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nguyn t

A. M u
Mc tiu ca chng
HS bit v hiu :
Thnh phn, kch thc v cu to ca nguyn t.
in tch ht nhn, proton, ntron, hin tng phng x, phn ng ht nhn.
S khi, ng v, nguyn t ho hc.
Obitan nguyn t, lp electron, phn lp electron, cu hnh electron nguyn t ca
cc nguyn t ho hc.
S bin i tun hon cu trc lp electron ca nguyn t cc nguyn t theo chiu
tng ca in tch ht nhn.
c im ca lp electron ngoi cng.
HS c k nng :
Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t. Gii cc bi tp v thnh phn, cu to nguyn
t, xc nh tn nguyn t ho hc.
HS c kh nng tm tt ti liu, trnh by c lp lun.
C k nng t hc v hc cng tc theo nhm, tm kim, x l v lu gi thng tin
cn thit t SGK, SBT, cc sch tham kho hay mng internet.
Mt s im cn lu
1. H thng kin thc
Thnh phn, cu to nguyn t HS c bit s lc lp 8. Trong chng 1,
gio vin cn ch trng n c im v in tch, khi lng ca electron, ht
nhn nguyn t v cc ht thnh phn ca ht nhn (proton v ntron). Cc n v
nh u (trc y gi l vC), angstrom (), nm, cu-lng (C), n v in tch
nguyn t cn c lu .
Khi nim nguyn t ho hc c chnh xc ho hn so vi chng trnh lp 8.
HS phn bit cc khi nim nguyn t, nguyn t ho hc v ng v.
Ni dung s chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t l trng tm kin thc ca
chng 1. HS nm vng cc khi nim nh : lp, phn lp electron, obitan nguyn
t, cu hnh electron ca nguyn t v c im ca lp electron ngoi cng.

6
2. Phng php dy hc
Cc kin thc ca chng 1 l mi v kh tng tng i vi HS. Cc kin thc v
electron, v ht nhn, cu to ht nhn c tm ra t thc nghim. HS c tm
hiu s kin, cc th nghim tm ra tia m cc, tm ra ht nhn, sau s dng php
phn tch, tng hp v khi qut ho c mt hnh dung c y v thnh
phn, cu to nguyn t.
Phn l thuyt v s chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t l trng tm ca
chng c xy dng trn c s cc tin , do , phng php dy hc ch yu
l suy din. Bn cnh , cc phng php dy hc khc nh dy hc d n, hp tc
theo nhm nh, dy t hc, t c ti liu, tho lun trn lp cng nn c coi
trng.
Chng 1 rt tru tng, cho nn cc phng tin k thut h tr dy hc nh my vi
tnh, my chiu, cc phn mm m phng cc th nghim tm ra tia m cc, th
nghim tm ra ht nhn nn c khuyn khch s dng nhng ni c iu kin.
B. Dy hc cc bi c th
Bi 1 Thnh phn nguyn t
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
Bit nguyn t l phn t nh nht ca nguyn t, khng phn chia c trong cc
phn ng ho hc.
Nguyn t c cu to gm ht nhn v v electron. Nguyn t c cu to rng.
K nng
Bit hot ng c lp v hp tc hon thnh nhim v hc tp.
C k nng tm kim thng tin v nguyn t trn mng internet, lu gi v x l thng tin.
II CHUN B|
Phng to hnh 1.1 ; 1.2 v hnh 1.3 (SGK).
Thit k m phng cc th nghim SGK trn my vi tnh (c th dng phn mm
Powerpoint hoc Macromedia Flash) dy hc.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH

7
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
Ti sao trong hng ngn nm sau khi c quan
nim v nguyn t ca -m-crit khng c
mt tin b no trong nghin cu v nguyn t?
HS : V cha c cc thit b khoa
hc kim chng gi thuyt ca
-m-crit. Mi n cui th k
XIX, u th k XX mi c cc th
nghim ca Tm-xn, R-d-pho.
Hot ng 2 : Th nghim tm ra electron
GV : Gii thiu thit b, hin tng xy ra trong
th nghim ca Tm-xn, rt ra kt lun.
Nu trn ng i ca tia m cc t mt chong
chng nh, chong chng quay. Tia m cc b
lch v pha cc dng trong in trng.
GV : Tia m cc l g ? Tia m cc c hnh
thnh trong nhng iu kin no ? Khi lng
v in tch ca electron ?
GV Trong nguyn t, electron mang in tch
m. Nhng nguyn t trung ha v in, vy
phn mang in dng c phn b nh th
no trong nguyn t ?
HS quan st hnh 1.1 v 1.2
(SGK) phng to trn bng.
- S pht hin tia m cc chng t
nguyn t l c tht, nguyn t c
cu to phc tp.
- Tnh cht ca tia m cc :
+ Tia m cc gm cc electron
mang in tch m chuyn ng
rt nhanh.
+ Electron ch thot ra khi
nguyn t trong nhng iu kin
c bit.
+ Khi lng, in tch e (SGK).
Hot ng 3 : Th nghim tm ra ht nhn nguyn t
GV gii thiu cc thit b th nghim ca
R-d-pho, t cu hi: Ti sao hu ht ht
xuyn thng qua l vng, trong khi ch c mt
s t ht b lch hng v mt s t hn na
ht b bt tr li ?
GV tng kt : Phn mang in dng khng
nm phn tn nh Tm-xn ngh, m tp
trung tm nguyn t, gi l ht nhn nguyn
t. Vy ht nhn nguyn t l phn nh nht
ca nguyn t cha ?
HS quan st hnh 1.3 phng to,
suy ngh v hin tng xy ra
trong th nghim.
HS : Ch c th gii thch hin
tng trn l do nguyn t c cu
to rng. Phn mang in tch
dng ch chim mt th tch rt
nh b so vi kch thc ca c
nguyn t.

Hot ng 4 : Tm hiu cu to ht nhn
Proton l g ? Khi lng v in tch ca HS c SGK v nhn xt :

8
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
proton ? Ntron l g ? Khi lng v in tch
ca ntron ?


GV : Cc th nghim xc nhn nguyn t l
c tht, c cu to rt phc tp. Vy kch thc
v khi lng ca nguyn t nh th no ?

+ Ht nhn cha phi l phn nh
nht ca nguyn t.
+ Ht nhn gm cc proton v
ntron.
+ Khi lng v in tch ca
proton v ntron (SGK).
- HS kt lun : ht nhn c to
nn t cc ht proton v ntron
Hot ng 5 : Tm hiu kch thc v khi lng ca nguyn t
1. Kch thc
GV gip HS hnh dung nguyn t c kch thc
rt nh, nu coi nguyn t l mt khi cu th
ng knh ca n ~10
10
m. Ht nhn c kch
thc rt nh so vi nguyn t, ng knh ca
ht nhn ~10
5
nm (nh hn nguyn t ~
10000 ln).
2. Khi lng
GV c th dng n v gam hay kg o khi
lng nguyn t c khng? Ti sao ngi ta
s dng n v u (vC) bng
1
12
khi lng
nguyn t cacbon lm n v ?

HS c SGK rt ra cc nhn xt :
+ Nguyn t cc nguyn t khc
nhau c kch thc khc nhau.
+ n v o kch thc nguyn t
l , nm.
1 = 10
10
m, 1nm = 10
HS dng cc n v nh gam hay
kg o khi lng nguyn t rt
bt tin do s l v c s m m
rt ln, nh 19,9264.10
27
kg l
khi lng nguyn t cacbon. Do
, thun tin hn trong tnh
ton, ngi ta dng n v u
(vC).

Hot ng 6 : Tng kt v vn dng
GV tng kt cc ni dung hc, ra bi tp v
nh cho HS.
HS gii cc bi tp 1, 2, 3, 4 trong
SGK theo 4 nhm. Mi nhm c
mt i din ln cha bi tp
c phn cng. Cc nhm khc
nhn xt kt qu.

Bi 2 Ht nhn nguyn t - nguyn t ho hc

9
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
Bit s lin quan gia s n v in tch ht nhn vi s proton v s electron. Bit
cch tnh s khi ca ht nhn nguyn t.
Hiu khi nim nguyn t ho hc. Th no l s hiu, k hiu nguyn t.
K nng
Rn k nng gii cc bi tp xc nh s n v in tch ht nhn, s proton, s
ntron, s electron ca nguyn t v s khi ca ht nhn nguyn t.
HS hiu s cn thit m bo an ton ht nhn. Lin h vi k hoch pht trin nng
lng in ht nhn ca t nc.
Rn luyn kh nng t hc, t c v hot ng cng tc theo nhm, kh nng xy
dng v thc hin k hoch.
II CHUN B|
Phiu hc tp.
My vi tnh, my chiu a nng nu c.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : i lng vt l no l c trng cho mt nguyn t ho hc ?
Hot ng 2. Tm hiu in tch ht nhn v s khi ca ht nhn l g ?
GV yu cu HS ti hin cc c trng ca
proton, ntron v khi lng v in tch.
Nguyn t trung ha v in, cho nn : s n
v in tch ht nhn Z = s proton = s
electron.
GV thng bo s khi A = Z + N, trong Z
l s n v in tch ht nhn, N l s ntron
c trong ht nhn nguyn t. A v Z l nhng
c trng rt quan trng ca nguyn t.

HS nh li kin thc v in tch
ca proton v ntron. Mt ht nhn
c Z proton th in tch ca ht
nhn bng Z+ v s n v in
tch ht nhn bng Z.
HS vn dng trong th d sau :
nguyn t nit c s n v in
tch ht nhn l 7, c N = 7, vy
nguyn t nit c :
+ 7 proton v 7 electron.
+ S khi A = 7 + 7 = 14
Hot ng 3. Tm hiu khi nim nguyn t ho hc

10
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV tng kt : Nguyn t ho hc l nhng
nguyn t c cng in tch ht nhn.
Nh vy i lng vt l c trng ca mt
nguyn t ho hc l in tch ht nhn.
HS c SGK v pht biu nh
ngha nguyn t ho hc, so snh
vi ni dung ny lp 8.
Nguyn t l ht vi m i din
cho nguyn t ho hc.
Hot ng 4. Tm hiu khi nim s hiu v k hiu nguyn t
GV thng bo : S hiu nguyn t ca nguyn
t l s n v in tch ht nhn nguyn t
ca nguyn t , c k hiu l Z.
GV : K hiu nguyn t cho bit nhng g ?
- in tch ht nhn, s hiu nguyn t v s
electron trong nguyn t.
- S khi v s ntron trong ht nhn.
HS c th lm vic theo nhm, t
c SGK, tho lun v s hiu v
k hiu ca nguyn t.
HS xt th d :
56
26
Fe cho bit s
hiu nguyn t ca Fe l 26, ht
nhn nguyn t Fe c 26 proton, s
khi ca ht nhn Fe l 56.
N
Fe
= 56 26 = 30
Hot ng 5. Tng kt v vn dng gii cc bi tp 1, 2, giao bi tp v nh
HS n li bi 1 v bi 2, chun b cho bi 3.
Bi 3 ng v. nguyn t khi
v nguyn t khi trung bnh
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
HS hiu th no l ng v, nguyn t khi v nguyn t khi trung bnh.
HS phn bit c s khi v nguyn t khi.
K nng
C k nng xc nh nguyn t khi trung bnh.
HS trnh by c th no l ng v, nguyn t khi v nguyn t khi trung bnh.
C kh nng hp tc v cng tc tt, pht trin nng lc qun l, thuyt phc, iu
phi cc hot ng ca nhm.
C k nng tra cu thng tin trn mng internet, c kh nng nh gi tin cy
ca ngun thng tin.
II CHUN B|

11
GV : + Cc phiu hc tp
+ Tranh v cc ng v ca hiro
+ Phng php dy hc : m thoi + gi m
HS : Hc bi 1 v 2.
HS tra cu v ng v, s khi, nguyn t khi v cch tnh nguyn t khi trung
bnh trong SGK, ti liu tham kho hay internet.
HS chun b c cc bi trnh din Powerpoint v nhng ni dung lin quan
n bi hc.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung dy hc
- S dng phiu hc tp s 1.
a) Xc nh s ntron, proton, electron
v s khi ca cc nguyn t sau :
35
17
Cl,
37
17
Cl,
12
6
C,
13
6
C,
14
6
C





b) Nu nhn xt v gii thch ?


c) nh ngha ng v.
GV da vo cu (b) dn dt HS n
nh ngha ng v.
HS in y cc thng tin vo phiu
hc tp, nhn xt v gii thch.
a)
A P E N
35
17
Cl 35 17 17 18
37
17
Cl 37 17 17 20
12
6
C 12 6 6 6
13
6
C 13 6 6 7
14
6
C 14 6 6 8
b) Cc nguyn t ca cng mt nguyn t
clo, cacbon c s khi khc nhau l do s
ntron khc nhau.
c) nh ngha : SGK
Hot ng 2 : Dng phiu hc tp s 2
Cho cc nguyn t :
10
5
A,
64
29
B,
84
36
C,
11
5
D,
109
47
G,
63
29
H,
40
19
E,
40
18
L,
54
24
M,
106
47
J cc nguyn t
no l ng v ca nhau ?
HS tr li :
+ A v D l nhng ng v ca nhau.
+ B v H l nhng ng v ca nhau.
+ G v J l nhng ng v ca nhau.
Hot ng 3 : Dng phiu hc tp s 3
Cho hai ng v hiro
1
1
H v
2
1
H v

12
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
ng v clo :
35
17
Cl v
37
17
Cl
C th c bao nhiu loi phn t HCl
khc nhau to nn t hai loi ng v
ca hai nguyn t .
+ GV dng s biu din cu to 3
ng v ca nguyn t hiro gii
thch trng hp c bit : ng v
1
1
H
l trng hp duy nht c n = 0 v
3
1
H
c s ntron gp i s proton v do
cc ng v c mt s tnh cht vt l
khc nhau.

H
35
17
Cl, H
37
17
Cl, D
35
17
Cl, D
37
17
Cl
K hiu
2
1
H l D

HS c SGK bit rng hin tng ng
v l mt hin tng ph bin.
HS nu mt s ng dng ca cc ng v
phng x trong i sng, y hc


Hot ng 4 : Dng phiu hc tp s 4

a) Nguyn t khi trung bnh l g ?
Vit cng thc tnh nguyn t khi
trung bnh v gii thch.

b) Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca
nguyn t niken, bit rng trong t
nhin cc ng v ca niken tn ti
theo t l :

58
28
Ni,
60
28
Ni,
61
28
Ni,
62
28
Ni
67,76% 26,16% 2,42% 3,66%
Cng thc : A=
aA bB ...
100
+ +

A l nguyn t khi trung bnh
A, B l nguyn t khi ca mi ng
v, a, b l t l % mi ng v.
HS c t liu trong SGK.
a) Nguyn t khi ca mt nguyn t l
nguyn t khi trung bnh ca hn hp cc
ng v c tnh n t l phn trm mi
ng v trong hn hp.
b)
Ni
58.67, 76 60.26,16 61.2, 42 62.3, 66
100
A
+ + +
=
Ni
A = 58,74







c) Bi tp 5 trang 14 SGK
A
Cu
= 63,546
A = 63 a = ?
B = 65 b = ? (theo cng thc)

Gi a l % ng v
63
29
Cu
% ng v
65
29
Cu l (100 - a)
Da vo cng thc :
63,546 =
63a 65(100 a)
100
+

Gii tm a = 72,7%, b = 27,3%

13
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 5 : GV hng dn HS lm bi tp v nh : 1, 2, 3, 6 trang 14 SGK.
Bi 4 S chuyn ng ca electron
trong nguyn t. obitan nguyn t
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
HS bit v hiu :
Trong nguyn t, electron chuyn ng nh th no ? So snh c quan im ca
R-d-pho, Bo v Zom-m-phen vi quan im hin i v chuyn ng ca
electron trong nguyn t.
Th no l obitan nguyn t, c nhng loi obitan nguyn t no ? Hnh dng
ca chng ?
K nng
Vn dng cc kin thc hc tr li cc cu hi v bi tp trong SGK v SBT.
T hc v hc theo nhm, bit s dng cng ngh thng tin trong vic tm kim t
liu, trnh din bo co ca nhm.
II CHUN B|
GV phng to cc hnh 1.6 ; 1.7 ; 1.8 ; 1.9 v 1.10 SGK.
C th dng phn mm MS.Powerpoint v Macro media Flash m phng s
chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t.
HS tm hiu thm v cu trc ca nguyn t qua cc trang web nh t in
Encarta, Wikipedia
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
Trong nguyn t, electron chuyn ng
nh th no ? S chuyn ng ca
electron c tng t s chuyn ng ca
cc hnh tinh xung quanh mt tri ?
GV tng kt v nh hng bi hc.
HS c SGK, pht biu v cc ni dung
sau : Electron trong m hnh nguyn t
R-d-pho, Bo v Zom-m-phen chuyn
ng nh th no ? u v nhc im
ca m hnh ny l g ?
Hot ng 2. S chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t

14
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV tng kt : Theo quan im hin i,
qu o (ng i) ca electron khng
cn ngha. Do electron chuyn ng
rt nhanh cho nn ch mt electron ca
H to nn m my electron.

