Supplemental Problems

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SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS

Contents
To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Matter—Properties and Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Structure of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electrons in Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Chapter 10 Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Chapter 11 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Chapter 12 Stoichiometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chapter 13 States of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Chapter 14 Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapter 15 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 16 Energy and Chemical Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Chapter 17 Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Chapter 18 Chemical Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Chapter 19 Acids and Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter 20 Redox Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Chapter 21 Electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Chapter 22 Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Chapter 24 The Chemistry of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Chapter 25 Nuclear Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Supplemental Problems

Chemistry: Matter and Change

iii

Inc. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Most chapters contain 10–25 supplemental problems. iv Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. You might use them as assessments or assign them for homework. .To the Teacher This Supplemental Problems book provides additional problems to supplement those in the student edition of Chemistry: Matter and Change. These problems are provided for each of the chapters for which additional mathematical problems would be beneficial. Complete solutions can be found at the back of the Supplemental Problems book.

Inc. which element is Radius (in km) most abundant in Earth’s crust? Jupiter Neptune Uranus c. Then answer the graduated cylinder containing 10. What mass of silver will raise the level of the water in the graduated cylinder 1.95-g piece of gold in a 10-mL Planet a. The level of water rises to 18. Radii of Planets 75 000 65 000 55 000 45 000 35 000 25 000 Titanium 1% Other elements 1% Oxygen 46% a. a. Mercury Venus 15 000 5000 0 Earth Saturn Earth’s crust is made up of titanium? Of calcium? Mars Pluto 5. Convert 55 miles per hour to kilometers per radius. How many kilometers/second is 55 miles per hour? (1 mile 1. According to the graph. Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 1 . What are the variables? c. Saturn is about 1 429 000 km from the Sun. 484 liters Write your answer in scientific notation. What is the density of gold? You know that silver has a density of 10. 8847 m c. questions. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Convert the radius of Saturn to meters.50 mL? 6. According to the graph.50 mL. what percent of Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.6 km) 7.CHAPTER 2 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Data Analysis 1. What kind of graph is this? b. The level of the water rises 1. The Composition of Earth’s Crust Magnesium 2% Sodium Potassium 2% 2% Calcium 4% Iron 6% Aluminum 8% Silicon 28% How many meters is Saturn from the Sun? Write your answer in scientific notation. 3. Aluminum has a density of 2. what is the radius hour. According to the graph.7 g/mL. Calculate the mass of the sample. Use the graph to answer the questions.0 mL of water. According to the graph. What kind of graph is this? b. Neptune or Uranus? d. notation. Convert the following data to scientific of Saturn? e.5 g/cm3. which has a larger graduated cylinder. A sample of aluminum is placed in a 25-mL 4. 166 000 000 000 000 m2 b.0 mL. You place a 28. 2. Look at the graph below.

0 (8.3 1013 103) 103) 103) 10 3) 10 3) 10 3) 10 2) 104 d.1 cm 0.2°C. 0. 12.4 g.5.85 d. What was the percent error of your calculation? 14. 3. American cars use about 600 000 000 gallons of oil per year. 103. (1.8 g/cm3.6 g/cm3. Round the number 31. Calculate Mac’s percent error for each trial. 5.0 (8. Silver has a density of 10.05 (3. 10.01 16. Trial 3: 9. Bromine melts at 7. (2. (4. a. 1 gallon 4 quarts) history is 97.CHAPTER 2 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 8. 17 g. Chlorine melts at 172 K. e. Inc. Which trial had the greatest percent error? 13.0 (3.056 mL 1012 106 1016 1022 1020 103 1015 105) 1012) 105) 1012) 105) 103) 10 5) 3 3. Express your answers in proper scientific notation. (1 L 0.8 e. Mac measured the density of silver three times and obtained the following results: Trial 1: 10. How many liters of oil do American cars use per year? Report your answer in scientific notation. 5.1 (3. a. 3. Complete the following calculations.0 c.257 592 to the requested number of significant figures. a.6 e. 4.121 012 L c. 26.65 m 31 s 2. (6.0 9. 1. 2. 2. (8. (5.0 f.30 m b.90 s Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0 (8. Trial 2: 10. What is bromine’s melting point in kelvins? c. 7 significant figures b. 5 significant figures c. a. your average is 96. (9.0 8. a.55 m 2 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Supplemental Problems . What is 273 K in °C? 9. When you get your report card.7 c. 3 significant figures 11.25 82 9. 5000 dogs f. Aluminum boils at 2467°C.000 301 5 m Solve the following problems.0 cm 3. b.78910 103 g 15.908 quart. What is 12.6 g/cm3.5 g/cm3 a.0 b.1 104 13 1011 105 1016 1021 1019 1.8 m c. 0.9 d. Round off the answers to the correct number of significant figures. You calculate that your semester average in aluminum’s boiling point in kelvins? b. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Determine the number of significant figures in each measurement. What is chlorine’s melting point in °C? d.01 (3.80 b. a.3 b. 1.09 f. Convert the following as indicated.

How many mg of carbon does a 200-mg tablet of ibuprofen contain? Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 3 3 . During a chemical reaction.257 g of oxygen to form carbon monoxide gas. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. In one compound. It is 75. respectively.CHAPTER 3 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Matter—Properties and Changes 1. The mass of each component element is listed in the table below.44 g What is the ratio of the masses of nitrogen in each of the following? NO2/NO4 NO/NO4 NO/NO2 9.032 g of hydro- pletely with a 4-g sample of element B to form the compound AB.69% carbon. Chemical Formula NO NO2 NO4 elements when it is heated.9% silver by mass. how many grams of B are needed to form compound AB2? How many grams of B are needed to form AB3? 5. Nitrogen and oxygen combine to form different compounds. How many grams of oxygen reacted? 8.51% oxygen.032 g of water.88 g of phosphorus combines with 13. silver and iodine. Do these data support the law of multiple proportions? Show your work.80% hydrogen.445 g of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2).94 64. 2. how much silver would you have? 4. Inc.00 Compound Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrous oxide Mass N/1 g O 1. If 5 g of element A combines with 16 g of ele- ment B to form compound AB. Carbon and oxygen combine to form carbon 3. What is the mass of the compound formed? 2. as shown below. and 15.76 g 0.56 g of chlorine. A substance breaks down into three component gen combined with oxygen to form 36. 3. How many grams of carbon monoxide are formed in this reaction? 6. 8. Phosphorus and chlorine combine to form two reacts with 3. 4.28 g of chlorine. 1. The masses of oxygen that combine with 12 g of carbon to form these two compounds are 16 g and 32 g. septic and as an agent to seed clouds for rain. Silver iodide is 45.32 g of phosphorus combines with 7. What was the mass of the substance before it was heated? Component A B C Mass (g) 39.10 54. During a chemical reaction. different compounds. In the other compound. Silver iodide powder has been used as an anti- Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. What is the ratio of the masses of oxygen in CO2/CO? 10.88 g 0. Ibuprofen has the chemical formula C13H18O2. An 18-g sample of element A combines com7. If you separate a 50-g sample of silver iodide into its elements.

and 48 g of oxygen. Her results are summarized in the data table below.624 g of fluorine combines with 2. and 96 g of oxygen. What is the mass percentage of each element in baking soda? 14.853 g of fluorine combines with 1. 12.472 g of xenon. NH3. 2. 12 g of carbon.4 17. A 17-g sample of ammonia.CHAPTER 3 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 11. What is the mass percentage of each element in chalk? What would be the mass of calcium in 200 g of chalk? 15. Which of these compounds is likely to be ferric chloride? Explain your answer.6% chlo- NaHCO3. 0. contains 3 g Compound I II III of hydrogen.7 16. Fluorine and xenon combine to form two dif- 13. The chemical formula for baking soda is ferent compounds.98 g of sodium. Inc. Do these data support the law of multiple proportions? Show your work. In one compound. A chemist analyzes three compounds that contain iron and chlorine. .7 A100-g sample of chalk contains 40 g of calcium. Ferric chloride is 34.02-g sample of baking soda contains 45. What percentage of ammonia is hydrogen? How many grams of nitrogen does the sample contain? 4 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 3 Supplemental Problems Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 24. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 0. A 168. rine by mass.3 8.4% iron and 65.02 g of carbon.3 Mass of Cl (g) 15.02 g of hydrogen. The chemical formula for chalk is CaCO3.6 9. Mass of the Sample (g) 25 25 27 Mass of Fe (g) 9. In the other compound.16 g of xenon.

Inc. Which isotope has the greater mass? b. atomic number 29. mass number 64 c. g. Then use the periodic table to identify the element.20 5. 92 90 2 8. Hg e.CHAPTER 4 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS The Structure of the Atom 1. Element Atomic Number Protons Electrons have than protons? How many electrons does thorium-230 have? 7. Give the mass number of each isotope. Isotope 16X Mass (amu) 15. c. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.995 16. mass number 37 10. a. How many neutrons does europium-151 have? 17X 18X What is the isotope’s mass number? Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 4 5 . Which has more electrons? 4. uranium-235 b. Ga with 39 neutrons c. f. 23Na 11 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. d. a.038 0. hydrogen-3 c. a. atomic number 26. silicon-29 11. Li b. bromine-79 c. 9. and neutrons are in each of the following isotopes? a. electrons. and d. Neon has two isotopes: neon-10 and neon-12. 40Ca 20 c. Use the table below to calculate the atomic mass of element X. Use the periodic table to complete the 6. Show that the mass number and the number of 87 93 80 81 75 a. antimony-121 3. a. magnesium-25 b. Be with 5 neutrons b. How many more neutrons does thorium-230 following table. Ti with 26 neutrons neutrons in each of the following atoms.999 Percent Abundance 99. B protons are conserved in the following nuclear equation: 234U 0 230 Th 4He. a. Give the atomic number of each isotope.999 17. Give the number of protons. How many protons. and write it in symbolic notation.762 0. Si with 16 neutrons 2. 108Au 47 b. electrons. Which has more protons? d. Name each isotope. Which has more neutrons? c. atomic number 17. mass number 56 b. Show all your work.

Isotope 2 has a mass of 20. Magnesium-26 has a percent abundance of 11. by measuring how much carbon-14 a once-living object contains and comparing it with the amount of carbon-14 in a currently living thing. using the periodic table. Carbon-14 emits a beta particle as it decays. Identify the element. b. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.10 10.992 amu. Show all your work. Write each isotope in symbolic notation. Information about each isotope is summarized below. 14. Isotope 2 0. Carbon-14 undergoes radioactive decay continuously. Inc.17 has two isotopes.946 25.994 amu. table. Calculate the atomic mass of iridium. 6 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 4 Supplemental Problems Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Thus. What atom does carbon-14 decay to? a.27% Isotope 3 9. How is carbon-14 like carbon-12 and carbon-13? c. bones. Iridium topes.0 amu and a percent abundance of 62. including carbon-14. An element has three naturally occurring a. isotopes.01%. Magnesium-24 15.983 Percent Abundance 78. After an organism dies. Show all your work. you can determine the age of the object. Iridium-191 has a mass of 193. Calculate the atomic mass of the element. its body no longer takes in new carbon-14. The pie graph shows the relative abundance of each isotope. What is the percent abundance of magnesium-25? Assume that there are no other magnesium isotopes. .985 24.13 11. the carbon-14 in its body continues to decay. In terms of subatomic structure.0 amu and a percent abundance of 37.99%. c. how does Isotope 1 90. Find the atomic mass of this element.58%. The isotope carbon-14 can be used to deter- a.CHAPTER 4 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 12. Magnesium has three isotopes. However. such as wood.51% carbon-14 differ from carbon-12 and carbon-13? b. living things take in all the isotopes of carbon. Isotope 3 has a mass of 21. Iridium-191 has a mass of 191. 13. Isotope Isotope 1 Isotope 2 Isotope 3 Mass (amu) 23. An element has three naturally occurring iso- has a percent abundance of 78. Write an equation to represent the decay of carbon-14. Identify the element. mine the ages of objects that were once living. and fossils.991 amu. While alive. Isotope 1 has a mass of 19. b. using the periodic d.42%.22% 16.

c. 6p. 4s. 10. the energy of one photon of orange light or the energy of one quantum of radiation having a wavelength of 3.8 1014 s 1. What is the energy of one quantum of orange light? 6. Record the frequency of your favorite radio of 2. 6d.CHAPTER 5 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Electrons in Atoms 1. v to 9. Which element has the ground-state electron configuration [Ar]4s23d10? h and c write E in terms of h. A radio station emits radiation at a wavelength a. Write electron-dot structures for the following atoms. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 1s22s1 F )( )( )( )( ) Symbol 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz Electron Configuration 1s22s22p3 Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 5 7 . Which is greater. Carbon d. 2s. [Ne]3s23p3 b. 5s. Inc. potassium 5.36 10 9m? 3. Complete the following table. Orange light has a frequency of 4. Nitrogen b. List the sequence in which the following orbitals fill up: 1s. 7p. 7s. What is the station’s frequency in megahertz? station. and . Orbitals Element a. 4p.90 m. 7. [Ar]4s23d3 c. 5p. 4. 6s. 4f. Which element has the ground-state electron 2. c. 2p. 5f. 5d. 3s. Use the relationships E configuration [Kr]5s24d105p4? 8. What is the wavelength of the radiation emitted from the station? Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 4d. 3d. 3p.

CHAPTER

5

SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS

11. Complete the orbital diagram for arsenic.
7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 4f 6s 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 3s 2p 2s 2s 2p

7p 7s 6p

6d

5f 4f

5d 6s 5p 5s 4p 4s 3p 3d 4d

Increasing Energy

1s 1s

12. Use the figure below to answer the following

13. What is the ground-state electron configuration
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

questions.

of each of the following atoms? Use noble-gas notation.
a. selenium b. krypton
2e 8e 8e 2e

c. chlorine

14. What is the highest energy level (n) that is

occupied in the following elements?
a. He a. How many valence electrons does an atom b. Ca c. Sn

of this element have?
b. What is the atom’s electron-dot structure? c. If enough energy was added to remove an

15. Write the electron configuration for each ele-

electron, from which energy level would the electron be removed? Explain your answer.

ment described below and identify the element.
a. an element that contains 8 electrons b. an element that contains 14 electrons

8

Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 5

Supplemental Problems

CHAPTER

6

SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law
For questions 1–5, do not use the periodic table.
1. Write the electron configurations for the

For questions 6–9, do not use Figure 6-12, 6-15, or 6-20.
6. Rank the following atoms in order of

elements in periods 2–4 of group 2A.
2. Determine the group, period, and block of

decreasing radii.
a. Al, Na, P, S b. Al, Ga, In c. As, Ge, Ga d. Br, Ca, Cl, K

the elements with the following electron configurations.
a. [He]2s22p4 b. [Xe]6s1 c. [Ar]4s23d104p2

7. Rank the following ions in order of decreasing

radii.
3. Categorize each of the elements in problem 2

as a representative element or a transition element.
4. Write the electron configuration of the element

a. Br , Cl , F b. Be2 , Ca2 , Mg2 c. Ca2 , Ga3 , K

fitting each of the following descriptions. Use noble-gas notations.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. Rank the following particles in order of

a. Group 8A element in the third period b. Group 4A element in the fourth period c. Halogen in the second period d. Group 1A element in the fourth period

decreasing radii.
a. I, I b. K, K c. Al, Al3

5. What are the noble-gas notations of all the ele-

9. Rank the following atoms in order of decreas-

ments with the following valence electron configurations?
a. s2 b. s2p1

ing electronegativity.
a. Na, Li, K b. K, Sc, Ca c. As, Sn, S

Supplemental Problems

Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 6

9

16. Include the state of each reactant and product. You may use Figure 10-10 for the relative activities of common metals and halogens. F2(g) 4. Inc. CoCO3(s) 0 CoO(s) Write a balanced equation for each of the following reactions. When solid copper(II) oxide and hydrogen Write a complete ionic equation and a net ionic equation for each of the following doubledisplacement reactions. Magnesium burns in air to form magnesium oxide. C2H6(g) 3. solid aluminum hydroxide forms. 1.CHAPTER 10 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Chemical Reactions Balance the following chemical equations. bromine forms in a potassium chloride solution. 6. Al(s) 10. Pt(s) 14. When chlorine gas is passed through a potas- O2(g) 0 SnO2(s) O2(g) 0 CO2(g) HCl(aq) 0 AlCl3(aq) CO2(g) SO2(g) H2O(g) H2(g) sium bromide solution. 11. 7. list all that apply. CaCl2(aq) MnBr2(aq) NaI(aq) AgNO3(aq) solutions are mixed. SnS2(s) 2. If no reaction occurs. metallic copper and water form. The other product is sodium nitrate. AgC2H3O2(aq) 0 KC2H3O2(aq) Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 10 11 . write NR. When magnesium is heated in the presence of 15. Predict the products in each of the following reactions. 5. Ba(NO3)2(aq) react. solid magnesium nitride forms. Zn(s) nitrogen gas. Then identify the reaction type for each. substituting symbols and formulas for names. Chlorine gas also is produced. 12. 8. FeCl3(aq) is accomplished by passing an electric current through molten sodium chloride. Rb(s) 13. producing water FePO4(s) (NH4)3PO4(aq) 0 3NH4Cl(aq) 18. Most industrial production of metallic sodium BaSO4(s) H2SO4(aq) 0 2HNO3(aq) 17. If more than one reaction type applies. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 9. KCl(aq) AgCl(s) vapor and carbon dioxide. When aluminum nitrate and sodium hydroxide Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Liquid pentane (C5H12) burns.

.

35 moles of calcium c. atoms of each element in 3. a.35 g lithium b. 245 g aluminum nitrite (Al(NO2)3) 5. 2. ammonium dichromate ((NH4)2Cr2O7) 9. formic acid (CH2O2) b. 8.35 moles of that contains the following number of representative particles. Calculate the number of moles in each of the following quantities. What is the mass in grams of each of the following quantities. a.75 moles of calcium fluoride (CaF2) 8. b. a. Determine the percent composition of each of the following compounds. a.75 g calcium carbide (CaC2) b. 4. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 3. 4.50 c. Calculate the number of moles in each of the b. Determine the molar mass of each of the iodide following compounds. 1. 0.16 b. a. 115 g nickel following samples. 346 g zinc c. 1. 1.24 g cobalt b.CHAPTER 11 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS The Mole 1. positive and negative ions in 1. a. Which quantity has the greatest mass? a. Determine the mass in grams of each of the a. 3. 1. Identify and calculate the number of representa6. a. 0. 0. 3. Calculate the number of moles of the substance following quantities.50 c.62 moles of magnesium bromide (MgBr2) 10. 6. 5. 11.33 tive particles in each of the following quantities. Calculate the number of moles in each of the 2. propanol (C3H8O) c.66 1023 atoms of barium 1025 molecules of carbon monoxide 1022 formula units of potassium aspirin (C9H8O4) b. 65.92 b.53 moles of lead(II) nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) 4. 2. manganese oxide (MnO) b.6 g silicon 11.151 mole of nitrogen oxide c.155 mole of sulfur following quantities? a.575 g cesium c.15 moles of gold b. How many atoms are in the following samples? a. 2.24 moles of beryllium Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 11 13 .5 moles of potassium bromide 1023 atoms of radium 1020 atoms of cadmium 1024 atoms of argon 7.

Inc.CHAPTER 11 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 12.48 grams of oxygen. A 48. 49.85 grams of nitrogen. If the molar mass of caffeine is 6. 14 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 11 Supplemental Problems Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. and 5.93% hydrogen b.30-g sample of an aluminum-iodine com- pound contains 3.19 g/mol. What is the empirical formula for the compound? 14.20 grams of hydrogen b. 28. Determine the chemical formula and name of the hydrate.00-g sample of hydrated manganese(II) 194. a. 12. 16.87% oxygen. 80.68% mercury.00-g 15.00-g sample.45% sulfur 13. chloride yields 31. using the following composition of a 100. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 94. calculate its molecular formula.47 grams of carbon. a. A 50. . and coffees and teas and in some colas.20 g of aluminum. Determine the empirical formula for caffeine.75 g of the anhydrous compound after heating.07% sulfur and 5. Caffeine is a compound found in some natural sample of a compound having the following percent composition. Determine the empirical formula for a 100.

Silicon nitride is used in the manufacturing of 4. and masses. How many moles of chromium metal are needed to produce 855 g of chromium(III) phosphate? c. It is produced by the following reaction. what mass of be needed to produce 1. how many moles of carbon dioxide will be released? Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 12 15 .00 mol calcium carbonate? b. SiO2(s) SiC(s) C(s) 0 CO(g) b. some aluminum products are treated with chromium(III) phosphate before finishing. a. The heat from a welder’s torch is produced by the burning of acetylene gas. Interpret the equation in terms of particles. a. The following balanced chemical equation represents the reaction. If 8. b.00 g of carbon is reacted. Inc. 3Si(s) 2N2(g) 0 Si3N4(s) better. Chromium(III) phosphate (CrPO4) is commercially produced by treating chromium metal with orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4). 3.33 mol water is available for the carbon monoxide is released? reaction. Sand (silicon dioxide) and coke (carbon) are ric acid and water to manufacture calcium chloride hexahydrate. This compound is used to melt ice and snow on pavements and roads. To prevent corrosion and make paints adhere high-temperature thermal insulation for heat engines and turbines. a compound used in high-strength ceramic materials. Balance the following equation for the a. Cr(s) H2(g) H3PO4(aq) 0 CrPO4(s) 2. 2C2H2(g) 5O2(g) 0 4CO2(g) 2H2O(g) Calculate the mole ratios from the balanced equation. What mass of silicon carbide will be hexahydrate will be produced from 4. If 1.CHAPTER 12 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Stoichiometry 1. CaCO3(s) 2HCl(aq) 5H2O(l) 0 CaCl2 6H2O(s) CO2(g) a. How many moles of hydrogen chloride will produced from the reaction of 352 g silicon dioxide? c. The reaction is represented by the following balanced chemical equation. Balance the following equation for the reaction. moles. Limestone (CaCO3) is treated with hydrochloCopyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Show that mass is conserved in the reaction. reaction.25 mol of the hydrate? c. The reaction of 206 g chromium will release how many moles of hydrogen gas? 5. How many moles of calcium chloride combined to form silicon carbide (SiC). b.

