaxes a, b t prove that
1948
that the projections on the Xaxis of radii of curvature at the points of >>=log cos x and its evolute are equal. corresponding m m cos and Q is the intersec9. If P is any point on the curve r =a /up tion of the normal at P with the .line through O at right angles to the radius vector OP, prove ihat the centre of curvature corresponding to P divides PQ the ratio / m. cot Prove that if 10. The equation of the equiangular spiral is r=ae O be the pole and P any point on the curve, then a straight line drawn through Oat right angles to OP. intersects the normal at P in C such that PC is.this (M.u.y radius of curvature at P.
8.
Show
m
:
.
11.
Show
that the
normal to the Lemniscate
r
2
at the point whose vectorial angle is */6 is perpendicular to the initial line and that the centre of curvature at the point at a distance 420/12 below the initial
line.
^?
2
cos 28
12.
Show
that a point
P on
the curve
2
cos 0cos*0, >'=3 sin 0sin and that the centre of where 0=7r/4, the normal* passes through the origin (B.U.) curvature at P divides OP internally in the ratio 4:1. 13. Show that the pole Hes within the circle of curvature at every point of the cardioide a(lf cos 0), and that its power with respect to it is rN3. 14. Find the coordinates of the point in which the circle of curvature of the parabola y* = 4x at the poini (f*, 2f) meets the curve again. The circles of curvature of a fixed parabola at the extremities of a focal. passes through a chord meet the parabola again at/fandtf; prove that (Indian Police 1935) fixed point.
*=3
HK
and its evolute at corres15. p, p' are the radii of curvature of an ellipse at P make* ponding points P, P' A is the area of the triangh which the tangent with the axes ; show that p/p' varies as A* 16. Prove that the maximum length of the perpendicular from the pole (B.U.) on the normal to the curve r=fl(i cos 0) is 4<V3a/9. 17. For what points on the curve xy*~a*(ax) is the square of subtangent maximum.
380
18.
DIFFERENTIAL CALOTTLTT3
Show
that the tangents at the points of inflexion of the curve
5xH3y4a=0,
19.
(B.U.)
Find points
of* inflexion
on
z
x(xya
20.
)*=b'.
(M.T.)
Find the coordinates of two real points of inflexion on the curve 2 y =(x2Y(x5) and show that they subtend a right angle at the double point. 21. If O.is a fixed and Q, a variable point on a given circle whose centre is C and if QQ is produced to P so that QP=2. OC, prove that the radius of
curvature of the locus of P at the point
P is
B
22.
If
O
is
the extremity of the polar subtangent at a point
P
of the
curve
prove that the locus of
23.
Q
r=atan(0/2).
is.
r=0(lfsinO).
curve
(B.U.)
Find polar subtangent and polar subnormal at any point of the
r=*24.
show that the polar subtangent constantly increases as increases and the polar subnormal attains its maximum value 3>j3a/8 at the point (a/4, 1/^3).
Show
that the circles of curvature of the parabola
y*=4ax
for the ends of the latus
rectum have
for their equations
and
that they cut the curve again in the point (9a, qp 6n). 25. Show that the centre of curvature at every point of the curve
it
(PU.)
Avhere
r=0(0 meets the positive side .of initial
sin 0)
line is the pole.
26.
Show
that
the coordinates of the centre of curvature
:
,
may be
given
in any of the following ways
dx 1
rf
_1
J
27its
Show
that the area of the triangle
2
j/
formed "by a tangent to the cissoid
(2ax)=A,
asymptote and
28.
A'axis is greatest for the point given x 3a/2,
=
by
Find the equations of the tangents to the curve
parallel to the line y=x. 29. Trace the curve
r^=a(l+cos
e)
^ind prove that the greatest distance of the tangent to the curve point of the axis is >l2a.
30.
from the middle
CP U)
Show
;
of dinate to
is constant.
that the length of the perpendicular normal at any point of the curve jt=0(sinh 2620), y=4a cosh 0,
from the foot of the
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
31.
II
381
Show
that for the curve
0)cos
,
0,
y/a=sin
0,
the portion of the A'axis intercepted between the tangent and the norrral at any point is constant. 32. Find the nature of the double poiut on the curve
and show that
33.
it
has two real points of inflexion.
that the pedal equation of the curve
Show
34,
Show
that the tangential pedal equation of the curve
<*/*)
+(;/*)
*
=
is
1
2
la
sin2
$ f 1 Ib
cos 2
on the tangent at each point of curve, a constant length be measured from the point of contact, prove that the normal to the locus of the point so formed passes through the corresponding centre of curvature of the
35.
If
given curve.
36.
Show
that there
is
as the parameter
37.
V
Ua) 2 + y 2 ~2y
a curve for which the circles cosh a+l=0,
varies, are the circles of curvature.
,
point
at P.
P
Prove that the distance from a fixed point P (x y e ) to a variable on the curve f(x,y)^V is stationary when PP is normal to the curve
38.
The tangents
at any point
x=a(0
'0'
of
0)
+ sin 0),.v=0(Hcos
is
normal to the curve at the point where it meets the next span on the right " cot (0/2)^= n/2. prove that
39.
Show
that the locus of the intersection of perpendicular
the Astroid
tangents
to>
x=^a cos 3 0,
is
y=a
2
sin 3
8
the curve
2(jc*+/)=fl (*
 y2
i
2
)
;
and the locus of the intersection of perpendicular normals
40.
find the
is
(D.V. Hans., 1959} the curve
For the curve
x^=a(2 cos rf cos 2f), y=a(2 sin /sin 2f), equation of the tangent and normal at the point whose parameter
is t
and show that
(0 the tangent at are i/ and?ri/,
(11)
P meets
the curve in the points Q,
R whose
parameters
QR is constant, ihe tangents at Q and R intersect at right angles on a circle, (Hi) (j'v) the normals at P, Q and R are concurrent and intersect on a concentric
circle.