Obitan nguyn t l khu vc khng gian
xung quanh ht nhn ni xc sut c mt
electron l ln nht (trn 90%).
Vy obitan nguyn t c hnh dng nh
th no ?
HS quan st hnh 1.7 v so snh vi hnh
1.6, tho lun nhm.
- Theo quan im hin i qu o
(ng i) ca electron c cn ngha ?
- V sao ch c 1 electron m ngi ta gi
l m my electron ca nguyn t hiro ?
- Obitan nguyn t l g ?
Hot ng 3. Tm hiu hnh dng cc obitan nguyn t s v p
GV tng kt : Obitan s c dng hnh cu,
tm l ht nhn nguyn t. Obitan p gm
3 obitan p
x
, p
y
, p
z
c dng hnh s 8 ni.
Mi obitan c s nh hng khc nhau
trong khng gian, chng hn p
x
nh
hng theo trc x, obitan y nh hng
theo trc y
HS quan st cc hnh 1.9 v 1.10, nhn
xt hnh dng ca cc obitan nguyn t.
- Obitan khc nhau (s, p, d, f) c hnh
dng khc nhau.
- HS c th xem hnh dng cc obitan
phc tp nh d, f trn phn mm orbital
viewer.
Hot ng 4. HS vn dng tr li bi tp 5 (SGK)
GV yu cu HS lm vic theo nhm.
i din mt nhm trnh by kt qu
tho lun, GV tng kt, nhn xt.
HS : Theo l thuyt hin i, trng thi
chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn
t c m t bng hnh nh m my e.
Hot ng 5. HS vn dng tr li bi tp 6 (SGK)
GV tng kt, ra bi tp v nh. Obitan s c dng hnh cu, tm l ht
nhn nguyn t. Obitan p gm 3 obitan
p
x
, p
y
, p
z
c dng hnh s 8 ni. Mi
obitan c s nh hng khc nhau trong
khng gian.
Bi 5 Luyn tp v :
Thnh phn cu to nguyn t

15
Khi lng ca nguyn t
obitan nguyn t
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
Cng c cc kin thc v thnh phn, cu to nguyn t, ht nhn, kch thc, khi
lng, in tch ca cc ht proton, ntron v electron.
H thng ho cc khi nim nguyn t ho hc, k hiu nguyn t, ng v, nguyn
t khi, nguyn t khi trung bnh.
K nng
Rn luyn k nng tnh ton, xc nh s electron, proton, ntron v nguyn t khi
khi bit k hiu nguyn t.
Rn luyn k nng lp k hoch, hot ng hp tc theo nhm.
Bit cch tra cu thng tin v ch ca bi hc trn mng internet.
II CHUN B|
Phiu hc tp
Ni dung 1 : in cc thng tin cho sn bng sau tng ng vi A, B, C hay D vo
cc ch trng trong cc cu sau y :
Nguyn t c to nn bi(1). Ht nhn li c to nn bi (2). Electron c in
tch l (3), quy c l 1, khi lng 0,00055 u. Proton c in tch l (4), quy
c l 1+, khi lng xp x 1u. Ntron c in tch bng 0, khi lng xp x
bng(5).
TT A B C D
1 electron v ntron electron v proton electron v ht nhn ntron v proton
2 ntron v proton electron v ntron electron v proton proton
3
1,602.10
-19
C 1,602.10
-19
C 1,502.10
-19
C 1,502.10
-19
C
4
1,602.10
-19
C 1,602.10
-19
C 1,502.10
-19
C 1,502.10
-19
C
5 1,5 u 1,1 u 1 u 2 u
Ni dung 2 : Cho bit s lin quan gia s n v in tch ht nhn Z vi s proton
trong ht nhn v s electron v nguyn t. Cho th d minh ha.

16
Ni dung 3 : K hiu nguyn t c th cung cp nhng thng tin no ca nguyn t
ho hc ? Cho th d minh ha.
Chun b my vi tnh, my chiu a nng nhng ni c iu kin.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
Trong mt ti liu c c trn mng
internet, c mt k hiu m mt HS lp
10 khng hiu
35
17
X . Hy gii thch cho
bn k hiu ny c ngha nh th no.
HS ti hin li nhng kin thc hc,
suy ngh tm cu tr li.
Hot ng 2. Tho lun nhm
GV hng dn s dng phiu hc tp Nhm 1. tho lun ni dung 1
Nhm 2. tho lun ni dung 2.
Nhm 3. tho lun ni dung 3.
Hot ng 3. Tho lun chung c lp
GV yu cu i din ca mi nhm trnh
by kt qu tho lun.
HS cc nhm cn li theo di, nhn xt
phn tho lun va trnh din. Nu cc
thc mc v tranh lun.
Hot ng 4. Hng dn gii bi tp 5 (SGK)
a) Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Mg.

b) Gi s trong hn hp ni trn c 50
nguyn t
25
Mg , th s nguyn t tng
ng ca 2 ng v cn li l bao nhiu ?
a)
= + + = Mg
78,99 10, 00 11,01
A 24 25 26 24,32
100 100 100

b) S nguyn t
24
Mg = 50 . 7,899 ~ 395.
S nguyn t
26
Mg = 50 .1,101 ~ 55.
Hot ng 5. GV tng kt bi hc v ra bi tp v nh
tng tnh tch cc hc tp ca HS, phn tho lun c th t chc theo tr chi gii
ch. Mi nhm t xy dng mt ch, cc hng ngang lin quan n cc
khi nim nh electron, ht nhn, hng dc l mt khi nim ln hn nh nguyn
t, nguyn t ho hc Thng qua tr chi, HS s nm vng hn cc khi nim lin
quan n cu to nguyn t.
Bi 6 lp v phn lp electron

17
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
Bit trong nguyn t cc electron c phn b nh th no, th no l lp v phn
lp electron. C bao nhiu obitan nguyn t trong mt lp electron v trong mt
phn lp electron.
K nng
Rn k nng gii cc bi tp c lin quan v kh nng hp tc nhm.
C k nng v cng ngh thng tin h tr cho qu trnh dy hc.
II CHUN B|
HS c bi 6, tm tt cc chnh ca bi.
My chiu a nng, my vi tnh.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV nu cu hi : th no l lp, phn lp electron trong nguyn t ?
Hot ng 2. Tm hiu khi nim lp electron
GV lu HS lp K l lp electron gn
ht nhn nht, lin kt cht ch nht vi
ht nhn. Cc electron cng mt lp c
mc nng lng gn bng nhau.
HS c SGK v pht biu s th t lp
electron l nhng s nguyn, bt u t
s 1, 2, 3, 4 tng ng vi cc ch K,
L, M, N
Hot ng 3. Tm hiu v phn lp electron
GV yu cu HS nghin cu SGK v in
y thng tin vo cc ch trng :
Lp K (n = 1) c .phn lp, k hiu.
Lp L (n = 2) c .phn lp, k hiu.
Lp M (n = 3) c .phn lp, k hiu.
p dng : cho bit lp N (n = 4) c my
phn lp ? Vit k hiu cc phn lp .
Lp N c 4 phn lp l 4s, 4p, 4d v 4f.
T ta c th suy ra lp electron th n
c n phn lp.
Hot ng 4. Tm hiu s obitan trong mt phn lp, mt lp
p dng : GV hng dn HS tnh s
obitan ca lp th 4 (lp N) = 4
2
= 16
(obitan).

GV c th minh ha hnh nh cc obitan
nguyn t trn phn mm orbital viewer
HS : Phn lp s c 1 obitan, c i xng
cu trong khng gian.
Phn lp p c 3 obitan p
x
, p
y
, p
z
nh
hng theo cc trc x, y, z.
Phn lp d c 5 obitan, c nh hng
khc nhau trong khng gian.

18
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 5. Tng kt bi hc, ra bi tp v nh
HS ghi nh : th no l lp v phn lp electron, cch tnh s obitan ti a trong mt
phn lp, mt lp.

Bi 7 Nng lng ca cc electron
trong nguyn t
Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
HS bit th t cc mc nng lng ca cc electron trong nguyn t.
Vic phn b cc electron trong nguyn t tun theo nhng nguyn l v quy tc no.
Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t biu din s phn b electron trn cc phn lp
thuc cc lp khc nhau.
K nng
C k nng vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t thuc 20 nguyn t u.
Bit cch tm kim thng tin v s sp xp cc electron trong nguyn t trn
mng internet, lu gi v x l thng tin.
II CHUN B|
Phng to hnh 1.11 v bng cu hnh electron ca nguyn t 20 nguyn t u (SGK).
Thit k m phng s phn b electron theo cc lp khc nhau trong nguyn t ca
nguyn t no (c th dng phn mm Powerpoint hoc Macromedia Flash)
dy hc.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Trong bi hc trc cc em c nghin cu s phn b cc electron theo
cc lp v phn lp. Vy c s xp cc electron vo cc lp v phn lp l g?
Hot ng 2. Tm hiu trt t mc nng lng

19
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Nng lng k t gn nhn nht ca
cc lp n tng theo th t t 1 n 7 v nng
lng ca cc phn lp tng theo th t s, p,
d, f (hnh v).
Ngi ta xc nh th t sp xp cc
phn lp theo chiu tng ca mc nng
lng : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s...
HS c SGK :
Electron gn ht nhn c mc nng
lng thp nht, electron xa ht nhn c
mc nng lng cao hn.
Thc nghim xc nh mc nng lng
ca phn lp 3d cao hn phn lp 4s.
Hot ng 3. Tm hiu lng t, nguyn l Pau-li, s electron ti a trong mt phn lp
v mt lp. Nguyn l vng bn, quy tc Hund
HS c SGK, tm tt cc chnh v :
- lng t.
- Nguyn l Pau-li, nguyn l vng bn, quy tc Hun.
Hot ng 4. Tm hiu cu hnh electron nguyn t
GV tng kt thnh quy tc vit cu hnh
electron nguyn t ca cc nguyn t
ho hc.
HS tm hiu quy tc vit cu hnh
electron nguyn t.
Th d : Fe (Z = 26)
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
6
4s
2
Hot ng 5. Th no l nguyn t s, p, d, f ?
HS c SGK v tr li nguyn t s l nhng nguyn t m nguyn t c electron
cui cng c in vo phn lp s. Tng t nh vy vi cc nguyn t p, d, f.
Hot ng 6. Vit cu hnh electron ca 20 nguyn t u
GV ly th d cu hnh electron nguyn
t Na lm mu: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
.
GV hng dn HS kim tra kt qu da
vo bng cu hnh electron ca nguyn
t 20 nguyn t u (SGK).
GV chia lp thnh 4 nhm vit ln lt
cu hnh electron ca 20 nguyn t u
v xc nh s electron trn cc lp ca
mi nguyn t.

Hot ng 7. Tm hiu c im ca electron lp ngoi cng
GV cho HS nhn xt cc nguyn t c
th c ti a bao nhiu electron lp
ngoi cng.
Cc nguyn t kim loi nh Na, Mg, K,
Ca, Al, cc phi kim nh O, N, Cl, P, S
c bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng ?
HS : i vi nguyn t ca tt c cc
nguyn t, lp ngoi cng c nhiu nht
l 8e tr nguyn t He (c 2e) hu nh
khng tham gia vo phn ng ho hc
(tr trong mt s iu kin c bit).
Hot ng 8. Tng kt ton b bi hc

20
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Cch vit cu hnh electron nguyn t
ca nguyn t.
Bit c cu hnh electron ca nguyn
t th c th d on c nhng tnh
cht ho hc in hnh ca nguyn t .
- Kim loi c t 1 - 3 electron lp ngoi
cng, (4 electron c th l KL hoc PK).
- Phi kim c 5 - 7 electron lp ngoi cng.
- Kh him (c 2 e He) c 8 electrron .
Bi 8 Luyn tp chng 1
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
HS cng c cc kin thc :
Thnh phn, cu to nguyn t, c im cc ht cu to nn nguyn t.
Nguyn t ho hc v cc c trng.
Cu trc v electron nguyn t.
K nng
Gii cc dng bi tp c bn trong SGK.
Pht trin k nng lm vic nhm, lm vic vi cng ngh thng tin.
Pht trin t duy bc cao.
II CHUN B|
HS tng kt cc kin thc ca chng 1 di dng s .
Gio n in t vi cc t liu h tr.
My vi tnh, my chiu a nng.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
A. Kin thc cn nm vng
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
Hy cho bit mi lin quan gia cc khi nim nguyn t, thnh phn, cu to nguyn
t, s phn b electron trong nguyn t, nguyn t ho hc.
Hot ng 2. HS h thng cc kin thc v nguyn t

Ht nhn nguyn t :
- Nguyn t
V electron nguyn t :
HS n li khi lng v in tch cc ht proton, ntron v electron.
- Proton (
1
1
p )
- Ntron (
1
0
n )
- Electron (
1
e)
- m
e
= 5,5.10
-4
u

21
Hot ng 3. Tho lun cc ni dung
Cu trc v electron ca nguyn t
HS n li cc khi nim :
- Lp electron
- Phn lp electron
- Obitan nguyn t
- S phn b electron
- Cu hnh electron
- c im ca electron lp ngoi cng.
Nguyn t ho hc
HS tr li cu hi : Cc c trng ca nguyn t ho hc l g ?
- in tch ht nhn (Z+) Z = s e = s p.
- S khi A = Z + N
- ng v : cng Z nhng khc N dn n khc s khi A.
- Nguyn t khi trung bnh
aA+bB
A =
100

Hot ng 4. Tm hiu mi lin quan gia cc khi nim ca chng 1
HS s dng s tm tt SGK trnh by s lin quan gia cc khi nim. C lp
theo di, nhn xt v b sung. GV tng kt phn tm tt kin thc c bn.
B. Bi tp
Hot ng 5. HS gii v tr li cc bi tp 1, 2, 8 (SGK)
Bi 1. p n D.
Gii thch : phn lp s bo ha khi c 2 electron, phn lp p bo ha khi c 6 electron,
phn lp d bo ha khi c 10 electron cn phn lp f bo ha khi c 14 electron.
Bi 2. p n A.
Gii thch: Trong s cc nguyn t Cr (24), Mn (25), Fe (26), Co (27) v Ni (28),
ch c nguyn t Cr c s bt thng do tnh cht bn ca cu hnh electron na bo
ha ca phn lp 3d. Cc electron ho tr ca Cr l 3d
5
4s
1.
Bi 8. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t Fe (Z = 26) : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
6
4s
2

Cu hnh electron ca ion Fe
2+
: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
6

Cu hnh electron ca ion Fe
3+
: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
5
GV tng kt, ra bi tp v nh, nhc HS chun b lm bi kim tra 45 pht ca
chng1.