Determine the percent yield. . determine the following quantities.00 g nitrogen tetroxide and 4.00 g b. Balance the following equation for the reaction. Determine the theoretical yield of nickel. c. Ni(CO)4(g) 0 Ni(s) CO(g) b. a. In a laboratory reaction. If 8. 1. Inc.CHAPTER 12 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 6. Two compounds of nitrogen. are used as rocket fuels. One step in the industrial refining of nickel is (N2O4) and hydrazine (N2H4). N2O4(l) N2(g) N2H4(l) 0 H2O(g) reaction. When the two compounds are mixed. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. nitrogen tetroxide 7. a. hydrazine are mixed.34 g nickel.0 g nickel carbonyl yielded 5. mass of product (N2) 3. Balance the following equation for the the decomposition of nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4) into nickel and carbon monoxide. mass of excess reactant 16 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 12 Supplemental Problems Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 25. they ignite spontaneously and produce nitrogen gas and water. limiting reactant 2.

torr b. What is the total pressure in the container after the three gases are mixed? 5.25 mol/s. If the What will be the effusion rate of argon (Ar) under the same conditions? 3. respectively. a. Inc. 4. Suppose that 5-mL containers of helium (He). Calculate the ratio of effusion rates of oxygen 6. The pressure of a gas in a manometer is 12.9 mm Hg. 2 atm. 2.3 kPa at 23°C. atmosphere c. Methane (CH4) effuses at a rate of 2. and argon (Ar) are at pressures of 1 atm. a. neon (Ne). What is the molar mass of the second gas? partial pressure of water vapor in the sample is 2. and 3 atm. What is the partial pressure of He in the container after the three gases are mixed? b. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. What is the vapor pressure of water at this temperature expressed in atmospheres? Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 13 17 . Express this value in each of the following units.8 kPa. kilopascal Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. The effusion rate of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is 1. What is the pressure of a mixture of nitrogen (O2) to hydrogen (H2).45 mol/s. The vapor pressure of water is 2.1 kPa.CHAPTER 13 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS States of Matter 1. The He and Ne are then added to the container of Ar. what is the partial pressure of the dry air? 8. (N2) and oxygen (O2) if the partial pressure of N2 is 594 mm Hg and the partial pressure of O2 is 165 mm Hg? 7. A sample of air is collected at 101. Another gas under similar conditions effuses at a rate of 1.50 mol/s.

.

At this second city. The balloon in then taken to a second city at a much higher altitude. and the original pressure was 93. what is the pressure in the chamber? Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 14 19 . what volume will the same gas occupy at 101. A natural gas tank is constructed so that the ature of 25. What would the volume be on a warm day when the temperature is 11°C? 102.5 L. A balloon is filled with gas at a pressure of pressure remains constant.0 kPa.3 kPa if the temperature stays constant? 4. Maintaining constant pressure.0 dm3 to 32. pressure limit of 850 kPa. If the volume of an air pump used to inflate Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.50 L. In a steel container. what is the new temperature in degrees Celsius? 6.0-L cylinder of gas is stored at room tem- has a pressure of 164 kPa. A 10. In one city. what is the final volume of the gas? 8.0-mL sample of gas is cooled from 119°C filled with air at 101 kPa pressure. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. what will be the new volume of the balloon? 2. the volume of gas in the tank was determined to be 3000. If the original temperature was 18. What will the new pressure be if the volume of the container is reduced to 1. A 50.0 kPa. a balloon with a volume of 6.0-L cylinder. What is the highest temperature in degrees Celsius the tank can withstand safely? 11. What had been the pressure of the gas when the temperature had been 50°C the previous day? 12.0°C.0 dm3 by heating it.3 kPa and a temperature of 45. A steel cylinder is filled with a gas at a temper- gas is increased from 18. The balloon is then taken into a decompression chamber where the volume is measured as 2. it was found that the pres- a football decreases from 480 mL to 375 mL. The pressure gauge reads 425 kPa when the temperature is 28°C. what is the pressure inside the can if it is heated to 298°C? 10. Inc.0°C) and a pressure of 1800 psi.0 L is 7. If the pressure remains constant.25-L container to 80. A tank for compressed gas has a maximum safe 92. On a hot day when the temperature was 33°C.50 L and the temperature stays constant? 3.CHAPTER 14 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Gases 1. If the temperature is 36.5°C. If 5.0°C.80 dm3 of gas is collected at a pressure of perature (20. what is the new air pressure in the pump if the temperature stays constant? 5. Its volume under these conditions is 12.0 L.0°C.0°C and a pressure of 225. If the gas is transferred to a 6. atmospheric pressure is only 91 kPa. the volume of a sure of the gas inside was 160 kPa when the container had been heated to 98°C.5 kPa at 23°C. If the temperature is the same in both places. What will the pressure be if the temperature is raised to 47°C? 13.5 kPa. If the gas pressure in an aerosol can is 148. A certain mass of gas in a 2. at what Celsius temperature would it have to be stored in order for the pressure to remain at 1800 psi? 9.

How many grams of gas are present in a a pressure of 95.50 g of silver.5 kPa and a temperature of 12.35 L and heated to 105°C. When a sample of a gas was placed in a sealed that is required to completely react with 3.7°C? 22.0 L of helium at 21. Inc. the gas vaporized and the resulting pressure inside the container was 170.4°C and 94.4 kPa and 11°C? 18. to make 8 L of water vapor.0 mol of gas at a pressure no greater than 550 kPa and a temperature of 48°C.85g/L at 101 kPa pressure and 29°C? 20 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 14 Supplemental Problems . Calculate the volume of chlorine gas at STP 17. Calculate the volume that 3. What is the molar mass of a sample of gas that has a density of 2. what must the pressure in the cylinder have been? 15.1 L at 28. An engineer wishes to design a container that iron that must be used to obtain 0. How many moles of a gas will occupy 2.50 L sample that has a molar mass of 44 g/mol and occupies a 1. Use the reaction shown to calculate the mass of container with a volume of 3. If this had been stored in a 1.6 kPa? 23.0°C. Determine the volume of hydrogen gas needed occupy at STP. A weather balloon contains 14. 25. using the following equation: 2Ag(s) + Cl2(g) 0 2AgCl(s).500 L of hydrogen at STP. will hold 14. 24.60 g H2 gas will gas occupies a volume of 45.0 kPa.50-L cylinder at 21.0°C. What volume is occupied by 0. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 3Fe(s) 4H2O(l) 0 Fe3O4(s) 4H2(g) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. What is the minimum volume the container can have? 20. How many moles of the gas was present? 19.CHAPTER 14 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 14.580 mol of gas at 98.8-L container at 108 kPa and 26. What is the molar mass of a gas if 142 g of the at STP? 16.

0% methanol by volume. What is the percent by mass of 92. a volume of 1200.00 g of the gas dissolve in 2. Inc. Find the mass of water in the solution.0 atm. determine the percent by volume of methanol in the solution.0 atm? 3.75 atm. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. If 24. 16.20M solution NH4Cl? potassium fluoride (KF) dissolved in 1000. At 25°C and 1. 10. b.00 L of water. A mass of 134 g of manganese dibromide 6.00 L of water if the temperature remains constant? 4. What 8. (MnBr2) is dissolved in 225 g of water.30M solution of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) from a 2.56 g of a gas dissolves in 2.00M solution of CuSO4? 13. 0. Find the mole fraction of nitric acid in the solution.5 g of sucrose (C12H22O11). Calculate the molality of a solution that con- 7. Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 15 21 .0 g of water? 5. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. What is the molality of the solution? 15.0 mL of methanol (CH3OH) is dissolved in 48. At what pressure will 2.00 L of water at 25°C and 3.3 g of would you use to prepare 85. A solution is made by dissolving 425 g of nitric sample of the solution. Find the volume of water in this sample of acid (HNO3) in 535 g of water.0 mL of a 1.25 g of a gas dissolves 20.34 g/L at STP. A 0. a. An aqueous solution of methanol is 45.45 g of sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolved in 700. 1. Find the mass of hydrogen peroxide in the solution. Find the volume of methanol in a 250. a. the solution. A 22. A 500.CHAPTER 15 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Solutions 1. Calculate the molarity of 0. What mass of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) pressure of 1. What is the molarity of the diluted solution? 14.0-mL tains 106 g naphthalene (C10H8) dissolved in 3. What is the molarity of a solution that contains is its solubility at a pressure of 0.00 L of water at a that contains 156. How would you correctly prepare 125 mL of a 0.0 mL of solution? 9.15 mol carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).50% H2O2 by mass.205 L of a solution in 1.80 atm and the same temperature? 2.600-L sample of a 2.50M solution of potas- sium iodide (KI) contains what mass of KI? 11. What mass of the gas dissolves in 1.0 mL.0 g-sample of aqueous hydrogen perox- 12. b. The solubility of a gas is 0.0 mL of water.0-mL sample of 12M H2SO4 is diluted to ide (H2O2) contains 31.

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Ozone (O3) in the atmosphere may react with nitric oxide (NO). Given the following data at 298 K. what is the lowest temperature at which the reaction will be spontaneous? calculate H at 25°C for the reaction below. Calculate H° at 25°C for the reaction below.8 2ZnS(s) 3.2 kJ and S 43.9 Hf° (kJ/mol) given the following entropies. calculate the G° in kJ for the reaction at 25°C and determine whether the reaction is spontaneous.17 g of Al to form Al2O3(s) at 25°C and 1 atm. SO3(g) H2O(l) H2SO4(l) 9.8 70. Cu2O(s) 0 2Cu(s) 185 kJ 483. 34. Calculate the amount of heat released in the complete combustion of 8. 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) 6. Inc.3 42.3 kJ/mol for SnCl4(l) and 471. O3(g) NO(g) 0 NO2(g) O2(g) 11. Calculate the molar entropy of vaporization for liquid hydrogen iodide at its boiling point.8 J/K.00 atm pressure by the following reaction? 4Fe(s) 0 3O2(g) 0 2Fe2O3(s) 0 824.0 156.76 kJ/mol 10.1 J/K Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 16 23 .CHAPTER 16 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Energy and Chemical Change 1. Hf° 511.5 kJ/mol for SnCl4(g).2 From the following data. For the reaction H2(g) S(s) 0 H2S(g). 3O2(g) 0 2ZnO(s) 0 350. The following reaction is nonspontaneous at 25°C. H° S° 199 kJ 4. 2. 2H2O(g) 8. SnCl4.2 4. 5. Entropy (J/mol K) 256. From the following data at 25°C. Calculate the standard heat of vaporization. calculate S for the given reaction. Hf° for Al2O3(s) 1680 kJ/mol.55°C. H 20.7 kJ Hf° 168. for tin(IV) chloride.6 O2(g) 205. Determine S for the reaction 206.0 g of Fe2O3(s) at 25°C and 1. HI(l) 7 HI(g) Hvap 19.5 Hf°(kJ/mol) 2SO2(g) 296. Compound Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.0 SO3(g) H2O(l) 0 H2SO4(l). 2Ag2O(s) 0 4Ag(s) S (J/mol K) 121. How much heat is evolved in the formation of 35.6 kJ 1 O (g) 2 2 H2(g) 2H2(g) 4HCl(g) Cl2(g) 0 2HCl(g) O2(g) 0 2H2O(g) O2(g) 0 2Cl2(g) H H If S 75. Hvap. When will the reaction be spontaneous? 7.1 J/K.

CHAPTER

16

SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS

12. Calculate the

G° at 298 K for the following 3CO2(g) 393.5 213.6

17. How many degrees of temperature rise will

reaction. Fe2O3(s) 824.2 87.4 13CO(g) 0 2Fe(CO)5(g) 110.5 733.8 H° (kJ/mol) 197.6 445.2 S° (J/mol K)

occur when a 25.0-g block of aluminum absorbs 10.0 kJ of heat? The specific heat of aluminum is 0.897 J/g °C.

18. Find the standard enthalpy of formation for eth-

ylene, C2H4(g), given the following data. C2H4(g) H° 3O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) 1411 kJ O2(g) 0 CO2(g) 393.5 kJ 1 O (g) 0 H O(l) 2 2 2 285.8 kJ 2H2O(l)

13. Estimate the temperature at which

G

0 for C(s) H° H2(g) H°

the following reaction. NH3(g) H HCl(g) 0 NH4Cl(s) 176 kJ, S 284.5 J/K

14. Consider the reaction below at 25°C for which

S

16.1 J/K.

CH4(g) N2(g) 163.8 kJ 0 HCN(g) NH3(g) At what temperature will this reaction be spontaneous?

19. Glycine is important for biological energy. The

combustion of glycine is given by the following equation. 4C2H5O2N(s) 9O2(g) 0 8CO2(g) 10H2O(l) 2N2(g) H 3857 kJ
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

15. Estimate the temperature above which the

following reaction is not spontaneous. PbS(s) 100.4 98.70 2HCl(g) 0 PbCl2(s) 92.31 359.4 Hf° (kJ/mol) 95.30 314.1 G° (kJ/mol) H2S(g) 20.60 33.60

Given that Hf° CO2(g) 393.5 kJ/mol and Hf° H2O(l) 285.8 kJ/mol, calculate the enthalpy of formation per mole of glycine.

20. At body temperature, 2404 J is required to

16. Copper metal has a specific heat of 0.385

J/g °C and a melting point of 1083°C. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 22.8 g of copper from 20.0°C to 875°C.

evaporate 1 g of water. After vigorous exercise, a person feels chilly because the body is giving up heat to evaporate the perspiration. A typical person perspires 25 mL of water after 20 minutes of exercise. How much body heat is used to evaporate this water?

24

Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 16

Supplemental Problems

CHAPTER

17

SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS

Reaction Rates
1. For the reaction BrO3

5Br

3Br2 1.5

3H2O, the value of 10
2

6H 0 [BrO3 ] t

5. Consider the following rate data for the reac-

tion below at a particular temperature. 2A 3B 0 Products
Initial Initial [A] (M) [B] (M) 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.60 0.90 Initial Rate of Loss of A (mol/(L s)) 1.00 2.00 1.20 10 10 10
5 5 4

mol/(L s) at a particular time. [Br ] What is the value of at the same t instant?

Experiment 1 2

2. The reaction, A

2B 0 Products, was found to have the rate law, Rate k[A][B]2. While holding the concentration of A constant, the concentration of B was increased from x to 3x. Predict by what factor the rate of the reaction will increase. B0 Products, the following initial rates of reaction have been measured for the given reactant concentrations.
Test 1 2 3 [A] (M) 0.010 0.015 0.010 [B] (M) 0.020 0.020 0.010 Rate (mol/(L hr)) 0.020 0.030 0.005

3

What is the rate equation for this reaction?
6. Consider a chemical reaction involving

3. For the hypothetical reaction A

compounds A and B that is found to be first order in A and second order in B. What will the reaction rate be for experiment 2?
Experiment 1 2 Rate (mol/(L s)) 0.10 ? Initial [A] (M) 1.0 2.0 Initial [B] (M) 0.2 0.6

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. The data below were determined for the

What is the rate law expression for this reaction?
4. For the chemical reaction H2O2

following reaction. S2O82
Experiment 1 2 3

3I 0 2SO42
[S2O82 ] (M) I 0.10 0.20 0.20

I3
(M) 0.40 0.40 0.20 Initial Rate (mol/(L s)) 1.4 2.8 1.4 10 10 10
5 5 5

2H 2I 0 I2 2H2O, the rate law expression is Rate k[H2O2][I ]. The following mechanism has been suggested. H2O2 OH HOI I 0 HOI H H 0 H2O I 0 I2 H2O OH

What is the rate equation for this reaction?

Identify all intermediates included in this reaction.

Supplemental Problems

Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 17

25

CHAPTER

17

SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS

8. For the reaction A

B 0 C, the rate relationship is found to be Rate k[A][B]2. What is the overall reaction order for this reaction? k[A][B]2, what happens to the rate if the concentration of B is increased by a factor of 2?

12. The following figure shows the potential

energy diagram for a reaction. Explain what this diagram tells you about the reaction.
b Potential energy

9. For the rate law expression Rate

a

c

10. Calculate the specific rate constant for the reac-

X

Y Z Reaction progress

tion A B 0 C, when the rate expression is Rate k[A]2[B].
Initial Initial [A] (M) [B] (M) 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.10 0.20 Initial Rate of Formation of C (mol/(L s)) 2.0 8.0 1.6 10 10 10
4 4 3

d R

Experiment 1 2 3

13. Explain how the following mechanism can be

used to determine the rate expression for a chemical reaction A 2B 0 AB2. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 B B2 B B 0 B2 A 0 AB AB 0 AB2 B slow fast fast

11. The following figure shows the energy diagram

following mechanism? Step 1
40 kJ Energy (kJ)

AB B AC2 A2C2

C2 0 AC2 AB 0 AB2

B B2 B2C

slow fast fast fast

Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

AB2 0 A2C2 B2 0 A2C

100 kJ

Reaction progress

26

Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 17

Supplemental Problems

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

of some reactants changing into products. Explain what the numbers in the diagram represent.

14. What is the rate law expression for the

which concentrations would you lower or raise? a. a.16 10 2M. Give the reason for your choice. N2O4(g) 3 2NO2(g) b.49 10 4M. C(s) 8. What effect would an increase in temperature a. How would you estimate the molar solubility of SO42 without actually calculating it? b. Write equilibrium expressions for the following 5. b. If the equilibrium constant for this reaction H2(g) I2(g) 3 2HI(g) 2H2O heat heat 2O2(g) 3 CO(g) 3H2(g) 3 2NH3(g) CH4(g) 3 C(s) were less than 1. What is the equilibrium concentration of 4. a. 2CO(g) O2(g) 3 2Cl2(g) Cl2(g) 2H2O(g) 3 c.3. the reaction 2NO(g) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. What is the calculated molar solubility of SO42 ? Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 18 27 . Inc. Write the expression for determining the reaction? concentration of PCl3. The solubility product constant (Ksp ) of Br2(g) 3 2HBr(g) H2(g) 3 CO(g) NO2(g) 3 SO3(g) CO2(g) 3 2CO(g) H2O(g) NO(g) Ag2SO4 is 1. following reactions.2 10 5. 6. O2(g) 3 2NO2(g) produces the following concentrations: [NO] 3. For each reaction. [PCl5] 1. Phosphorous pentachloride decomposes to for the reaction? b. a.25M. At 793 K. CH4(g) c. At 773 K. CH4(g) d. What is the equilibrium constant expression 7. Do products or reactants dominate in this have on these reactions at equilibrium? Why? a. What is the equilibrium constant for the phosphorous trichloride according to this equation: PCl5(g) 3 PCl3(g) Cl2(g).00M and [Cl2] 3.CHAPTER 18 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Chemical Equilibrium 1. a. state whether increasing or reactions. [NO2] 0. the equilibrium constant for the reac- 2O2(g) 3 CO2(g) O2(g) 3 2CO2(g) tion NCl3(g) Cl2(g) 3 NCl5(g) is 39. SO2(g) d. a. [O2] 0. Heat b. NH4HS(g) 3 NH3(g) b. CO2(g) c. Heat equilibrium? b. CuSO4 3H2O(s) O2(g) 2H2O(g) CuSO4 5H2O(s) 2. H2(g) b. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.00 10 3. 2SO3(g) 3 2SO2(g) c. N2(g) d. At equilibrium. would the reactants or products be dominant? 2H2(g) 3. 4HCl(g) H2S(g) 2H2O(g) decreasing the volume of the reaction vessel would yield more product at equilibrium. If you wished to maximize the products of the PCl3? Use: Keq 1. PCl5(g) 3 PCl3(g) d.80M.

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4. 0. 1. What is its [OH ]? 18. What is its [H ]? 13. What is its pH? 25.0100M Ca(OH)2 is neu- tralized by 45. H2CO3 5.6 mL of HBr. nitric acid and sodium carbonate 3.0 mL of it is neutralized by 30. 10 5M. What is its pOH? Write the steps in the complete ionization of the following polyprotic acids. A 50.79.4 mL of 1.7 mL of the standard solution? 10 7M. 22.0 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0-mL sample of 0.6 9. What is the molarity of a KOH solution if 6. What is its pH? 11. During a titration. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. What is the concentration of the NaOH solution if 20. Inc. What is its pOH? A solution has a pH of 5. What is the pH of a 1.7 mL of a 0.200M HCl is added to a 8.CHAPTER 19 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Acids and Bases Write balanced chemical equations for each of the following reactions that involve acids and bases. What is its [OH ]? 10 6M.6 12.50M solution of HCl. aluminum and hydrochloric acid 2. 15. What is its pOH? NaOH solution of unknown concentration.5 10 3M solution of NaOH.00M KOH. What is the concentration of the acid? 23. potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid 16. What is its [H ]? 10. What is its pH? 14.0-mL sample of H2SO4 is neutralized by A solution has a [OH ] of 3.100M nitric acid solution? 21. 20. What is the pH of a 0. Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 19 29 . What is the molarity of the acid? A solution has a [H ] of 5. H3BO3 17. What is its [OH ]? 7. a strong acid? 19. a strong base? A solution has a [H ] of 1. What is its pOH? 27.0 mL of it is neutralized by 31. A 25.

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Na2SiF6 6. 1. Na3PO4 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. using halfreactions for the redox part of the equation. Al(s) 24. Cl2(g) 13. SnS2(s) 17. ClO3 Use your answers for questions 16–20 to help you balance the following equations. Cu2S(s) O2(g) 0 Cu2 (aq) SO42 (aq) (Hint: Two different elements are oxidized. using the oxidation number method for the redox part of the equation. Mg3P2 8. Al(s) 19.) 9. CaSi2(s) 22. NH3(aq) 25. NH3(aq) O2(g) 0 SnO2(s) N2(g) 0 Mg3N2(s) Cl2(g) 0 AlCl3(s) PbO(s) 0 Pb(s) H2O(l) SO2(g) N2(g) 20. Show your work. 15. SnS2(s) O2(g) 0 SnO2(s) N2(g) 0 Mg3N2(s) Cl2(g) 0 AlCl3(s) PbO(s) 0 N2(g) SO2(g) Balance the following equations. KI(aq) I2(s) HNO3(aq) 0 KNO3(aq) NO(g) H2O(l) Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 20 31 . NO2 3. Cu2S(s) H2(g) 0 Cu(s) KBr(aq) 0 Br2(l) SbCl3(s) 0 Si(s) CaCl2(s) H2O(l) KCl(aq) Pb(s) H2O(l) Sb(s) O2(g) 0 Cu2 (aq) SO42 (aq) in an acidic solution (Hint: Look at the ratio of the two oxidized elements in the equation. H2O2 10. Cr2O72 (aq) Cr3 (aq) SO32 (aq) 0 SO42 (aq) in an acidic solution Write half-reactions for each of the following redox reactions. metallic Au 5. 21. Identify each half-reaction as being either oxidation or reduction. Mg(s) 18. MnO2 4. Show your work. Inc.CHAPTER 20 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Redox Reactions Determine the oxidation number of the boldface element in these ions. HgCl4 2. Cu2O(s) 12. 11. Mg(s) 23. 16. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.) 14. Zn(NO3)2 7.