2 P, Q are any two points on ay =x* such that PQ always passes a fixed point (at 9 or 8 ) lying on the curve show that the locus of the through point of intersection of the tangents at P, Q is the parabola
41.
,
;
42,
Tangent
again at
Q
;
show
where
OX is
of the at any point that cot 2 LXOP+ tan
P
Folium x*+y*=3axy meets the curve
Jfaxis.
DIFFBBENTIAL CALCULUS
43.
Show
that
x=0/4
is
a bitangcnt of the cardioidc
r =a( I
cos
0).
(Birmingham)
414.
The envelope of the
x cos
straight line
#+y sin
is
?$=0(cos
4s the curve whose polar equation
//(I*) ~*nl(ln)
45.
Show
that the radius of curvature of the envelope of the line
XCOS a+ysin
a=/(<x),
that the centre of curvature
>46.
47.
is the point *=/'(<*) sin a /"(a) cos a y=/'(a) cos a /"(a) sin a Discuss the nature of singularity at the origin of the curves, a 2 5 2 (i) j>a=*(jc l). (//) x 0(x a>0 ==0. Show that the curve
 
(M.U.)
G0.J7.)
has a cusp at the origin and an infinite series of nodes lying at equal distances from each other. Trace the following curves 48.
:
bytx* sm2 (xja)
(i)
'(///)
rfl(2 cos ef cos 36). x=0[cos f 4log taa Jf]is
(11)
>^2cV+a2^ 2 0.
y=a sin
/.
49.
The tangent
the parabola
to the evolute of a parabola at the point where it meets also a normal to the evolute at the point where it meets the
evolute again.
50. If p be the radius of curvature of a parabola at a point whose distance measured along the curve from a fixed point is, s, prove that
.and
51. If p and p' be the radii of curvature at corresponding points of a cusp evolute, and p, q, r first, second and third differential coefficients of>> with respect to x, prove that
its
P 9 2 [Hint. P '=</V<ty ] 52. Show that the radius of curvature at a point of the evolute
of the
curve
rn
(r, e) is
~an cos n$,
corresponding to the point
n
/
l~l\*
'sec/iO tan n$.
53.
(a)
*
lias a single
(b)
Show that the curve x*2x 2 yxy*2x 2 2Ky+y 2 x+2y+l=*0
is
1). cusp of the second kind at the point (0, Show that the radius of curvature of the curve /(r, 8)=0
rcosecy
the chord of curvature perpendicular to the radius vector denotes the radius of curvature.
is
2p cos ?
where
(D.U. 1956)
ANSWERS
JPages
467.]
3.
(/)
Page
4.
Ex.
0.
(//)
a,
i) 1,
(iv) nit
;
n being any integer.
Page
Page
9.
Ex.2.
10.
1710.
Ex.2.
Ex.3.
x1 <2. (ii)\xl\ <$. xl <e. x2 <5. (iv) (in) (i)l<x<5. (//) 3<x<l. (in) l<x<3,
(/)
  


\
Page
14.
(J) (1,00) The entire aggregate of real numbers excluding the numbers is any integer. (2 + l)ir, where (/') The set of intervals
Ex.4.
(')
when n
1.
is
any
36.
integer.
Page
2.
(I) 7T/6.
(i) j(0, 1).
(/I)
7T/4.
(Ill) 7T/3.
(IV)
27T/3.
(//)
The
1].
set of intervals [2mr,
(v)
t
(in)
<v/i)
[0, 1).
(iv)
[1,
[co
,
1],
(viii)
]
[1, oo
[1, oo
]. ].
(vi) [0, oo ].
The
(*)
[!.
real
set of intervals (2mr 2n ~" 2 L (^O [~ > ]^ [
+ lir),
J
>
(ix) [1, oo
].
(^"0
The
entire aggregate
(xiii)
of
numbers excluding the
[0, QO],
numbers (H+i)^.
[1,
,
1].
<xiv)[oo,0],
3.
(/)
Increasing in
in
[
[00,00].
,
(ii)
Decreasing in
[00
oo
].
(Hi)
Decreasing
,
oo
0]
and
oc ].
in
(v)
[00
Page
0]
and decreasing
!)TT,
in [0,
[0, oo]. i*v) Increasing Increasing in the set of inter
in
vals [(2n
51.
3.
(2n+^)fr] and decreasing in [(2n+)7r, (2fl+f)7r].
discontinuous.
(i)
continuous.
(
11)
6.
Discontinuous for
x=0
and x = l.
x.
7.
Continuous for every value of
Page
57.
2.
f
(/)
[Pages
6667.]
continuous.
(//)
2.
discontinuous,
(ill)
continuous.
333
384
(iv)
(vii)
DIFFERENTIAL 'tEBptHTMf*
discontinuous,
(v)
[Page 7489
(vi)
continuous.
discontinuous.
discontinuous, (vw) continuous.
Page
74.
Ex.
4.
(/)
13.
() ,V2
.
Page 75,
412.
(/)
Ex.1.
2x/(x+3)
2
(//)
1/2A
(n/)3x.
(/v)
Page 76. Ex.1.
2,
2(lx )/(l+x
2 2
)
.
Ex.2.
1/V2.
Page
Page
78.
Ex.
79.
3.
2x+>>+l=:0,
(0)8, 2; 2,
2.
4Ar=^j4.
Ex.1.
Ex.3.
1/16, 1/32 (c) 1/4, 1/32 1/2, 1/4. 4, 3, 4; 2, 2, 2; 2, 7,8.