22
Chng 2
Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc
v nh lut tun hon
A. M u
Mc tiu ca chng
HS bit v hiu :
HS hiu nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t vo BTH. Hiu mi quan h gia cu
hnh electron nguyn t ca nguyn t ho hc vi v tr ca n trong BTH.
Hiu s bin i tun hon tnh cht cc nguyn t, cc n cht v hp cht to
nn t cc nguyn t theo chiu tng ca in tch ht nhn nguyn t. Bit
nguyn nhn v ngha ca BTH.
HS c k nng :
C k nng suy ngh v lp lun t s lin quan gia cu hnh electron vi v tr
trong BTH v tnh cht.
Bit cch hc tp mt cch c lp v cng tc trong nhm. C nhng k nng
cng ngh thng tin nh tm kim thng tin, xy dng bi trnh din, xy dng v
qun l d liu v bit chia s vi cc bn.
Mt s im cn lu
1. H thng kin thc
Bi Tn bi Ni dung
9 Bng tun hon cc nguyn
t ho hc
Nguyn tc sp xp ca bng tun hon
Cu to ca bng tun hon : , chu k, nhm
10 S bin i tun hon cu
hnh electron nguyn t ca
cc nguyn t ho hc

Cu hnh electron nguyn t ca cc nguyn
t nhm A.
Cu hnh electron nguyn t ca cc nguyn
t nhm B.
11 S bin i mt s i lng
vt l ca cc nguyn t ho
hc
Bn knh nguyn t
Nng lng ion ho
m in
12 S bin i tnh kim loi, S bin i tnh kim loi, phi kim.

23
Bi Tn bi Ni dung
tnh phi kim ca cc nguyn
t ho hc.
nh lut tun hon
S bin i v ho tr vi O v H.
S bin i tnh axit - baz ca oxit v hiroxit.
nh lut tun hon.
13 ngha ca bng tun hon
cc nguyn t ho hc
Quan h gia v tr v cu to.
Quan h gia v tr v tnh cht.
So snh tnh cht ca mt nguyn t vi cc
nguyn t ln cn.
14 Luyn tp chng 2 Cng c, h thng ho kin thc.
Rn k nng gii bi tp.
2. Phng php dy hc
c im ca chng 2 l BTH c nghin cu di nh sng ca thuyt cu to
nguyn t. BTH c xy dng th hin cc quy lut bin thin tnh cht ca cc
nguyn t ho hc, cng nh cc n cht v cc hp cht to nn t nhng nguyn
t . thc hin tt mc tiu ca chng 2, GV c th thit k cc hot ng ca
hc sinh theo mt s gi sau :
T chc hot ng nhm, GV chia ni dung bi hc thnh mt s n v kin
thc, c th t chc tho lun chung c lp hoc mi nhm tho lun mt n v
kin thc. Sau khi tho lun nhm, i din ca nhm s trnh by kt qu tho
lun, cc nhm khc theo di, nhn xt v GV kt lun.
S dng cc phng tin trc quan nh BTH, cc bng thng k s liu, cc m
phng gy hng th, tng hiu qu dy hc.
Rn cho HS k nng phn tch s liu, pht hin quy lut bin i tnh cht ca cc
nguyn t trong mt chu k, trong mt nhm A.
B. Dy hc cc bi c th
Bi 9 Bng Tun Hon cc nguyn t ho hc
I MUC TIU
HS bit v hiu c nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t ho hc vo BTH. Hiu
c cu to ca BTH : , chu k, nhm A, nhm B.
c c cc thng tin v nguyn t ho hc ghi trong mt ca bng. Vn dng
sp xp mt nguyn t ho hc vo BTH khi bit cu hnh e ca nguyn t nguyn
t v ngc li.
HS c th trnh by c nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t ho hc trong BTH.

24
HS hiu c mi lin quan gia v tr v cu hnh electron ca nguyn t.
So snh dng BTH ang c s dng rng ri v BTH do Men--l-p pht
minh. Tm ra nhng u im ni bt ca dng bng di ang c s dng.
II CHUN B|
BTH dng di.
C th s dng BTH m phng trn mng internet hoc BTH trong CD phn mm
dy hc ca khoa Ho hc - HSP H Ni.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
Men--l-p da trn khi lng tng dn ca nguyn t sp xp cc nguyn
t ho hc. Theo nguyn tc ny, m bo quy lut bin i tun hon, ng
phi chp nhn mt s ngoi l. th d
60
Co xp trc
59
Ni. V sao c nhng ngoi l
ny ? trnh ngoi l cn xp cc nguyn t ho hc theo nhng quy tc no ?
Hot ng 2 : Nguyn tc xy dng bng tun hon
GV cho HS quan st BTH v gii thiu
nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t vo
BTH km theo th d minh ho.
HS pht biu ba nguyn tc xy dng
BTH.
Hot ng 3 : Tho lun nhm - Tm hiu cu to ca bng tun hon
GV : Chia lp thnh 4 nhm v phn
cng nhim v cho tng nhm.
Nhm 1 : Tm hiu v nguyn t
Nhm 2 : Tm hiu v cc chu k
Nhm 3 : Tm hiu v nhm A
Nhm 4 : Tm hiu v nhm B
Hot ng 4 : Tho lun chung
GV t chc cc nhm khc nhn xt, b
sung, cui cng GV tng kt v nh gi.
Sau khi tho lun nhm, i din cc
nhm bo co kt qu.
Hot ng 5 : Tng kt bi hc
GV nhn mnh nguyn tc sp xp cc
nguyn t v nhng iu cn ghi nh.
HS ghi nh cc nguyn tc xy dng
BTH, trnh by c cu to ca BTH.

25
Bi 10 S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron
nguyn t ca cc nguyn t ho hc
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
HS hiu s bin i cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t
ho hc trong mt chu k, trong mt nhm A.
Gii thch c nguyn nhn s bin i tun hon tnh cht ca cc nguyn t ho
hc l do s bin i tun hon cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng. Phn bit r rng
cc electron ho tr ca cc nguyn t nhm A v nhm B.
K nng
HS c k nng gii cc bi tp trong SGK v SBT, kh nng cng tc v cc k nng
tm kim, lu gi v x l thng tin tt.
II CHUN B|
Phng to bng 2.1 trong SGK. BTH dng di.
HS c trc SGK.
Gio n in t nu c.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung dy hc
Ti sao khi xp cc nguyn t theo chiu tng dn ca cc in tch ht nhn, tnh cht cc
nguyn t li bin i tun hon ? Chng ta s tm cu tr li trong bi hc hm nay.
Hot ng 2 : Tm hiu cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nhm A
GV tng kt : s bin i tun hon v
cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng l
nguyn nhn ca s bin i tun hon
v tnh cht ca cc nguyn t.
HS quan st bng 2.1, nhn xt v s
bin i cu hnh electron lp ngoi
cng ca cc nguyn t nhm A ln lt
qua cc chu k 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
Hot ng 3 : Tm hiu cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm B
GV tng kt : Cc nguyn t nhm B
+ Thuc cc chu k ln.
+ Thuc khi d, chng cn c gi l
cc nguyn t chuyn tip.
HS quan st BTH, nhn xt v tr, c
im ca cc nguyn t nhm B.
Th d chu k 4 c 10 nguyn t d, c 8
nguyn t c cu hnh (n - 1)d
a
ns
2
, ring

26
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
+ Cc electron ho tr (n - 1)d
a
ns
2

trong a nhn cc gi tr t 1 - 10.
nguyn t Cr : 3d
5
4s
1
v Cu : 3d
10
4s
1
.
Cc nguyn t nhm B thng c nhiu
trng thi ho tr. Th d Fe thng c
cc ho tr II v III.
Hot ng 4 : Gii cc bi tp 1, 5 SGK trang 44
GV tng kt bi tp 1.
A sai v khng cp n cc nhm A
ch c cc phi kim nh O - S, cc
halogen. B sai v khng cp n cc
nhm A ch c cc kim loi nh nhm
kim loi kim, kim loi kim th. D sai
v cha cp n nguyn nhn.
GV tng kt bi tp 5 : Trong s 5 nguyn
t cho, c 1 nguyn t nhm IIA (Z =
20), 4 nguyn t cn li thuc nhm B.
Trong c hai nguyn t Z = 24 v Z =
29 l bt thng.
Bi tp 1. p n C
HS phn tch cc phng n sai.
Bi tp 5. HS vit cu hnh electron
nguyn t ca cc nguyn t :
Z = 20 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2

Z = 21 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
1
4s
2

Z = 24 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
5
4s
1

Z = 29 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
4s
1

Z = 30 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
4s
2

HS nhn xt v v tr ca cc nguyn t
ho hc cho trong BTH.
Hot ng 5 : GV tng kt bi hc
HS ghi nh : Nguyn nhn s bin i tun hon tnh cht ca cc nguyn t. Mi
lin h gia cu hnh electron ca nguyn t vi tnh cht ca nguyn t trong chu k
v trong nhm A, B.
Bi 11 S bin i mt s i lng vt l ca
cc nguyn t ho hc
I MUC TIU
HS bit c quy lut bin i bn knh nguyn t cc nguyn t trong mt chu k,
trong mt nhm A.
HS hiu khi nim nng lng ion ho v quy lut bin i nng lng ion ho th
nht ca cc nguyn t trong mt chu k v trong mt nhm A.
hiu c khi nim m in, bit thang m in Pau-linh. Quy lut bin
i m in trong mt chu k v trong mt nhm A.

27
HS trnh by c cc khi nim v nng lng ion ho, m in v quy lut
bin i bn knh nguyn t, nng lng ion ho v m in.
HS c k nng hot ng c lp v cng tc tt.
II CHUN B|
GV phng to cc hnh 2.1 ; 2.2 ; 2.3 v cc bng 2.2 ; 2.3 SGK.
HS c trc SGK.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
Nguyn nhn ca s bin i tun hon tnh cht cc nguyn t ho hc l s bin
i tun hon cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng. Cc tnh cht nh bn knh nguyn
t, nng lng ion ho, m in c nm trong quy lut chung khng ? tr
li cu hi ny, chng ta cng nhau nghin cu bi 11.
Hot ng 2. Tm hiu quy lut bin i bn knh nguyn t
GV : Bn knh nguyn t ca cc nguyn
t nhm A bin i tun hon theo chiu
tng ca in tch ht nhn.

HS quan st hnh 2.1 nhn xt :
- Trong mt chu k, theo chiu Z tng,
bn knh nguyn t gim dn.
- Trong mt nhm A, theo chiu Z tng,
bn knh nguyn t tng dn.
HS gii thch quy lut bin i trn.
Hot ng 3. Tm hiu khi nim nng lng ion ho v quy lut bin i nng lng
ion ho th nht (I
1
)
GV ging gii nh ngha v tng kt :
Nng lng ion ho th nht ca nguyn
t cc nguyn t nhm A bin i tun
hon theo chiu tng ca in tch ht
nhn.
HS c nh ngha nng lng ion ho
th nht I
1
(SGK).
HS quan st hnh v bng 2.2, nhn xt.
- Trong mt chu k, I
1
tng dn.
- Trong mt nhm A, I
1
gim dn.
Hot ng 4 : Tm hiu khi nim m in v quy lut bin i m in
GV din ging khi nim m in v
ngha ca n.
GV lu HS :
- C nhiu thang m in theo nhng
tc gi khc nhau.
- SGK gii thiu thang Pau-linh.
- HS nghe GV ging v nm c khi
nim m in.
- HS quan st bng v hnh 2.3, nhn xt :
- Trong chu k theo chiu Z tng, m
in tng dn.
- Trong nhm A theo chiu Z tng,
m in gim dn.

28
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 5 : Vn dng v tng kt
HS nhm 1 : gii bi tp 1, 2.
HS nhm 2 : gii bi tp 3, 4.
HS nhm 3 : gii bi tp 5, 6.
HS nhm 4 : gii bi tp 7.
GV tng kt bi hc, giao nhim v c
trc bi 12.
Chia lp thnh 4 nhm, phn cng tho
lun v gii cc bi tp. i din cc
nhm ln lt trnh by kt qu tho
lun, c th s dng bi trnh din
Powerpoint h tr.

Bi 12 S bin i tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim
ca cc nguyn t ho hc.
nh lut tun hon
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
HS bit v hiu c :
Th no l tnh kim loi, phi kim ca cc nguyn t ho hc. Quy lut bin i tnh
kim loi, phi kim trong mt chu k v trong mt nhm A.
Quy lut bin i ho tr cao nht vi oxi v vi hiro.
Quy lut bin i tnh axit, baz ca oxit v hiroxit ca cc nguyn t nhm A.
K nng
HS c k nng vn dng cc kin thc hc gii cc bi tp trong SGK.
Bit cc k nng cng ngh thng tin c th xy dng bi trnh din Powerpoint
v tm kim t liu trn mng internet.
II CHUN B|
Phng to cc bng 2.4 ; 2.5 lm dng dy hc.
Chun b my tnh, my chiu a nng ni c iu kin.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
Trc khi nghin cu quy lut bin thin tnh cht ca cc nguyn t, cc em hy
cho bit th no l tnh kim loi ? tnh phi kim ?

29
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 2 : Tm hiu v s bin i tnh kim loi, phi kim trong mt chu k
GV hng dn HS gii thch quy lut theo
cu to nguyn t.
HS pht biu v s bin i tnh cht cc
nguyn t trong mi chu k (tnh kim
loi gim, tnh phi kim tng).
Trong chu k, tnh kim loi gim, tnh
phi kim tng theo chiu tng ca Z.
Hot ng 3 : Tm hiu v quy lut bin i tnh kim loi v phi kim trong mt nhm A
GV hng dn HS rt ra : Nhn xt s
bin i tnh kim loi - phi kim ca cc
nguyn t trong BTH. (bin i tun
hon)
HS c SGK v pht biu quy lut bin
i tnh kim loi, phi kim trong mt
nhm A. HS gii thch quy lut bin i
da vo cu to nguyn t.
Hot ng 4 : Tm hiu s bin i v ho tr ca cc nguyn t
GV hng dn HS dng bng 2.4 trong
SGK nghin cu v tr li cu hi :
Quy lut bin i ho tr cao nht vi oxi
v vi hiro ?
HS : Ho tr cao nht ca mt nguyn t
vi oxi, ho tr vi hiro ca cc phi kim
bin i tun hon theo chiu tng ca
in tch ht nhn.
Hot ng 5 : Tm hiu s bin i tnh axit - baz ca oxit v hiroxit
GV : Tnh axit - baz ca cc oxit v
hiroxit ca cc nguyn t bin i tun
hon theo chiu tng ca in tch ht
nhn nguyn t.
HS dng bng 2.5 nhn xt s bin
i tnh axit - baz ca oxit v hiroxit
ca cc nguyn t chu k 2 v 3.
S bin i tnh axit - baz khng lin
tc m tun hon.
Hot ng 6 : Tm hiu ni dung ca nh lut tun hon
GV hng dn HS c SGK hiu v
pht biu ng nh lut tun hon. nh
lut tun hon l mt quy lut t nhin
quan trng ca ho hc.
HS ghi nh : Tnh cht ca cc nguyn
t v n cht cng nh thnh phn v
tnh cht ca cc hp cht to nn t cc
nguyn t bin i tun hon theo chiu
tng ca in tch ht nhn nguyn t.


30
Bi 13 ngha ca Bng Tun Hon
cc nguyn t ho hc
I MUC TIU
HS cng c c kin thc v BTH, hiu r mi quan h gia v tr vi cu to
nguyn t v tnh cht.
Bit so snh tnh cht ho hc ca mt nguyn t vi cc nguyn t ho hc ln
cn trong BTH.
Trnh by c ngha ca BTH, cu to v cch s dng ca BTH.
S dng linh hot cc thng tin thu c t BTH lm c s nghin cu v d
on cc tnh cht khi hc tip v cc nguyn t c th v sau.
II CHUN B|
Cc phiu hc tp ghi r nhim v cho cc nhm.
C th chun b gio n in t nu c iu kin.
T cha kho tm kim thng tin v BTH : Periodic table.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
BTH c th gip ch nhng g cho vic hc ho hc ni chung v dy hc ho hc
ni ring ?
Hot ng 2 : Tm hiu mi quan h gia v tr v cu to
GV hng dn HS gii Z = 19 X c
in tch ht nhn l 19+ C 19
electron v 19 proton.
- X chu k 4 nguyn t X c 4 lp
electron.
- X nhm IA nguyn t X c
1 electron lp ngoi cng.