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Hf Hf 4 E0 cell 2e 0 2Br (aq) e 0 Au(s) c. write g. (aq) Cell reaction: E0 cell d. Br2(g) b. E0 cell 3e 0 Fe(s) 3e 0 Cr(s) a. Inc. Which of the following cells will produce the Tl3 E0 cell (aq) Cell reaction: highest voltage? Mn Mn2 Zn2 Zn Ni2 Ni Cu2 Cu Zn Zn2 Ni Ni2 f.CHAPTER 21 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Electrochemistry Use data from Table 21-1 as needed in the following problems. Hg2 (aq) Mn2 (aq) 8H (aq) 4H2O(l) 5e 0 2e 0 H2C2O4(aq) Cell reaction: 2CO2(g) E0 cell 2H (aq) Cell reaction: 2e 0 Hg(l) 2e 0 Mn(s) 2. Assume that all half-cells are under standard conditions. Fe3 (aq) Cell reaction: cell composed of a Sn Sn2 half-cell and each of these half-cells. Be2 (aq) E0 cell d. E 0 . Cs (aq) e 0 Cs(s) e 0 Cu(s) Cu (aq) E0 cell b. for a cell Mn2 (aq) E0 cell c. H3PO4(aq) 2H (aq) H3PO3(aq) H2O(l) 2e 0 2e 0 SeO42 (aq) 4H (aq) H2SeO3(aq) H2O(l) Cell reaction: E0 cell h. For each of these pairs of half-reactions. NO3 (aq) NO(g) In3 E0 cell (aq) 4H (aq) 2H2O(l) 3e 0 In(s) 3e 0 Cell reaction: Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 21 33 . Calculate the standard cell potential. Pb Pb2 Cell reaction: E0 cell 2e 0 Be(s) 3e 0 Tl(s) 3. Pd Pd2 Cr3 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. cell a. 1. Cl2 Cl Au (aq) E0 cell e. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. E 0 . MnO4 (aq) a balanced equation for the overall cell reaction and calculate the standard cell potential.

a.042 g.0 V to run.753-g sample of a nickel alloy. Inc. calculate the standard cell potential. 2Na (aq) 0 2Na(s) 2Hg(l) 2I (aq) Hg2I2(s) Oxidation half-reaction: Reduction half-reaction: E0 cell Spontaneous? e. which is deposited on the platinum electrode.CHAPTER 21 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 4.) The overall reaction of a lead–acid cell is Pb(s) PbO2(s) 4H (aq) 2SO42 (aq) 0 2PbSO4(s) 2H2O(l) Cu (aq) 0 Fe2 (aq) Cu2 (aq) 6. write 5. How many lead–acid cells would be needed to run the device? (Remember that a standard automobile battery contains six lead–acid cells connected in one package. Suppose an electrolytic cell is set up with solution of nickel ions obtained from a 6. Fe3 (aq) Co2 (aq) 0 Fe2 (aq) Co3 (aq) Oxidation half-reaction: Reduction half-reaction: E0 cell Spontaneous? b. the platinum electrode has a mass of 15. Fe3 (aq) minimum voltage of 9. E 0 . What is the minimum voltage that must be Oxidation half-reaction: Reduction half-reaction: E0 cell Spontaneous? c. After being plated with nickel. What is the percentage of nickel in the alloy? . applied to a Down’s cell to cause the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride? The net cell reaction is 2Na (l) 2Cl (l) 0 2Na(l) Cl2(g) 7. O2(g) 2H2SO3(aq) 0 2SO42 (aq) 4H (aq) Oxidation half-reaction: Reduction half-reaction: E0 cell Spontaneous? 34 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 21 Supplemental Problems Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Electric current is used to reduce the nickel ions to nickel metal. The cell also contains a platinum electrode that has a mass of 10. and cell determine if the reaction is spontaneous or not.533 g. For each of these overall cell reactions. of an alloy is to use electroplating. One way to determine the metallic composition 3Ni2 (aq) 2Rh(s) 0 3Ni(s) 2Rh3 (aq) Oxidation half-reaction: Reduction half-reaction: E0 cell Spontaneous? d. Suppose a battery-powered device requires a the oxidation and reduction half-reactions. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 b. cyclooctane releases 657 kJ per mole of –CH2– groups and 779 kJ per mole of –CH3 groups in the hydrocarbon. What are the masses of carbon and CH3 CH3CH2CHCHCHCH2CH3 CH2CH3 d. Inc.5. CH2CH3 a. Carbon has an electronegativity of 2. a. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. a major component of kerosene? The density of tetradecane is 0. heptane b. 1-ethyl-3-methyl-2-propylcyclopentane 7. branched-chain alkane.764 g/mL.4-tetramethylhexane d. Calculate the molecular mass of a 22-carbon alkanes. 3. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. C-C b. Use the IUPAC rules to name the following 4. 5. The reaction converts carbon into carbon dioxide and hydrogen into water. Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in each of the following alkanes. hydrocarbons by reacting them with copper oxide. H-H alkanes.CHAPTER 22 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Hydrocarbons 1.2.00 L of liquid tetradecane (molecular formula C14H30).4-diethylhexane c. 2. The combustion of a saturated hydrocarbon 3. Suppose 29 g of a hydrocarbon reacts to produce 88 g of CO2 and 45 g of H2O. Use these values to decide whether each of the following bonds is polar or nonpolar. How much energy is released by the combustion of 1. C-H c. 4-propyloctane b. a. Draw the structure of each of the following Hydrogen has an electronegativity of 2. a. 2.4. If the hydrocarbon’s molecular mass is CH3 CH3CH2 CH2CH3 CH3 CH3 CH2CH3 58 amu.2. Chemists can analyze the composition of CH3 CH3CHCHCH3 CH3 c. a. what is its molecular formula? 6. Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 22 35 . What is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon? c. hydrogen in the hydrocarbon? b.

a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. CH3CH2CH b.CHAPTER 22 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 8. 11. 1-ethyl-2-methyl-5-propylbenzene Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. each of the following unsaturated hydrocarbons. Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbons. 1. CH 3 CH2CH3 9. Inc. reacts with water to form ethyne and calcium hydroxide. Write a balanced equation for the reaction in CH3 CH3CHCH2CH2C CH which calcium carbide. CaC2. 2-pentene b. a. a. d. 1-hexyne CH3CH2CH2CHCH2CH2CH2CH3 c. Draw the structure of each of the following hydrocarbons. 4-ethyl-2-heptyne c. 36 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 22 Supplemental Problems .2-diethylcyclohexene d. Use the IUPAC rules to name the following 10. 7-methyl-2. CHCH3 CH CH2 a.5-nonadiene b.

In a peptide or protein that contains n amino acids. The catabolism of 1 g of fat yields about 38 kJ of energy. palmitic acid. In saponification. the ester bonds of a triglyc- ing biological molecules. CH3(CH2)10COOH lauric acid CH3(CH2)14COOH palmitic acid that 21% of the nucleotide bases are A and 29% of the bases are C. and stearic acid combine with glycerol to form a triglyceride. Write a balanced equation for the condensation reaction in which lauric acid. How many moles of triglyceride can be saponified by 120 g of NaOH? 6. Inc. What percentage of the bases are T and what percentage are G in the sample? CH3(CH2)16COOH stearic acid Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 24 37 . a. a. and 14 g of fat. A cup (133 g) of ice cream contains about possible for a polypeptide that contains 10 amino acids? b. Write a balanced equation for the condensation reaction in which cysteine and glycine combine to form a dipeptide. where A is the number of different amino acids.8 g of protein. How many different dipeptides can be made 32 g of carbohydrate. How long would a person have to walk to expend all of the energy contained in a cup of ice cream? 8. A scientist analyzes a sample of DNA and finds 4. the number of possible amino acid sequences is An. 4. a. Assume the carboxyl group of cysteine reacts. Oleic acid. Lysine. CH2OHCO(CHOH)3CH2OH c. whereas the catabolism of 1 g of protein or carbohydrate yields about 17 kJ of energy. How many amino acid sequences are b. NH2(CH2)4CHNH2COOH b. How much carbohydrate would be needed cysteine glycine to store the same amount of energy as 10 g of fat? Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. How much energy is released when a cup of ice cream is fully catabolized? c. The molecular mass of testosterone is 288. It takes 3 moles of NaOH to saponify each mole of triglyceride. such as NaOH. eride are hydrolyzed by a strong base. 3. How many grams of testosterone per day does a young adult male produce? 7. A person expends about 840 kJ per hour from the amino acids leucine (Leu) and valine (Val)? What are those dipeptides? while walking at a moderate pace. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Calculate the molecular masses of the follow5.4 CH3(CH2)7CH CH(CH2)7COOH 2. SH CH2 H2N C H C O OH H2N H C H C O OH 10 5 mol per day of the steroid sex hormone testosterone. A young adult male produces about 2.CHAPTER 24 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS The Chemistry of Life 1. Synthesizing fats is an efficient way for organ- isms to store energy. Fructose.

Inc. a. A scientist performed an experiment to monitor photosynthesis by a plant. This energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed. The formula for lactic acid is CH3CH(OH)COOH. Each base pair has an average length of 3. How long is the DNA in a bacterial cell? Assume that the DNA is stretched out straight rather than coiled. An average-sized woman produces about molecule to code for one amino acid in a protein. Suppose the catabolism of a given amount of glucose produces 95 moles of ATP during cellular respiration. It takes three consecutive nucleotides in a DNA 13. How much energy would be stored in ATP 4.5 kJ when that much glucose is oxidized? 14. The rest will be lost as heat. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. How many moles of ATP could be produced by the same amount of glucose during fermentation? 15. how many amino acids would be in the protein that it codes for? 10.2 106 complementary base pairs. the plant produced 61 g of glucose. What mass of water was needed to produce that much glucose? 38 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 24 Supplemental Problems .4 10 10 m. 11. a. How much energy will be lost as heat if all of the ATP produced in part a is hydrolyzed? 12. How much energy is stored in ATP when 5. How many moles of CO2 were needed to produce that much glucose? d. a. The DNA in a bacterial cell contains about 1900 g of carbon dioxide per day.0 moles of glucose is catabolized in cellular respiration? b. How many grams of glucose are needed to of energy. Assume that 40% of this energy can be used produce 102 g of ethanol during alcoholic fermentation? 16. In the experiment. How many moles of glucose must be oxidized during cellular respiration to produce that much carbon dioxide? b. Approximately 38 moles of ATP is produced for each mole of glucose that is catabolized in cellular respiration. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. to drive anabolic reactions when ATP is hydrolyzed. If a single strand of DNA contains 747 nucleotides. How many moles of glucose did the plant produce? b. Write a balanced equation for lactic acid fer- mentation. How many moles of O2 did the plant produce? c.CHAPTER 24 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS 9. One mole of ATP stores approximately 30.

The decay of 230 Th by alpha emission. Inc. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.0-mg dose of this isotope during a medical procedure. 1.0 mg of strontium-90 was released in the atmosphere in 1960. 18 4. 142Ce 58 12. 233U 92 10. 15N 7 9. a radiotracer to detect disorders of the body. The half-life of 115Sb is 32 minutes. 11.0-g sample of this isotope will remain at the end of 3. 45Ca 20 8. The radioisotope technetium-99 is often used as 0 14N 7 0 45Sc 21 0 18O 8 0 99Mo 42 31n 0 4He 2 1p 1 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.01 hours. It has a half-life of 6. If a patient received a 25.0 hours after the dose was given? 0 206Pb 82 0 142Pr 59 0 1n 0 1n 0 Supplemental Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 25 39 . how much of the radioisotope remains 85 years later? The half life of strontium-90 is 29 years.0-g sample of this isotope will remain at the end of 40. 19 5. The decay of 93Tc 43 14. How much 51 by beta emission. The decay of 38K by positron emission. If 100.0 72 106 years. The isotope strontium-90 is produced during by gamma emission. 102Ru 44 4He 2 1n 0 4He 2 1p 1 the testing of nuclear weapons. The half-life of 182Hf is 9. 90 3. The decay of 53Fe 26 Answer the following questions about half-life. Provide the missing term in each of the following equations. The decay of 37Ar by electron capture. 13.0 hours? 2. How much of a 1.CHAPTER 25 SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Nuclear Chemistry Write a complete nuclear equation for each of the following.0 million years? 15. 16. how much would remain 48. of a 16. 11B 5 7. 6.

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SUPPLEMENTAL PROBLEMS Answer Key . Inc.Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.

0 mL c. According to the graph. 1.0 mL of water. According to the graph.429 109 m Solution: 60 000 km 1000 m/1 km 6 107 m 4. e. which element is most abundant in Earth’s crust? oxygen 42 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key . The level of water rises to 18. 6 107 m 60 000 000 m Solution: 1 429 000 1000 m/1 km 1. Then answer the questions. Calculate the mass of the sample. Neptune or Uranus? Uranus d. What kind of graph is this? bar graph b. Saturn is about 1 429 000 km from the Sun.7 g/mL. Then answer the 3. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Aluminum has a density of 2.7 g/mL 22 g 2.0 mL 10. What kind of graph is this? circle graph Planet a. Look at the graph below.ANSWER KEY Chapter 2 1. what is the radius of Saturn? 60 000 km mass volume density 8. questions. How many meters is Saturn from the Sun? Write your answer in scientific notation. Look at the graph below.0 mL. Radii of Planets 75 000 65 000 55 000 45 000 35 000 25 000 The Composition of Earth’s Crust Magnesium 2% Sodium Potassium 2% 2% Calcium 4% Radius (in km) Titanium 1% Other elements 1% Jupiter Neptune Iron 6% Aluminum 8% Silicon 28% Mercury Venus 15 000 5000 0 Earth Mars Saturn Uranus Oxygen 46% Pluto a. A sample of aluminum is placed in a 25-mL b.0 mL 8. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 22 g Solution: Volume 18.0 mL 2. Inc. What are the variables shown? planet name and planet radius graduated cylinder containing 10.429 109 m 1 429 000 000 m Write your answer in scientific notation. which has a larger radius. Convert the radius of Saturn to meters. According to the graph.

50 mL 19. What is bromine’s melting point in kelvins? Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) temperature in kelvins (K) 7.75 g 6.84 102 liters Solve the following problems. What mass of silver will raise the level of the water in the graduated cylinder 1. 4% calcium aluminum’s boiling point in SI units? The SI unit of temperature is kelvin.50 mL. a. Aluminum boils at 2467°C. What is the density of gold? You know that silver has a density of 10. Inc. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 1 gallon 4 quarts) 3 109 L b. The level of the water rises 1.8 g 28.95 g/1. a.ANSWER KEY c.50 mL? 19. According to the graph. 15. How many liters of oil do American cars use per year? Report your answer in scientific notation. Express your answers in proper scientific notation. (1 liter 0.908 quart.024 km/s Solution: (55 mi/h) (1. What is Earth’s crust is made up of titanium? Of calcium? 1% titanium.6 km) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) temperature in kelvins (K) 273 5. Convert 55 miles per hour to kilometers per hour.847 103 m Solution: (600 000 000 gallons) (4 quarts/1 gallon) (1 L/0. 166 000 000 000 000 m2 1. 8847 m 8.98°C 15.6 1012 1012 3. 484 liters 4.2°C 273 266 K 273 c. Convert the following data to scientific notation. d.024 km/s or 2. What is 273 K in °C? Temperature in kelvins (K) 273 temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) 88 km/h. American cars use about 600 000 000 gallons 7. 0. Chlorine melts at 172 K. What is chlorine’s melting point in °C? Temperature in kelvins (K) 273 temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) 172 K 273 100.3 g/mL.5 g/cm3.50 mL density 1.66 1014 m2 of oil per year. Convert the following as indicated. How many kilometers/second is 55 miles per hour? (Use: 1 mile 1.3 g/mL 10.6 km /1 mi) 2 88 km/h (1 min/60 s) km/s 273 273 0°C (88 km/h) (1 h/60 min) 0.8 g Solution: density mass mass volume volume 15.4 10 9.908 quart) 2 643 171 806 L 3 109 L c.3 5. what percent of 8.2°C.95-g piece of gold in a 10-mL graduated cylinder. 5. Bromine melts at 7. 10. You place a 28. a.0 1011 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 43 .5 g/mL 2467°C 273 2740 K b.

3 104 f.80 1015 3) g.0 10 3) g.01 10 3) e.11 1016 1017 9. Students may choose to solve the problems differently.0 105) 102 (3.0 4.7 0.09 2. .2 27 0.0 103) 105 (8.25 2. (2. Trial 3: 9.6 g/cm3.25 1016 c.0 (8.4 3.0 e.1 1019 e.2 e.9 3.13 f. (1. Inc.7 105) 103 (3. Solution: One way to solve each problem is shown below.0 102 1015 102 106 10 3 1021 1022 2. 3. 3.ANSWER KEY b. (2.0 2.91 f.0 2.01 (3.0 103) 12. 1.1 2.6 g/cm3.85 1.2 105) 109 (3. Students may choose to solve the problems differently.1 2. 4. (1. (9.0 1012) 1014 (8.6 8.96 3) 9.6 2.7 1012 106 a.67 1015 2) 2.9 106 106 8.1 1019 3.0 1. a.0 103) d.7 104 0.0 103) 103) 103) 10 10 10 10 3) 12 108 1015 40. (4.8 1.8 8. 4.0 5. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.67 1015 1015 13 1013 g.0 (8.8 c.0 2.1 1023 1020 0. Mac measured the density of silver three times and obtained the following results: Trial 1: 10. 2.3 104 1. 17 1012 1012 106 106 1016 1017 1022 1022 1020 1020 3. 1. Solution: One way to solve each problem is shown below. 5.3 9.11 d.9 3.4 3.1 1016 c. (8.0 1012) 1016 (8.8 1022 1.7 2.2 11 1016 11.0 (8.0 4.0 105 b.6 2. (5.80 4.09 2.05 (3.8 g/cm3.18 1020 103 3 104 1.0 105) 109 1012) 1016 105) 102 1012) 1014 105) 103 103) 105 10 10 5) 3 (3. (4.3 b.0 10 3) f. (9.3 0.7 3 104 1. Trial 2: 10. 44 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. (8.0 1.01 10 2) a.09 0.18 1020 1020 9. 2. 17 6 103 104 3 104 1.80 1015 13 1013 1015 4. (6.05 103) c.9 1011 1012 105 106 5. (5.3 104 6 104 4. 3.0 10 5) 10 3 (3.1 1022 1023 82 1021 d.25 8. (6.2 b.0 g.0 (3.85 1. 3.0 d.03 11.3 3.

Trial 2: 2. 3 significant figures 31. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.5 g/cm3) 10. 0. Determine the number of significant figures in 3.000 301 5 m b. 2.5. 1.62 m3 14. 5.5 g/cm3 Trial 2: percent error (10.8 g/cm3 10.65 m 0.ANSWER KEY Silver has a density of 10.257 59 13. 7 significant figures 31.6% Solution: percent error percent error 1.55 m each measurement. or unlimited Trial 1: percent error (10.90 s 4 b.3 m/s 31 s b.5 g/cm3 g/cm3) 100% 8. 5 significant figures 31.78910 6 103 g 15.6% 100% 2.86%.86% 100% 0. What was the percent error of your calculation? 1. Complete the following calculations. Which trial had the greatest percent error? Trial 3 Solution: a.30 m 4. Round off the answers to the correct number of significant figures. Round the number 31.258 c. a. When you get your report card.5 g/cm3 a.5 96 96 1. your average is 96. a.6 g/cm3 10. tory is 97. 0. a. percent error error accepted value 100% e.257 592 to the requested number of significant figures.6% c.95%. 12.121 012 L c.5 g/cm3 Trial 3: percent error (9. Trial 3: 8.3 100% 16. Trial 1: 0.5 10.8 m 4 3.952% f.1 cm Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 45 . You calculate that your semester average in his- Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 26. 103.5 g/cm3) 10.6 g/cm3 10.056 mL 4 d.0 cm 6 55 cm2 2.5625% error accepted value 97.6% 100% b. 5000 dogs infinite. Calculate Mac’s percent error for each trial. Inc.

How many grams of carbon monoxide are formed in this reaction? Massreactants Massproducts Massoxygen 3. Massoxygen 36. A substance breaks down into three component Masscarbon 2. Compound AB3 contains three times as much element B as does compound AB.04 g 100% Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 8.032 g 32 g 46 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .00 Massproducts 39. What was the mass of the substance before it was heated? Component A B C Massreactants 64. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 16 g 48 g. The mass of each component element is listed in the table below. Silver iodide is 45.94 5.032 g 4.702 g 6.9% 50.69% carbon.032 g Massoxygen ment B to form compound AB.69% carbon Masscarbon 151.0 0. 2 6 g 32 g.032 g 36. There is 48 g of B in AB3. 75. How many grams of oxygen reacted? Massreactants Massproducts Massoxygen Masswater 4.00 54.10 Mass (g) 39. how much silver would you have? From the conservation of mass. Ibuprofen has the chemical formula C13H18O2.51% oxygen. how many grams of B are needed to form compound AB2? How many grams of B are needed to form AB3? Compound AB2 contains twice as much element B as does compound AB.032 g of water. and 15. Therefore.257 g Masscarbon monoxide 2.38 mg Masscarbon in the tablet 7.94 64.9% silver by mass.69% carbon Masscarbon 200 mg 200 mg 100% septic and as an agent to seed clouds for rain. 3. What is the mass of the compound formed? Massreactants MassA MassAB Massproducts MassAB 4g 22 g There is 32 g of B in AB2. During a chemical reaction.445 g elements when it is heated.80% hydrogen. 2. If you separate a 50-g sample of silver iodide into its elements. 5. It is 75. Inc. Therefore.0 g 45. The amount of silver recovered would be 50.445 g of carbon MassB 18 g reacts with 3.ANSWER KEY Chapter 3 1.032 g of hydro- gen combined with oxygen to form 36.459 22. How many mg of carbon does a 200-mg tablet of ibuprofen contain? Mass percentage of an element (%) Mass of element Mass of compound Mass percentagecarbon 100% Masscarbon Masscompound 100% 158.10 54.95 g 23 g. During a chemical reaction. the mass of silver recovered is equal to the mass of silver in the initial silver iodide sample.257 g of oxygen to form carbon monoxide gas. An 18-g sample of element A combines com- pletely with a 4-g sample of element B to form the compound AB. silver and iodine. Silver iodide powder has been used as an anti- 75. If 5 g of element A combines with 16 g of ele- Masshydrogen 4. 4.

Ferric chloride is 34. Her results are summarized in the data table below. Carbon and oxygen combine to form carbon Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.76 g 0.88 g 2 Compound I: MassF MassXe MassF MassXe 0.175 III Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 47 .88 g 13.289 9. Inc.16 g of xenon.56 g of chlorine.56 g 0. Mass ratiocompound I Mass ratiocompound II 0.88 g 0.472 g of xenon.624 g 2. A chemist analyzes three compounds that contain iron and chlorine.88 g 0. NO/NO2 1.579 Compound II: 0.28 g 1. compare the two mass ratios.6 9. respectively. What is the ratio of the masses of oxygen in CO2/CO? Mass ratiocarbon dioxide Mass ratiocarbon monoxide 32 g 16 g 2 Then. 0. Do these data support the law of multiple proportions? Show your work. monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2).67 compounds.472 g 0.16 g 0. First. First.76 g 0. as shown below.289 2.32 g of phosphorus combines with 7.00 These data are consistent with the law of multiple proportions. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. and 2 is a whole number.292 0.579 0.44 g 4 ferent compounds.28 g of chlorine.292 12. Do these data support the law of multiple proportions? Show your work. Nitrogen and oxygen combine to form different Then. In the other compound.4% iron and 65. Which of these compounds is likely to be ferric chloride? Explain your answer. In one compound. 1.624 g of fluorine combines with 2.67 is not a whole number.175 1. Chemical Formula NO NO2 NO4 Compound Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrous oxide Mass N/1 g O 1.76 g 0. compare the two mass ratios. Phosphorus and chlorine combine to form two different compounds.44 g 2 11.44 g These data are not consistent with the law of multiple proportions. 0. Mass of the Sample (g) 25 25 27 Mass of Fe (g) 9.3 Mass of Cl (g) 15. find the mass ratio for each compound. Compound I: MassP MassCl 3.6% chlo- rine by mass.853 g of fluorine combines with 1. In one compound. The masses of oxygen that combine with 12 g of carbon to form these two compounds are 16 g and 32 g.32 g 7. and 1.853 g 1.7 Compound I II MassP Compound II: MassCl 0. Fluorine and xenon combine to form two dif- NO/NO4 1.3 8. find the mass ratio for each compound. 10. The law of multiple proportions states that the different masses of Y that combine with a fixed mass of X can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers. The law of multiple proportions states that the different masses of Y that combine with a fixed mass of X can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers.ANSWER KEY 8. What is the ratio of the masses of nitrogen in each of the following? NO2/NO4 0.4 17.88 g of phosphorus combines with 13.7 16. 3. Mass ratiocompound I Mass ratiocompound II 0. In the other compound.