(ft)
;
;
1,
2.
Page
83.
Ex.2,
(i)
(xl)/2A
(3x*+xI)l2x%.
(//)
(2x~*+5x~l'*)/l2.
(Hi)
(iv)
(1+7^/6".
Page
85.
Ex.
2.
(i)
2x+5.
2
(ii)
2(x+2)(3x+6).
(Hi)
(2x+3) (10x3)/2x^.
Page
86.
Ex.2.
(Hi)
(/)
(4x+6).
(tf)
x(x+2).
[(x'(i)an(ax+b)1
.
Page
87.
Ex.2.
2 2 () 2x/(l +x )
.
(iv)
(v)
_. r
. .
(w)
,..
 
Page
89.
[Pages 9197
ANSWERS
385
Page
91.
Ex.
3.
(/)
m
x
(m)
(v)
mx m ~i
(x cos
cos
sin^* xm
.
cos x.
(ii)
m
sin
wx.
(iv)
.
sin 2x.
sin x.
2
sin x)/x 2
(vi)
(vii)
(v/ii)
(ax+b)(ax*+2bx+c)~^ sin V(^ 2 (m cos x w sin 2 x) sin 1 * cos""" 1 *.
4.
(/)
+2feo;f
c).
Ex.
tan
r.
(//)
cot
r.
(ii'i)
tan
r.
'
Page
92.
Ex.
(ii)
...
cos
.
(in)
.4 cosec 2x cot 2x. (/) x tan 2x+2 sin x sec 2 2x. sin 4x 8x sin 2 x r 2 4 cos x sin 2x
1.

,.
.
_
;
(iv) ' v
2
sm
.
2x.
2
,
{V)
~
1
x
'
V[(cos 2x)](cos x+sin 9 cosec 3 3x cot 3x. \b sec ^(a\bx) tan
sec(cosec x)
(V/)
* 8e
x)'
2
Page
93.
(i)
(i/i)
(//)

^a^/[seo (ax+b)} tan (ax +6).
a N/(
+^)/v/ (+*x
)
(/v)
tan (cosec x) cot x coaec
x.
Page
96.
Ex.
1.
(i)
(/V)
,
8l
Vx
...
'
1+cosVx2
1
/X)
__ 2
2.
1.
_

'
Ex.
Page
97.
n Ex.
B
(/)
cot x.
,>
(ii)
sin (log ;  v " x)
.
(in) e
,...,
ain
x
.
cos x.
,
cot (log x)
x
secx.
.
(v >
....
e 2 ".2x log
(wi).
(viii)
jifr,
xe*
,.
.
a
x
.
lo
a
(w)
386
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
97.
Pages 97105]
Page
.
2 log a
~
!
/V(**)
sin 2x).
(x/v)
a 2 cos 2 x
ft
2
sin 2
x
Page
100.
Ex.
(i)
(///)
tanhx. () sinh 2x sec 2 x tanh x 4 tan x sech 2 x.
Page
102.
Ex.
4.
(i)
(cosx)
[(log cos x)/x
tan
x. log x\.
eo
(/v)
X
.
(tan x)
cosoc 2 x log (e cot x)
tau x
(cot x)
.
sec 2 x log (e tan x).
(v)
(logx)*(log>gx
sin
+ lo ^)
x/
S
x)
(co
x
f"
'
11 sm
log
1
'
1
.v

r
^
i;a
,x)
(2
x2
3
)
'
~
4.v_
r)
9x 2
4
)
2(1
"3(2~Tx
+4(3 j
_
(v/i)
(2.x*
+ 15jc* + 36)/3(JC
.
3
+3)
'
f 4).
log .v)'
\
(vm)
sin
.v
c
;r
.
log
.r
.
X* fcot .vf
(.v
log
<?.r.
Page
104.
Ex.5,
(i)
,

(i/)
T
^
(///)
:2
'
Ex.6.
CO

1.
(//)
3
Page
105.
Ex.
3.
(/)
2x cos x 2
'
.
(ii)
sin 2x.
(///)
l/2y'.v.
(iv)
e
s
m x cos x.
(v)
eV/Jf /2 v/x.
(v/)
]/(l
+x
2
)
[Pages 105106
ANSWERS
387
Page
105.
.
1.
2x e
*2
.
~
2.
sec 2 x\/(cot x) ~
3.
(jc
'.
cos x
.
.,
t
sin x).
4.
2jcsec 2 x 2
.
5.
 1
l
2
Page 106.
COS J JC
'
Xy/( I
2 3/ 2
)
"
X2 )
(lX
o
/
.
X
i
^,^
/'/I
^9v
"
g
9.
"
!
A
*
(tan.
)
11.
"
10.
x
.
log
.
3
13.
i.
V2 3(
,
,
12.
v
1.
14
/
v
~\'"*i
1
\"
7
(
*'j_/
_
7"'""'
(1

5
(i
.'
.(5x)
(
6.7
}7.x
'"1 2
).
f 7.Y)/
y A
'.)
I
"Vx)"
4
8.v"":V(r
v)~4(l
!3.r)
"f>(l
15.
A'
1
1
Y
"
l
"
l
hotl(f.Y
x log
.v.Y
16.
I
log ex\x
(xt)
'
A
"
l
.
17.
1
.'5.Yv(l
.Y).
sin'.v.
18.
cosooli
.v.
y
'
I
1
v/(l
.x
)
(cos
22.
.v
win .v)v/(cos 2x)'
"' 21
23.
2a


10
.v.
lopRinX
v
(l
^/
2
.cot.x.lo^lO.
^)
x)
(aj
log (^
_____
loo;
log
b
1
.v
.
los log
.x
24
)
sin
^
cos* jc)j4ft cos
1
.v
.cos""
25.
xf
^cos
.