HS xt th d : Nguyn t X c Z = 19,
thuc chu k 4, nhm IA. Cho bit cu
to nguyn t ca X, c gii thch c th.
HS ghi nh :
+ T Z s proton, s electrron.
+ T STT chu k s lp electron.
+ T STT nhm A s electron lp
ngoi cng.
Hot ng 3 : Tm hiu quan h gia v tr v tnh cht
Nhn xt : Bit v tr ca mt nguyn t
trong BTH c th suy ra nhng tnh cht
ho hc c bn ca n.
HS dng BTH, t v tr c th xc nh :
- Nguyn t l kim loi hay phi kim.
- Cng thc oxit cao nht, cng thc hp

31
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
cht kh vi hiro nu c.
- Cng thc hiroxit v tnh cht axit - baz
ca oxit v hiroxit.
Hot ng 4 :
Tm hiu mi quan h ca mt nguyn t ho hc vi cc nguyn t xung quanh
GV lu cch so snh :
1. Xp cc nguyn t cho vo cng
mt chu k hoc cng mt nhm A theo
chiu Z tng.
2. Vn dng quy lut bin i tnh cht
kim loi hoc phi kim, tnh cht axit -
baz ca oxit v hiroxit, ho tr cao
nht vi oxi v hiro so snh.



HS nhc li cc quy lut bin i tnh
kim loi - phi kim ca n cht, tnh
axit - baz ca oxit v hiroxit, ho tr
cao nht vi oxi v hiro theo chiu tng
ca in tch ht nhn. Trong BTH, cc
nguyn t c quan h cht ch vi cc
nguyn tung quanh. Th d : So snh
Mg vi 4 nguyn t xung quanh trong
BTH.





Hot ng 5 : Vn dng v tng kt bi hc
GV cha cc bi trn.
GV tng kt bi hc, ra bi tp v nh.
T khi ra i nm 1869 n nay, BTH l
cng c khng th thiu c ca ho
hc. S pht trin l thuyt v cu to
nguyn t cng cng c vng chc nh
lut tun hon v BTH.
HS gii cc bi tp 1, 2 trang 58 SGK.
BTH gip tm ra cc nguyn t ho
hc mi, d on tnh cht ca cc
nguyn t cha bit, lm chnh xc ho
cc s liu thc nghim trc , gip h
thng ho cc ti liu ring r v cc
nguyn t ho hc, t mi nguyn t
vo trong mi quan h cht ch vi cc
nguyn t khc cng nhm, cng chu k.
Bi 14 Luyn tp chng 2
I MUC TIU
Nm vng cu to BTH v nguyn tc sp xp. Hiu v vn dng c cc quy lut
bin i tun hon tnh cht ca cc nguyn t v hp cht ca chng.
11
Na
12
Mg
gg
13
Al
4
Be
20
Ca

32
Nm vng mi lin h gia cu to, v tr v tnh cht cc nguyn t ho hc.
Gii c cc bi tp trong SGK v SBT ho hc 10 Nng cao.
S dng thnh tho v tm kim c thng tin cn thit da vo BTH, bin n
thnh cha kho cho vic hc tp mn ho hc.
II CHUN B|
Yu cu HS chun b trc bi luyn tp.
BTH dng di.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
A. Kin thc cn nm vng
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
Ngi ta h thng tt c cc nguyn t ho hc bit nh th no ?
Hot ng 2 : n li cc nguyn tc sp xp ca BTH, cc quy lut chu k, nhm A
Em hy cho bit nguyn tc sp xp ca BTH, quy lut bin i tnh cht nguyn t,
n cht, hp cht? trong mt chu k, mt nhm A ?
Da vo BTH, HS trnh by :
Cc nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t trong BTH.
Minh ha cc nguyn tc bng s sp xp 20 nguyn t u chu k.
HS khc nhn xt v GV b sung, tng kt.
Hot ng 3 : Cng c hiu bit v cc chu k ca BTH
HS tho lun v trnh by cc ni dung :
Chu k l g ? c bao nhiu chu k nh ? bao nhiu chu k ln.
S th t ca chu k c lin quan th no n cu hnh electron nguyn t ?
Gii thch quy lut bin i tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim ca cc nguyn t theo
chiu tng ca in tch ht nhn nguyn t trong mt chu k.
Hot ng 4 : Cng c hiu bit v cc nhm nguyn t ca BTH
HS tho lun v trnh by cc ni dung :
Th no l nhm nguyn t ? Th no l nhm A ? Th no l nhm B ?
c im ca cc nguyn t trong mt nhm A l g ?
Th no l cc nguyn t s, p, d, f ?
S lin quan gia cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng v tnh kim loi, phi kim hay
kh him ca nguyn t ho hc.

33
Hot ng 5 : Nhng i lng v tnh cht no ca cc nguyn t bin thin tun hon
theo chiu in tch ht nhn tng dn ? Pht biu nh lut tun hon
Bn knh nguyn t.
Nng lng ion ho.
m in.
Tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim.
Tnh baz - axit ca cc oxit v hiroxit.
Ho tr cao nht ca nguyn t vi oxi v hiro.
B. Gii bi tp
Hot ng 6 : HS vn dng gii bi tp 3 trang 60 (SGK)
Trong BTH, cc nhm IA, IIA, IIIA gm hu ht cc kim loi.
+ Nhm IA : C 1 e lp ngoi cng.
+ Nhm IIA : C 2 e lp ngoi cng.
+ Nhm IIIA : C 3 e lp ngoi cng.
Nhm VA, VIA v VIIA gm hu ht l cc nguyn t phi kim :
+ Nhm VA : C 5 e lp ngoi cng.
+ Nhm VIA : C 6 e lp ngoi cng.
+ Nhm VIIA : C 7 e lp ngoi cng
Nhm VIIIA l nhm kh him, nguyn t ca cc nguyn t trong nhm (tr heli)
u c 8 electron lp ngoi cng.
Hot ng 7 : HS gii bi tp 6 - trang 60 (SGK)
Hp cht kh vi hiro ca mt nguyn t l RH
4
R thuc nhm IVA.
Vy cng thc ca hp cht oxit cao nht ca nguyn t l RO
2
.
Ta c %
2
O
m =
32 53, 3
32 100 R
=
+
R = 28 (Si)
Vy R l Si.

34
Bi 15 bi thc hnh s 1
mt s thao tc thc hnh th nghim ho hc.
s bin i tnh cht nguyn t
trong chu k v nhm
I MUC TIU
Bit mt s thao tc trong thc hnh th nghim ho hc nh ly ho cht, trn cc
ho cht, ong ho cht, s dng mt s dng c thng thng.
Bit s dng dng c, ho cht thc hin an ton, thnh cng th nghim v s bin
i tnh cht cc nguyn t trong nhm, trong chu k.
Quan st cc hin tng th nghim, vn dng kin thc gii thch, vit PTHH ca
phn ng.
II CHUN B|
1. Dng c : Xem SGV.
2. Ho cht : Xem SGV.
Dng c, ho cht HS thc hnh theo nhm trong iu kin ca trng.
3. Hc sinh
n tp nhng kin thc lin quan n cc th nghim trong bi.
Nghin cu trc bit c nhng hng dn s dng dng c, ho cht, cc
thao tc trong th nghim, thc hnh ho hc. Bit dng c, ho cht v cch lm
cc th nghim trong bi.
4. Gio vin
Chun b mt s phiu hc tp.
Phiu s 1 : C 1 ng ong dung tch 50 ml c chia , lm cch no c ng lng
cht lng ng trong ng ong ? Thc hnh ong 25 ml nc ct.
Phiu s 2 : C 3 cc ng 10 ml nc ct :
Cc 1 : Nc nhit phng.
Cc 2 : Nc nhit phng.
Cc 3 : Nc khong 80 90
0
C.
Cho ln lt vo cc 1 mt mu nh Na, cc 2 v 3 mt mnh Mg. D on s c hin
tng g xy ra, gii thch, vit PTHH ca phn ng.

35
5. T chc
Chia lp thnh cc nhm thc hnh, mi nhm khong 4 - 5 HS. C mt nhm trng.
Nhm thc hnh nn gi n nh trong c nm hc, khng nn xo trn (tr trng
hp c bit).
III MT S LUU
1. y l bi thc hnh u tin trong chng trnh ho hc trng THPT phn ban.
GV cn chun b chu o hnh thnh ngay t u cho HS :
Mt s k nng c bn trong s dng dng c th nghim.
K nng ly ho cht (rn, lng...),trn ho cht.
Nhng iu cn ghi nh trong thc hnh th nghim (yu cu trt t ngn np, t
gic, khn trng thc hin th nghim theo ng hng dn ...).
Hnh thnh cc nhm thc hnh.
K nng vit tng trnh v.v...
2. Phn ng gia Na, K vi H
2
O xy ra rt mnh, c bit vi K. GV phi ct cc mu
kim loi Na, K rt nh (bng 1/2 ht xanh) HS lm th nghim, khng cc
em t ct t ming Na, K ln. Lu HS lm th nghim cn thn.
3. Nu c iu kin, GV nn th hin cc phiu hc tp ln bn trong. Dng my chiu
hng dn HS trong hot ng (1) s c hiu qu hn.
4. Phn b thi gian hp l.
IV THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
Hot ng 1 : M u tit thc hnh
1. GV : - Nu mc ch tit thc hnh
- Nhng yu cu HS phi thc hin trong tit thc hnh.
2. S dng phiu hc tp kim tra vic chun b bi ca HS v hng dn HS nhng
nhim v trong tit thc hnh :
Phiu 1 : Hng dn HS thc hnh ong cht lng bng ng ong, cch c s trn
vch chia ...
Phiu 2 : Yu cu HS ghi li hin tng (d on) i chiu vi thc hnh.
3. GV lu mt s thao tc nh ly ho cht rn, lng, dng n cn v.v... biu din
mu cc thao tc HS lm theo.

36
Hot ng 2 : Mt s thao tc thc hnh th nghim ho hc
GV : Giao nhim v cho HS thc hnh, v d : Ly mt mung nh NaCl rn, cho vo
ng nghim, dng ng nh git nh vo ng nghim cho n 1/4 ng nghim. Kp
ng nghim bng kp g, un nng ng nghim trn ngn la n cn. Ch
hng dn HS thc hin cc thao tc.
HS : Thc hnh theo hng dn. Tng HS thc hin, c nhm theo di, gp , trao i
gip nhau thc hin thnh tho, ng tng thao tc.
Hot ng 3 : Thc hnh v s bin i tnh cht cc nguyn t trong chu k v nhm
a) Trong nhm :
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGV.
GV : Hng dn, lu HS lm th nghim cn thn, ch dng 1 mu Na hoc K
c chun b trc, khng c dng nhiu Na, K.
b) Trong mt chu k :
HS thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGV.
Na tc dng mnh vi H
2
O, dd chuyn mu hng.
Mg ch tc dng vi H
2
O nhit cao (cc 3 nc nng dd chuyn mu hng, c
bt kh bay ra, cc 2 khng c phn ng).
C th thc hin th nghim chng minh s bin i tnh cht ca nguyn t trong
mt chu k theo cch sau :
t ba mu kim loi Na, Mg, Al ln mt thanh
nha (hoc chic thc k HS), ng vi ba cc
cha dd HCl t pha di (hnh 1).
Nghing cn thn chic thc 3 mu kim
loi ri ng thi xung 3 cc cha dd HCl.
Hng dn HS quan st hin tng xy ra v
c kt lun.


Hnh 1
Hot ng 4 : Cng vic cui tit thc hnh
GV : Nhn xt, nh gi kt qu tit thc hnh. Yu cu HS vit tng trnh.
HS : Thu dn dng c, ho cht, v sinh PTN, lp hc.


37
Chng 3
lin kt ho hc
A. M u
Mc tiu ca chng
HS bit v hiu:
Khi nim LKHH, quy tc bt t.
S to thnh ion m v ion dng ; ion n v ion a nguyn t ; lin kt ion.
Khi nim tinh th ion, mng tinh th ion, tnh cht chung ca hp cht ion.
Hiu m in ca 2 nguyn t v cc kiu lin kt tng ng.
Khi nim v tnh cht chung ca hp cht c tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t.
Khi nim in ho tr, cng ho tr v cch xc nh.
Khi nim lin kt kim loi. Mt s tinh th kim loi v tnh cht ca chng.
Vit c cu hnh electron ca ion n nguyn t, cng thc electron (CT e), cng
thc cu to (CTCT).
Xc nh ion n nguyn t, ion a nguyn t trong mt phn t cht c th.
V c s hnh thnh lin kt o v lin kt t, lai ho sp, sp
2
, sp
3
.
Da vo cu to loi mng tinh th, d on tnh cht vt l ca chng.
Mt s im cn lu
1. H thng kin thc
Bi Tn bi Ni dung
16 Khi nim v lin kt ho hc.
Lin kt ion
S to thnh cc ion, cation v anion ; ion
n, ion a nguyn t ; lin kt ion.
Mi quan h gia mng tinh th ion v
tnh cht chung ca mng.
17 Lin kt cng ho tr

Lin kt cng ho tr trong phn t n
cht v hp cht.
S phn cc trong lin kt cng ho tr.

38
Bi Tn bi Ni dung
18 S lai ho cc obitan nguyn
t. S hnh thnh lin kt n,
lin kt i v lin kt ba

S lai ho cc obitan nguyn t lai ho sp,
sp
2
, sp
3
.
Dng hnh hc ca phn t theo lai ho.
Lin kt n, lin kt i, lin kt ba,
lin kt o v t.
19 Luyn tp v : Lin kt ion.
lin kt cng ho tr. S lai
ho cc obitan nguyn t
Cc loi lin kt ho hc.
Lin kt ion ; bn cht lin kt ion.
Lin cng ho tr ; bn cht lin cng ho
tr.
Lai ho sp, sp
2
, sp
3
.
20 Tinh th nguyn t.
Tinh th phn t
Tinh th nguyn t v tnh cht.
Tinh th phn t v tnh cht.
21 Hiu m in v lin kt
ho hc
nh hng ca m in n cc kiu
LKHH.
Hiu m in v LKHH.
22 Ho tr v s oxi ho Ho tr v s oxi ho.
Ho tr v s oxi ho trong lin kt ion v
lin kt cng ho tr.
23 Lin kt kim loi Lin kt kim loi v cc kiu mng tinh
th kim loi ph bin.
Mi quan h gia tnh cht chung v mng
tinh th kim loi
24 Luyn tp chng 3 Cng c, h thng ho kin thc.
Rn k nng gii bi tp.
2. Phng php dy hc
Da vo ni dung bi hc, vn dng cc kin thc l thuyt ch o v cu to
nguyn t v quy tc bt t gii quyt vn v lin kt. GV c th t chc tho
lun chung c lp hoc theo nhm trn c s phiu hc tp. i din ca nhm s
trnh by kt qu tho lun, cc nhm khc theo di, b sung, nhn xt v GV kt
lun.
S dng cc phng tin dy hc (tranh v, s , m hnh, cc m phng, mu
vt, cc phn mm dy hc...), cc phiu hc tp, gy hng th, tng hiu qu
dy hc.

39
HS c rn k nng phn tch, so snh, i chiu rt ra s ging nhau v khc
nhau gia lin kt ion, lin kt cng ho tr, lin kt o v lin kt t, lin kt trong
cc loi mng tinh th v hc cch t hc.
B. Dy hc cc bi c th
Bi 16 Khi nim v Lin Kt Ho Hc - Lin kt ion
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
Khi nim v LKHH. Ni dung quy tc bt t.
S hnh thnh cation v anion ; ion n v ion a nguyn t ; lin kt ion.
Tinh th ion, mng tinh th ion v tnh cht vt l chung ca hp cht ion.
Cu hnh electron ca ion n nguyn t, CT e, CTCT ca mt s phn t.
II CHUN B|
Tranh nh, phiu hc tp...
Mu vt tinh th NaCl hoc m hnh tinh th NaCl.
Phiu hc tp
Ni dung 1. Cho bit nguyn t Na (Z = 11) ; F (Z = 9).
1. Hy gii thch v sao cc nguyn t trung ha v in.
2. Nu nguyn t Na nhng 1 electron, F nhn thm 1 electron. Hy tnh in tch
phn cn li ca nguyn t.
3. Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca nguyn t Na v F. p dng quy tc bt t
cho bit kh nng nhng v nhn electron ca Na v F.
4. Rt ra kt lun v s hnh thnh ion, ion dng, ion m.
Ni dung 2
1. p dng quy tc bt t, vit s to thnh lin kt trong phn t NaCl khi nguyn
t Na v Cl tip xc vi nhau ?
2. p dng quy tc bt t, vit s to thnh lin kt trong phn t KBr khi nguyn
t K v Br tip xc vi nhau.
3. p dng quy tc bt t, vit s to thnh lin kt trong phn t MgO khi nguyn
t Mg v O tip xc vi nhau.
4. p dng quy tc bt t, vit s to thnh lin kt ca phn t FeS khi 2 nguyn t
Fe v S tip xc vi nhau.
5. Rt ra khi nim v lin kt ion.