20% Masscarbon Massbaking soda 14. 2. The chemical formula for baking soda is NaHCO3.98 g of sodium.02 g of hydrogen.02 g 100% 100% Mass percentageoxygen 96 g 168.98 g 168.02 g of carbon.7 g 25 g Masschlorine Masscompound I 100% A100-g sample of chalk contains 40 g of calcium.2% Mass percentageiron 8. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Then. Inc.ANSWER KEY First.4% 14.36% 100% Masscalcium (40%)(200 g) 100% 15.8% Masschlorine Masscompound II 100% Mass percentagecalcium 40 g 100 g 100% 40% 100% Mass percentagechlorine 16. Mass percentagechlorine 15.02 g 168.14% 100% Mass percentagecarbon 24.3 g 27 g 100% 34.4% Massiron Masscompound III 100% 100% 100% Massiron Masscompound I 100% Mass percentagehydrogen 2.02 g 100% Masshydrogen Massbaking soda 1.4 g 25 g 100% 65. contains 3 g of hydrogen.02-g sample of baking soda contains 45. . Mass percentagecalcium Masscalcium Masschalk 80 g 100% 13. 12 g of carbon. 24.6% 48 g 100 g 100% 48% Massoxygen Masschalk 100% Compounds II and III have the same composition as ferric chloride.02 g 168. What percentage of ammonia is hydrogen? How many grams of nitrogen does the sample contain? Masshydrogen Massammonia Mass percentagehydrogen 100% 48 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. NH3. and 48 g of oxygen.02 g 100% Masssodium Massbaking soda 27.30% Massoxygen Massbaking soda 57. What is the mass percentage of each element in chalk? What would be the mass of calcium in 200 g of chalk? Masscalcium Masschalk 100% 62. find the percent of chlorine by mass in each compound.6 g 25 g 100% Massiron Masscompound II 34. What is the mass percentage of each element in baking soda? Mass percentagesodium 45.7 g 27 g Mass percentageoxygen 100% 65. The chemical formula for chalk is CaCO3.6% Masschlorine Masscompound III 100% Mass percentagecarbon 12 g 100 g 100% 12% Masscarbon Masschalk 100% Mass percentagechlorine 17. Mass percentageiron 9. A 168. and 96 g of oxygen. find the percent of iron by mass in each compound.3 g 25 g 37.02 g 100% 100% Mass percentageiron 9. A 17-g sample of ammonia.

37Cl 17 a. Li b. silicon-29 14 protons. Atomic number of electrons number of protons mass number number atomic b. and 92 protons. electrons. 64Cu 29 c. Tl Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Give the number of protons. 92 electrons. 23Na 11 11 protons. 2 neutrons (3 1 2) Number of neutrons number a. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 143 neutrons (235 92 143) neutrons in each of the following atoms.ANSWER KEY 3g 17 g 100% 18% c. 12 neutrons (23 11 12) Massammonia Masshydrogen Massreactants Massnitrogen Massnitrogen 14 g 17 g Massproducts Masshydrogen Massammonia 3g 3. 56Fe 26 following table. and write it in symbolic notation. 4. Atomic number of electrons number of protons number b. 1 electron. 20 electrons. 40Ca 20 20 protons. a. electrons. 20 neutrons (40 20 20) Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 49 . Fr c. Hg e. mass number 56 Chapter 4 1. Re g. 14 electrons. Inc. atomic number 17. atomic number 29. 11 electrons. mass number 64 copper-64. and neutrons are in each of the following isotopes? Atomic number of electrons number of protons mass number number atomic f. atomic number 26. How many protons. Np d. 47 electrons. 108Au 47 47 protons. 61 neutrons (108 47 61) c. Use the periodic table to complete the iron-56. 15 neutrons (29 14 15) b. hydrogen-3 1 proton. uranium-235 2. mass number 37 Element Atomic Number 3 87 93 80 81 75 5 Protons 3 87 93 80 81 75 5 Electrons 3 87 93 80 81 75 5 chlorine-37. B Number of neutrons number a. Name each isotope.

How many neutrons does europium-151 have? d. Neon has two isotopes: neon-10 and neon-12. thorium-230 has 50 more neutrons than it does protons. The mass number is 151.999 17.995 16. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Atomic number of electrons number of protons number c. thorium-230 has 90 electrons. Use the table below to calculate the atomic b. Show all your work. How many more neutrons does thorium-230 have than protons? How many electrons does thorium-230 have? Number of neutrons = mass number – atomic number 230 90 140 neutrons 12 b. Give the atomic number of each isotope. Ti with 26 neutrons 26 neutrons 22 protons 48 What is the isotope’s mass number? Number of neutrons number 151 63 mass number atomic 88 neutrons 9. 8.762 0. Show that the mass number and the number of b. magnesium-25 6. antimony-121 51 10.ANSWER KEY 5. Which has more electrons? They have an equal number of electrons.038 0. Then use the periodic table to identify the element. Which has more neutrons? neon-12 Nuclear equation: Mass number: Atomic number: 234U 92 0 230 Th 90 4He 2 234 0 230 92 0 90 2 4 c. Which has more protons? They have an equal number of protons. Which isotope has the greater mass? neon-12 Therefore. 92 90 2 .999 Percent Abundance 99. a. a. Ga with 39 neutrons 39 neutrons 31 protons 70 mass of element X. Give the mass number of each isotope. Be with 5 neutrons 5 neutrons 4 protons 9 11. protons are conserved in the following nuclear equation: 234U 0 230 Th 4He. From the periodic table. Si with 16 neutrons 16 neutrons 14 protons 30 50 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 7. Number of neutrons number number of protons mass d. Isotope 16X 17X 18X Mass (amu) 15. bromine-79 35 Difference between the number of protons and the number of neutrons 140 90 50 Therefore.20 c. a.

999 amu)(0. Calculate the atomic mass of iridium.038%) (17.992 amu)(90.01% Percent abundance of magnesium-25 100% (78.3 amu topes. Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 51 .5 amu 120.036 amu 0.01%) 10.99%. Isotope 2 0.0 amu)(37.0 amu and a percent abundance of 62. Isotope Isotope 1 Isotope 2 Mass (amu) 23.10 amu 0.58%) Ir-193: (193.0065 amu (15. The element is neon.991 amu. Identify the element.27% Isotope 3 9. Isotope 3 has a mass of 21.03 amu Isotope 1: (19.20%) The pie graph shows the relative abundance of each isotope.946 25.057 amu 13.762%) (16.22%) Atomic mass 18.19 amu 0.10 10.036 amu 16. Mass contribution (mass)(percent abundance) 18. Show all your work.17 71. An element has three naturally occurring iso- Ir-191: (191.983 Percent Abundance 78. Iridium-191 has a mass of 193.0065 amu 0.957 amu 0.991 amu)(9.5 amu b.999 amu)(0.13 11. Isotope 1 has a mass of 19.58%. Mass contribution (mass)(percent abundance) 71.ANSWER KEY Mass contribution 16X: 17X: 18X: (mass)(percent abundance) 15.51%) Isotope 2: (20.0 amu)(62. Iridium-191 has a mass of 191.0 amu and a percent abundance of 37. Iridium has two isotopes. Magnesium has three isotopes.27%) Isotope 3: (21. Calculate the atomic mass of the element. Magnesium-26 has a percent abundance of 11.994 amu)(0. Inc.51% a. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.78 amu 14.00% Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 12.42%) Atomic mass of Ir 192.99% 11.22% Atomic mass of X 15.057 amu 2. Magnesium-24 has a percent abundance of 78.957 amu 0.99% (percent abundance of magnesium-25) 11. What is the percent abundance of magnesium-25? Assume that there are no other magnesium isotopes.000 amu The element is oxygen. using the periodic table. Therefore: 100% (percent abundance of magnesium-24) (percent abundance of magnesium-25) (percent abundance of magnesium-26) 100% 78. Information about each isotope is summarized below.10 amu 2. Isotope 2 has a mass of 20.03 amu 20.01%. 15.992 amu.994 amu.78 amu 120.985 24.42%. Isotope 1 90.995 amu)(99. An element has three naturally occurring Isotope 3 isotopes. All the percentages should add up to 100%.

14C 0 14N 1 6 7 b. and carbon-13 has 7 neutrons.88 amu 2.527 amu 2.36 10 9 m has more energy than orange light does. They all show the same physical and chemical properties of the element carbon. Therefore. a quantum of radiation with a wavelength of 3.93 1016 s 1 10 . 26Mg 12 12 12 1014 s What is the energy of one quantum of orange light? Ephoton h 3.31 amu carbon-14. 24Mg. living things take in all the isotopes of carbon. In terms of subatomic structure.946 amu)(10.626 10 10 19 J 3. to 52 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Find the atomic mass of this element.531 amu 2. and fossils.8 10 19 J 1014 s 1) 16. then it must become nitrogen-14 ( 1 x 6. Identify the element. 25Mg.2 34 J s)(4. After an organism dies.92 (6. orange light has an energy of 3. The isotope carbon-14 can be used to deter- Calculate the frequency: c c therefore. How is carbon-14 like carbon-12 and carbon-13? All three isotopes have 6 protons and 6 electrons.983 amu)(11.902 amu d. all your work. the energy of one photon of orange light or the energy of one quantum of radiation having a wavelength of 3.8 1. Carbon-14 undergoes radioactive decay continuously. by measuring how much carbon-14 a once-living object contains and comparing it with the amount of carbon-14 in a currently living thing. how does Calculate the energy of one quantum: Ephoton h Ephoton 5.88 amu 24. Thus. Chapter 5 1. Carbon-14 emits a beta particle as it decays. The equation that shows this change is 0 .00 108 m/s)/(3. J s)(8.18048 (6. its body no longer takes in new carbon-14. c. Isotope 1: (23.902 amu What atom does carbon-14 decay to? If carbon-14 emits a beta particle. While alive.93 1016 s 1) From problem 1. c. including carbon-14. Write each isotope in symbolic notation.ANSWER KEY a. However. Write an equation to represent the decay of 18. Mass contribution (mass)(percent abundance) 18.36 10 9m? . carbon-12 has 6 neutrons.36 8. Inc. x 7. using the periodic table. mine the ages of objects that were once living. hc .985 amu)(78.17%) Atomic mass of element 2. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Orange light has a frequency of 4. bones. such as wood. 9 m) a.70%) Isotope 2: (24. b. The element is magnesium. thus.2 10 19 J. Show c. (3. which is the atomic number of nitrogen). 2. Use the relationships E c h and c write E in terms of h. Carbon-14 has a larger atomic mass than the other two isotopes have. 3. you can determine the age of the object. Which is greater.626 10 10 17 J 34 carbon-14 differ from carbon-12 and carbon-13? Carbon-14 has 8 neutrons. and . the carbon-14 in its body continues to decay. From c E h .13%) Isotope 3: (25.

034 10 8 s 1 103. 3. 5s.ANSWER KEY 4.4 103. 7s. 2s. 5f. Fluorine c. Write electron-dot structures for the following 5. 5f. List the sequence in which the following c. 3s. Which element has the ground-state electron of 2. 5s. 6s. Inc. Orbitals Element a. 6p. Carbon d.90 m c 1. 2p. to calculate the wavelength of their favorite radio station.00 108 m/s 2. 4s. 4f. 2s.4 megahertz zinc You can tune in at 103. 4f. 3p.00 108 m/s. 2p. Lithium Symbol N F C Li 1s )( )( )( )( 2s )( )( )( ) 2px ) )( ) 2py ) )( ) 2pz ) ) Electron Configuration 1s22s22p3 1s22s22p5 1s22s22p2 1s22s1 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 53 . 3p. 5d. [Ne]3s23p3 •• •P• • tion. 3d. 5p. Which element has the ground-state electron configuration [Ar]4s23d10? s 1 1. a. 3s. 5p. potassium K• orbitals fill up: 1s. 10. where c 3. 4p. Record the frequency of your favorite radio sta- atoms. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. b.034 10 108 s 6 1 configuration [Kr]5s24d105p4? tellurium 8. 7p. A radio station emits radiation at a wavelength 7. therefore. 6p. 4d. Nitrogen b. Complete the following table. 6d. What is the wavelength of the radiation emitted from the station? Answers will vary. Students should use c . [Ar]4s23d3 •V• 6. 6d. 9.90 m. 4s. The correct order is as follows: 1s. 4p. 7p Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 3d.4 FM. 7s. 4d. 6s. What is the station’s frequency in megahertz? c . 5d.

7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 4f 6s 5p 4d 5s 4p Increasing Energy 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 3d 7p 7s 6p 6d 5f 4f 5d 6s 5p 5s )( 4s ( ) 3s )( 2s ) ) ) 4p ( ( ( ) ) ) 3p )( )()( 2p 4d )( )( )( )( )( 3d 1s )( 1s 12. chlorine [Ne]3s23p5 b. Electrons in the highest energy level are the least attracted to the nucleus because they are the most distant. 13. What is the ground-state electron configuration . What is the highest energy level (n) that is c. krypton a. 2e 8e 8e 2e of each of the following atoms? Use noble-gas notation. selenium [Ar]4s23d104p4 b. from which energy level would the electron be removed? Explain your answer. How many valence electrons does an atom [Kr] or [Ar]4s23d104p6 of this element have? 2 c. He n 1 electron. The first electron to leave the atom would be one in the highest energy level. What is the atom’s electron-dot structure? • Ca• 14.ANSWER KEY 11. Use the figure below to answer the following questions. If enough energy was added to remove an occupied in the following elements? a. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. a. Complete the orbital diagram for arsenic. fourth energy level. Inc. which is the 54 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.

Categorize each of the elements in problem 2 as a representative element or a transition element. Al. period 4. [He]2s22p4 group 6A. Write the electron configuration for each ele- fitting each of the following descriptions. d. P. 6. an element that contains 8 electrons 1s22s22p4 b. [Kr]5s2. Halogen in the second period [He]2s22p5 Chapter 6 For questions 1–5. [Ne]3s23p1. [Ar]4s23d104p2 c. Write the electron configurations for the elements in periods 2–4 of group 2A. a. group 2A: 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 5. [Ne]3s2. Rank the following atoms in order of decreasing radii. Group 1A element in the fourth period [Ar]4s1 1. Ca n 4 3. Sn n 5 4. period 6. Group 4A element in the fourth period b. group 2A: 1s22s2 period 3. do not use Figure 6-12. All of the elements are representative elements. period 2. P. Group 8A element in the third period [Ne]3s23p6 ment described below and identify the element. [Kr]5s24d105p1. period. s2p1 [He]2s22p1. S Na. What are the noble-gas notations of all the ele- ments with the following valence electron configurations? a. s2 1s2. p-block a. or 6-20. S Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key 55 . [He]2s2. [Rn]7s2 2. do not use the periodic table. p-block b. Write the electron configuration of the element 15. [Xe]6s1 group 1A. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. c. Inc. 6-15. and block of the elements with the following electron configurations. [Xe]6s2. [Ar]4s23d104p1. Determine the group. Al. a.ANSWER KEY b. [Ar]4s2. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. s-block For questions 6–9. Na. group 2A: 1s22s22p63s2 period 4. Use noble-gas notations. period 2. a. [Xe]6s24f145d106p1 b. [Ar]4s23d104p2 group 4A. c. an element that contains 14 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p2 The element is silicon.

Ga. Al. Ca2 . When aluminum nitrate and sodium hydroxide c. F O2(g) 0 SnO2(s) 3O2(g) 0 SnO2(s) SO2(g) 2SO2(g) 2. In In. Ga. If more than one reaction type applies. Sn. Cl . S S. I. Na.I CO2(g) b. Inc. . I I . Na. K K. Al3 solutions are mixed. Cl . CoCO3(s) 0 CoO(s) CoCO3(s) 0 CoO(s) CO2(g) decreasing radii. K Write a balanced equation for each of the following reactions.ANSWER KEY b. K K. Ca2 . Ga Ga. Ca. K c. Al b. Br . Ca. a. O2(g) 0 CO2(g) 7O2(g) 0 4CO2(g) H2O(g) 6H2O(g) Be2 Ca2 . Al. Sc. K. K K . . Rank the following particles in order of 4. Rank the following atoms in order of decreas- ing electronegativity. 8. solid aluminum hydroxide forms. list all that apply. a. 5. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 1. As. Br. K Li. Al(NO3)3(aq) 3NaOH(aq) 0 Al(OH)3(s) 3NaNO3(aq) double-replacement 9. Ca Sc. C2H6(g) b. Li. Ca. Mg2 2C2H6(g) Mg2 Be2 c. Cl Chapter 10 Balance the following chemical equations. substituting symbols and formulas for names. Ge. Sn d. Br. Ca2 . As. SnS2(s) SnS2(s) 7. K 56 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key . Al(s) 2Al(s) HCl(aq) 0 AlCl3(aq) 6HCl(aq) 0 2AlCl3(aq) H2(g) 3H2(g) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. As. Rank the following ions in order of decreasing radii. Cl. Ga3 3. Ga3 . a. Then identify the reaction type for each. Ge. F Br . Include the state of each reactant and product. K. As c. The other product is sodium nitrate. Al3 Al.

Cl2(g) 2KBr(aq) 0 Br2(l) 2KCl(aq) Ba2 (aq) 2NO3 (aq) BaSO4(s) 2H (aq) Ba2 (aq) SO42 (aq) 0 BaSO4(s) single-replacement 17. FeCl3(aq) FePO4(s) (NH4)3PO4(aq) 0 3NH4Cl(aq) 11. 16. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Liquid pentane (C5H12) burns. metallic copper and water form. F2(g) NaF(aq) NaI(aq) I2(s) 15. CuO(s) H2(g) 0 Cu(s) H2O(l) 13. Chlorine gas also is produced. 4Mg(s) synthesis 3N2(g) 0 2Mg2N3(s) Predict the products in each of the following reactions. When magnesium is heated in the presence of nitrogen gas. C5H12(l) 8O2(g) 0 6H2O(g) 5CO2(g) Write a complete ionic equation and a net ionic equation for each of the following doubledisplacement reactions. write NR. combustion 18. solid magnesium nitride forms. 12. producing water vapor and carbon dioxide. Inc. 2Mg(s) O2(g) 0 2MgO(s) Fe3 (aq) 3Cl (aq) 3NH4 (aq) PO43 (aq) 0 FePO4(s) 3NH4 (aq) 3Cl (aq) Fe3 (aq) PO43 (aq) 0 FePO4(s) synthesis. Ba(NO3)2(aq) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Magnesium burns in air to form magnesium oxide. You may use Figure 10-10 for the relative activities of common metals and halogens. Most industrial production of metallic sodium is accomplished by passing an electric current through molten sodium chloride. combustion BaSO4(s) H2SO4(aq) 0 2HNO3(aq) 2H (aq) SO42 (aq) 0 2NO3 (aq) 10.ANSWER KEY 6. 2NaCl(l) 0 2Na(s) decomposition Cl2(g) 14. bromine forms in a potassium chloride solution. When solid copper(II) oxide and hydrogen react. If no reaction occurs. Pt(s) NR MnBr2(aq) single-replacement 8. KCl(aq) AgCl(s) AgC2H3O2(aq) 0 KC2H3O2(aq) K (aq) Cl (aq) Ag (aq) C2H3O2 (aq) 0 AgCl(s) K (aq) C2H3O2 (aq) Cl (aq) Ag (aq) 0 AgCl(s) Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 57 . Zn(s) Ag(s) AgNO3(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) 9. When chlorine gas is passed through a potas- sium bromide solution. Rb(s) RbCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) Ca(s) 7.

48 mol Ba 4. Inc.35 g lithium 6. 6.97 g S Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Identify and calculate the number of representa- c.35 mol Ca 134 g Ca 40.24 mol Be 11.29 6. Determine the mass in grams of each of the b.01 g Be 1 mol Be 1022 molecules NO c. 1.24 moles of beryllium 1.02 1023 molecules NO 1 mol NO following quantities.15 mol Au 1.5 mol KBr 6.39 g Zn 5.2 g Be 9.92 6.151 mol NO 9.ANSWER KEY Chapter 11 1.92 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1023 atoms of barium 1023 atoms Ba 6. b.915 mol Li 91. 0. 0.35 moles of calcium 11.0442 mol KI 1024 atoms Au 3. that contains the following number of representative particles. a.66 1022 formula units of potassium 1022 formula units KI 1 mol KI 1023 formula units KI iodide 2. a. 11. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Calculate the number of moles in each of the following quantities.92 8. 3.02 1 mol Ba 1023 atoms Ba 1.15 moles of gold 2.09 6. 346 g zinc 346 g Zn 1 mol Zn 65. Calculate the number of moles of the substance c.02 1023 atoms Au 1 mol Au 0.29 mol Zn 58 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .155 mol S 4. 8. 2.66 6. 5.4 mol CO b.02 tive particles in each of the following quantities.50 6.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 1024 formula units KBr 2. a. 2.50 5.35 g Li 1 mol Li 6.94 g Li 1025 molecules CO 1 mol CO 1023 molecules CO 0.02 1023 formula units KBr 1 mol KBr 3.02 1025 molecules of carbon monoxide a.151 mole of nitrogen oxide 0.155 mole of sulfur 0.5 moles of potassium bromide b.