.
1
(sin.v)
x
.
cot
x
log sin
x
^.
26. 27.
c
axl
[cos (x log x)
.
log
^v2ax
1
a
.
sin (x log x)].
2fl
2
x
r/
sech ax.
28.
29.
388
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
W 30
*2 ~1
*
~'
sin
31
1
_
'
[Pages 106111
'
32
2x cos
Page 106.
33.
9x 4
(3* 7)
.
log (1
5x) x
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1)" f r n ! ^ ( X __ jp. r A (!) !f X 1 _ w+1 1 fl) (X + tf)"* 1 2 sin [(n + l) cot~ 1 ( ] ' sin (+l)^. (j) (ii) ( ( l)i( w n J 1) ! sin" 6 sin nd. Continuous but not differentiate for x=a. coBa)/sin . where ! d=cot~ 1 x. 5. . Page 119. where [(x l) (M 1) cosec" a sinn sin n&. (i) Continuous. 3. Page 116. derivable at continuous but non derivable at Page 115. 11. 1 .?. 3/2. ^v'r 4 . 12. (//) Discontinuous. + (v ^]) + i (jr+o)"* J' 1 Page 120. 10. Discontinuous at 2. where 7.Pages 112120] ANSWERS Page 112. .. l L (x2)*+ + * i 1 (x+2)+ J' 2 10 t L(X~I)" (.
5 . (2n 1 2 ) .(22) .. .])(/i.. ([ 2 I)"" "<' (i~l) ! . +1 (0) = . <7'0 (iv) TV t 2 cos (x+imr) 3 n cos (3. n(/i.[/ . i (v) 4 ^ [25*" cos (jr+n tani i). 22 . 56. + \n it) . 4.[(2n~2) 62. [(2 1)*.13" cos (3x+n tan ) Page 123. cos(6x + /wr)] .   * .v M (iii) . . [3e*45^"cos (x+w tan" 1 2) f 17^'cos (4x+n tan 4)]/8.1 2 .v+/i7r)5n co6(5jc+^w)l.? ./n )(3 V yan (0) 0 v. v ". [(2 . >Wi=0. X2 ' (iv) e"[log xpfjX V3 jr  fT 3 2 !. 5.(3/J) sin (3x f () J[2 n cos(2x + IWTT) f/$ cos(4x + JTT) +6" (i)  sin. 3*)(/iS5). 4.390 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS [Pages 121126 Page 121. [w .m*J. .2)] . !.v TT) I f3x 2 cos [Arj(n l)7r 3(W..1 )" I  2 a W.. 2 . 4/n 2 6. .. ^(0) = w(m=  2 2 )(m2 4 a ) . Page 126. ( .v 8 cos (.1)^008 [X + J(2)7T]4 [x+K/i 3)ir.vh2 +(2tt Page 125. (/) e'f ^ ! p f v * i /l2 )2 ^".^ ta+1 (0)=/n(L*.. .(2/i .  1 2 2 ) +/].. 2 ) . .. . . 1.}( 4.2) cos (///) 0"+'. Page 126. fi *. 42 . ) . 23 ^ f n(0)=0. 2 ) 8 (2n I)*]. x)y n ^ x . . (x J/ITT). ^ J n=(l)". x~*~ 1 .. 2.
5. 64. 13. ( 24ft) 1 ^cos^ftflx+wtan ) Ex. 6. . [ Increasing in 2. . for x=6. 4. and [ [1. 11. . ' max. 1]. [0. for xl. the function is steadily increasing. 38 Max.v = 3</. A ^ ar A cos />. min. Page 144. ! . ^A' V  . 10. i:m. min. 4. max.oo). negative integer. oo Page 140. 2^3/9. 12. Ex. min. Page 156. (n)V5.5) ~ 4 . if n is odd. 2. Decreasing ). . max. 50 least 0. is (/). rain. 0] and [2. 37. Ex. 1 . forxl. (11) min. 27. ] . 5. 2] 11.. for x 2a and minimum Max. 7... :it>. Ex. o ! : . Ex. integer.+^j Page 150. 14. (47T3V3))6 (10:: 3\/3)/6. max. (//7)log(e 1). for JC=/ITT where n is an odd positive or even negative and minimum for x~mr where n is an even positive or odd : . in (oo and fO.. . greatest 70. s. value : log [(ae : e) log tfj/log a. 3. o. for x =\/3 min. max. 2] increasing in 2. 21). values (27T+3v/3)/6 . for x^2. 6. 1. If n is even. 2 4. 9. (/) max. 1] for d<[ 00 1. [l. . 3. 4.V l 1 I X fl ! 2 ^ ~Jt 2t \ & 2 J/l . Page 139. the function 3. 5. steadily decreasing.Pages 127156] ANSWERS 391 Page 127. For a ^1. Page 135. 1109.4. decreasing in ( . min. for x and . 1] and . (87r+3y/3)/6.0]. c = (6V2l)/ti. 55/27. e 1 . for x= */3. 8 1 : Page 153. 2. values miii. oo ). Increasing in [ i.3. decreasing in 2] (00 . f fl(l*36) 3 . max. 2. y n (Q) 0 . min. y n (0)~n ! (3/f.