40
Ni dung 3
1. p dng quy tc bt t, vit s to thnh lin kt trong phn t Na
2
O khi nguyn
t Na v 2 nguyn t O tip xc vi nhau.
2. p dng quy tc bt t, vit s to thnh lin kt ca phn t CaCl
2
khi nguyn t
Ca v 2 nguyn t Cl tip xc vi nhau.
3. p dng quy tc bt t, vit s to thnh lin kt trong phn t K
2
S khi 2 nguyn
t K v S tip xc vi nhau.
4. p dng quy tc bt t, vit s to thnh lin kt trong phn t MgCl
2
khi nguyn
t Mg v 2 nguyn t Cl tip xc vi nhau ?
5. Rt ra khi nim v lin kt ion.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Ti sao trong t nhin nguyn t ca cc nguyn t tn ti ch yu di dng
phn t hoc tinh th, nh phn t NaCl, phn t O
2
bn vng. S kt hp gi l
LKHH. Vy LKHH l g ? C my kiu LKHH ? Bn cht ca cc kiu lin kt
nh th no ?
Hot ng 2 : Khi nim lin kt ho hc
GV t vn : v sao oxi khng tn
ti di dng nguyn t m tn ti di
dng phn t O
2
bn vng ? V sao phn
t NaCl tn ti di dng tinh th bn
vng ? S kt hp ngi ta gi l
LKHH. Vy LKHH l g ?
GV thng bo nguyn nhn hnh
thnh phn t hay tinh th.
GV cho HS viu cu hnh electron
ca He (Z = 2) ; Ne (Z = 10) tho lun c
lp v c im ca lp electron ngoi
cng.
GV gi HS pht biu quy tc
bt t.
HS trnh by khi nim LKHH nh trong
SGK.






C lp tho lun v rt ra nhn xt
c im lp electron ngoi cng.

HS pht biu ni dung quy tc bt t
trong SGK.
Hot ng 3 : S hnh thnh ion

41
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV chia lp thnh 4 nhm v tho
lun phiu hc tp s 1 theo s phn
cng.
GV kt lun s hnh thnh ion, ion
dng v ion m v cch gi tn.
GV a ra mt s v d : ion dng
Mg
2+
; Al
3+
; ion m O
2
; Cl

, SO
4
2
,
NH
4
+
, NO
3

,... ch ra cc ion n nguyn


t, ion a nguyn t v yu cu HS pht
biu th no l ion a, ion n nguyn t ?
GV kt lun v s hnh thnh ion.
i din cc nhm ln ln trnh by


HS lng nghe GV phn loi, nghin
cu SGK v tr li cu hi.
Hot ng 4 : S to thnh lin kt ion ca phn t 2 nguyn t
GV chia lp thnh 4 nhm v phn
cng tho lun theo phiu hc tp s 2.
GV ch nh i din nhm ln trnh by.
i din nhm ln trnh by, cc nhm
khc b sung v nhn xt.
Hot ng 5 : S to thnh lin kit ion trong phn t nhiu nguyn t
GV hng dn tho lun nhm theo
phiu hc tp s 3.
GV : T 2 th d trn cho bit lin kt
ion l g.
i din nhm ln trnh by, cc
nhm khc b sung v nhn xt.
HS Rt ra kt lun v s hnh thnh
lin kt ion.
Hot ng 6 : Tinh th v mng tinh th
GV hng dn HS quan st tinh th
v mng tinh th (c th xem m hnh,
tranh nh, phn mm...), nghin cu
SGK hiu khi nim tinh th v mng
tinh th.
GV cho HS quan st m hnh tinh th
NaCl ch cho HS thy th no l nt
mng. Yu cu HS m t cu trc tinh
th NaCl c hnh g ? Cc ion phn b
nh th no ?
GV b sung : n gin ch vit NaCl.
GV : T kin thc thc t hy cho
bit tinh th mui n c c dim g v
HS quan st v tho lun chung trn
lp. Sau i din nhm ln pht biu,
cc nhm cn li b sung.

HS lng nghe, quan st m hnh v tr
li cc cu hi ca GV :
+ Cu trc hnh lp phng.
+ Mt ion Na
+
c bao quanh 6 ion
Cl

v ngc li.


HS :
+ Dng tinh th th bn, t
0
nc
v t
0
s
kh

42
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
tnh bn, nhit nng chy.
GV b sung : cc hp cht ion tan nhiu
trong nc v dn in (khi nng chy
v khi ha tan), v khng dn in (khi
trng thi rn).
GV : Ti sao tinh th ion li c nhng
tnh cht c bit k trn ?
cao.
+ Trng thi hi : dng phn t ring r.



HS gii thch do :
+ Lc ht tnh in gia cc ion.
+ Lin kt ion l lin kt bn.
Hot ng 7 : Cng c
GV nhn mnh kin thc trng tm ca
bi cn ghi nh, c th luyn tp thm
trn lp v giao bi tp v nh.
HS ghi nh cc khi nim v lin kt ion,
cation, anion, ion n v ion a nguyn
t, mng tinh th. Da vo cu to v quy
tc bt t, gii thch cu to phn t.
Bi 17 lin kt cng ho tr
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
S hnh thnh lin kt cng ho tr, lin kt cho - nhn. Nguyn nhn ca s hnh
thnh lin kt cng ho tr. c im ca lin kt cng ho tr.
S xen ph cc obitan nguyn t trong s to thnh phn t n cht (H
2
, Cl
2
),
phn t hp cht (HCl, H
2
S ).
nh hng ca m in n s phn cc trong lin kt cng ho tr nh th no ?
K nng
Vit c CT e, CTCT ca mt s phn t c th.
V s hnh thnh lin kt o, t, lai ho sp, sp
2
, sp
3
.
II CHUN B|
GV chun b phiu hc tp.
S s hnh thnh phn t hiro, s xen ph ss, pp, sp.
Cc bn trong v cc obitan s, p hoc c th s dng phn mm trn my vi tnh
biu din s xen ph cc obitan.
Phiu hc tp

43
Ni dung 1. Vit cu hnh electron ca Na, Cl, H. Biu din s hnh thnh cc ion Na
+
,
Cl

, H
+
. Gii thch s hnh thnh phn t NaCl. S hnh thnh phn t NaCl da
trn quy tc no v trnh by khi nim lin kt ion l g.
Ni dung 2. C th hnh thnh phn t H H, H Cl theo quy tc trn c khng ?
Ti sao ?
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV s dng phiu hc tp s 1 kim tra bi c ri a ra kt lun : hnh thnh
phn t, mi nguyn t trn a ra 1 electron gp chung thnh i electron nhm
tha mn quy tc bt t. LKHH hnh thnh theo cch ny gi l lin kt cng ho tr.
Hot ng 2 : S hnh thnh phn t H
2
GV ngh HS gii thch s hnh
thnh phn t H
2
theo quy tc bt t,
Nhn xt cp electron chung c s
dng trong lin kt ny nh th no.

GV b sung cch vit CT e v CTCT nh
sau : CT e l H : H v CTCT l H H.
GV kt lun : Lin kt trong H
2
l
lin kt cng ho tr khng phn cc.
HS c SGK v gii thch :
+ H
2
c cu hnh electron l 1s
1
.
+ H
2
c 1 cp electron dng chung.



HS : Gia 2 nguyn t hiro c 1 cp
electron chung, l lin kt n.
Hot ng 3 : S hnh thnh phn t N
2

GV ngh HS gii thch s hnh
thnh phn t N
2
theo quy tc bt t,
Nhn xt cp electron chung c s
dng trong lin kt ny nh th no.

GV kt lun : Lin kt trong phn t
H
2
, N
2
nh trn gi l lin kt cng ho
tr. Vy lin kt cng ho tr l g ? Ti
sao lin kt trong phn t H
2
, N
2
l lin
kt cng ho tr khng phn cc ?
HS da vo cu to nguyn t v quy
tc bt t gii thch v rt ra nhn xt :
+ C 3 cp electron chung.
+ N
2
km hot ng.
HS rt ra nhn xt :
+ Hai nguyn t ging nhau.
+ Cc cp electron dng chung v gia 2
nguyn t.
Hot ng 4 : S hnh thnh phn t HCl
GV ngh HS gii thch s hnh thnh
phn t HCl da vo quy tc bt t.
GV yu cu HS nhc li khi nim
HS gii thch v vit CT e v CTCT.

HS nhc li khi nim m in v

44
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
m in. Bit m in ca clo l 3,16 ca
hiro l 2,20, Cho bit kh nng cp electron
lin kt b lch v pha nguyn t ca nguyn
t no.
GV gi HS b sung cch vit CT
electron v CTCT. C nhn xt g v lin
kt H Cl ?
nhn xt : cp electron chung b lch v
pha Cl do m in ca Cl > H.


HS : b sung cch vit v nhn xt :
lin kt H-Cl l lin kt cng ho tr c
cc.
Hot ng 5 : S hnh thnh phn t CO
2

GV yu cu HS vit CT e ca nguyn
t C v O v gii thch s hnh thnh
phn t CO
2
theo quy tc bt t.
GV yu cu HS nhn xt v s
electron ca C v O trong phn t CO
2
,
cho bit m in ca C (2,55) v O
(3,44) nhn xt kh nng ht cp electron
ca nguyn t cc nguyn t trn.
GV gi HS gii thch ti sao lin
kt gia nguyn t O v C trong phn t
CO
2
l lin kt cng ho tr khng phn
cc.
HS : Vit cu hnh electron ca C v
O, gii thch nh SGK.

HS nhn xt :
+ u c 8 electron lp ngoi cng,
t cu hnh ca kh him.
+ Cp electron chung b ht lch v O.

HS gii thch :
+ Lin kt cng ho tr khng phn cc.
+ Do phn t CO
2
c cu to thng nn
hai lin kt i phn cc (C = O) trit tiu
nhau phn t CO
2
khng phn cc.
Hot ng 6 : S hnh thnh phn t SO
2

GV yu cu HS vit cu hnh electron
di dng lng t ca S v O. Nhn xt
s electron c thn ca nguyn t S v O.


GV gi HS biu din CTCT phn t
SO
2
:
+ Hai electron c thn ca S gp chung
vi 2 electron c thn ca 1 trong 2
nguyn t O.
+ Nguyn t S a mt cp electron ring
dng chung vi nguyn t O cn li.
+ Cp electron chung biu din bng gch
HS vit cu hnh electron lp ngoi
cng di dng lng t. Nhn xt :
+ u c 6 electron lp ngoi cng.
+ C 2 cp electron ghp i v 2
electron c thn.
HS biu din CTCT ca phn t SO
2

theo s hng dn ca GV.







45
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
ni.
+ Cp electron cho nhn biu din bng
mt mi tn c chiu hng v pha
nguyn t nhn.
GV t cu hi cho HS : lin kt cho
nhn l g ?




HS tr li nh SGK.
Hot ng 7 : Tnh cht ca cc cht c lin kt cng ho tr
GV yu cu HS c thng tin trong
SGK v cho v d phn t c lin kt cng
ho tr c cc v khng c cc.
GV ngh HS d on tnh cht vt l
ca cc cht trong v d trn.
HS c SGK, kt hp vi kin thc
bit cho cc v d c th.

HS c th d on mt s tnh cht
vt l : tan, kh nng dn in,...
Hot ng 8 :
S xen ph ca cc obitan nguyn t trong s hnh thnh cc phn t n cht
GV a ra hnh v 3.2 (SGK) trnh
by s xen ph 2 obitan ss (ca phn
t H
2
), hng dn HS quan st vng xen
ph, c SGK v tr li phiu hc tp s
2 (Tho lun trn lp).
1. Xc sut c mt electron ln nht
u ? c mt my electron ?
2. Vng xen ph ny chu cc lc y v
lc ht no ? Khi cc lc y v lc ht
cn bng nhau th phn t H
2
trng thi
nng lng cao hay thp ?
GV b sung : gii thch lin kt cng
ho tr gia 2 nguyn t H l mt lin
kt bn.



HS lng nghe GV, quan st v tr li :

1. Cc electron tp trung ch yu khu
vc gia hai ht nhn. C mt 2 electron.
2. Chu lc y gia 2 proton v 2
electron. Chu lc ht gia cc electron
vi hai ht nhn hng v tm phn t.

Do lc y v ht bng nhau ; phn t
H
2
c nng lng thp hn tng nng
lng ca hai nguyn t ring r.
Hot ng 9 : S hnh thnh phn t Cl
2
GV ngh HS v hnh dng lng t
cha electron c thn ca clo kt hp
hnh v 3.3 (SGK), hng dn HS quan st
vng xen ph, c SGK rt ra nhn xt.

HS lm theo ch dn ca GV v nhn xt
: phn t Cl
2
hnh thnh l nh s xen
ph ca 2 obitan p cha electron c
thn.

Hot ng 10 : S hnh thnh phn t HCl

46
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV ngh HS vit cu hnh electron
di dng lng t ca H v Cl.
GV s dng hnh 3.4 (SGK) hoc phn
mm m phng cho HS quan st v nhn
xt LKHH trong phn t HCl c hnh
thnh nh s xen ph ca cc obitan no.
Tng t nh trn GV cho HS trnh
by s to thnh lin kt trong phn t
H
2
S v rt ra nhn xt.
GV s dng hnh 3.5 (SGK) hoc
phn mm m phng cho HS quan st.
HS vit cu hnh electron ngoi cng
di dng lng t v d on lin kt
HS quan st, nhn xt:
+ Do s xen ph gia obitan 1s ca H v
obitan 3p c electron c thn ca Cl.

HS vit, trnh by v tr li :
+ Do s xen ph ca 2 obitan 1s ca 2
nguyn t H vi 2 obitan 3p cha
electron c thn ca nguyn t S.
+ Gc lin kt trong H
2
S l 92
0
(gn
bng gc vung).
Hot ng 11 : Tng kt bi v cng c
GV cng c kin thc v lin kt cng
ho tr, s xen ph cc obitan nguyn t.
Cho HS lm mt s bi tp trong SGK.
HS n luyn li kin thc va hc trn
lp.

Bi 18 S lai ho cc obitan nguyn t.
S hnh thnh lin kt n,
lin kt i v lin kt ba
I MUC TIU
Gip HS hiu :
Khi nim v s lai ho cc ocbitan nguyn t.
Cc kiu lai ho sp, sp
2
, sp
3
.
Lin kt o, lin kt t c hnh thnh nh th no ?
Th no l lin kt n, lin kt i, lin kt ba ?
Da vo s lai ho, gii thch dng hnh hc ca mt s phn t.
II CHUN B|
1. Gio vin : Tranh v cc kiu lai ho cc ocbitan (hnh 3.6, 3.7, 3.8) hoc dng cc
qu bong bng minh ho cc kiu lai ho.
2. Phng php dy hc : Vn p gi m gii thch minh ho.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC

47
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : Tnh hung hc tp
Ti sao phn t CO
2
c cu to thng, ti sao phn t H
2
O, NH
3
c dng l hnh t
din u ? Nguyn nhn dn n s nh hng hnh hc ca phn t l do s lai
ho cc obitan nguyn t. Vy s lai ho l g ?
Hot ng 2 : Xt phn t metan CH
4

GV cho HS tho lun phiu hc tp 1
:
1. Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t
C
*
( trng thi kch thch) v ca
nguyn t H ?
2. Gii thch s hnh thnh phn t CH
4

theo cu to nguyn t v quy tc bt t.
3. Nhn xt v nng lng v gc lin kt.
GV thng bo : thc nghim cho bit
4 lin kt C H trong phn t CH
4
nh
nhau v gc lin kt l 109
0
28
'
.
GV gii thch hnh dng phn t CH
4

v hi HS c nhn xt g v s AO tham gia
lai ho v s AO to ra, sau khi trn ln cc
AO c ging v khc nhau khng ? Vy s
lai ho l g ?
GV thng tin thm v :
+ Nguyn nhn ca s lai ho.
+ iu kin lai ho.
HS tho lun trn lp :
1. C
*
c 4 electron c thn ; H c 1 e.