8 mol H 13. positive and negative ions in 1.02 1 mol Cd 1023 atoms Cd 1.02 1 mol Ar 1023 atoms Ar 1023 atoms Co 1 mol Co 1022 atoms Co 39.27 b. a.35 mol C9H8O4 3. 0.4 mol O Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Inc.02 1 mol Ce 132.33 1024 atoms of argon 1024 atoms Ar 6.0280 g Cd 5.09 g Si 1023 atoms Si 1 mol Si 1024 atoms Si b.2 mol C 26. 1023 atoms of radium has 1.50 1020 atoms of cadmium 1020 atoms Cd 6.02 1 mol Ra 1023 atoms Ra 1. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.95 g Ar 1 mol Ar 88.75 moles of calcium fluoride (CaF2) 1. c. Calculate the number of moles in each of the following quantities.35 moles of 2.75 mol CaF2 226 g Ra 1 mol Ra 156 g Ra Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 59 .02 1 mol Co 58.60 aspirin (C9H8O4) 3. atoms of each element in 3.93 g Co c.575 g cesium 0.41 1 mol Si 28. Which quantity has the greatest mass? a.24 g Co 6.575 g Ce 6.50 mol F 6.69 g Ni b.33 1.35 mol C9H8O4 9 mol C 1 mol C9H8O4 8 mol H 1 mol C9H8O4 4 mol O 1 mol C9H8O4 30. 4.ANSWER KEY c.6 g Si 6.16 1023 atoms of radium 1023 atoms Ra 6.6 g silicon 65. 1. 115 g nickel 115 g Ni 1 mol Ni 58.50 1.16 the greatest mass.3 g Ar The quantity 4.75 mol CaF2 1 mol Ca2 1 mol CaF2 2 mol F 1 mol CaF2 1.24 g cobalt 1. How many atoms are in the following samples? a. 65. 1.91 g Ce 1023 atoms Ce 1 mol Ce 1021 atoms Ce 7.16 4.35 mol C9H8O4 3.02 1.41 g Cd 1 mol Cd 0. 1.96 mol Ni 112.75 mol Ca2 3.

01 g N 1 mol N 2 mol N 1 mol (NH4)2Cr2O7 The molar mass of lead(II) nitrate is 331.11 g (28. b.0 g) 159.62 moles of magnesium bromide is 851 g.01 g N 1 mol N 28.00 g O (12.53 mol Pb(NO3)2 838 g The mass of 2.62 mol MgBr2 851 g The mass of 4.80 g Br 104.02 g N 8 mol H 1 mol (NH4)2Cr2O7 1 mol (NH4)2Cr2O7 1. 184.02 g H 1 mol CH2O2 32.01 g H 1 mol H 1 mol C 1 mol CH2O2 12.00 g ) 46.2 g The molar mass of formic acid is 46.ANSWER KEY 8.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 1 mol Pb 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 207.80 g) 184. b.03 g 2 mol O 1 mol CH2O2 16.0 g O 104. 2.31 g Mg 2 mol Br 1 mol MgBr2 159.2 g/mol.02 g 96. a.00 g 112.01 g C 1 mol CH2O2 2.11 g MgBr2 1 mol MgBr2 The molar mass of ammonium dichromate is 252. ammonium dichromate ((NH4)2Cr2O7) 1 mol (NH4)2Cr2O7 14.00 g O 1 mol O 2 mol H 1 mol CH2O2 1.00 g Cr 1 mol N 2 mol Cr 1 mol (NH4)2Cr2O7 1 mol MgBr2 24.90 g Br 1 mol Br (24. formic acid (CH2O2) 1 mol CH2O2 12.00 g O 1 mol O 112.08 g 252.31 g 1 mol Mg 1 mol MgBr2 24. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 4. What is the mass in grams of each of the following compounds.62 moles of magnesium bromide (MgBr2) .0 g Cr 7 mol O 1 mol (NH4)2Cr2O7 1 mol (NH4)2Cr2O7 16.02 g N 6 mol O 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 16. 60 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 331. Inc.53 moles of lead(II) nitrate is 838 g.11 g/mol. 4.2 g 96.00 g O 28.1 g The molar mass of magnesium bromide is 184.03 g/mol.01 g H 1 mol H 8.02 g 8.01 g 2.00 g) 331.1 g/mol.00 g O 1 mol O (207.31 g Mg 1 mol Mg 1 mol MgBr2 79.01 g C 1 mol C following quantities? a.08 g H 1 mol (NH4)2Cr2O7 52.53 moles of lead(II) nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 207.2 g Pb 2 mol N 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 14. 2.02 g 32. Determine the molar mass of each of the 9.2 g Pb(NO3)2 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 28.

03 g C 60. Determine the percent composition of each of following samples. 245 g aluminum nitrite (Al(NO2)3) 1 mol Al(NO2)3 26.48 mol Al(NO2)3 The molar mass of propanol is 60.08 g) 64.11 g/mol.01 g/mol.94% C mass percent H 13. mass percent C 59.01 g Al(NO2)3 1.01 g H 1 mol H 3 mol C 1 mol C3H8O 12. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.08 g 16. 54. Calculate the number of moles in each of the 11.94 g MnO 77.00 g O 1 mol O b.10 g/mol.94 g Mn 1 mol MnO 16.11 g C3H8O 100 8.62% O 16. 3.11 g C3H8O 100 36.01 g N 1 mol N 16. manganese oxide (MnO) 1 mol MnO 54.03 g 8.03 g 165.01 g C 1 mol C the following compounds.11 g 1 mol O 1 mol C3H8O 16.94 g 16.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 2 mol C 1 mol CaC2 12.02 g C 1 mol CaC2 40.44% H mass percent O 26.03 g N Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.08 g H 1 mol C3H8O 16.94 g Mn 1 mol Mn The molar mass of calcium carbide is 64.02 g 40.00 g O (54.00 g) 26.00 g) 70. The molar mass of manganese oxide is 70. Inc.75 g CaC2 1 mol CaC2 64.03 g C 1 mol C3H8O 8.94 g Mn mass percent Mn 100 70.0585 mol CaC2 b.98 g 42.00 g O 60.01 g The molar mass of aluminum nitrite is 165.00 g O mass percent O 100 70.00 g) 60. a. a.75 g calcium carbide (CaC2) 1 mol CaC2 24. 245 g Al(NO2)3 1 mol Al(NO2)3 165.10 g CaC2 0.98 g Al 1 mol Al(NO2)3 42.01 g C 1 mol C 1 mol Al(NO2)3 96.00 g O 1 mol O 8 mol H 1 mol C3H8O 1.08 g Ca (24.ANSWER KEY 10.94 g 1 mol O 1 mol MnO 16.94 g MnO 22.94 g/mol. propanol (C3H8O) 1 mol C3H8O 36.08 g H 60.11 g C3H8O 100 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 61 .45% Mn 16.00 g O (26.98 g Al 1 mol Al 14.10 g 1 mol Ca 1 mol CaC2 40. 3.00 g O (36.55% O 1 mol Al 1 mol Al(NO2)3 3 mol N 1 mol Al(NO2)3 6 mol O 1 mol Al(NO2)3 96.00 g O 1 mol O 1 mol Mn 1 mol MnO 54.

ANSWER KEY c.18 g 1 mol Hg 200.00 mol S The empirical formula is AlI3.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 3 mol Ca 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 b.1186 mol Al 0.93 mol S 1 mol S 32.45% sulfur Mass of Hg 80.90 g I 0.59 g Hg 1 mol O 16. and 6.000 mol S 1.2011 mol S 100 2 mol Hg : 4 mol O : 1 mol S The empirical formula is Hg2SO4.87 g O 6.93 mol S 2. What is the empirical formula for the compound? sample of a compound having the following percent composition.45 g S 80.3554 mol I 3 mol I 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 1 mol Al 0.10 g I 48.00 g O 61.97 g P 1 mol P 61.76% Ca 61.93 g 94.00-g sample: mass of S 94.94 g P 8 mol O 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 0. 120.1186 mol Al 0.30 g compound 3.87 mol H 2. a. 62 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .000 mol S 1.18 g Ca3(PO4)2 19. calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 40.30-g sample of an aluminum-iodine com- pound contains 3.97% P 128.2011 mol S 2.00 g) The molar mass of calcium phosphate is 310.24 g Ca mass percent Ca 310.18 g/mol.00 mol H 1.00 g O 1 mol S 32. 100 13. Inc. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 80. 12.4022 mol Hg 0.93 mol S 2.000 mol Al 1.68 g Hg 12.07 g S 0.94 g 128.4022 mol Hg 120.00 g O 1 mol O (120.2011 mol S 2 mol Hg 1 mol S 4 mol O 1 mol S 1 mol S 1 mol S 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 16.20 g Al 3.98 g Al 1 mol I 126.01 g H 2.8044 mol O 0.000 mol Al 2.45 g S 310.93 g H 5.1186 mol Al 0.24 g Ca 2 mol P 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 30. Determine the empirical formula for a 100.18 g Ca3(PO4)2 38.87 mol H 2 mol H 1 mol S 1 mol S 1 mol S 45.10 g I Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.07 g S 1 mol H 1.00 g O mass percent O 310.87 g O Mass of S 6.000 mol Al 1.68 g Hg Mass of O 12.00-g 1 mol Al 26.07 g mass of H 5.87% oxygen.24 g 128.00 mol S 1.94 g P mass percent P 310.93 mol S 5.000 mol Hg 1.000 mol O 1.997 mol I 1.3554 mol I 0.8044 mol O 0.27% O 0.20 g of aluminum.07 g S 5.93% hydrogen In a 100.00 mol S 1.000 mol S 100 0.20 g Al 45.000 mol S 4. A 48. 2 mol H : 1 mol S The empirical formula is H2S.2011 mol S 0. 12.1186 mol Al 3 mol I : 1 mol Al 2.2011 mol S 0. 94.07% sulfur and 5.68% mercury.18 g Ca3(PO4)2 41.

48 grams of oxygen.11 g/mol.00 The molecular formula for caffeine is (C4H5N2O)2.85 grams of nitrogen.013 mol H2O 1.013 mol H2O 0. and 5.90 g) 125.20 g H 1 mol C 12. A 50.94 g 70.11 g/mol 2.84 g MnCl2 0.000 mol O 1. 50.ANSWER KEY 14.04 g 28.05 g 16.999 mol C 1. Determine the chemical formula and name the hydrate.059 mol N 1.01 g C 1 mol C 14.059 mol N 1. If the molar mass of caffeine is 1.030 mol O 1. using the following composition of a 100. calculate its molecular formula. Inc.45 g Cl 1 mol Cl 1 mol Mn 1 mol MnCl2 54.01 g H 4. which is C8H10N4O2 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 63 .000 mol O 1.75 g MnCl2 125.15 mol H 4 mol C 1 mol O 2 mol N 1 mol O 5 mol H 1 mol O 1 mol O 1 mol O 4.00 mol O 1.19 g/mol.030 mol O 5.01 g N 1 mol N 1.84 g/mol. (48.999 mol N 1. 49.02 g H2O 4.85 g N 16. 1 mol MnCl2 31. 16.015 mol H2O 1. 4 mol C 2 mol N 5 mol H 1 mol O 12.94 g Mn 1 mol Mn 49.00 g hydrate 31.00-g sample. molar mass of compound n molar mass of empirical formula 194.119 mol C 2.00 mol H 1.030 mol O 5.75 g anhydrous compound 18.48 g O 5.94 g Mn 1 mol MnCl2 70.02 g N 5.11 g 15.01 g H 1 mol H 16. a.00 g O 1 mol O 48.47 g C 28.030 mol O 1.05 g H 16.04 g C 28. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.25 g water 1 mol MnCl2 54.030 mol O 3.47 grams of carbon.030 mol O 2.15 mol H 1.000 mol O 5.19 g/mol 97.75 g of the anhydrous compound after heating.84 g 2 mol Cl 1 mol MnCl2 35.00 g O 5.119 mol C 1.00 g O 1 mol H 1. 28. b.02 g 97.00 g) 4 mol H2O 1 mol Mn Cl2 The ratio of water to manganese dichloride is 4 : 1.01 g N 1 mol O 16.2523 mol MnCl2 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.00-g sample of hydrated manganese(II) chloride yields 31.01 g C 1 mol N 14.25 g H2O 1 mol H2O 18.000 mol O The molar mass of manganese(II) chloride is 125.2523 mol MnCl2 18.000 mol MnCl2 4 mol C : 2 mol N : 5 mol H : 1 mol O The empirical formula of caffeine is C4H5N2O.20 grams of hydrogen The molar mass of the empirical formula is 97. Caffeine is a compound found in some natural coffees and teas and in some colas. 194. Determine the empirical formula for caffeine. The chemical formula of the hydrate is MnCl2 4H2O and its name is manganese(II) chloride tetrahydrate.90 g Cl (54.

67 mol CO2 1 mol CO2 5 mol H2O Calculate the mole ratios from the balanced equation. Interpret the equation in terms of particles.04 g N2 140. b.02 g N2 1 mol N2 84.50 mol HCl 2 mol HCl 1 mol CaCl2 6H2O Because the mass of the product is equal to the total mass of the reactants. If 8.ANSWER KEY Chapter 12 1.31 g Si3N4 4. 3Si(s) 2N2(g) 0 Si3N4(s) a. mass is conserved in the reaction.27 g Si 28.00 mol CaCO3 1 mol CaCl2 6H2O 1 mol CaCO3 2 mol N2 0 1 mol Si3N4 3. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. CaCO3(s) 2HCl(aq) 5H2O(l) 0 CaCl2 6H2O(s) CO2(g) a.33 mol H2O 1. 2. Show that mass is conserved in the reaction. How many moles of calcium chloride 140. 5 mol O2 2 mol C2H2 4 mol CO2 2 mol C2H2 2 mol H2O 2 mol C2H2 64 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. This compound is used to melt ice and snow on pavements and roads. The reaction is represented by the following balanced chemical equation.00 mol CaCl2 6H2O .04 g N2 0 140. The following balanced chemical equation represents the reaction.11 g Si3N4 1 mol Si3N4 hexahydrate will be produced from 4.31 g Mass of product: 140.00 mol calcium carbonate? 56.04 g b. It is produced by the following reaction. 2C2H2(g) 5O2(g) 0 4CO2(g) 2H2O(g) c. The heat from a welder’s torch is produced by the burning of acetylene gas. and masses. 4. Particles: 3 silicon atoms 2 nitrogen molecules 0 1 formula unit silicon nitride Moles: 3 mol Si Masses: 3 mol Si 2 mol N2 1 mol Si3N4 84. How many moles of hydrogen chloride will be needed to produce 1.31 g 56. how many moles of carbon dioxide will be released? 8.25 mol of the hydrate? 1. moles.27 g Si 56.31 g Si3N4 Mass of reactants: 84.33 mol water is available for the reaction.27 g 140. Silicon nitride is used in the manufacturing of 2 mol C2H2 5 mol O2 2 mol C2H2 4 mol CO2 2 mol C2H2 2 mol H2O 4 mol CO2 5 mol O2 5 mol O2 4 mol CO2 5 mol O2 2 mol H2O 2 mol H2O 5 mol O2 2 mol H2O 4 mol CO2 4 mol CO2 2 mol H2O high-temperature thermal insulation for heat engines and turbines. Limestone (CaCO3) is treated with hydrochlo- ric acid and water to manufacture calcium chloride hexahydrate.09 g Si 1 mol si 28. Inc.25 mol CaCl2 6H2O 2.

0833 mol C 0. Two compounds of nitrogen.86 mol SiC 1 mol SiO2 60. 1 3 N2O4(l) N2(g) 4 2 N2H4(l) 0 H2O(g) 5.82 mol CrPO4 5.82 mol Cr 2 mol Cr 2 mol CrPO4 28.00 g nitrogen tetroxide and 4. If 1. limiting reactant reaction.97 g CrPO4 0. When the two compounds are mixed. some aluminum products are treated with chromium(III) phosphate before finishing. Chromium(III) phosphate (CrPO4) is commercially produced by treating chromium metal with orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4).01 g C 0. a compound used in high-strength ceramic materials. How many moles of chromium metal are carbon monoxide is released? 1.0555 mol CO 1. Balance the following equation for the b. Sand (silicon dioxide) and coke (carbon) are combined to form silicon carbide (SiC).ANSWER KEY 4.0833 mol C 0.94 mol H2 reaction. If 8. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. a. what mass of b. nitrogen tetroxide c.0555 mol CO 2 mol CO 3 mol C 5.00 g of carbon is reacted.82 mol CrPO4 5. The reaction of 206 g chromium will release how many moles of hydrogen gas? Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. What mass of silicon carbide will be better. are used as rocket fuels. To prevent corrosion and make paints adhere b.10 g SiC 1 mol SiC 5.86 mol SiC 235 g SiC reaction.96 mol Cr 5.55 g CO needed to produce 855 g of chromium(III) phosphate? 855 g CrPO4 1 mol CrPO4 146.86 mol SiO2 5. 206 g Cr 3. Inc. they ignite spontaneously and produce nitrogen gas and water.00 g C 1 mol C 12.00 g Cr 3 mol H2 2 mol Cr (N2O4) and hydrazine (N2H4). Balance the following equation for the 3. 2 3 Cr(s) H2(g) 2 2 H3PO4(aq) 0 CrPO4(s) c. Balance the following equation for the produced from the reaction of 352 g silicon dioxide? 352 g SiO2 5. 1. a.86 mol SiO2 5.09 g SiO2 1 mol SiC 1 mol SiO2 40.96 mol Cr 1 mol Cr 52.01 g CO 1 mol CO 6.00 g hydrazine are mixed. determine the following quantities. a. 1 1 SiO2(s) SiC(s) 3 2 C(s) 0 CO(g) balanced equation mole ratio 2 mol N2H4 1 mol N2O4 2 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 65 .

02 g N2 1 mol N2 0.251 2. Methane (CH4) effuses at a rate of 2.05 g/mol 39. Balance the following equation for the RateAr reaction. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.45 mol/s CO(g) 66 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .125 mol N2H4 actual mole ratio 0.006 6.27 g N2 5.321 the decomposition of nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4) into nickel and carbon monoxide.73 g Ni(CO)4 0.06 g N2H4 0.00 g N2O4 1 mol N2O4 92.25 g N2O4 92.45 mol/s. c. a.188 mol N2 3 mol N2 2 mol N2H4 28.00 g/mol Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.34 g Ni 8.02 g N2O4 1 mol N2O4 RateH2 1.57 g Ni 3. Calculate the ratio of effusion rates of oxygen (O2) to hydrogen (H2). 1 1 Ni(CO)4(g) 0 Ni(s) 4 2. mass of excess reactant 0. mass of product (N2) 0.125 mol N2H4 0.0625 mol N2O4 5. One step in the industrial refining of nickel is What will be the effusion rate of argon (Ar) under the same conditions? RateAr RateCH4 molar massCH4 molar massAr RateCH4 molar massCH4 molar massAr 16.42 5.75 g N2O4 8. Inc.44 0.0869 mol N2O4 1.0 g nickel carbonyl yielded 5. Determine the theoretical yield of nickel.146 mol Ni(CO)4 1 mol Ni 1 mol Ni(CO)4 0.02 g N2O4 b.55 mol/s 4. 25.146 mol Ni 0.125 mol N2H4 0.146 mol Ni 58.02 g/mol 32.188 mol N2 5.0869 mol N2O4 4.95 g/mol 2.00 g N2O4 5. 0. Determine the percent yield. 7. the limiting reactant is hydrazine. In a laboratory reaction. RateO2 molar massH2 molar massO2 0.125 mol N2H4 1 mol N2O4 2 mol N2H4 Chapter 13 1.57 g Ni Because the actual mole ratio is less than the balanced equation mole ratio.146 mol Ni(CO)4 0.657 2. 25. percent yield actual yield theoretical yield 100 62.00 g N2H4 1 mol N2H4 32.3% 100 2.34 g nickel.69 g Ni 1 mol Ni 8.ANSWER KEY 8.45 mol/s 1.0625 mol N2O4 0.75 g N2O4 2.0 g Ni(CO)4 1 mol Ni(CO)4 170.

25 mol/s)2 2. 2 atm.2 g/mol molar massunknown molar massH2S molar massunknown molar massH2S molar massH2S (N2) and oxygen (O2) if the partial pressure of N2 is 594 mm Hg and the partial pressure of O2 is 165 mm Hg? Ptotal PN 2 PO 2 594 mm Hg 759 mm Hg 165 mm Hg (RateH2S)2 (Rateunknown)2 7. Suppose that 5-mL containers of helium (He).56 partial pressure of water vapor in the sample is 2. The vapor pressure of water is 2.8 kPa 101. a. A sample of air is collected at 101. What is the vapor pressure of water at this temperature expressed in atmospheres? 2.501 mm Hg 1. respectively.1 kPa.50 mol/s.9 mm Hg 1 kPa 7.9 mm Hg 1 torr 1 mm Hg 12.25 mol/s. Inc. kilopascal 12.25 1. What is the pressure of a mixture of nitrogen is 1. Another gas under similar conditions effuses at a rate of 1.ANSWER KEY 3. What is the molar mass of the second gas? RateH2S Rateunknown (RateH2S)2 (Rateunknown)2 molar massunknown 34.9 mm Hg. atmosphere 12. What is the partial pressure of He in the Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. The effusion rate of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) 6.9 torr 8.3 kPa 1 atm 101. what is the partial pressure of the dry air? Ptotal Pdry air Pdry air Ptotal Pwater vapor Pwater vapor 2.3 kPa 2.3 10 2 atm Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 67 . torr 12.72 kPa 1 atm 6 atm 5.9 mm Hg 1 atm 760 mm Hg 1. container after the three gases are mixed? 1 atm b. If the (1. and 3 atm.1 kPa 98. What is the total pressure in the container after the three gases are mixed? Ptotal PHe PNe 2 atm PAr 3 atm c.50 mol/s)2 (1.09 g/mol 49.3 kPa at 23°C.09 g/mol 34. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. a. The He and Ne are then added to the container of Ar. The pressure of a gas in a manometer is 12.70 10 2 atm b. neon (Ne).8 kPa.3 kPa 4. and argon (Ar) are at pressures of 1 atm. Express this value in each of the following units.

25-L container has a pressure of 164 kPa. If the temperature is the same in both places.0 L)(284 K) 306 K 2780 L 246 kPa 7.ANSWER KEY Chapter 14 1. what will be the new volume of the balloon? P1V1 6. A natural gas tank is constructed so that the 2. What would the volume be on a warm day when the temperature is 11°C? V1 T1 V2 .0 L is 5.0°C. A 50. and the original pressure was 93. 92.25 L) 1. P2 P1V1 . If the pressure remains constant.0°C) and a pressure of 1800 psi.0-mL sample of gas is cooled from 119°C 3. P2 V2 (93.0 L)(293 K) 10. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. the volume of gas in the tank was determined to be 3000. If the gas is transferred to a 6. what is the new air pressure in the pump if the temperature stays constant? P1V1 P2V2.7 L P2V2.0 dm3)(291 K) 18. T2 V1 (6.80 dm3) 101. Inc.0-L cylinder. at what Celsius temperature would it have to be stored in order for the pressure to remain at 1800 psi? V1 T1 V2 .5 kPa)(480 mL) 375 mL perature (20.0-L cylinder of gas is stored at room tem- (92. The balloon in then taken to a second city at a much higher altitude. V2 P2 (101 kPa)(6. What will the new pressure be if the volume of the container is reduced to 1.5 kPa.0 dm3 517 K 6. On a hot day when the temperature was 33°C. If the original temperature was 18. V2 T2 V1T2 .50 L pressure remains constant.0 kPa)(5.0 L. P2 P1V1 . In one city. what volume will the same gas occupy at 101. V2 T1 (50. V2 P1V1 .0 mL)(353 K) 392 K Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0 L) 91 kPa gas is increased from 18.0 dm3 to 32. If 5.0 kPa. A 10. T2 V1 (32. If the volume of an air pump used to inflate a football decreases from 480 mL to 375 mL. a balloon with a volume of 6. what is the new temperature in degrees Celsius? V1 T1 V2 . V2 P2 5. the volume of a filled with air at 101 kPa pressure. V2 T2 V1T2 .T T2 2 V2T1 . A certain mass of gas in a 2. atmospheric pressure is only 91 kPa.27 dm3 45.80 dm3 of gas is collected at a pressure of to 80.0 mL 8. V2 P1V1 .0 L 176 K 97°C 120 kPa 68 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .0 dm3 by heating it. P2 V2 (164 kPa)(2.50 L and the temperature stays constant? P1V1 P2V2. Maintaining constant pressure.0°C.3 kPa 4.T T2 2 244°C V2T1 . At this second city.3 kPa if the temperature stays constant? P1V1 P2V2. V2 T1 (3000. what is the final volume of the gas? V1 T1 V2 .