o limit is 1. max. (v) 2. 10. 30. Page 163. min. girth 4 yes. aft. (ii) y . Page 164. value VT 17. 9.. V(40/3). 4. whose each Ride =/2ff. 1. . 22. Page. : (77+3^32). 5. value V3 . (/) min. 18. (a* +b% 0. The required values are the roots of the quadratic equation (a~r*)(b r~*)=h*. 15. (Hi) f . 20. 1. Ex. 21. 169. max. 2V37T/27. min. V . (a$ 0. least value greatest value . 5. (/).2/3^6. Ex. ^ mm. Sq. Page 157. 3^3/4. . max. ft. max. values :J(5ir+3 x/3+2). r. ft. . 26. 18.4.6. 9. 25. max. . .v (i) . h/(>/3). where n is any integer. Page 168. (H)**l2e. in 3. values .392 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS [PagOS 156169 Page 156. greatest value . (if) min. . 15(^ miles per hour. vW3). 28. 19800()^ rupees. (/v)  i. (27r3 v/3+2). max. (tfi) (iv) Ex. c*l(a+b). ! o A': . 2/3V3. (0f (vi) 2a/6. ()f 2 . +b% fi (in) 2/3v/S . 1. values least value : J . 3V30&M(3v/8ir)*.3. Length 2 and girth 4J ft. ~ 4 . 21. values 1 : V 1  % . length should now be If ft.. Diameter of the semicircle = 40/(Tr +4) Height of the rectangle =20/(7r+ 4) Breadth y^ depth \/%a. max. : . 2/3v/6 min.
e 15. 1 2 ". Page 187. 7. cosec 2 3 + C ot .Pages 170188] ANSWERS 393 Page 170. (iii) . 18. (i) T\. 174. J.. 16. a^ b . 17.v *Y2 gjc+ Y4 . Change (v) . (iv) 1. 19. (iii) 1. <?/:>. 20. 3 cosec 2 3. 16. Page 177. 2. (i) 0.3) 1 V 13. (i) 1. 11. 23. A /37T/6. <> 22. (vii) e*. 2 /7r 21. (vi) e. 1. 2. 12. alogrt. (viii) e. f"(a)l'2f'(a). 33.0. (ii) 1. Ex. (vi) 0. 30. Ex. (iv) 2 7r /6. Page 178. Ex. i e~\ 2. 26. 7. e" *'* 2. 31. cot 2  ^^ . O \4. (ii) e' 1 . 1 "" 5. *. i+xHg* J log sin 3 12. iflV. 9. 1. lie/24. e~^ O / . 1. Page 175. 8 13. . e" e~~ ' 01 . (//) J. Ex. iV 4.<i 3 . (iv) 1. v 2. 3. (i) 0. 3. (iv) (0 i Page Page 173. 4.a. 1 TB . aV. 2. 2. 24. [87]. (ii) to cot \Ttx. Page 176. 3. (v) 4. 28. Page 177. 12 A !+ + (x.e~* 2A ^ 10. (ii) 0. J+J 14. cofc itx (iii) 1. 11. 2/7T. i (v) e. (a. Continuous at the origin. tog (e/*) log be.. (iii) 20/7T. *4  ^5 + x *2 Page 188. 29. 2. Ex. 5.3. (i) . 27. 6.aj\ 25. (v) 1. (iii) 1.
 3J. log y)ylx (y log x log y4 sin >'(>. [>.sec x "" log x).r cos 2. Ex. (i) (M cot ( x cos M 2 sin y+z sin v sin x)/(cos v sin y). cosec*x log y(y) e "' * _ 8x  ~~dFidz ' 8 JL 8Fl 8y ' 8y~~ 8F/8z . 1). DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 14f29(x2)+16(. 4x\2y. 2 r sin 0.+x cos (xy)\l\x+x* cos (x^)J. ) . log ' (ixy) 4. 1. Page 205. 5. <ReacU* >* cos * in place of ee* cos x ). cos 0. Page 202. (l ]/c*r. sin x_+cos x log cos jc log_sin j') >>) cos jf(sin (/v) y x cos X^* log y. 4%. Page 215. n_3. r cos 0. Page 188. 4.394 15. 1. (ff) ye^ &*[yx+yl].c2) 43(*2) J LP ft ges 188215 3 .. cosec 0. sin Q. (oosyxys'my)lx xy)*. . 6. s 3. 1 +*)(! +J 2 )(25 f>2)/( 1 () . . 2. Page 209. fofl. r cosec 0. 2. 3' (1xy)*' 8.lx(xy 2 1 j(tan x)*. Page 203. (i) eB ' g*". v ~l v (cot x yx. a ae * sin &>>. 0.
14 . at (5. 3. 0). in being 1. at [&n( I +4w f!2/i). 0).. max... ' x /14 v/14 ' v' 6./ /2 1 a MJh)l\ 2( n h ?L2 3a*. 0). J(0 26)]. (v/i) max. 1). 3. value 112 at (4. 0). 2k^(a* ab~\b*). All integral values of . at [^71(744^ + 12^). at (0. whore w the only point of discontinuity. (v//7) No 1 + 4m +2/i). 0) min. where m and w are integers. value 108 at (6.v. (/) (11) any integer and x= I. ). 1. All integral values of x. . 1. Page 229. ( extreme value. 2(x (/) l x 2 )(/. (uiiu. at (2. V (Hi) 2 1 i)  Page 232. 30'. continuity.. (x) max. .) and Ja (max. f2/. at (. 4. max.Hl)/(l. . (Hi) x0. 2. 1. 2 fl 2. 5. at (2.2/w). Squares of the semiaxes are tho roots of the quadratic 71 ' O  8 8 "" O '2 ' Miscellaneous Exercises Page 233.Pages 216233] ANS\VKKS 395 Page 216. Zero w is 2. (vi) min. Page 228. are the only points of disis any integer. 1. 0) if t/ > . (ix) max. (v) min. ^7r(l 4 2mf 2/?)]. (iv) M . 3. + i. (i) (ill) min. at[J(6 20). at (0. min. (i7) rain.) (//) 2 3w 2 .. 1. at ( 2. min. ). 4. i).