2. Do AO
2s
v 3AO
2p
ca C
*
xen ph vi
4AO
1s
ca 4 nguyn t H.
3. C 3 lin kt (p s) c NL nh nhau.
+ 1 lk (s s) c NL khc vi (p s)
+ gc lin kt 90
o
.



HS nhn xt c :
+ 1 AO
2s
trn ln 3 AO
2p
4 AO lai ho
sp
3
nh nhau v hnh dng, kch thc
nhng hng khc nhau.
+ 4 AO ny xen ph vi 4 AO
1s
ca H
4 lin kt C H ging nhau.
+ HS pht biu v s lai ho (SGK).
Hot ng 3 : Lai ho sp (lai ho ng thng)
GV s dng tranh v hoc s dng cc
qu bong bng v chm mt qu gii
thiu l kiu lai ho sp. Sau xt
phn t BeH
2
. GV c th pht vn HS v :
kiu lai ho, hnh dng v gc lai ho ?
HS quan st v nhn xt :
+ Lai ho sp : 1AO
s
+1AO
p
2AO mi.
+ 2 AO ny nm trn 1 ng thng
nhng ngc chiu nhau.
+ Gc lai ho : 180
0
.
Hot ng 4 : Lai ho sp
2
(kiu tam gic)
GV s dng tranh hnh 3.8 (SGK) hoc
cc qu bong bng v li tip tc chm
HS nhn xt :
+ Do 1AO
s
+2SO
p
3AO lai ho sp
2
.



48
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
gii thiu l kiu lai ho sp
2
? Sau
xt phn t BF
3
. GV c th pht vn
HS : Kiu lai ho, hnh dng v gc lai
ho ?
+ C 3AO ny hng v 3 nh ca tam
gic u.
+ Gc lai ho : 120
0
.
Hot ng 5 : Lai ho sp
3
(kiu t din)
GV s dng tranh hnh 3.9 hoc s
dng 6 qu bong bng sau chm 1
qu gii thiu l kiu lai ho sp
3

(nh xt phn t CH
4
). GV c th
pht vn HS v : Kiu lai ho, hnh dng
v gc lai ho.
GV khng nh vai tr quan trng ca
thuyt lai ho trong vic gii thch dng
hnh hc phn t.
HS quan st v nhn xt :
+ Do 1AO
s
+3AO
p
4 AO lai ho sp
3
.
+ 4 AO ny hng v 4 nh ca hnh t
din u.
+ Gc lai ho : 109
o
28.
Hot ng 6 : S xen ph trc
GV s dng tranh v s xen ph cc
obitan ss, sp, (hnh 3.10a) tm
hiu c im ca s xen ph ny. Xen
ph trc l g ? Lin kt to bi s xen
ph trc l lin kt g ?

GV s dng tranh 3.10b cho HS tm
hiu c im ca s xen ph bn ?
GV ngh HS t so snh s ging
v khc nhau ca s xen ph trc v xen
ph bn.
HS quan st v nhn xt c im :
+ Trc ca cc obitan lin kt (ss, s
p, pp) trng vi ng ni tm ca hai
nguyn t lin kt.
+ Khi nim xen ph trc (SGK).
+ l lin kt o (bn).
HS nhn xt s xen ph bn :
+ Trc ca cc obitan lin kt (pp)
song song vi nhau v vung gc vi
ng ni tm ca hai nguyn t.
+ lin kt t (km bn hn o).
Hot ng 7 : Lin kt n
GV yu cu HS nhc li s hnh
thnh lin kt gia cc nguyn t trong
phn t H
2
, HCl, Cc phn t lin
kt vi nhau nh th no ?
* GV thng bo : y l lin kt n.
GV yu cu HS da trn quan im
HS nhc li kin thc c : lin kt vi
nhau bng mt cp electron chung, biu
din bng du ().


HS rt ra nhn xt :

49
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
xen ph cc obitan rt ra nhn xt c
im ca kiu lin kt ny ?
GV kt lun.
+ X xen ph trc, lin kt n ( o).
+ Bn vng.
Hot ng 8 : Lin kt i
GV hng dn HS da vo quy tc
bt t m t s hnh thnh phn t C
2
H
2
,
HS nghin cu SGK v quan st hnh v
s xen ph cc AO t rt ra nhn xt.
GV kt lun : Lin kt i biu din
bng (du =).
HS m t v nhn xt :
+ Mi C c s lai ho sp
2
.
+ C 3 lin kt o gia C C v gia
hai C vi hai H).
+ Mi C cn li 1 obitan p s xen ph
vi nhau to lin kt t.
Hot ng 9 : Lin kt ba
GV hng dn HS da vo quy tc
bt t m t s hnh thnh phn t N
2
.
Theo quan nim xen ph HS rt ra c
im ca lin kt ba gia hai nguyn t
N trong N
2
.


GV kt lun (SGK) ; lin kt i v
lin kt ba c gi l lin kt bi.
HS nhn xt :
+ 3 electron c thn (2p
z
, 2p
x
v 2p
y
).
+ C mt lin kt o (xen ph trc).
+ C hai lin kt t.
Hot ng10 : Tng kt bi hc
GV nhn mnh kin thc trng tm ca
bi v giao bi tp v nh.
HS ghi nh cc khi nim mi trong bi,
vn dng lm cc bi tp SGK.
Bi 19 Luyn tp v : Lin kt ion.
lin kt cng ho tr.
Lai ho cc obitan nguyn t
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
Nguyn nhn hnh thnh LKHH ; Lin kt ion v bn cht ca lin kt ion ; Lin
kt cng ho tr v bn cht ca lin kt cng ho tr.
S lai ho cc obitan nguyn t (AO). S hnh thnh lin kt o, lin kt t.
K nng

50
Phn bit c lin kt ion v lin kt cng ho tr da vo bn cht lin kt.
Gii thch c dng hnh hc ca mt s phn t da vo s lai ho cc obitan
nguyn t.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
A. Kin thc cn nm vng
Hot ng 1 : Lin kt ho hc (trnh by theo nhm)
GV yu cu nhm 1 trnh by kin thc v LKHH di dng s sau :








Hot ng 2 : S lai ho cc obitan nguyn t ( tho lun trc lp)
GV yu cu nhm 2 trnh by kin thc v lai ho sp, sp
2
v sp
3
l g ? iu kin
cc obitan c th lai ho c vi nhau ?
GV yu cu nhm 3 tho lun kin thc v s xen ph l g ? Xen ph trc to lin kt ?
Xen ph bn to lin kt ? bn ca cc lin kt ny c ging nhau khng ?
GV giao nhim v cho nhm 4 da vo cc kiu lai ho trnh by kin thc v lin
kt n, lin kt bi ? Nguyn nhn hnh thnh cc kiu lin kt ny ?
B. Gii bi tp
Hot ng 3 : Cho HS lm bi tp cng c kin thc hc
Dng bi tp vit cu hnh e, vit CT e, CTCT ca phn t n cht v hp cht.
Dng bi tp da vo quy tc bt t gii thch s hnh thnh phn t (HNO
3
, Cl
2
,...).
Dng bi tp s dng thuyt lai ho gii thch dng hnh hc ca phn t (CH
4
,
C
2
H
4
,..).
Bi 20 tinh th nguyn t. tinh th phn t
I MUC TIU
Lin kt ho hc ?
Nguyn nhn ?

Lin kt ion ?
iu kin ?
Bn cht ?
Lin kt cng ho tr ?
C my loi ?
iu kin ? Bn cht ?
So snh s ging
v khc nhau ?

51
Gip HS bit :
Th no l tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t ?
Tnh cht chung ca tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t ?
II CHUN B|
GV : Tranh v hoc m hnh m phng, phn mm v tinh th iot, nc , kim
cng,.. my chiu a nng, my tnh,...
Phng php dy hc : Vn p gi m gii thch minh ho.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. Tnh hung hc tp
Nh ta bit than , mui n,... tn ti di dng tinh th.
Vy mng tinh th l g ? C my kiu mng tinh th ?
Hot ng 2 : Mng tinh th nguyn t
GV c th dng tranh v, hnh 3.12
(SGK), phm mm v mng tinh th kim
cng m t, gii thch v yu cu HS
nhn xt v : cu trc, lai ho, xen ph,
nt, lin kt trong mng, tnh cht chung
ca mng tinh th nguyn t.
HS quan st m hnh tinh th kim cng,
nhn xt :
+ Do C lai ho sp
3
cu to nn.
+ Mi C lin kt vi 4 C khc 4 nh
ca t din u.
+ u l lin kt o mng kim cng
bn, t
nc
v t
s
cao.
Hot ng 3 : Mng tinh th phn t
GV s dng tranh hnh 3.13 (mng
tinh th phn t I
2
) cho HS quan st v
nhn xt v cu trc ca n. Lm tng
t vi mng tinh th phn t nc
(hnh 3.14).
GV : ti sao tinh th iot v nc
mm, t
nc
thp, d bay hi ?
GV kt lun : do lc tng tc gia
cc phn t l rt yu nn tinh th phn
t c tnh cht nu trn.
HS quan st v nhn xt :
+ Mng I
2
: lp phng tm din.
+ Nc : t din u.
+ Cc phn t nm nt mng.

HS nghin cu SGK tr li cu hi
ca GV : cc phn t trong mng lin kt
vi nhau bng lc tng tc gia cc
phn t.
Hot ng 4 : Cng c

52
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV cho HS lm mt s bi tp trong
SGK cng c kin thc v mng tinh
th.
HS lm bi tp cng c kin thc.
Bi 21 Hiu m in v Lin Kt Ho Hc
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
m in nh hng th no n cc kiu LKHH ?
Phn loi LKHH theo hiu m in.
II CHUN B|
GV : Chun b bng m in ca cc nguyn t nhm A (bng 2.3).
HS : n li khi nim v m in.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : Tnh hung hc tp
S khc nhau v m in gia cc nguyn t tham gia lin kt s quyt nh kiu
lin kt. Vy hiu m in v LKHH lin quan vi nhau nh th no ?
Hot ng 2 : Hiu m in v lin kt cng ho tr khng cc
GV : Cho bit hiu m in trong
phn t H
2
, O
2
, N
2
,... Ti sao lin kt
trong phn t H
2
, Cl
2
, li l lin kt
cng ho tr khng cc ? (s dng bng
m in)
Thng bo quy c : 0 s hiu m
in < 0,4 lin kt cng ho tr c
coi l khng cc.
HS nhn xt :
+ Hiu m in ca HH, ClCl,..
bng khng (nguyn t ging nhau).
+ Cp electron chung khng lch v pha
no Lin kt cng ho tr khng cc.
HS phi nm chc quy c ny
phn bit cc loi lin kt.
Hot ng 3 : Hiu m in v lin kt cng ho tr c cc
GV yu cu HS da vo hiu m
in nhn xt v v tr cp electron
HS tnh ton thy :
+ Hiu m in ca H v Cl

53
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
chung v a ra kt lun v lin kt
trong phn t HCl.
* GV thng bo : hiu m in cng
ln th s phn cc ca lin kt cng
mnh.
Thng bo quy c : 0,4 s hiu
m in < 1,7 lin kt cng ho tr
c coi l c cc.
Tng t xt v so snh phn cc
ca cc phn t sau theo th t tng dn
HBr, HF, NO.
l 0,96 > 0,4.
+ Cp electron chung lch v pha Cl
Lin kt cng ho tr c cc.






HS p dng quy c suy ra th t v
phn cc nh sau : HF > HBr >NO.
Hot ng 4 : Hiu m in v lin kt ion
GV hng dn HS da vo hiu m
in xc nh kiu lin kt trong phn t
NaCl, MgO,... ?
* Thng bo quy c : hiu m in >
1,7 lin kt ion.
GV giao bi tp p dng : S dng
bng m in (SGK) phn bit cc
loi lin kt trong cc phn t sau :
Na
2
O, H
2
O, SO
2
, MgCl
2
, MgO, HI.
HS tnh ton thy hiu m in
ca Na v Cl l 2,23 >1,7 : L lin kt
ion.



HS lm bi tp GV giao :
+ Lin kt cng ho tr : H
2
O, SO
2
, HI
+ Lin kt ion : Na
2
O, MgO, MgCl
2
.
Hot ng 5 : Kt lun v cng c
GV nhc li cc quy c v hiu
m in.
GV nhn mnh : cng khng c ranh
gii r rt gia lin kt cng ho tr v
lin kt ion.
Luyn tp : phn bit u l lin kt
cng ho tr c cc v khng c cc
trong cc phn t sau : HBr, NH
3
, H
2
,
N
2
, NO
2
, SO
3
.
HS nm chc quy c :
0 s hiu m in < 0,4 lin kt
cng ho tr khng cc.
0,4 s hiu m in < 1,7 lin kt
cng ho tr c cc.
Hiu m in > 1,7 lin kt ion.
HS t lm bi luyn tp trn lp.
Bi 22 Ho tr v s oxi ho
I MUC TIU

54
K nng
Ho tr ca mt nguyn t trong hp cht l g ? cch xc nh ho tr ca mt nguyn
t trong lin kt ion v lin kt cng ho tr nh th no ? cch ghi k hiu ?
Khi nim in ho tr ca mt nguyn t l g ? cch ghi k hiu in ho tr ?
S oxi ho l g ? cc quy tc xc nh s oxi ho ? cch ghi s oxi ho.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : Tnh hung hc tp
Xt cu hnh electron ca mt nguyn t cho php ta suy on kh nng nhng, thu
electron ca nguyn t tr thnh ion. S electron nhng hoc thu chnh l
in ho tr ca mt nguyn t.
Hot ng 1 : Ho tr trong hp cht ion
GV yu cu HS tr li : trong phn t
NaCl, nguyn t Na v nguyn t Cl c
in ho tr l bao nhiu ?
GV gip HS hnh thnh khi nim
in ho tr v ho tr v Cch ghi.
GV gii thiu cch ghi in ho tr :
gi tr in tch trc, du ca in tch
sau.
Luyn tp : xc nh ho tr (in ho
tr) ca cc nguyn t trong cc phn t
sau : CaCl
2
, MnCl
2
, Al
2
O
3
.
HS : Na 1e Na
+
; Na c in ho
tr l 1.
Cl + 1eCl

; Cl c in ho tr l 1.
Sau pht biu khi nim ho tr v
in ho tr nh trong SGK.
HS ghi li in ho tr ca Na v Cl
trong phn t NaCl l :
+ in ho tr ca Na : 1+
+ in ho tr ca Cl : 1
HS lm bi GV giao : in ho tr
ca Ca, Mn, Al, Cl v O ln lt l 2+,
2+, 3+, 1 v 2.
Hot ng 2 : Ho tr trong hp cht cng ho tr
GV yu cu HS tr li : trong phn t
HCl, ho tr ca H v Cl c tnh bng
g ? Vy khi nim ho tr ca nguyn t
trong hp cht cng ho tr c gi l
g v cch tnh nh th no ?
GV lu : cng ho tr c tnh bng
s lin kt nn khng mang du.
Luyn tp : xc nh ho tr ca cc
HS vn dng kin thc c :
+ Lin kt trong phn t HCl l lin kt
cng ho tr.
+ C 1 cp electron dng chung.
+ Cng ho tr ca H v Cl l 1.
HS pht biu khi nim ho tr ca
nguyn t trong hp cht cng ho tr.
HS lm bi tp : cng ho tr ca C,

55
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
nguyn t trong hp cht sau : CH
4
,
NH
3
, H
2
O.
H, N v O ln lt l : 4, 1, 3 v 2.
Hot ng 3 : S oxi ho
GV yu cu HS c SGK v tr li :
S oxi ho l g ?
GV yu cu HS nghin cu cc quy
tc xc nh s oxi ho.
* GV thng bo quy c ghi s oxi ho :
S oxi ho c t trn k hiu ca
nguyn t, ghi du trc, s sau.
V d :
3
6 -2
SO
+
,
+2 6 -2
4 Ba SO
+
,
-3 -1
3 2
H C CH OH
Luyn tp : xc nh s oxi ho trong
cc hp cht v ion sau : NH
3
, H
3
C
CH
3
, KF, MnCl
2
, KMnO
4
, HCl, MgO,
+2
Cu ,
+2
Fe ,
+3
Fe .
HS nu khi nim v s oxi ho.