What will the pressure be if the temperature is raised to 47°C? P1 T1 P2 .T T2 2 T1P2 . What volume is occupied by 0. A tank for compressed gas has a maximum safe pressure limit of 850 kPa. What is the highest temperature in degrees Celsius the tank can withstand safely? P1 T1 P2 . V nRT . it was found that the pres- sure of the gas inside was 160 kPa when the container had been heated to 98°C. The balloon is then taken into a decompression chamber where the volume is measured as 2.60 g H2 gas will occupy at STP.0 K) 298 K 16. How many moles of a gas will occupy 2. A steel cylinder is filled with a gas at a temper- ature of 25.0°C. P1 V1T2 919 kPa 11.5 K)(2.P T2 2 P1T2 .5°C.60 g 2.78 mol.5 kPa at 23°C.50 L)(285 K) P1 T1 P2 .0°C.31 L kPa/mol K)(284 K) 98. Its volume under these conditions is 12.112 mol 140 kPa 12. A weather balloon contains 14.0 L)(294 K) (1.50 L) 14. P1 T2 (160 kPa)(323 K) 371 K 15. what is the pressure inside the can if it is heated to 298°C? P1 T1 P2 . If this had been stored in a 1.4 L 1 mol 1. what must the pressure in the cylinder have been? P1V1 T1 P2V2 . A balloon is filled with gas at a pressure of 148.4 L 0.02 g/mol 22.78 mol 17.50-L cylinder at 21. (95.9 L Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 69 . a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.3 kPa)(12.5 kPa and a temperature of 12.0 L of helium at 602 K 330°C a pressure of 95. 39.5 kPa)(14.580 mol of gas at 98. P2 T2 P1V1T2 . P2 T1 (225. T2 P1 (301 K)(850 kPa) 425 kPa (102.0 kPa. what is the pressure in the chamber? P1V1 T1 P2V2 . Inc. The pressure gauge reads 425 kPa when the temperature is 28°C.4 kPa and 11°C? PV nRT. P1 T2 P2V2T1 .5 kPa)(571 K) 296 K 286 kPa 102.5 L)(309 K) (318.3 kPa and a temperature of 45.P T2 2 P1T2 . Calculate the volume that 3.n 22.5 L. If the temperature is 36.50 L at STP? n V(1 mol) . P2 T1V2 496 kPa 10.9 L 242 kPa 1.0 kPa)(320. P V (0.0°C.0°C and a pressure of 225.ANSWER KEY 9. P2 T1 (148.P T2 1 P2T1 .50 L)(1 mol) 22. In a steel container.50 L.4 kPa 13.580 mol)(8. What had been the pressure of the gas when the temperature had been 50°C the previous day? Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. If the gas pressure in an aerosol can is 13. m M n V 3.4 L (2.

4 g/mol (142 g)(8.85g/L at 101 kPa pressure and 29°C? 25.181 mol 23.6 kPa? PV M mRT .0 kPa. P (2. V nRT . 2 volumes H2 2 volumes H2O 8 L H2 24.M M mRT .85 g/L)(8.4 g (44 g/mol)(108 kPa)(1.7°C? m MPV .35 L) (8. What is the molar mass of a sample of gas that 0. How many moles of the gas was present? PV n nRT.31 L kPa/mol K)(301. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 3. P 2H2(g) (8 L H2O) O2(g) 0 2H2O(g). How many grams of gas are present in a sample that has a molar mass of 44 g/mol and occupies a 1.50 g of silver.31 L kPa/mol K)(302 K) 101 kPa 70. Determine the volume of hydrogen gas needed to make 8 L of water vapor.8-L container at 108 kPa and 26. Calculate the volume of chlorine gas at STP (14.500 L H2) 0. the gas vaporized and the resulting pressure inside the container was 170. 20. 3Fe(s) 4H2O(l) 0 Fe3O4(s) 1 mol H2 22.1 L) 83.366 L Cl2 has a density of 2.4 L Cl2 1 mol Cl2 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.50 g Ag 1 mol Ag 107 g Ag 1mol Cl2 2 mol Ag 22.7 K) 70 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .934 g Fe 21. n PV .31 L kPa/mol K)(321 K) 550 kPa 67.8 g Fe 1 mol Fe (0. PV (94. An engineer wishes to design a container that will hold 14.4°C and 94.6 kPa 45. What is the minimum volume the container can have? PV V nRT.m RT 3. Use the reaction shown to calculate the mass of M M DRT .35 L and heated to 105°C.500 L of hydrogen at STP. What is the molar mass of a gas if 142 g of the container with a volume of 3.0 mol of gas at a pressure no greater than 550 kPa and a temperature of 48°C.4 L H2 3 mol Fe 4 mol H2 4H2(g) 55.8 g/mol iron that must be used to obtain 0.0 mol)(8.0 kPa)(3.8 L) (8. Inc. 19.9 L that is required to completely react with 3.ANSWER KEY 18.31 L kPa/mol K)(299. When a sample of a gas was placed in a sealed 22.1 L at 28. RT gas occupies a volume of 45.4 K) (170. using the following equation: 2Ag(s) + Cl2(g) 0 2AgCl(s).31 L kPa/mol K)(378 K) 0.

75 atm. mass of solution mass of solute mass of solvent mass of solvent mass of solution 500.27 g/L 92.5 g 342.80 atm 0.0 g) 100% mass of solute 157.00 L of water at a pressure of 1.24 atm mass of solvent Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 71 .0 g mass of solute 157.75 g/L)(1.27 g/L mass of solute mass of solution 0.25 g/L 3. 0. What 4.00 L of water if the temperature remains constant? S1 P1 P2 P2 S2 P2 P1 S2 S1 P1 m2/V m1/V 2. 5.75 g 3.80 atm and the same temperature? S1 P1 S2 S2 S2 P2 S1 P2 P1 0.5 g (H2O) 2. What mass of the gas dissolves in 1. At what pressure will 2. Inc.00 L of water.3 g 100% 0.0 atm 0. The solubility of a gas is 0.75 atm) 1.00 g of the gas dissolve in 2. Find the mass of hydrogen peroxide in the S2 P2 S1 m V SV (0.25 g of a gas dissolves in 1.3 g 1092. a.0 atm 1.0 g-sample of aqueous hydrogen perox- ide (H2O2) contains 31.56 g b.45% 2.3 g of is its solubility at a pressure of 0.0 atm? S1 P1 S2 S m m Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.56 g of a gas dissolves in 2. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.50% H2O2 by mass.75 g/L solution. Find the mass of water in the solution.0 g of water? mass of solution mass of solute mass of solvent mass of solution Percent by mass 1000.00 g (1. Percent by mass Mass of solute percent by mass 100% 31.50% (500.3 g (100%) 1092.0 atm potassium fluoride (KF) dissolved in 1000.0 atm. What is the percent by mass of 92.00 L of water at 25°C and 3.34 g/L at STP. 1.00 L) P2 P1 0.3 g Percent by mass 8.5 g (H2O2) mass of solute mass of solution 100% mass of solution 0.ANSWER KEY Chapter 15 1. A 500. At 25°C and 1.34 g/L 1.0 g 92.

34 g C12H22O11 sample of the solution. An aqueous solution of methanol is 45.5000M NaCl Molarity 7.0-mL that contains 156.4999 mol NaCl/L 0.205 L 2.7000 L volume of solute volume of solution 100% Molarity moles of solute liters of solution 0.0 mL Percent by volume 33. If 24.0 mL 48.50M solution of potas- sium iodide (KI) contains what mass of KI? Molarity moles of solute liters of solution liters of solution b.7000 L 0. volume of solution volume of solute volume of solvent volume of solution 72. Find the volume of water in this sample of the solution. (156.0 mL of methanol (CH3OH) is dissolved 8. Calculate the molarity of 0. Find the volume of methanol in a 250.44 g NaCl 0.3% 24. A 0. determine the percent by volume of methanol in the solution.0 mL) 100% volume of solute 113 mL (methanol) volume of solution 100% 0.5 g of sucrose (C12H22O11).45 g of sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolved in 700.3499 mol NaCl 0.50 mol Kl/L)(0.0 mL 20.600-L sample of a 2.0 mL 113 mL 137 mL (water) volume of solute moles of solute molarity (2.600 L) moles of solute 1.0 mL of solution? (20.4571 mol C12H22O11 2.50 mol Kl) 1 mol Kl 249 g Kl volume of solvent 72 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .0% (250.0 mL Percent by volume 24. Inc. volume of solution volume of solute volume of solvent volume of solvent volume of solution 250.0% 9.0 mL of water.3499 mol NaCl 1L 1000 mL 0. Molarity 10.0 mL (100%) 72.23 mol C12H22O11/L 0.23M C12H22O11 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. a.205 L of a solution methanol by volume.50 mol Kl 1.ANSWER KEY 6.4571 mol C12H22O11 Molarity moles of solute liters of solution 0. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.0 mL) 1 mol NaCl 58.45 g NaCl) (700. What is the molarity of a solution that contains in 48.5 g C12H22O11) 1 mol C12H22O11 342. Percent by volume volume of solute volume of solution Volume of solute percent by volume 100% 45.66 g Kl (1.

74 mol HNO3 29.74 mol 29.46 g NH4Cl 0. Find the mole fraction of nitric acid in the solution.827 mol C10H8 485 g CCl4 Dilute 19 mL 2.00M 19 mL tains 106 g naphthalene (C10H8) dissolved in 3. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.4 mol XHNO3 0.485 kg 0.50 g NH4Cl 1 mol NH4Cl (225 g) Molality moles of solute kilograms of solvent 0. Inc. What mass of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 14.20 mol NH4Cl/L)(0. Calculate the molality of a solution that con- 0.30M (125 mL) 2.00M solution of CuSO4? M1V1 V1 M2V2 M V2 2 M1 0.02 g HNO3 6.0 mL.30M solution of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) from a 2.485 kg 1.74 g MnBr2 0.ANSWER KEY 11. (3.0850 L (MnBr2) is dissolved in 225 g of water.00M CuSO4 solution to 125 mL with water.102 mol NH4Cl 53.624 mol MnBr2 1 kg 1000 g 0.0 mL of a 1.225 kg 2. What is the molarity of the diluted solution? M1V1 M2 M2V2 M1 V1 V2 (12M) 22.102 mol NH4Cl) 5.185 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 73 .15 mol CCl4) (485 g) 1 kg 1000 g 13.7 mol H2O 1 mol H2O 18. A solution is made by dissolving 425 g of nitric acid (HNO3) in 535 g of water.18 g C10H8 153. A mass of 134 g of manganese dibromide would you use to prepare 85. (425 g HNO3) (535 g H2O) XHNO3 1 mol HNO3 63.02 g H2O nHNO3 nH2O nHNO3 6.0 mL 1200.15 mol carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).827 mol C10H8 10.77m MnBr2 Molality 12.624 mol MnBr2 0.0-mL sample of 12M H2SO4 is diluted to a volume of 1200. How would you correctly prepare 125 mL of a 15.0850 L) moles of solute (0.0 mL Molality moles of solute kilograms of solvent 0.81 g CCl4 1 mol CCl4 0. What is the molality of the solution? (134 g MnBr2) 1 mol MnBr2 214. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.7 mol 6.0 mL) Molarity 1L 1000 mL 0.74 mol 6. (106 g C10H8) 1 mol C10H8 128.22M H2SO4 16.225 kg moles of solute liters of solution moles of solute molarity liters of solution (1.20M solution NH4Cl? (85. A 22.71m C10H8 Molality 0.74 mol 36.

55°C) 238 K In the reaction. 2H2O(g) NO(g) 0 NO2(g) O2(g) G G G H T S [298 K ( 4. For the combustion of 8. G H T S The entropy for the reaction is the entropy of the product minus the entropies of the reactants. From the following data at 25°C.76 kJ/mol 238 K 1000 J 1 kJ 83. O3(g) calculate H at 25°C for the reaction below.9 J/mol K) (1 mol SO3 256. Determine S for the reaction 6. G ( ) ( ) Because the free energy can only be negative.1 J/K .3 J/mol K The enthalpy is negative and the entropy is positive. H° S° 199 kJ 4. H 20. The result is From the following data. Calculate the amount of heat released in the 4. S (1 mol H2SO4 156. Therefore. liquid and gaseous HI exists in equilibrium. the reaction will be spontaneous at all temperatures.9 given the following entropies.1 J/K) 1 kJ/1000 J] 199 kJ 198 kJ 2 (185 kJ) 1 ( 483. H2(g) 2H2(g) 4HCl(g) Cl2(g) 0 2HCl(g) O2(g) 0 2H2O(g) O2(g) 0 2Cl2(g) H H 185 kJ 483. When will the reaction be spontaneous? Spontaneity is determined from the free energy.17 g Al 1 mol Al/27. 74 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.8 70. According to Hess’s law. calculate the G° in kJ for the reaction at 25°C and determine whether the reaction is spontaneous.2 kJ and S 43. the total energy of this reaction is 3360 kJ.0 J/mol K) 169. the final reaction can be obtained by reversing the first reaction and multiplying it by 2. 2 mol Al2O3 is produced. Entropy (J/mol K) 256.0 g Al 254 kJ. Compound SO3(g) H2O(l) H2SO4(l) S(s) 0 H2S(g). Hvap T G T S S 19. Inc. Hf° for Al2O3(s) 1680 kJ/mol. HI(l) 7 HI(g) Hvap 19. 34. When the free energy is negative.0 156. 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) liquid hydrogen iodide at its boiling point. The enthalpy of formation is 1680 kJ/mol. Calculate the molar entropy of vaporization for complete combustion of 8. 8. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. then adding the resulting equation to the second equation.7 kJ 5. ( 3360 kJ/4 mol) 273 K H H H T 19.76 kJ/mol At the boiling point. This produces the enthalpy for the final reaction.17 g of Al. the reaction will be spontaneous.17 g of Al to form Al2O3(s) at 25°C and 1 atm.76 kJ/mol Tc T S 273 K ( 34. Therefore.1 J/K. The reaction is spontaneous. For the reaction H2(g) SO3(g) H2O(l) 0 H2SO4(l).2 J/mol K) (1 mol H2O 70.ANSWER KEY Chapter 16 1. Ozone (O3) in the atmosphere may react with nitric oxide (NO).55°C.7 kJ) 114 kJ. The final reaction is related to the two reference reactions. G 0.0 J/mol K 2. 3.

8 kJ Hf°reactants If S 75.7 g Fe2O3 ( 824.5 kJ/mol)] ( 511.5 kJ/mol)] ( 110.6 Sreactants 8. How much heat is evolved in the formation of 35. Hf° 511.0 J/K 42.5 kJ/mol)] [2 mol (445. 25°C. 3O2(g) 0 2ZnO(s) 0 350.2 S° (J/mol K) H°reaction H°products S°products [2 mol [1 mol T S°reaction H°reactants S°reactants 3 mol ( 824.6 kJ reaction.6 J/mol K)] [1 mol (87.8 205. To determine the lowest temperature of spontaneity.ANSWER KEY 7.3 J/mol K] H°reaction Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.8 J/K 1000 J 1 kJ 2.6 J/mol K)] 387. SnCl4. the reaction will be spontaneous.0 g of Fe2O3(s) at 25°C and 1. 35.6 H [2 mol ( 350.8 H° (kJ/mol) 197.2 J/mol K] [2 mol 121. Hvap Hvap [1 mol Hvap Hf°products [1 mol 39. for tin(IV) chloride. the reaction will be spontaneous at high temperatures. The following reaction is nonspontaneous at 10.6 kJ 75.4 13CO(g) 0 2Fe(CO)5(g) 110.6 kJ 1 O (g) 2 2 Hvap. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.5 733.8 kJ/mol)] [2 mol ( 206.2 kJ/1 mol Fe2O3) 181 kJ ( 393. Calculate H° at 25°C for the reaction below. determine the temperature of equilibrium. Estimate the temperature at which Supplemental Problems Answer Key G 0 for 75 Chemistry: Matter and Change .8 kJ/mol) The formation of one mole of iron(III) oxide releases 824.4 J/mol K) (197.5 Hf°(kJ/mol) Hf°products Sreaction Sreaction [4 mol 133.2 J/mol K) 1125 J/K (213.4 kJ 3 mol 9. what is the lowest temperature at which the reaction will be spontaneous? A reaction is spontaneous when the free energy is negative. Calculate the G° at 298 K for the following 3CO2(g) 393. calculate S for the given reaction.3 kJ/mol)] 11.6 445.5 kJ/mol) 2 mol ( 296.2 121.2 kJ (298 K ( 1125 J/K) 13. Fe2O3(s) 824. When the enthalpy is positive and the entropy is positive. Cu2O(s) 0 2Cu(s) Hf° 168.2 kJ/mol) 387.00 atm pressure by the following reaction? 4Fe(s) Hf° (kJ/mol) 0 3O2(g) 0 2Fe2O3(s) 0 824. Hf°reactants 12.0 g Fe2O3 1 mol Fe2O3/159.0 kJ/mol) 3 mol (0 kJ/mol)] H 882. Given the following data at 298 K. H T T S H S 168.2 G°reaction H°reaction S°reaction H°reaction 13 mol S°reaction 13 mol Greaction 1 kJ/1000 J) Greaction ( 733.8 J/K.2 kJ.2 87.3 kJ/mol for SnCl4(l) and 471.3 Sproducts 42. At any temperature higher than that. Calculate the standard heat of vaporization. Inc.0 2SO2(g) 296.5 kJ/mol for SnCl4(g). 2Ag2O(s) 0 4Ag(s) S (J/mol K) Sreaction O2(g) 205. SnCl4(l) 3 SnCl4(g). At the boiling point.5 213.4 kJ 52.6 J/mol K 1 mol 2ZnS(s) 206.22 103K ( 471.

02 104 K 9.98 kJ/( 123 J/K 449°C 1 kJ/1000 J) 772 K The reaction is not spontaneous above this temperature.5 J/K At equilibrium. (Tfinal Tinitial) 10 000 J/(25. Find the temperature of equilibrium. Inc.51 kJ 15.0 kJ of heat? The specific heat of aluminum is 0.4 kJ/mol) 2 mol ( 92.31 359. H/ S 94.0-g block of aluminum absorbs 10.ANSWER KEY the following reaction.1 kJ/mol) 1 mol ( 33.60 To determine the temperature of spontaneity.8 kJ/(16.4 kJ Hreaction Hproducts Hreactants H°reaction [1 mol ( 359.4 Hf° (kJ/mol) 95.123 kJ/K 14.70 33.123 kJ/K 1000 J 1 kJ 123 J/K CH4(g) N2(g) 163.385 Spontaneity occurs at any temperature higher than 9.31 kJ/mol] 94.30 kJ/mol)] 58.1 J/K 1 kJ/1000 J) 1.0°C) 0. G H T S at G 0. the enthalpy and entropy values must be known.1 G° (kJ/mol) H2S(g) 20. 16. q T c c m q m T 98. S T S 284.70 kJ/mol) 2 mol ( 95. T T 0.897 J/g °C) 446°C 76 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 22. Greaction [1 mol ( 314. G spontaneous reaction. PbS(s) 100. Consider the reaction below at 25°C for which S 16. H T S.98 kJ 0. Copper metal has a specific heat of 0. q q c m T 22.0°C to 875°C. negative value for Equilibrium occurs when the free energy is zero. T 163.0 g 0. Get the entropy values from the free energy and the enthalpy at the standard state (T 298 K). The reaction is spontaneous at any temperature higher than equilibrium temperature.4 2HCl(g) 0 PbCl2(s) 92.60 kJ/mol)] [1 mol ( 98. How many degrees of temperature rise will occur when a 25. G 0. .4 kJ))/298 K 176 kJ/( 284.90 103°C.4 kJ/mol) 1 mol ( 20. NH3(g) H G H T H T S H/ S 1kJ/1000 J) 619 K or Greaction Gproducts Greactants HCl(g) 0 NH4Cl(s) 176 kJ. Estimate the temperature above which the 1 kJ 1000 J following reaction is not spontaneous.30 314. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.60 17.897 J/g °C.8 g (875°C 20.98 kJ S ( H G)/T ( 58.385 J/g °C 7.90 103°C J/g °C and a melting point of 1083°C.8 g of copper from 20.60 kJ/mol)] [1 mol ( 100.1 J/K.8 kJ 0 HCN(g) NH3(g) At what temperature will this reaction be spontaneous? G 0 at equilibrium.5 J/K T 346°C S ( 94.

H°reaction H°products H°reactants (1/5) (1. the value of 10 2 6H 0 [BrO3 ] t Then add the enthalpies to get the enthalpy of formation for 2C(s) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.3 kJ/mol 2858 kJ)/ 2B 0 Products. given the following data. calculate the enthalpy of formation per mole of glycine. How much body heat is used to evaporate this water? Convert the 25 mL of water to grams of water.5 kJ 1 O (g) 0 H O(l) 2 2 2 285. Increased rate k(y)(3x)2 9 (initial rate) The rate of reaction will increase by a factor of 9. 2CO2(g) H° 2C(s) H° 2H2(g) H° 2H2O(l) 0 C2H4(g) 2O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) 787. For the reaction BrO3 5Br 3Br2 1. Find the standard enthalpy of formation for eth- 20. 4C2H5O2N(s) 9O2(g) 0 8CO2(g) 10H2O(l) 2N2(g) H 3857 kJ 393.5 10 10 [Br ] t 2 mol/(L s)) 5 [Br ] t [Br ] t 2 mol/(L s) 2. Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 77 . A typical person perspires 25 mL of water after 20 minutes of exercise. C2H4(g) H° C(s) H° H2(g) H° 3O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) 1411 kJ O2(g) 0 CO2(g) 393.ANSWER KEY 18. C2H4(g).4 kJ 1. a person feels chilly because the body is giving up heat to evaporate the perspiration. Predict by what factor the rate of the reaction will increase.6 kJ 3O2(g) 1411 kJ Chapter 17 1. 25 mL 25 g 1 g/1 mL 2404 J/g 25 g 1kJ 1000 J 60 kJ Use Hess’s law and rearrange the equations to get the equation for the formation of ethylene from elemental carbon and hydrogen.8 kJ 2H2O(l) evaporate 1 g of water. mol/(L s) at a particular time. While holding the concentration of A constant. A 3857 kJ [8 mol ( 393.0 kJ O2(g) 0 2H2O(l) 571. k(y)(x)2 k(y)(x)2(3)2 Initial rate k[A][B]2 [A] does not change but [B] triples. Glycine is important for biological energy.5 kJ/mol) 10 mol ( 285. Rate k[A][B]2. At body temperature.8 kJ/mol) 2 mol 0 kJ/mol] [4 mol ( H glycine) 9 mol 0 kJ/mol] H glycine ( 3857 kJ 3148 kJ 4 mol 537. [Br ] What is the value of at the same t instant? 2H2(g) 0 C2H4(g) H 52. Inc. the concentration of B was increased from x to 3x. Let x [B] and y [A] initially.5 kJ/mol and Given that Hf° CO2(g) Hf° H2O(l) 285. After vigorous exercise. Multiply by the appropriate coefficients. The [BrO3 ] t combustion of glycine is given by the following equation.5 3H2O. The reaction.5 7.8 kJ/mol. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. was found to have the rate law. 2404 J is required to ylene.5 10 2 mol/(L s) 19.