33. 8 v cos ^ + 2c* cot 20 Q. v'^a 6 / / .x 0' /). 2a/b. (3db)l(a3c) if. continuous. at 7T/3 and min.396 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS [Pages 233260 Page 233.=2a x+^^0. 51. . . Discontinuous at the origin. (min. (v) (vi) (vii) 3lJC8>^+9a=0 . 30. jc=0. 34. and 5TT/3. . sin 3  (viii) (ix) x . (Hi) .Cf+sin (cos _. sin sin Page 234.(ffi) 1.. is positive (negative). where 16 J. (i) 35. Tfg Page 236. ..  A cos C) .y+a=0.4(c~os (7cos 5)' r6 (l)n! '. (HI) continuous.) and (b+d)l(a where v [ c) is a min. 7. (//) discontinuous. 40. is I V (' C^'VS)' (3least value is The greatest value and the (l/e) Page 260.. 50. !. 31. 2 7 2 a t/(xx )=fr 1 ./7r)^ is the volume of the cone. x>> 30.W. . 6.(//) 1. (i) 32. 4/^ max. (max. ad be. x+y=3a x y+a=Q./7r)*. y 3a 4 ^ . 43v2 max. x cos 3 5+^ sin 3 0=c x 13x~16). Jv _ Av3 _ JA lf x (i) tan 1 ^=a sin a/(x+a cos a). (i) (ii) 6Vx+a .) 47. a The / vertices of the rectangle are 2a\ / 2a \ / 2a \ / (3' y* = 52. i. is a max. Height=2(3i. (Hi) 0. 43. . 2.radius 27r{l = (l/V2)(3i. Page 237.y^O. 38.c+.. 8x^31^ + 42^0. at min. 1. (V2/3)} radians. (CA)+ sin (B. 3> V3')' ax being the equation of the parabola. 1 () ..
4. ' O x cosh  c CO ( ' . 0). (V4a. a) . 2 ' 2 Page 264. < . (i) ir/4.=(#s a2 +2ar)/> 3 (ix) Page 279. * Page 262. () (//) a^ 3 . 3. y*a) . (ii) tan" 1 3. Page 273. Page 270.. J. 2. (v/) 7T/2. two The tion in. (a. a sin 2 cos 0. (11) ( /2a. 2fl 0. 5. (ii) tan. 1 (i) ir/2. (//) yj^rsina. . (0 > 3 (0. 4. (00/2. (i) l/2J 1 =^l/r +l/a e 2 ! 2 2 2 . are the slopes of the roots of this quadratic equaaxes. jc2Qy=7. /><*>/( 1+0M2+20 2 2 ). a sin 3 tan 0. (i) 2fl cos s 0 cosec 0/02. 20* +7 = 140. (v) (m) Tr/20/2. g^ ^ ft C") tf _2  6. " (^. I)] 2ir/3.Pages 260279] ANSWERS 397 Page 260. 7. (i) sin 0.T> (1. (/v) w/4fmfl. 1. () 7r/2fw0. 2 4 . 1 2 (iv) tan. 1. a sin 2 0. a tan sin 2 0. m. (/) m h+m(a 2 V 16  b) /z0.?.[2^/(^ (/) ir/2. (iv) l/p r 4 (v/) = l/r 2 +a 2 /r 2 8 =/J [o m +(l 2 (v) J 2 2 )r .*/2a) 6. (v/7) (viii) r 1 . Page 265. 9. Page 272.
I)a and <r/(2 For x and itf \/3. (. at. 1].. (/) For x^blZa. (/) 2acos a m lr m 0/2. x 0. Ex. (//) ay (sec a(0 2 20). ae* } W (. v/2tf e 6 . Page 296. 0). (2. (0. . m m~ /r (v/) tf(02+ l)/(02 1)2. For x(5. f]. ("') \ '3). GO] wards in [ 1. (v) see 3 !/. 0. oo) Inflexions at (2.v) (\ae . 2). TT] . l .  (/.(///) Psge 292.v/7) * (1. (HI) 3(a. (111) a cosec a e G cota . 0). 5ir/4J.. 238). 2e) and (1. Page 288. 0). 2. (4 i v 'l8). (i) c sec ' 1 i//. Inflexions at ( I. (0. (Hi) (v) (v/) (\V. . Concave downwards Concave upwards in in [0.x 2j'l0. 1 ()). (//) 1. 2 2 cos 3 sin v/(a cos' f/> 2 sin 2 0). (ii) (0. and upwards in [ir. 20).. (ill) 2tf sin J0.398 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS [Pages 27929(> Page 279. Inflexional tangents to (x/) are 9x : 3 v /3v Page 289. 0). ( . For* 2.x+<>)>) {1 Inl. j (v/7) For x= 3 ~ . 0] and [2.2]. in [ir/4.lT). 9. 4. (///) 5 and "f . Concave upwards in [0. (1. 2 ). 2 and 3\ ' ^ V /:K (v//7) For x ttf/v'. (/v) *( 2.. . (/'/') (v/) ( \ > \ O y'*> Y / Inflexional tangents to Inflexional tangents to are are x\y. (/) (ii) 2 2 2 2 v'(^ sin 0+6 cos 0). Concave upwards in ( oo.0).vj) . concave down2. downwards 6. (i) 1/2. (iv) 5.3)(0. ir/l] and [5?r/4.'{(9.. 1] and [1. (iv) (vii) <V(l+ l (v) (v//7) v/2a +l). 2ir] and concave 5. 2] and [0. !(>/<?). (1. 2ir]. concave down4. (/'/) 4aoos^. 198). (v) 00. [ wards in ( oo. 3. (0. 2fl (zv) < tan >{i.