HS pht biu 4 quy tc xc nh s
oxi ho.






HS lm bi tp trn lp :
-3 +1
3
NH ,
-3 -3
3 3
H C- CH ,
+1 -1
KF,
+2 -1
2
Mn Cl
+1 +7 -2
4
KMn O ,
+1 -1
HCl ,
+2 -2
MgO.

+2
Cu ,
+2
Fe ,
+3
Fe c s oxi ho ln lt l
+2, +2, +3
Hot ng 4 : Cng c
GV nhn mnh kin thc HS cn nm chc : khi nim ho tr v s oxi ho ; quy
tc xc nh s oxi ho.
GV giao bi tp cho 4 nhm.
Bi 23 Lin kt kim loi
I MUC TIU
Gip HS hiu :
Khi nim LKHH.
Tnh cht chung ca tinh th kim loi.
Cc kiu mng tinh th kim loi thng gp.
Mi lin quan gia mng tinh th v tnh cht chung ca kim loi.

56
Bit da vo c im ca lin kt kim loi gii thch tnh cht chung ca tinh
th kim loi.
II CHUN B|
GV : M hnh cc mng tinh th lp phng tm khi, lp phng tm din, lc
phng. Bng 3.15 Kiu cu trc mng tinh th ca cc kim loi trong BTH.
HS : Tm kim thm tranh nh, mu vt, phn mm c trn mng internet.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : Tnh hung dy hc
Nh ta bit, iu kin thng a s cc kim loi tn ti di dng tinh th.
Ngi ta gi lin kt trong mng tinh th kim loi l lin kt kim loi. Vy th no
l lin kt kim loi ?
Hot ng 2 : Khi nim v lin kt kim loi
GV yu cu HS nghin cu SGK v
tr li cu hi :
+ Nguyn nhn hnh thnh lin kt kim
loi.
+ Khi nim v lin kt kim loi.
+ Bn cht ca lin kt kim loi.
GV ngh HS so snh lin kt kim
loi v lin kt ion (khi nim, bn cht).
HS nghin cu SGK v tr li cu hi
ca GV :
+ Cc ion dng kim loi nt mng
tng tc vi cc electron t do.
+ Khi nim (SGK).
+ Lc ht tnh in ion electron.
HS t lp ct (hoc bng) so snh.
Hot ng 3 : Mt s kiu mng tinh th kim loi
GV hng dn HS quan st m hnh
(hoc xem phn mm) v cu to mng
tinh th lp phng tm khi, lp phng
tm din, lc phng. Yu cu HS phn
bit s khc nhau ca cc mng trn.
GV pht vn : Cc em c nhn xt g v
c kht () ca ba mng tinh th ny ?
Vy c kht c ngha g ?
HS quan st phn bit c cu
trc v cch sp xp cc nguyn t v
ion mi mng l rt khc nhau (SGK).


HS nghin cu v nhn xt c :
+ c kht l khc nhau.
+ Biu th % V cc nguyn t trong tinh
th v cho bit kiu mng.
Hot ng 4 : Chia lp thnh 4 nhm
GV giao nhim v cho tng nhm
nghin cu tng ct bng 3.1 : phn
loi v v c cc kiu mng tinh th
Nhm 1 : Nghin cu ct IA.
Nhm 2 : Nghin cu ct IIA.
Nhm 3 : Nghin cu ct IB v IIB.

57
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
kim loi.
GV hng dn HS tho lun trn lp.
Nhm 4 : Nghin cu ct VIIIB.
i din nhm trnh by trn bng.
Hot ng 5 : Tnh cht ca tinh th kim loi
GV pht vn HS : Hy d on mt s
tnh cht vt l c bn ca tinh th kim
loi. Nguyn nhn gy ra tnh cht ?
HS t kin thc, thc t thy kim loi :
+ C tnh do, nh kim, dn nhit v in.
+ Do c cc electron t do, di chuyn trong
mng.
Hot ng 6 : Cng c
GV giao cho 4 nhm hon thnh bi tp trong SGK.
GV ch i din ca nhm 1 v 2 ln trnh by, sau l nhm 3 v 4.
Bi 24 Luyn tp chng 3
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
H thng ho ton b kin thc c hc chng 3 :
Phn bit v so snh c bn cht, iu kin hnh thnh lin kt ion, lin kt
cng ho tr v lin kt kim loi.
Da vo thuyt lai ho v s xen ph m rng hn v su sc hn kin thc v
lin kt ion, lin kt cng ho tr, s chuyn tip gia lin kt ion v lin kt cng
ho tr, gii thch hnh dng ca mt s phn t thng gp.
Nu v phn bit c c im cu trc v tnh cht chung ca kiu mng tinh th
nguyn t, tinh th phn t v tinh th kim loi.
Phn bit c ho tr ca nguyn t trong hp cht ion v hp cht cng ho tr.
Nm chc quy tc xc nh s oxi ho ca nguyn t trong hp cht l kin thc quan
trng cho vic hnh thnh kin thc tip theo chng 4 : Phn ng oxi ho kh.
K nng
Hiu khi nim m in v vn dng c, gi tr hiu m in d on
c tnh cht ca lin kt.
Da vo c im ca tng loi lin kt gii thch v d on c tnh cht ca
mt s cht c cu trc tinh th.

58
Xc nh c ho tr, in ho tr, s oxi ho ca nguyn t trong hp cht ion v
hp cht cng ho tr ; quy c v cch ghi nhng i lng .
Gii c cc bi tp trong SGK v SBT ho hc 10 Nng cao.
S dng thnh tho v tm kim c thng tin cn thit v lin kt, mng tinh th v
cc kin thc ho hc khc gip chng ta hc tp mn ho hc ngy cng tt hn.
II CHUN B|
Yu cu HS chun b trc bi luyn tp.
GV c th chun b thm mt s phiu hc tp hoc s , biu bng.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
A. Kin thc cn nm vng
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
GVt cu hi cho HS : Chng ta c hc cc loi LKHH no ?
Hot ng 2 : n li cc kiu LKHH theo s sau :








GV yu cu HS in tip ni dung kin thc vo s cho n khi hon thnh.
Hot ng 3 : Da vo s va hon thnh, GV hng dn HS so snh
1. Lin kt ion v lin kt cng ho tr c g ging v khc nhau ?
2. Lin kt kim loi, lin kt ion v lin kt cng ho tr c g ging v khc nhau ?
3. Thc t cho thy vic phn bit lin kt ion v lin kt cng ho tr l khng c ranh
gii r rt. Vy hiu m in c ngha nh th no cho vic phn loi hai lin
kt ny?
Da vo cc kin thc c hc, HS ln lt trnh by cc cu hi ca GV.
Hot ng 4 : HS trnh by trn lp
1. Phn bit cc kiu lai ho sp, sp
2
v sp
3
.
Lin kt ho hc

Lin kt ion

Lin kt cng ho tr

Lin kt kim loi
Bn cht v
iu kin.
Bn cht v
iu kin.
C cc : Bn cht
v iu kin.
Khng cc : Bn
cht v iu kin
?

59
2. Phn bit lin kt n, lin kt i, lin kt ba.
3. Xen ph trc, xen ph bn vi vic hnh thnh lin kt o v lin kt t ; so snh
bn ca cc lin kt ny.
4. Da vo thuyt lai ho gii thch dng hnh hc ca phn t CO
2
v CH
4
.
GV b sung v tng kt : s xen ph trc, xen ph bn v thuyt lai ho l kin thc
rng hn gip chng ta gii thch c bn cht lin kt, hnh dng phn t.
Hot ng 5 : So snh cc kiu mng tinh th
GV chun b sn mu phiu so snh (di dng bng) cho HS.
HS tho lun, trnh by v in cc ni dung cn thiu trong bng :
Loi
c tnh
Tinh th ion Tinh th
nguyn t
Tinh th
phn t
Tinh th
kim loi
1. Khi nim
2. Lin kt
gia cc phn
t cu to

3. c im v
lc lin kt

4. Tnh cht
chung

Da vo bng, GV hng dn HS so snh khi nim, c im cu to, lc lin kt
v tnh cht ca cc cht c mng tinh th tng ng.
GV tng kt kin thc v mng tinh th.
Hot ng 6 : Phn bit c ho tr v s oxi ho theo bng sau
Loi
Mc
Ho tr trong hp
cht ion
Ho tr trong hp
cht cng ho tr
S oxi ho
1. Khi nim
2. Cch xc nh
3. Cch ghi
GV yu cu HS in y cc thng tin vo ch trng trong bng trn.
GV tng kt li ton chng.
B. Bi tp
Hot ng 7 :
GV cht li mt s dng bi tp thng gp trong chng 3 :
+ Bi tp phn loi nh gi lin kt da vo m in.

60
+ Bi tp v LKHH.
+ Bi tp v xc nh ho tr v s oxi ho trong hp cht ion v cng ho tr.
+ Bi tp v mng tinh th.
GV giao nhim v cho tng nhm cha mt s bi c th trong SGK, tho lun.
+ Nhm 1 : cha bi 3 trang 100 SGK.
+ Nhm 2 : cha bi 4 trang 100 SGK.
+ Nhm 3 : cha bi 7 trang 100 SGK.
+ Nhm 4 : cha bi 8 v 9 trang 100 SGK.
Sau mi bi cha GV cng c li kin thc hc.
Chng 4
phn ng ho hc
A. M u
Mc tiu ca chng
HS bit v hiu :
Bn cht v du hiu ca cht kh, cht oxi ho, s kh, s oxi ho, phn ng
oxi ho - kh.
Phn ng ho hc c chia thnh hai loi : phn ng oxi ho - kh v khng phi
l phn ng oxi ho - kh.
Khi nim phn ng to nhit v phn ng thu nhit. ngha ca phng trnh
nhit ho hc.
HS c k nng :
Xc nh thnh tho s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t ho hc.
Nhn bit c cht oxi ho v cht kh, vit c cc bn phng trnh th hin
s oxi ho v s kh trong phn ng oxi ho - kh c th.
Cn bng phn ng oxi ho - kh theo phng php thng bng electron.
Phn bit c phn ng oxi ho - kh v phn ng khng phi oxi ho kh.
Xc nh c mt phn ng thuc loi phn ng to nhit hay phn ng thu nhit
da vo phng trnh nhit ho hc, bit cch vit phng trnh nhit ho hc, bit
s dng gi tr H A lm mt s php tnh v nhit lng ca qu trnh ho hc.
Mt s im cn lu

61
1. H thng kin thc
Kin thc v phn ng oxi ho - kh v nhit ca phn ng l trng tm ca chng 4.
lp 8, HS nm c cc nh ngha cht kh, cht oxi ho, s kh, s oxi ho,
phn ng oxi ho - kh da trn c s nhng v chim oxi. V th chng ny cn
lm cho HS hiu c bn cht ca cht kh, cht oxi ho, s kh, s oxi ho,
phn ng oxi ho - kh da trn c s nhng kin thc v cu to nguyn t,
LKHH. GV cn gip cho HS hiu c nguyn tc v vn dng phng php thng
bng electron cn bng cc phn ng oxi ho - kh.
HS phi vn dng thnh tho cc kin thc v phn ng oxi ho - kh phn bit
mt phn ng ho hc c phi l oxi ho - kh hay khng t nm c cch
phn loi phn ng ho hc da vo s thay i s oxi ho.
Khi nim hiu ng nhit phn ng l khi nim hon ton mi i vi HS, cn
lm cho HS nh i vi phn ng to nhit th H A < 0, phn ng thu nhit th
H A > 0, khng nn i xa SGK vo vic trnh by khi nim, cch tnh hiu ng
nhit phn ng. Cc bi tp ch nu mc vn dng gi tr H A cho ca phn
ng tnh nhit lng to ra, thu vo khi mt lng cht no trong phn ng b
tiu hao.
2. Phng php dy hc
Cc kin thc ca chng 4 c khai thc ch yu da trn nn tng nhng kin
thc sn c ca HS. Kin thc v cu to nguyn t, lin kt ho hc, s oxi ho
c HS vn dng phn tch tm ra bn cht ca cht kh, cht oxi ho, s kh,
s oxi ho, phn ng oxi ho kh sau tng hp v khi qut ho hnh thnh
kin thc mi.
Nn dng nhiu bi tp a dng, vi mc t d n kh HS xc nh s oxi
ho, nm vng cc khi nim, lp phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh.
Tng cng cc hot ng theo nhm, HS t nh gi kt qu hc tp pht huy
tnh tch cc, ch ng ca HS.
B. Dy hc cc bi c th
Bi 25 Phn ng oxi ho - kh
I MUC TIU
Kin thc
Hiu c th no l cht oxi ho, cht kh, s oxi ho, s kh, phn ng oxi ho - kh
theo thuyt cu to nguyn t.

62
Bit lp phng trnh oxi ho - kh bng phng php thng bng electron.
K nng
Xc nh s oxi ho, cn bng PTHH, phn bit phn ng oxi ho - kh vi cc
phn ng ho hc khc.
II CHUN B|
GV giao cho hc sinh chun b mt s cu hi n tp kin thc c :
Cu 1 : a) Th no l phn ng oxi ho - kh, cht kh ? Cht oxi ho, cho VD c th.
(tham kho SGK ho hc lp 8).
b) Phn ng sau y c phi phn ng oxi ho - kh khng ? V sao ? Xc nh cht
kh, cht oxi ho nu c : 4Na + O
2
2Na
2
O
Cu 2 : a) Nu quy tc xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t.
b) Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong cc cht sau : O
2
, Na, H
2
O, NaCl,
H
2
SO
4
, CuSO
4
.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Th no l phn ng oxi ho - kh ? HS tho lun, n li kin thc c v phn
ng oxi ho - kh hc lp 8.
Hot ng 2 : Phn ng oxi ho - kh
GV : Xt phn ng ca Na vi O
2

1. Vit PTHH.
2. Phn ng c phi oxi ho - kh
khng? V sao ?
3. Xc nh cht kh, cht oxi ho.
GV : Sau y chng ta cng nghin cu
bn cht ca phn ng oxi ho kh trn.
1. Hy cho bit lin kt ho hc trong
phn t Na
2
O.
2. Cho bit qu trnh hnh thnh lin kt
ho hc trong phn t Na
2
O.
GV : Nh vy bn cht ca cht kh,
cht oxi ho, phn ng oxi ho - kh
HS vn dng kin thc c tr li cu hi,
tho lun chung rt ra khi nim cht
kh, cht oxi ho, phn ng oxi ho kh
da vo du hiu nhng v chim oxi
(nh SGK).


HS vn dng kin thc v lin kt ho
hc v cu to nguyn t tr li cu hi.
HS tho lun chung rt ra nhn xt :
- Cht kh : Na nhng e. S oxi ho
nguyn t Na l s nhng e
Na Na
+
+ 1e

63
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
gia Na v O
2
l g ?



GV :
1. Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t
trong phn ng :
4Na + O
2
2 Na
2
O
2. Cht kh l Na c s oxi ho tng hay
gim ? V sao ?
3. Cht oxi ho l O
2
c s oxi ho tng
hay gim ? V sao ?
4. Phn ng c s thay i s oxi ho
khng ? V sao ?
GV : Nh vy trong 2 du hiu xc nh
phn ng oxi ho kh :
- Du hiu nhng v chim oxi.
- Du hiu thay i s oxi ho.
Du hiu no l du hiu cho thy bn
cht ca phn ng ?
GV : Xt phn ng ca Fe vi CuSO
4

1. Vit PTHH.

2. Da vo du hiu nhng v chim
oxi, phn ng ny c phi oxi ho - kh
hay khng ?
GV : Hy xem xt bn cht ca phn
ng :
- Xc nh s oxi ho.
- S oxi ho cc nguyn t c thay i
khng ? V sao ?
GV : Phn ng gia Fe v CuSO
4
c bn
cht tng t phn ng oxi ho kh ca
Na v O
2
v th cng thuc loi phn ng
- Cht oxi ho : O
2
nhn e. S kh
nguyn t O l s nhn e
O + 2e O
2
- Na nhng e cho O
2
.
HS tho lun v rt ra nhn xt :
- Phn ng ca Na vi O
2
:
4
0
Na +
0
2
O 2
2
2
Na O
+


- Cht kh l Na c s oxi ho tng v
Na nhng e.
- Cht oxi ho l O
2
c s oxi ho gim
v O nhn e.