0]1[0.005 5.30]n(2)n k[0.010]n k[0. For the hypothetical reaction A B0 Products.30 0.5)m(Rate 1) Rate 3 k[0.020 0.2 0. 6.10 0. Test 1 2 3 [A] (M) 0. H2O2 OH HOI I 0 HOI H H 0 H2O I 0 I2 H2O OH Rate 1 0.00 (Rate 2) (Rate 1) (2.5)m m 1 (Rate 3) (Rate 1) 0. Consider a chemical reaction involving compounds A and B that is found to be first order in A and second order in B.005 0.5 L mol 1 Identify all intermediates included in this reaction.10]m[0.6]2 1. m 2 . a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.5)n n 2 Substitute m and n to get Rate k[A]1[B]2.020]n Rate 2 k[0. Rate 1 k[0.5)m[0.00 2.5)n(Rate 1) (Rate 2) (Rate 1) 0.10]m(2)m[0.25 (0.020]n k(1.010]m[0.010 Rate (mol/(L hr)) 0.5)n (0.20]m[0.10]m[0.5)n[0.10 ? Initial [A] (M) 1.20 (1.020 (0.0 k[1.020 0.10 0.30]n(3)n 10 10 5 5 Rate 2 k[0.30]n k[0. the rate law expression is Rate k[H2O2][I ].90]n (2)m(3)n(Rate 1) (2)n n=1 (2)m(3)n (2)m(3)1 (2)m 4 k[A]2[B]1 (Rate 3) (Rate 1) 12 (1.5)m What is the rate equation for this reaction? Rate 1 k[0.20 0.010 [B] (M) 0.90 Initial Rate of Loss of A (mol/(L s)) 1.20 10 10 10 5 5 4 Experiment 1 2 3 What is the rate law expression for this reaction? Set up the rate equation for all three tests.015]m[0.0)(0.60]n (2)n(Rate 1) Rate 3 k[0.0 2. The following mechanism has been suggested.04) k 2. s 1[2.030 0.00 mol/(L s)) mol/(L s)) 4 5 2 10 10 mol/(L s)) mol/(L s)) 12 1.5)m (1.010]m[0. The intermediates are OH and HOI.020 (1.5 (1.2]2 Initial [B] (M) 0.10]m[0.ANSWER KEY 3. 2A 3B 0 Products Initial Initial [A] (M) [B] (M) 0.010]m(0.00 1. Inc.020]n (1.00 (1.015 0.6 4. For the chemical reaction H2O2 2H 2I 0 I2 2H2O.60 0.030 0.0]1[0.020 0. What will the reaction rate be for experiment 2? Experiment 1 2 Rate (mol/(L s)) 0.5 L mol 1 s 1 Rate 2 2.010 0.8 mol/(L s) 78 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.10 mol/(L s) k(1. Consider the following rate data for the reac- tion below at a particular temperature. the following initial rates of reaction have been measured for the given reactant concentrations.5)n Rate 0.020]n (0.010]m[0.

S2O8 2 3I 0 2SO4 [S2O82 2 I3 Initial Rate (M) (mol/(L s)) 0. 2 40 kJ (2)m(0.40 0.40]n k[0.4 mol/(L s)) 10 5) 100 kJ (0. Inc. Explain what the numbers in the diagram represent.20 0.40 0.0 10 4 mol/(L s) k[0.10]m(2)m[0.10]m(2)m[0.5)n(Rate 1) (Rate 2) (Rate 1) (2.0 8.4 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0 1.20 Initial Rate of Formation of C (mol/(L s)) 2.10]2[0.10 0. 9.10 0.10]m[0.20 0.40]n 2.5)n 5 Energy (kJ) (Rate 3) (Rate 1) 1 10 (1.40]n (2)m(Rate 1) k[0.6 10 10 10 4 4 3 Experiment 1 2 3 ] (M) I Experiment 1 2 3 0. What is the overall reaction order for this reaction? The reaction is first order in A and second order in B. 2(0.4 2.20 L2 mol 2 s 1 2. This reaction will be exothermic with a loss of 100 kJ energy.20]m[0.0 10 1 L2 mol 2 s 1 k[0. what happens to the rate if the concentration of B is increased by a factor of 2? The rate will increase by a factor of 4. the rate relationship is found to be Rate k[A][B]2.5)n (1.5)n n 1 Rate 0. For the reaction A B 0 C. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.20 1. The data below were determined for the 10.20 What is the rate equation for this reaction? Rate 1 Rate 2 Rate 3 k[0.20 0. (2)2 4 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 79 . The following figure shows the energy diagram (2)m m 1 mol/(L s)) mol/(L s)) of some reactants changing into products. Initial Initial [A] (M) [B] (M) 0.ANSWER KEY 7.10] k 0.5 k[S2O82 ][I ] Reaction progress The reaction has an activation energy of 40 kJ and an overall energy change of reaction of 100 kJ. Calculate the specific rate constant for the reac- following reaction.4 10 10 5 5 11.20]m[0.4 10 10 10 5 5 5 tion A B 0 C. (1 2 3) This is a third-order reaction.8 (1.40]n(0.5)n (2)m(0.8 1. when the rate expression is Rate k[A]2[B]. For the rate law expression Rate k[A][B]2.10 0.20]n k[0. 8.10 0.

Intermediate b is formed during the rate-determining step. Write equilibrium expressions for the following reactions. Rate k[AB][C2] O2(g) 3 2NO2(g) produces the following concentrations: [NO] 3. the reactants are dominant.80M.49 10 4M. which is rate determining. At 793 K. At 773 K. 2. 4HCl(g) Keq O2(g) 3 2Cl2(g) 2H2O(g) [Cl2]2[H2O]2 [HCl]4[O2] The reaction can be expressed as X Y 0 Z R. would the reactants or products be dominant? When the equilibrium constant is less than 1. What is the rate law expression for the following mechanism? Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 AB B AC2 A2C2 C2 0 AC2 AB 0 AB2 AB2 0 A2C2 B2 0 A2C B2 B2C B slow fast fast fast were less than 1. Explain what this diagram tells you about the reaction. If the equilibrium constant for this reaction 14. c. a. The following figure shows the potential energy diagram for a reaction. the reaction 2NO(g) Use the slow step. PCl5(g) 3 PCl3(g) Keq [Cl2][PCl3] [PCl5] Cl2(g) 13. Do products or reactants dominate in this equilibrium? Products dominate in this equilibrium. CuSO4 3H2O(s) 2H2O(g) 3 used to determine the rate expression for a chemical reaction A 2B 0 AB2. The reaction is exothermic. The forward reaction has an activation energy of a.3. 3. b. Explain how the following mechanism can be d.ANSWER KEY 12. [O2] 0. The reverse reaction has an activation energy of c d. NH4HS(g) 3 NH3(g) H2S(g) a c Keq [NH3][H2S] [NH4HS] X Y Z Reaction progress d R b. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Two units of B are involved. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 B B2 B B 0 B2 A 0 AB AB 0 AB2 B slow fast fast CuSO4 5H2O(s) Keq 1 [H2O]2 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. so the reaction will be second order in B. The overall reaction order for this reaction is second order. 80 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key . b Potential energy Chapter 18 1. [NO2] 0.25M. a. Inc. The reaction releases energy d. The rate expression is then Rate k[B]2. tion NCl3(g) Cl2(g) 3 NCl5(g) is 39. the equilibrium constant for the reac- The slow step is the rate-determining step and is responsible for the rate.

CO2(g) H2(g) 3 CO(g) H2O(g) a. C(s) CO2(g) 3 2CO(g) Temperature increase favors the reverse reaction. or lower the concentration of CO(g). H2(g) Decrease the volume to increase CO2 production. Give the reason for your choice. or remove SO3 or NO as they are formed. This decreases the pressure and so favors the reaction in which more moles are formed. 2O2(g) 3 CO(g) 2H2O heat d. decreasing the volume of the reaction vessel would yield more product at equilibrium. c. Heat CH4(g) 3 C(s) 2H2(g) Temperature increase favors the forward reaction. What is the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction? Keq [NO2]2 [NO]2[O2] b. 2SO3(g) 3 2SO2(g) O2(g) b. This decreases the pressure and so favors the reaction in which more moles are formed. Keq [0. d. N2(g) 3H2(g) 3 2NH3(g) heat 5. The reaction that moves to the left consumes heat and so would relieve this stress.49 10 4]2[0. For each reaction.ANSWER KEY a. CH4(g) 2O2(g) 3 CO2(g) 2H2O(g) Solution: Substituting the equilibrium values into the expression and solving gives the Keq. Br2(g) 3 2HBr(g) 6. c.25]2 [3. Add CO2 or H2. Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 81 .4 105 c. Temperature increase favors the forward reaction. which concentrations would you lower or raise? a. What is the equilibrium constant for the Increase the volume to increase SO2 and O2 production.4 105 Because the same number of moles are on both sides of the reaction. The reaction that moves to the right consumes heat and so would relieve this stress. N2O4(g) 3 2NO2(g) Increase the volume to increase NO2 production.80] 6. a. state whether increasing or Temperature increase favors the reverse reaction. reaction? Keq 6. or remove CO or H2O as they are formed. If you wished to maximize the products of the following reactions. or remove HBr as it is formed. d. The reaction that moves to the left consumes heat and so would relieve this stress. This forces the equilibrium to the side with the fewer number of moles. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Heat H2(g) I2(g) 3 2HI(g) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. increasing or decreasing the volume of the reaction vessel has no effect on the product yield. 2CO(g) O2(g) 3 2CO2(g) 4. The reaction that moves to the right consumes heat and so would relieve this stress. SO2(g) NO2(g) 3 SO3(g) NO(g) b. What effect would an increase in temperature Add H2 or Br2. Raise the concentration of CO2(g). CH4(g) Add SO2 or NO2. There are fewer moles of products than of reactants. Inc. have on these reactions at equilibrium? Why? b.

[Ag ] 2s. H2CO3 H2CO3(aq) HCO3 (aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O (aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O (aq) HCO3 (aq).16 10 10 3. [PCl3] Keq [PCl5] [Cl2] 1. 4.00 10 2M 10 3) (1.ANSWER KEY 7. aluminum and hydrochloric acid 2Al(s) 6HCl(aq) 0 2AlCl3(aq) 3H2(g) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid 2KOH(aq) H2SO4(aq) 0 K2SO4(aq) 2H2O(l) Write the steps in the complete ionization of the following polyprotic acids. (2s)2(s) s3 3.2 10 5.) b.00) (3.2 10 5 3. s 1. The solubility product constant (Ksp ) of 2HNO3(aq) Na2CO3(s) 0 2NaNO3(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g) Ag2SO4 is 1. (This is in good agreement with the estimate. How would you estimate the molar solubility of SO42 without actually calculating it? Answer: Write the solubility equilibrium equation and the solubility product expression for Ag2SO4. Phosphorous pentachloride decomposes to b. 2M Chapter 19 Write balanced chemical equations for each of the following reactions that involve acids and bases.4 10 2 concentration of PCl3.00M and [Cl2] 3. Inc.16 10 2) 2.2 10 5 Solution: Keq [PCl3] [PCl3][Cl2] . Write the expression for determining the of SO42 ? Answer: Solubility Solution: There are two Ag ions for every SO42 ion.00 3. Let s equal [SO42 ]. a.16 (1.16 10 2M. nitric acid and sodium carbonate 8. At equilibrium. the estimate would be the cube root or about 10 1 to 10 2. What is the equilibrium concentration of PCl3? Use: Keq Answer: [PCl3] Solution: 1. [PCl5] 1. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Substitute known concentrations and calculate [PCl3]. 82 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key . CO32 (aq) Ksp is about 10 5. solving for [PCl3] gives [PCl5] Keq [PCl5] [Cl2] Take the cube root of both sides. Substitute these terms into the Ksp expression and solve for s. What is the calculated molar solubility phosphorous trichloride according to this equation: PCl5(g) 3 PCl3(g) Cl2(g). Ag2SO4(s) 3 2Ag (aq) Ksp [Ag ]2[SO42 ] SO42 (aq) 1.0 4s3 10 6 [SO42 ] 1. 1.4 10 2 [SO42 ]. [PCl3] 3. a.

What is the pH of a 1.17 10 3 mol HNO3 : 3. What is its pOH? 14 5 9 6.50M solution of HCl.127M A solution has a [H ] of 5.100M nitric acid solution? 10 6M.17 10 3 mol KOH/0.8 10 9M 13. What is its [OH ]? 1. Inc. What is its pOH? 14.8 10 8) [H ] 7.7 11. H2BO3 (aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O (aq) HBO32 (aq). a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.21 1.17 10 12M.56 6. 0.6 10 6) 5.00 7.7 mL of a 0. What is the pH of a 0.50 0. strong acid? pH log 0. What is its pOH? 14. 15. What is its [OH ]? 1. KOH(aq) HNO3(aq) 0 KNO3(aq) H2O(l).0 10 5) 17. a strong base? 10. What is its pH? log(5.6 10 10 14 6 8. HBO32 (aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O (aq) BO33 (aq) 14.30 2.0 1. What is the molarity of a KOH solution if 25.7 11. so 3. What is its [H ]? 1.0 3. pH log (6.00 5.17 10 3 mol HNO3.25 8.0 10 9M 16.6 10 6M 7. H3BO3 H3BO3(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O (aq) H2BO3 (aq). What is its pH? log(2.6 9.6 10 10 14 6 1.8 10 8M Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.5 10 10 10 14 3 12) 6.75 A solution has a pH of 5.5 10 3M solution of NaOH.79. What is its pH? log(1.56 1.0 mL of it is neutralized by 31.0250 L KOH 0. 19. What is its [OH ]? 1.0 10 10 14 5 10 5M.0 5.79 8.100 mol HNO3/L HNO3 3.79) 5 1.0 5. What is its pOH? 14.0317 L HNO3 0.ANSWER KEY 5. A solution has a [H ] of 1.00 1.44 20.17 10 3 mol KOH.0 1. mol HNO3 : mol KOH 1:1.6 12.25 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 83 . 3.3 10 9M 18. a A solution has a [OH ] of 3.0 6. What is its [H ]? antilog( 5.6 10 10 14 7 10 7M.

A 25. Zn(NO3)2 5 2KOH(aq) H2SO4(aq) 0 K2SO4 (aq) 2H2O(l).0100 mol Ca(OH)2/L Ca(OH)2 5. Inc. H2O2 1 10. so 6. Mg3P2 3 23.0274 mol KOH.4 mL of 1. 0.14 10 3 mol HCl : 6. ClO3 5 Chapter 20 Determine the oxidation number of the boldface element in these ions. 0.00 10 3 mol HBr.7 mL of the standard solution? NaOH(aq) HCl(aq) 0 NaCl(aq) H2O(l).0456 L HBr 0. During a titration.200 mol HCl/L HCl 6.0274 mol KOH : 0. 1.0200 L NaOH 0. A 50.200M HCl is added to a NaOH solution of unknown concentration. mol Ca(OH)2 : mol HBr 1:2.00 10 3 mol HBr/0.14 10 3 mol HCl.0100M Ca(OH)2 is neu- 8.0-mL sample of 0. so 5.0137 mol H2SO4. 0.0137 mol H2SO4/0. HgCl4 3 Balance the following equations. MnO2 4 4. 6.0500 L Ca(OH)2 0.0219M 9. NO2 4 H2(g) 0 2Cu(s) 2( 1) 2 H2O(l) Cu2O(s) H2(g) 0 2Cu(s) H2O(l) 84 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .307M 3.14 10 3 mol NaOH. tralized by 45.6 mL of HBr.00 10 4 mol Ca(OH)2 : 1.0 mL of it is neutralized by 30.14 10 3 mol NaOH/0.00 10 4 mol Ca(OH)2. What is the concentration of the NaOH solution if 20. 11. mol KOH : mol H2SO4 2:1.ANSWER KEY 21. What is the concentration of the acid? 6.0274 L KOH 1. Cu2O(s) 2( 1) Cu2O(s) H2(g) 0 Cu(s) 2 H2O(l) 2.00 mol KOH/L KOH 0. Na3PO4 5 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. mol HCl : mol NaOH 1:1. so 0. metallic Au 0 5.0250 L H2SO4 0. 0. 1. using the oxidation number method for the redox part of the equation. Na2SiF6 4 22. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 0. Show your work. What is the molarity of the acid? Ca(OH)2(aq) 2HBr(aq) 0 CaBr2(aq) 2H2O(l).0-mL sample of H2SO4 is neutralized by 27.0307 L HCl 0.00M KOH.548M 7.

reduction 2KCl(aq) Cl2(g) 2KBr(aq) 0 Br2(l) 17.ANSWER KEY 12. Inc. Cu 0 Cu2 O2 4e 0 2O2 . HNO3(aq) 0 KNO3(aq) NO(g) 3 KNO3(aq) H2O(l) 2N3 0 N2 6e . Cl2(g) KBr(aq) 0 Br2(l) 1 KCl(aq) Write half-reactions for each of the following redox reactions. SnS2(s) Cl2(g) KBr(aq) 0 Br2(l) 1 KCl(aq) O2(g) 0 SnO2(s) SO2(g) S2 0 S4 6e . SnS2(s) 2(S2 3O2 S4 O2(g) 0 SnO2(s) 6e ). reduction 3( 1) KI(aq) HNO3(aq) 0 I2(s) 3 NO(g) H2O(l) 20. oxidation. Al(s) CaSi2(s) SbCl3(s) 0 Sb(s) 3 3CaSi2(s) 2SbCl3(s) 0 2Sb(s) 6Si(s) 3CaCl2(s) Si(s) CaCl2(s) Cl2(g) 0 AlCl3(s) Al 0 Al3 3e . oxidation. NH3(aq) N2(g) PbO(s) 0 Pb(s) H2O(l) 14. Cl2 2e 0 2Cl . O2 4e 0 2O2 . N2 6e 0 2N3 . reduction 1e . reduction 18. 16. Cr2O72 (aq) Cr3 (aq) 2( 3) Cr2O72 (aq) SO32 (aq) 0 SO42 (aq) in an acidic solution 6 SO42 (aq) Use your answers for questions 16–20 to help you balance the following equations.) S2 0 S4 6e . 6KI(aq) 3I2(s) 8HNO3(aq) 0 6KNO3(aq) 2NO(g) 4H2O(l) 15. using halfreactions for the redox part of the equation. Pb2 2e 0 2Pb. Mg(s) 13. CaSi2(s) N2(g) 0 Mg3N2(s) Sb(s) SbCl3(s) 0 Si(s) CaCl2(s) 3( 1) 3 Mg 0 Mg2 2e . KI(aq) I2(s) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 21. oxidation. oxidation. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Cu2S(s) O2(g) 0 Cu2 (aq) SO42 (aq) (Hint: Two different elements are oxidized. 3(O2 SO2(g) SO32 (aq) 0 Cr3 (aq) 3( 2) 6 4e 0 2O2 ) 12e 2SO2(g) 2S2 0 2S4 12e 0 6O2 Cr2O72 (aq) 2Cr3 (aq) 3SO32 (aq) 3SO42 (aq) 8H (aq) 0 4H2O(l) SnS2(s) 3O2(g) 0 SnO2(s) Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 85 . Identify each half-reaction as being either oxidation or reduction. Show your work. oxidation. reduction 19.

NH3(aq) 2N3 0 N2 3Pb2 PbO(s) 0 N2(g) 6e .547 V 2e 0 2Pb) 2N3 0 N2 6e 6e 0 6Pb 3PbO(s) 0 N2(g) 3Pb(s) 3H2O(l) b.ANSWER KEY 22. 3(Pb2 Pb(s) H2O(l) E0 cell 0. write 3(Mg 0 Mg2 N2 3Mg 0 3Mg2 6e 0 2N3 3Mg(s) N2(g) 0 Mg3N2(s) a balanced equation for the overall cell reaction and calculate the standard cell potential.185 V) 2. multiply the oxidation equations by 2 and the reduction equation by 5. 25. Al(s) 2(Al 0 3Cl2 2Al(s) Cl2(g) 0 AlCl3(s) Al3 3e ). For each of these pairs of half-reactions. for a total loss of 10e for the oxidation part: S2 0 S6 8e 2Cu 0 2Cu2 2e reduction: O2 4e 0 2O2 E0 cell 0. 2S2 0 2S6 4Cu 0 4Cu2 20e 0 10O2 5O2(g) 16e 4e 4H (aq) 0 2H2O(l) E0 cell 0. cell a. Hg2 (aq) 2e 0 Hg(l) 2e 0 Mn(s) Mn2 (aq) 2NH3(aq) Cell reaction: Hg2 (aq) Mn(s) 0 Hg(l) Mn2 (aq) Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. N2 6e 6e 0 2N3 Chapter 21 Use data from Table 21-1 as needed in the following problems. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.851 V ( 1. Inc. Cu2S(s) O2(g) 0 Cu2 (aq) SO42 (aq) in an acidic solution (Hint: Look at the ratio of the two oxidized elements in the equation.521 V ( 3.) Cu and S2 are both oxidized. Mg(s) N2(g) 0 Mg3N2(s) 2e ). Br2(g) 2e 0 2Br (aq) e 0 Au(s) 2Cu2S(s) Au (aq) 4Cu2 (aq) 2SO42 (aq) Cell reaction: 2Au (aq) 2Br (aq) 0 2Au(s) Br2(g) 86 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .037 V ( 0. E 0 .036 V c. 3(Cl2 6e e 0 Cs(s) e 0 Cu(s) Cu (aq) 2Al 0 2Al3 6e 0 6Cl ) Cell reaction: Cu (aq) Cs(s) 0 Cu(s) Cs (aq) 3Cl2(g) 2AlCl3(s) 24.026 V) 3. Assume that all half-cells are under standard conditions. Fe3 (aq) 3e 0 Fe(s) 3e 0 Cr(s) Cr3 (aq) Cell reaction: Fe3 (aq) Cr(s) 0 Fe(s) Cr3 (aq) Because 20 is the least common multiple of 10 and 4. Cs (aq) 2e 0 2Cl ) 23.707 V 5O2 d. 1. According to the equation. two Cu ions are oxidized for every one S2 ion oxidized.744 V) 0.