(//) x \y = a. 3).x I i 7.y^(). 3. A*^ : ui. * ' r*r*n*+~2a*/i* (i/i) /(+ l)r"i. y 2 /c. 15. y =o y x+2. y=0. Page 321 13. 5. 4. )' K&'2fl)=<>. 10.Pages 297321] ANSWERS 399 Page 297. (") (f'O r*//</>. 2. x=a. 9. . . . y = x + ].U (//) (\/. 13. y 0.v  y = xV2.c) +9=0.Yfy = (). 4. i \ . y  yA'= 1. y6. 7 (/) Page 303 10. 25. [ x. (/) (3<i/2. y=2jc J 14. xhya^0. y y ().?x = fl. 4. 11. 14. 9 (c +s*)lc. 1 . .r y U/ = 0. Page 309. Page 320. 19. 11. Page 298. 12.v=(). 9. 23. 1.v3. 5. Wla. 17.v 2. 2tflb. x+y=2. 18. 3. (r*+aWn*r*f * . 20.Y yr. x^=a. 2(y f Jf) = 3. 4(y + 3. y 3. (Hi) y x\ajX. 2. y==xf 2. [(log2)/2. y=3. yjc x=0. l/v/2]. a. (i) 2p 3 /o 2 . *=!.2. 3=0. =0. y = (>. y~. . 6.c . . Page 315. y=. 1/3). (/) .Yfy=h v /2. i:l. jc=3. JC + 1=0. (a\b)(x*+y (0) 2 ) * 2 fy 2 O//)2 ^ _ /7 >o2 . 4(y~x) + l=0. (m) a 6. y=0. 20. * = 0. o/2. x=l. Page 302. yv Lj</. Ex. 10.y= : 12. y^xia. 16. (/v) vfy'o"). (8. . 8. x:2.y.
a 3. is 15. f (ft\ ^T\V ==rr sin ( ei 6 )> where 6 l is any root of the equa 19. y+a=0. 1 r sin 8a^=0. 10.)= W TT n >v 7r(r cos 0)42a=0. The curve lies above the asymptote both for xfj. y 8(^x)+7=0. ^411=0. jp=x t ^=2^ + 1. any integer.2e=ir. 5. y= x 4^=0. Page 328. 5.Q (04i7r)=0. 3 x=0. + ^2r sin 4. 2. 3y+ . 7. 106^381x4105=0. 1. x^=2j. 40=0. .l). 5. . 0=0. 1. x= 10. r cos 0a=. 12. 5. 4x. x+2j=0. tf=rsin (1 0).400 Page 321. a=rsin(0. r sin . 6. (f) 6j 2* 3(2^+^)45=0. Ex. 2x 2. 2. 7i0=/W7r where m 10. 3(>>x) 42=0. x 4^ + 1=0. 27. x=0. 22. /> 0=7r/4. is positive as well as negative values of x. 9. a42r(oos 0+sin 0)=0. rcos0=0. 1=0. y^a. 2(^3x)+3 =0. 3y+*=l. x+y+a=Q. 00.6^ 49=0. 8. . o rsmf/ 6 \ . 21. (//') tote according as The curve lies above or below the asympx4y x is positive or negative. y=*2x+2.>42 7. System of parallel lines y~ae where n any integer or zero. x=2. Page 331. 6. 11. 6. 7.y4llx7 3 3^ y=2x8 4l. rcos6b=a. 8. y=zx\\. 17. (Hi) The curve lies accordiug as x Page 334. Page 325. 9. a J n cos is AWTT where mis any integer.X 41=0. x=l. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS [Pages 321334 x=y+ x=0. a=2r (cos sin 0). 1. W7r 14. X4. 3. 2x>3y43=0. 13. x3 6x 2 . 16. 2ram0=a. above or below the asymptote positive or negative.
6. Double cusp of second species. Single cusp of first species. I. 3fl/2 for each. >>==*. 14 multiple point. (a. 0). 0). a. (0. Page 345. 5. (yl) = 2(*2a) = Cusp at (x2). Oscuinflexion. 0) is a node. 5. N b). 3. Page 339. 0). 6. point according as 16. Oscu. first species. 2. 1. 5* 7. Single cusp of first species. VV17. 3. 2. 5. . 4. . 4. 1. 3). *=a. Cusp at (0. is less at (a. 5. 2.inflexion. 4a). V3(y*). Page 347. 8. 7. 8. b=a or b<a. */2. 0). Isolated point. Conjugate point at (a.0). 0) are triple point a) is : (fa. 17. 9. b\a Conjugate point at (2. Conjugate point at (a. Node Node Node at Page 342. cusp or an isolated point according as than. 1. (0. Page 341. bx~ay. Single cusp of Single cusp of first species. >=0. No (0. 2^2. V3>'v'2(**) Cusp at (0. a double point being a node. Cusp at (1. 3. 7. 4. b>a. 3. 10. llr Cusp at ( 1. 13. (0. 0) are cusps : node at (a. cusp or conjugate a 18. y=x. 0). 3. 2. 12. 15. x=0. . 4.Pages 338347 ANSWERS 401 Page 338. at (2. V2. 2). 0). equal to or greater than 1. 1). 2. 2v/2 for each. 6. x=0.
402 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS [ Page 367 ^ C/O*' .
Page 367 ] AXSWEAS 403 85' .
404 DlFfffiBENTIAL CALOTTLtfS [ Pages .
Page 368 ] 405 .
a). >'=xi*. 12. 4:4/2 .. (/) Isolated point. cos Gr= fl *) . 32. Page 380. (///) r sin r 2 (e 2 Kae(a 1) 7T/2) cot a e 2 CO cot a 16.406 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS [PagQS 377382 Page 377.. (jc^j+j^j. x cos \ty sin ^/. (i) x^+^=ci 2xy=c*. 47. 7. 5. b*=l. a. 2. . (9/ 2 .) x ( = 2a..3fl cos ?/. 3) and (5. 382. ' ' (iv) (v) (VI) J 2 =C 2 . . y=a sin Q~a /v 2/(2w) /v 2/(2) 2/(2n) /v cos ' . 9. (iii) . 6. (i) (ii) xyc=0. (i) 2/ er cos 0+2/ =0. 17 + 2a see 3 ^ r + p) II. 2. ^ 28. 4. (ii) x^+^ = ci (iff) Page 378.. . 14. cos 0. The straight line p*xpy+(a+ap*+pq)=(). " UlS 1Q /2256 5 5 ' 448i* \ 3375V A ' (b ' } * Page 381. 17. 40.. (//) Single cusp of second species. v (ii) c*( x=a (pX2 0+aO sin 0. (5. 6/). Page x sin \t\y cos fat a sin /. 36. . Miscellaneous Exercises Page 379.y^sech a is the required curve. 5) ate the two points of inflexion. Page 379. (0/2). 13. x~a tanh a.. 3. 1) is an isolated point (1. (Jfl.
196 Sign of. . 244 Parametric. 240 Successive. Tangential polar. 107 Differentials. 97 Homogeneous. 72 . 291 Curve Tracing. 238. 86 of two variables. 72 . 328 by inspection. . 197 Determinant. 72 Differentiation. of arcs. Inverse. 313 by expansion. 196 Repeated. . . 165. . 315 Fnyelopes. . 79 Angle of intersection. 194 properties of. 281 Conjugate point. . 252. Folium of Descartes. 131. 88 Partial. 35 Trigonometric. 67. 38 Double points. 185 . 362 Functions. 249 Catenary. 193 Transcendental. Monotonic. 23. 149 H Homogeneous functions. . 240. . .257 Asymptotes. 199 Hyperbolic. 93 Logarithmic.310. 88 . . 243. 21. 298 . . 37 Exponential. 136. Hypocycloid. of inverse functions. 89 . 209 . 97 Implicit. 257 D Derivative. 274 Partial. 100 . 179 . of two curves. 199 . 30. 137 Cissoid. 96. Extreme values. 113 292 Implicit Functions. . 240 Equations. 100 20 .INDEX (Numbers refer to pages) Discontinuity. 1*3 Composite functions. . 207 Arcs. . 272 Polar. 336 Convexity. 305. 86 of implicit functions. Logarithmic. . 35 . . 209 Concavity. 303 Chord of. 336 Cycloid. 54 Continuous functions. 199 Evolutes. . 268 Approximate calculation. 11 Algebraic. 259 Cauchy's Theorem. of function of a function. 305 Circle of. 281 Continuity of elementary functions. 274 Astroid. 70. 54 Curvature. 206 Differential Coefficient. . . . 150 Geometric Interpretation. 34. 36. Intrinsic. Composite. 209. . 246. . 369 Epicycloid. . Graphical representation. 372 Expansions. 209.212. 348 Cusps. 255. 276 Pedal. 277. Indeterminate forms. 336 Acceleration. Implicit. 300 Equiangular spiral. 209 Continuous. 324 parallel to axes. 290 Centre of. 292 . 305 . 26. 77. 248. 291 254 Cardioide. 274 . of a function. 269 Euler's Theorem. Derivative of. Radius of.Inverse Hyperbolic. 266. 262. 25. 99 Inverse Trigonometric. 148 Closed interval. 217 . 14 Greatest values.
Stationary. 245 Subsidiary conditions. 140. limits. 1 13 N Newtonian Method. 276. 266. 254 Tangential Polar equations. 5 . 121 Lejnniscate. 142 Repeated derivatives. 336 . 229 Subtangent. 220 Open interval. 42 M Maximum value. Minimum value. 230 Spirals. 223 223 133. 149 Maximum. . of inflexion. 2 Real. 133 Leibnitz's 121 Maclaurin's 142 Mean value. 336 149 Double. Remainder. 223 Cusp. Right handed. Stationary. 6 . 336 Minimum. 42 Left handed. 220 . 264 Subnormal. 230 Least values. ve. Mean value theorem. 277. 11 281 . 130 Leibnitz's Theorem. Euler's. 20 Multipliers. 137 Maclaurin's 142 Sign of derivative. Open. 78 . 293. . Velocity. 150 Singular points. 136. 148. 336 . 255. 150. 13 Inversion of operation. Irrational. 251. 249 Limits. 291. 148. . 9 Monotonic functions. series. 267. 52 Total differentials. 150. Smallest. 196 Pedal equations. Series. 130 Taylor's. . 195 Indeterminate. 199 Lagrange's.408 Infinite limits. 272 Values. 252 Stationary values. 331. 223 Node. 364 Partial differentiation. Cauchy's. 335 . 165 . 53 Radius of curvature. 345 . 359 Interval. 140. 183 . 140 . 148. . Tangent. . . 335 Smallest values. 150. 223 Points. 48 179 . Greatest. . 223 Polar coordinates. 281 FFEBENTIAL OALOITLUA Points. 148. Inflexion.ctor. 217 Rolle's Theorem. 133. . on Parametric equations. 335 Variables.223 Strophpid. 13 . 293 Node. 220 Theorem. 55 . 137 Rolle's. Binomial. . 41. Taylor's. 149 . . 259 Numbers. 13. 267 Lagrange's Theorem. 264 Successive differentiation. 140. 149 . 133 multipliers. . Multiple. 200 . 336 Normal. Rational. Singular. Conjugate. Modulus. Closed. 300 Taylor's Theorem.
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