0.1375 V) 0.4125 V. Inc.692 V 0. for a cell cell composed of a Sn Sn2 half-cell and each of these half-cells.1262 V ( 0. Hf Hf 4 1.151 V ( 0.3382 V) round to 1.4958 V 1. MnO4 (aq) Mn2 (aq) 8H (aq) 4H2O(l) 5e 0 2e 0 H2C2O4(aq) 2CO2(g) 2e 0 Be(s) 3e 0 Tl(s) 2H (aq) Cell reaction: e.55 V) 1.632 V.741 V ( 1.49 V) to 2.507 V ( 0. E 0 .0113 V Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 87 . round to h.06 V) 0.35827 V ( 0.089 V 1. Be2 (aq) Tl3 (aq) 2MnO4 (aq) 6H (aq) 2Mn2 (aq) 8H2O(l) 5H2C2O4(aq) 0 10CO2(g) Cell reaction: 2Tl3 (aq) 3Be(s) 0 2Tl(s) 3Be2 (aq) E0 cell 1.427 V E0 cell 0. round g.0885 V.957 V ( 0.1375 V) round to 1.63 V ( 1. Calculate the standard cell potential.558 V f. E0 cell 0.276 V) 1.49577 V.1375 V to 1. H3PO4(aq) 2H (aq) H3PO3(aq) H2O(l) 2e 0 c.ANSWER KEY E0 cell 1.1375 V) to 1. round a. SeO42 (aq) 2H (aq) H3PO3(aq) 0 H2SeO3(aq) H3PO4(aq) d.00 V 1.2952 V.997 V.847 V) 2. Cl2 Cl SeO42 (aq) 4H (aq) H2SeO3(aq) H2O(l) Cell reaction: 2e 0 E0 cell 1. Pb Pb2 E0 cell 1. b.295 V E0 cell 0.41 V ( 1. NO3 (aq) NO(g) In3 (aq) 4H (aq) 2H2O(l) 3e 0 In(s) 3e 0 2. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. round E0 cell 0. Pd Pd2 Cell reaction: NO3 (aq) NO(g) 4H (aq) In(s) 0 2H2O(l) In3 (aq) E0 cell Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.951 V ( 0.

185 V) cell 0. Fe3 (aq) E0 cell 0.153 V) 0.0405 V) to 2. write the oxidation and reduction half-reactions. round Spontaneous? no b. 2Na (aq) e 0 2Na(s) 2Hg(l) 2I (aq) Hg2I2(s) 2e Reduction half-reaction: Fe3 (aq) e 0 Fe2 (aq) Oxidation half-reaction: 2Hg(l) 2I (aq) 0 Hg2I2(s) E0 cell 0.771 V ( 1. round Reduction half-reaction: Na (aq) e 0 Na(s) E0 cell 2. c. 3Ni2 (aq) 3Ni(s) 2Rh(s) 0 2Rh3 (aq) Oxidation half-reaction: Rh(s) 0 Rh3 (aq) 3e Reduction half-reaction: Ni2 (aq) 2e 0 Ni(s) 4.505 V E 0 (Ni-Cu) 0.771 V ( 0. round to 0.257 V) cell 0. For each of these overall cell reactions. and cell determine if the reaction is spontaneous or not.5048 V. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.618 V Spontaneous? yes E 0 (Mn-Zn) 0. E 0 . a. Co2 (aq) 0 Co3 (aq) d.ANSWER KEY 3. round to 0.71 V ( 0.15 V 1.5989 V. round to 0.257 V ( 0.257 V ( 0.758 V) 1. Fe3 (aq) Spontaneous? no Cu (aq) 0 Fe2 (aq) Cu2 (aq) Oxidation half-reaction: Cu (aq) 0 Cu2 (aq) e Reduction half-reaction: Fe3 (aq) e 0 Fe2 (aq) Supplemental Problems Answer Key 88 Chemistry: Matter and Change .149 V.67 V 2.423 V E 0 (Zn-Ni) 0.7618 V ( 1.015 V Co2 (aq) 0 2 (aq) Fe Co3 (aq) Spontaneous? no Oxidation half-reaction: Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. calculate the standard cell potential.7618 V) cell 0. Inc.4232 V.6695 V.3419 V ( 0.599 V The Ni Ni2 Cu2 Cu half-cell will produce the highest voltage. Which of the following cells will produce the highest voltage? Mn Mn2 Zn Zn2 Ni Ni2 Zn2 Zn Ni2 Ni Cu2 Cu 0 E cell 0.92 V) to 1.

057 V of an alloy is to use electroplating. O2(g) 2SO4 2 2H2SO3(aq) 0 (aq) 4H (aq) 7.) The overall reaction of a lead–acid cell is Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Suppose an electrolytic cell is set up with solution of nickel ions obtained from a 6.3-dimethylbutane Pb(s) E0 cell PbO2(s) 4H (aq) 2SO42 (aq) 0 2PbSO4(s) 2H2O(l) 1.0 V/2. CH3CH2CHCHCHCH2CH3 CH2CH3 6.3.3588 V) 2. What is the percentage of nickel in the alloy? 100% (15.533 g.042 g. The cell also contains a platinum electrode that has a mass of 10.07 V The minimum voltage to cause electrolysis is 4.5-triethyl-2. Electric current is used to reduce the nickel ions to nickel metal. Draw the structure of each of the following Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 89 . After being plated with nickel.35827 V round to 4.4 ( 0.042 g 10. 1. Inc.4. How many lead–acid cells would be needed to run the device? (Remember that a standard automobile battery contains six lead–acid cells connected in one package. 2.753 g 66. Suppose a battery-powered device requires a minimum voltage of 9. the platinum electrode has a mass of 15.6913 V 4. What is the minimum voltage that must be 3.ANSWER KEY e.0501 V c.229 V ( 0. CH3 CH3CHCHCH3 CH3 2. CH3 CH3CH2 CH2CH3 CH3 CH3 CH2CH3 1. 5.533 g) 6.0 V to run. CH3 CH2CH3 At least 5 lead–acid cells would be needed to run the device.71 V) Cl2(g) 4. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 pentane b.4-diethyl-5-methylheptane applied to a Down’s cell to cause the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride? The net cell reaction is 2Na (l) E0 cell d. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.77% Spontaneous? yes Chapter 22 1.07 V. a. which is deposited on the platinum electrode.172 V) 1.0501 V 9. One way to determine the metallic composition Oxidation half-reaction: H2SO3(aq) H2O(l) 0 SO42 (aq) 4H (aq) 2e Reduction half-reaction: O2(g) 4H (aq) 4e 0 2H2O(l) E0 cell 1. Use the IUPAC rules to name the following alkanes.06827 V.6-trimethylcyclohexane 2Cl (l) 0 2Na(l) ( 2.753-g sample of a nickel alloy.

so the number of hydrogen atoms (2 7) 2 16. 90 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 22 atoms C 46 atoms H molecular mass 22 46 12. Since 2.008 amu 264.0 amu) 44. 2. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. hydrocarbon? 24 g C 5gH (1 mole C/12 g C) (1 mole H/1 g H) 2 moles C 5 moles H The empirical formula is C2H5.0 amu 3.4. Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in mass C a. Branched-chain alkanes have the formula CnH2n 2.0 amu mass H 5. 3. What is the empirical formula of the b. c. 88 g CO2 (12 g C/44 g CO2) 24 g . n 7.24 amu 46. heptane Straight-chain alkanes have the formula CnH2n 2.0 amu) (1 16. In heptane. or C4H10. Chemists can analyze the composition of d. 4-propyloctane CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CHCH2CH2CH2CH3 4.4-diethylhexane CH2CH3 CH3CH2CHCHCH2CH3 CH2CH3 c. a.61 amu b. If the hydrocarbon’s molecular mass is 58 amu.37 amu 310. cyclooctane Cyclic alkanes with one ring have the same number of hydrogen atoms as straight-chain alkanes. Inc. In cyclooctane.0 amu) (2 16. each of the following alkanes.0 amu) 18.011 amu 1. molecular mass CO2 (1 12.0 g C/18 g H2O) b. the molecular 29 amu formula must be twice the empirical formula.ANSWER KEY alkanes.4-tetramethylhexane CH3 CH3 CH3CCH2CCH2CH3 CH3 CH3 5. Calculate the molecular mass of a 22-carbon branched-chain alkane. molecular mass H2O (2 1.0 g 45 g H2O (2. less two hydrogen atoms lost when the ring is formed. the number of hydrogen atoms (2 22) 2 46. The reaction converts carbon into carbon dioxide and hydrogen into water. Suppose 29 g of a hydrocarbon reacts to produce 88 g of CO2 and 45 g of H2O. What are the masses of carbon and hydrogen in the hydrocarbon? All of the carbon in CO2 and all of the hydrogen in H2O come from the hydrocarbon. what is its molecular formula? The empirical formula (C2H5) corresponds to a molecular mass of (2 12 amu) (5 1 amu) 58 amu 29 amu. 1-ethyl-3-methyl-2-propylcyclopentane CH2CH3 CH2CH2CH3 CH3 hydrocarbons by reacting them with copper oxide.2. a. n 8. so the number of hydrogen atoms (2 8) 2 2 16. If n 22.

64 104 J b. CH CH2 CH3CH2CH2CHCH2CH2CH2CH3 b. C-C 2.5.00 L (103 mL/1 L) (0. releases 657 kJ per mole of –CH2– groups and 779 kJ per mole of –CH3 groups in the hydrocarbon. 4-ethyl-2-heptyne CH2CH3 CH3C CCHCH2CH2CH3 c.5 2.2 2.ANSWER KEY 6.15 amu 30. Carbon has an electronegativity of 2.39 amu 9. 1-ethyl-2-methyl-5-propylbenzene CH2CH3 CH3 CH3CH2CH2 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 91 . 14 atoms C 30 atoms H molecular mass 14 30 12.85 moles tetradecane Each molecule of tetradecane has 12 –CH2– groups and 2 –CH3 groups.764 g/mL.2 0. How much energy is released by the combustion of 1. 7-methyl-2. H-H 2.011 amu 1.5-nonadiene CH3 CH3CH CHCH2CH CHCHCH2CH3 1. Inc. Draw the structure of each of the following hydrocarbons. a. the bond is nonpolar.5.2 0. Since the difference is less than 0. CH 3 7.85 moles tetradecane (12 moles –CH2–/mole tetradecane) (657 kJ/mole –CH2–) 30 400 kJ 3. Use the IUPAC rules to name the following Hydrogen has an electronegativity of 2. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.008 amu 168. CH d.5. the bond is nonpolar. the bond is nonpolar. 8. 1.85 moles tetradecane (2 moles –CH3/mole tetradecane) (779 kJ/mole –CH3) 6000 kJ 30 400 kJ 6000 kJ 36 400 kJ 3.24 amu 198. CH3 CH3CHCH2CH2C 5-methyl-1-hexyne c. hydrocarbons.764 g/mL) (1 mole/198.2-diethylcyclohexene CH2CH3 CH2CH3 d.3. a major component of kerosene? The density of tetradecane is 0. Since the difference is less than 0. Use these values to decide whether each of the following bonds is polar or nonpolar.2.39 g) 3. C-H 3-propyl-1-heptene 2. a.5. a. Since the difference is less than 0.00 L of liquid tetradecane (molecular formula C14H30).5 0. c.5 2. The combustion of a saturated hydrocarbon CH2CH3 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 3. CH3CH2CH 2-pentene CHCH3 b.

0 u 1.0 u 14. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.0 u 16. CH2OHCO(CHOH)3CH2OH 6 atoms C 12 atoms H 6 atoms O molecular mass 6 12 6 12. Calculate the molecular masses of the followa. a.0 u 282. where A is the number of different amino acids. Fructose. CaC2 2H2O 0 C2H2 Ca(OH)2 H2N C H CH2 H2N C H C O H N H C H C O OH H2O Chapter 24 1. In a peptide or protein that contains n amino acids. so the number of hydrogen atoms 2 5 10. NH2(CH2)4CHNH2COOH 6 atoms C 14 atoms H 2 atoms O 2 atoms N molecular mass 6 14 2 2 12.0 u 32.0 u 72.0 u 28.0 u 1. c.0 u 146. ing biological molecules. n 5.0 u 3. reaction in which cysteine and glycine combine to form a dipeptide. CH3(CH2)7CH 18 atoms C 34 atoms H 2 atoms O molecular mass CH(CH2)7COOH 18 34 2 12. SH CH2 cysteine glycine H C O SH OH H2N C H C O OH 11. Val-Leu. n 6. so the number of hydrogen atoms (2 6) 2 10. the number of possible amino acid sequences is An.0 u 34.0 u 1. b. Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in 2. reacts with water to form ethyne and calcium hydroxide. a. CaC2. Oleic acid. Leu-Val. Write a balanced equation for the condensation each of the following unsaturated hydrocarbons. SH CH2 H2N C H C O OH H2N H C H C O OH b. and Val-Val. . Lysine.0 u 12.0 u 14. Assume the carboxyl group of cysteine reacts. so the number of different dipeptides 22 4. 2-pentene Alkenes with one double bond have the formula CnH2n.024 1013. 1-hexyne Alkynes with one triple bond have the formula CnH2n 2.0 u 92 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0 u b. How many amino acid sequences are possible for a polypeptide that contains 10 amino acids? A 20. so the number of possible amino acid sequences 2010 1.0 u 216.ANSWER KEY 10.0 u 16. In 1-hexyne. Inc. In 2-pentene. How many different dipeptides can be made from the amino acids leucine (Leu) and valine (Val)? What are those dipeptides? A 2.0 u 32.0 u 16.0 u 96. Write a balanced equation for the reaction in which calcium carbide.0 u 72. The dipeptides are Leu-Leu.0 u 180.

Synthesizing fats is an efficient way for organ- reaction in which lauric acid.8 g of protein. such as NaOH. How long would a person have to walk to expend all of the energy contained in a cup of ice cream? 1158 kJ 1 h 840 kJ 1. 21% of the nucleotide bases are T and 29% of the bases are G. Inc. 6.2 544 kJ 82 kJ 532 kJ 1158 kJ 106 J) 5. and stearic acid combine with glycerol to form a triglyceride. In saponification. A scientist analyzes a sample of DNA and finds mol testosterone)(288 g testosterone) 1 mol testosterone 3 that 21% of the nucleotide bases are A and 29% of the bases are C. Therefore. How much energy is released when a cup of ice cream is fully catabolized? carbohydrate: 32 g 17 kJ/g 17 kJ/g 38 kJ/g (about 1. How many moles of triglyceride can be saponified by 120 g of NaOH? Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. the ester bonds of a triglyc- protein: fat: total: 4. Write a balanced equation for the condensation 7. A cup (133 g) of ice cream contains about 32 g of carbohydrate. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. a. c. whereas the catabolism of 1 g of protein or carbohydrate yields about 17 kJ of energy. A person expends about 840 kJ per hour 1 mol NaOH (120 g NaOH) 40 g NaOH 1 mol triglyceride 1 mol triglyceride 3 mol NaOH while walking at a moderate pace. The molecular mass of testosterone is 288. palmitic acid.9 10 g testosterone Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 93 . It takes 3 moles of NaOH to saponify each mole of triglyceride.4 10 5 8. How much carbohydrate would be needed CH3(CH2)16COOH stearic acid O CH2OH CHOH HO C(CH2)10CH3 O HO C(CH2)14CH3 O CH2OH HO C(CH2)16CH3 CH2 O CH O CH2 O O C(CH2)10CH3 O C(CH2)14CH3 O C(CH2)16CH3 3H2O to store the same amount of energy as 10 g of fat? (10 g fat) 38 kJ g fat 1 g carbohydrate 17 kJ 22 g carbohydrate b. A young adult male produces about 2. What percentage of the bases are T and what percentage are G in the sample? The amount of T always equals the amount of A. and 14 g of fat. 4.8 g 14 g eride are hydrolyzed by a strong base.4 h 6. CH3(CH2)10COOH lauric acid CH3(CH2)14COOH palmitic acid isms to store energy. and the amount of G always equals the amount of C. The catabolism of 1 g of fat yields about 38 kJ of energy. How many grams of testosterone per day does a young adult male produce? (2.4 10 5 mol per day of the steroid sex hormone testosterone.ANSWER KEY 4.

5 106 40% J 60% b. Each base pair has an average length of 3.34 mol glucose)(6 mol O2) 1 mol glucose 2.2 mol glucose to drive anabolic reactions when ATP is hydrolyzed.0 mol O2 c.8 J 60% 94 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key .8 106 J 38 mol ATP 1 mol glucose 30. In the experiment.0 mol glucose) 5.2 1. How many moles of O2 did the plant 10. produced for each mole of glucose that is catabolized in cellular respiration. Inc.5 kJ of energy.ANSWER KEY 9.5 kJ 1 mol ATP 13. Approximately 38 moles of ATP is (0. It takes three consecutive nucleotides in a DNA 12.2 complementary base pairs. What mass of water was needed to produce that much glucose? 11. a.4 10 10 m. How many moles of glucose did the plant produce? (61 g glucose)(1 mol glucose) 180 g glucose 0. How many moles of glucose must be oxidized during cellular respiration to produce that much carbon dioxide? (1900 g CO2) 1 mol CO2 44 g CO2 1 mol glucose 6 mol CO2 b. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. The rest will be lost as heat.34 mol glu) 36 g H2O 6 mol H2O 1 mol glu 18 g H2O 1 mol H2O Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. The DNA in a bacterial cell contains about produce? 4.4 106 base pairs)(3. How many moles of CO2 were needed to produce that much glucose? 10 10 m) (0. How much energy is stored in ATP when 5.34 mol glucose b. One mole of ATP stores approximately 30. How long is the DNA in a bacterial cell? Assume that the DNA is stretched out straight rather than coiled.3 38 mol ATP 1 mol glucose 106 J) 30. How much energy would be stored in ATP when that much glucose is oxidized? (7. A scientist performed an experiment to monitor molecule to code for one amino acid in a protein.0 moles of glucose is catabolized in cellular respiration? (5. the plant produced 61 g of glucose. This energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed. If a single strand of DNA contains 747 nucleotides.4 base pair 10 3 106 (0.5 kJ 1 mol ATP energy lost as heat 5. Assume that 40% of this energy can be used 7. how many amino acids would be in the protein that it codes for? (747 nucleotides)(1 amino acid) 3 nucleotides 249 amino acids photosynthesis by a plant. a.0 mol CO2 m d.34 mol glucose)(6 mol CO2) 1 mol glucose 2. An average-sized woman produces about 1900 g of carbon dioxide per day. (4.2 mol glucose) 8300 kJ (or 8. How much energy will be lost as heat if all of the ATP produced in part a is hydrolyzed? Total energy energy used to drive anabolic reactions energy lost as heat 100% 40% 106 energy lost as heat 100% 3. a.

0 g 16.6 0. 11B 5 7. Suppose the catabolism of a given amount of glucose produces 95 moles of ATP during cellular respiration.0-g sample of this isotope will remain at the end of 3. 15N 7 9.34 g 180 minutes 0 0 1 2.0 hours? 0. 6. How much 51 of a 16.0 g (1/2) 32 minutes (1/2)5. 19 38K 19 0 0 1 38Ar 18 Supplemental Problems Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change 95 . Chapter 25 Write a complete nuclear equation for each of the following. The decay of 230 Th by alpha emission. The decay of 38K by positron emission. How many grams of glucose are needed to produce 102 g of ethanol during alcoholic fermentation? (102 g ethanol) 180 g glucose 1 mol glucose 1 mol ethanol 46 g ethanol 2. 13. 233U 92 10.0 g 16. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. 210Po 84 4He 2 1p 1 0 14N 7 0 45Sc 21 0 18O 8 1n 0 1n 0 15. The decay of 37Ar by electron capture. 1.0 mol ATPF 5. Amount remaining Amount remaining Amount remaining Amount remaining Initial amount (1/2)t/T 16. 90 230 Th 90 0 4He 2 226Ra 88 3. Inc.ANSWER KEY 14. The decay of 53Fe 26 Solution: 3 hours 60 minutes 1 hour 180 minutes 53Fe 26 53Co 27 by beta emission.00 102 1 mol glucose 2 mol ethanol g glucose 4He 2 1p 1 132Sn 50 1n 0 0 99Mo 42 31n 0 4He 2 0 206Pb 82 1p 1 11. 43 93Tc 43 0 0 0 93Tc 43 Provide the missing term in each of the following equations. Write a balanced equation for lactic acid fer- 0 142Pr 59 105Pd 46 1n 0 mentation. The half-life of 115Sb is 32 minutes. The formula for lactic acid is CH3CH(OH)COOH. The decay of 93Tc by gamma emission. 45Ca 20 8. How many moles of ATP could be produced by the same amount of glucose during fermentation? (95 mol ATPCR)(2 mol ATPF) 38 mol ATPCR 5. 142Ce 58 16.021 0.34 g 115Sb 51 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 102Ru 44 4He 2 0 1n 0 Answer the following questions about half-life. C6H12O6 0 2CH3CH(OH)COOH 12. 18 37Ar 18 0e 1 0 37Cl 17 X ray photon 4.

047 0.13 13 mg Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0 mg (1/2) 29 years (1/2)2. 13 mg strontium-90 Solution: Amount remaining Amount remaining Amount remaining Amount remaining Initial amount (1/2)t/T 100.0-mg dose of this isotope during a medical procedure.0 mg 25.01 hours.0 mg 1. The isotope strontium-90 is produced during Amount remaining the testing of nuclear weapons. If a patient received a 25. If 100.0 mg 100.99 0.047 g Amount remaining Amount remaining 15.00419 48. The radioisotope technetium-99 is often used as Solution: 40 million years 4.0 107 yr 106 yr a radiotracer to detect disorders of the body.0 hours Amount remaining Amount remaining Amount remaining Amount remaining (1/2)4.05 mg technetium-99 Solution: Amount remaining Amount remaining Initial amount (1/2)t/T 25. a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies. It has a half-life of 6.0 107 years Initial amount (1/2)t/T 1.0-g sample of this isotope will remain at the end of 40.0 g 4.0 hours after the dose was given? 1.047 g 182Hf 72 16. 85 years 96 Chemistry: Matter and Change Supplemental Problems Answer Key . How much of a 1.0 72 106 years.0 g 1.0 mg of strontium-90 was released in the atmosphere in 1960.4 0.9 0.0 million years? 0.0 mg 25.01 hours (1/2)7.05 mg (1/2) 6.ANSWER KEY 14.0 mg 100. how much of the radioisotope remains 85 years later? The half life of strontium-90 is 29 years.0 (1/2) 9. The half-life of 182Hf is 9. how much would remain 48.0 g 1. Inc.

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