- Phn ng oxi ho - kh gia Na v O
2
c s
thay i s oxi ho v c s cho - nhn e.
HS tho lun rt ra kt lun du hiu
thay i s oxi ho mi l du hiu bn
cht ca phn ng oxi ho - kh.




HS vit PTHH, da vo du hiu nhng
v chim oxi nhn xt :
- Phn ng khng phi oxi ho - kh v
khng c s nhng v chim oxi.

HS tr li cu hi rt ra :
0
Fe +
2
Cu
+
SO
4


0
Cu +
2
Fe
+
SO
4
- S oxi ho ca nguyn t Fe tng
t 0 +2, v Fe nhng e.
- S oxi ho ca nguyn t Cu gim
t +2 0, v ion Cu
2+
nhn e .
- Phn ng Fe vi CuSO
4
c s thay i
s oxi ho v Fe nhng e cho ion
Cu
2+


64
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
oxi ho - kh.
GV:
1. Xc nh cht kh, cht oxi ho ?
2. Vit s kh, s oxi ho xy ra trong
phn ng trn ?



GV : Xt phn ng ca H
2
v Cl
2
1. Vit PTHH.
2. Xc nh s oxi ho cc nguyn t.
GV : Phn ng ca H
2
v Cl
2
tuy khng
c s cho v nhn hn electron nhng vn
c s dch chuyn electron nn c s thay
i s oxi ho tng t nh phn ng ca
Na vi O
2
, phn ng Fe vi CuSO
4
v vy
cng l phn ng oxi ho - kh.
GV : T PTHH va vit, hy :
1. Xc nh cht oxi ho, cht kh.




2. S oxi ho, s kh.
HS xc nh :
- Fe l cht kh. S oxi ho Fe :

0
Fe
2
Fe
+
+ 2e
- Cu
+2
l cht oxi ho. S kh
2
Cu
+
:

2
Cu
+
+ 2e Cu
=> Phn ng gia Fe v CuSO
4
tn ti
ng thi s oxi ho, s kh v vy cng
l phn ng oxi ho - kh.
HS tr li cu hi, tho lun, rt ra :
PTHH :
0
2 H +
0
2
Cl
1 1
2HCl
+

- S oxi ho ca H tng t 0 +1 v e
ca H dch chuyn sang Cl.
-S oxi ho ca Cl gim t 0 1 v
Cl ht e ca H v pha mnh.




HS xc nh :
- H
2
l cht kh. S lm tng s oxi ho
ca H l s oxi ho.
- Cl
2
l cht oxi ho. S lm gim s oxi
ho ca Cl l s kh.
- Phn ng tn ti ng thi s oxi ho
v s kh l phn ng oxi ho - kh.
Hot ng 3 : nh ngha
GV : Cho bit du hiu v bn cht :
1. Cht kh, cht oxi ho.
2. S kh, s oxi ho.
3. Phn ng oxi ho - kh.


GV hng dn HS rt ra nh ngha.
HS xem xt li ton b cc VD nghin
cu v phn ng oxi ho kh, nu :
Du hiu xc nh cht kh, cht oxi
ho, s kh, s oxi ho, phn ng oxi
ho kh l s thay i s oxi ho, bn
cht l s chuyn e.
HS rt ra nh ngha nh SGK.

65
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 4 : Cng c v vn dng nh ngha v phn ng oxi ho - kh
HS lm bi tp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 SGK trang 102, 103. (kt thc tit 1)
Hot ng 5 : Lp phng trnh ho hc ca phn ng oxi ho - kh (tit 2 )
GV nu ngn gn mc tiu ca tit hc.
GV : lp mt phng trnh biu din phn ng ho hc cn phi bit :
- Cng thc ho hc cc cht tham gia v to thnh sau phn ng.
- La chn h s thch hp thc hin cn bng phn ng.
GV gii thiu cho HS nguyn tc cn bng nh SGK.
GV :
Th d 1 : Lp PTHH ca phn ng oxi
ho - kh sau y :
Fe
2
O
3
+ CO Fe + CO
2


GV gii thiu tng bc cn bng, yu
cu HS tin hnh cc bc .
Khi HS thc hin xong cc bc, GV
nn hng dn HS trnh by ngn gn
vic cn bng mt PTHH ca phn ng
oxi ho - kh.


GV yu cu HS lp PTHH ca phn ng
oxi ho - kh th d 2 theo cc bc
nh trn.

HS tin hnh cc bc cn bng.
HS trnh by ngn gn vic cn bng
mt PTHH ca phn ng oxi ho kh
:
3
2
3
Fe O
+
+
4
C O
+

0
Fe

+
4
2
C O
+

cht oxi ho :
3
Fe
+
, cht kh:
4
C
+

s kh :
3
Fe
+
+ 3e
0
Fe 2
s oxi ho :
4
C
+

2
C
+
+ 2e 3
Kt qu :
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3CO 2 Fe

+ 3CO
2

HS cn bng PTHH th d 2, tham
kho SGK xc nh vai tr mi trng v
cch tm h s ca HCl.
Hot ng 6 : ngha ca phn ng oxi ho - kh
GV : Nu ngha ca phn ng oxi
ho - kh.
HS tham kho SGK nu ngha ca
phn ng oxi ho - kh, lin h thc tin
rt ra kt lun.
Hot ng 7 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm cc bi tp s 6,7 SGK trang 103, 104.
Bi 26 phn loi phn ng
trong ho hc v c

66
I MUC TIU
Cng c kin thc v phn loi phn ng ho hc, xc nh s oxi ho v nhn ra
phn ng oxi ho - kh.
Bit da vo s thay i s oxi ho phn loi phn ng ho hc thnh 2 loi :
phn ng oxi ho - kh v phn ng khng phi oxi ho - kh.
Bit th no l phn ng to nhit, phn ng thu nhit, nhit phn ng ( H) A ,
phng trnh nhit ho hc.
II CHUN B|
GV chun b phiu hc tp, hnh v s 4.1, 4.2 nh trong SGK.
Phiu hc tp
Ni dung1. Phn ng c s thay i s oxi ho, khng c s thay i s oxi ho
Bng 1.
Kt lun : Da vo du hiu s oxi ho c th phn phn ng ho hc thnh nhng loi no ?
Ni dung 2. Phn ng to nhit, phn ng thu nhit
Bng 2.
Phn ng Phn ng to nhit Phn ng thu nhit
nh ngha
VD
Nhit phn ng ( AH)
Cho phng trnh nhit ho hc sau : H
2
(k) +
1
2
O
2
(k) H
2
O(l) H A = 285,8 kJ
Loi phn
ng

S
Th d v phn ng trong
C s thay i
s oxi ho
Khng c s
thay i s oxi ho
A+B AB
AB A+B
AB+CDAD+CB
AB+CAC+B

67
Em bit g v phn ng t nhng thng tin trong phng trnh ?
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : C th phn loi phn ng ho hc thnh nhng loi no ? Bi hc ny s gip
chng ta tr li cu hi trn.
Hot ng 2 :
Phn ng c s thay i s oxi ho, v phn ng khng c s thay i s oxi ho
GV : Hy in y cc thng tin, v tr
li cu hi ni dung 1 (phiu hc tp).

HS thc hin ni dung 1 trong phiu hc
tp, tho lun, rt ra nhn xt nh SGK.
HS tr li cu hi vo phiu hc tp, tho
lun v rt ra s phn loi phn ng ho
hc nh SGK.
Hot ng 3 : Phn ng to nhit, phn ng thu nhit
GV gii thiu cho HS : da vo nhit to
ra hay thu vo ngi ta phn lm hai loi
: phn ng to nhit v phn ng thu
nhit, yu cu HS hon thnh ni dung 2
trong phiu hc tp.
GV gii thiu cho HS v nhit phn ng
v cc gi tr ca H A trong cc phn
ng, cho HS quan st hnh 4.1 ; 4.2 trong
SGK.
GV gii thiu cho HS v phng trnh
nhit ho hc, ly VD, ch r cho HS c
c cc thng tin trong phng trnh
nhit ho hc.
HS tham kho SGK, lin h thc t tr
li ni dung 2 trong phiu hc tp (bng
2), tho lun v rt ra kt lun v phn
ng to nhit, phn ng thu nhit nh
SGK.

HS tho lun v rt ra kt lun v khi
nim hiu ng nhit ca phn ng ho
hc, cc gi tr ca n nh SGK.
HS rt ra th no l phng trnh nhit
ho hc v ngha ca n.
Hot ng 4 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS thc hin cc bi tp 1, 2, 5, 6 trang 109, 110 trong SGK.
Bi 27 Luyn tp chng 4
I MUC TIU

68
Cng c kin thc v phn ng oxi ho - kh, phn loi phn ng ho hc, phn
ng to nhit, phn ng thu nhit.
Rn k nng lp PTHH ca phn ng oxi ho - kh theo phng php thng bng
electron.
II CHUN B|
GV c th p dng phng php dy hc d n, giao cho HS cc nhim v c th
thc hin mc tiu bi hc v t chc bo co kt qu trong gi hc.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
Da vo s oxi ho ta c th phn loi phn ng ho hc thnh nhng loi no ?
Du hiu bn cht v lp PTHH ca phn ng oxi ho - kh nh th no ?
Hot ng 2 : Kin thc cn nm vng
GV : Hy cho bit :
1. Th no l phn ng oxi ho - kh ?
2. Th no l cht kh ? cht oxi ho ?
3. Th no l s kh, s oxi ho ?
GV : cn bng phn ng oxi ho -
kh, c th dng phng php cn bng
no ? Nu nguyn tc v cc bc cn
bng ?
GV : Da vo du hiu s oxi ho :
1. C th phn phn ng ho hc lm
my loi ? l nhng loi no?
2.Tong cc phn ng : ho hp, trao
i, th, phn hu, phn ng no thuc
loi phn ng oxi ho - kh ?
GV : Da vo nng lng km theo phn
ng ho hc di dng nhit c th phn
loi phn ng ho hc thnh nhng loi
no ?
HS tr li cu hi, tho lun v rt ra kt
lun nhng kin thc cn nh v phn
ng oxi ho - kh nh SGK.

HS nu phng php thng bng
electron, nguyn tc, cc bc cn bng
PTHH ca phn ng oxi ho - kh.

HS tr li cu hi, tho lun, kt lun v
cch phn loi phn ng ho hc nh
SGK.



HS tr li cu hi, kt lun v phn loi
phn ng ho hc da vo nhit km
theo phn ng.


69
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Nhit phn ng l g ? k hiu ?
n v ? Cho bit cc gi tr ca nhit
phn ng trong phn ng to nhit, phn
ng thu nhit ?
HS tr li cu hi, kt lun nh SGK.

Hot ng 3 : Bi tp vn dng
HS lm cc bi tp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9cde, 10a, 11 trong SGK trang 112, 113.

Bi 28 bi thc hnh s 2
phn ng oxi ho - kh
I MUC TIU
Bit c mc ch, cch tin hnh cc th nghim.
S dng dng c, ho cht thc hin an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trong bi.
Quan st, gii thch hin tng xy ra, vit PTHH ca phn ng.
II CHUN B|
1. Dng c : Xem SGV.
2. Ho cht : Xem SGV.
Dng c, ho cht cho HS thc hnh th nghim theo nhm.
3. Hc sinh
n tp nhng kin thc lin quan n cc th nghim trong tit thc hnh.
Nghin cu trc bit c dng c, ho cht v cch thc hin tng th nghim.
4. Gio vin chun b mt s phiu hc tp
Phiu s 1: Hy chn dng c, ho cht thch hp thc hin cc th nghim chng
minh cho cc bin i :
Fe + 2H
+
Fe
2+
+ H
2
|
Fe + Cu
2+
Fe
2+
+ Cu
Phiu s 2 : Ngi ta c th dng kh CO
2
dp tt m chy c Mg kim loi c
khng ? Gii thch, vit PTHH ca phn ng.
Phiu s 3 : Khi nh t t tng git dd KMnO
4
long vo hn hp dd FeSO
4
v H
2
SO
4

s c hin tng g xy ra, gii thch, vit PTHH ca phn ng.
III MT S LUU

70
1. y l bi thc hnh cng c, khc su hn cho HS nhng kin thc v phn ng
oxi ho - kh. V vy, GV cn hng dn HS bit quan st nhn ra nhng du hiu
ca hin tng phn ng xy ra.
2. Nhng ni c iu kin, hc sinh kh, thnh tho trong thc hnh th nghim th :
Phn ng ca kim loi vi dd axit ngoi vic thc hin th nghim ca Fe vi
dd H
2
SO
4
, c th thc hin mt s th nghim khc nh Zn vi dd H
2
SO
4
; Zn vi
dd HCl v.v... rt ra bn cht ca cc phn ng.
Phn ng ca kim loi vi dd mui ngoi phn ng Fe vi dd CuSO
4
, c th thc
hin mt s phn ng khc nh Zn vi dd CuSO
4
...
3. Th nghim phn ng oxi ho - kh trong mi trng axit rt gn vi nhng phn
ng phn tch nh tnh bng phng php chun , GV cn thc hin mu cho HS
xem ng tc dng ng nh git, nh tng git dd KMnO
4
vo ng nghim cha
hn hp H
2
SO
4
v FeSO
4
, lc, quan st nhn ra s chuyn mu v kt thc ca
phn ng.
4. GV c th th hin cc phiu hc tp ln bn trong, dng my chiu t chc hot
ng ny cho HS s hiu qu hn.
5. Phn b thi gian c th thc hin.
IV THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
Hot ng 1 : M u tit thc hnh
1. GV : - Nu mc tiu tit thc hnh.
- Nu nhng yu cu HS phi thc hin trong tit hc.
2. S dng phiu hc tp kim tra vic chun b bi ca HS v hng dn HS thc hin
nhim v tit thc hnh.
3. Gio vin thc hin mu mt s thao tc (gi ti lu th 3).
Hot ng 2 : Phn ng ca kim loi v dd axit
HS thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK
Quan st hin tng xy ra, gii thch, vit PTHH, xc nh vai tr cc cht trong phn ng.
C bt kh hiro bay ra, km tan dn trong dd. gii thch phi dng s trao i
electron hay s thay i s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t tham gia phn ng.
Hot ng 3 : Phn ng gia kim loi v dd mui.
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
Quan st hin tng xy ra, gii thch, vit PTHH ca phn ng.
Hin tng : Trn mt chic inh st c ph dn dn mt lp mu nu ( l Cu
c gii phng), mu xanh ca dd CuSO
4
gim dn do phn ng to thnh dd FeSO
4

khng mu.
Hot ng 4 : Phn ng gia kim loi magie v kh cacbonnic.

71
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
HS quan st hin tng xy ra, gii thch, vit PTHH.
Hot ng 5 : Phn ng oxi ho kh trong mi trng axit
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
GV : Hng dn HS quan st hin tng : mu tm ca dd KMnO
4
mt i khi nh tng
git vo hn hp dd FeSO
4
v H
2
SO
4
. n khi mu tm ca dd KMnO
4
khng nht i
na th dng khng nh tip KMnO
4
na.
Hot ng 6 : Cng vic cui tit thc hnh
GV : Nhn xt, nh gi tit thc hnh. Yu cu HS vit tng trnh.
HS : Thu dn dng c, ho cht, v sinh PTN, lp hc.
Chng 5
nhm halogen
A. M u
Mc tiu ca chng
HS bit v hiu :
Cu to nguyn t, s oxi ho ca cc halogen trong cc hp cht.
Tnh cht vt l, ho hc c bn, ng dng v phng php iu ch cc halogen v
mt s hp cht quan trng ca chng.
V sao halogen c tnh oxi ho mnh.
Nguyn nhn s ging nhau v tnh cht ho hc cng nh s bin i c quy lut
tnh cht n cht, hp cht ca cc halogen.
Nguyn tc chung iu ch cc halogen.
HS c k nng :
Quan st, tin hnh lm mt s th nghim v gii thch hin tng cc th nghim
hoc hnh nh th nghim v tnh cht ho hc, tnh cht vt l ca halogen v hp
cht ca chng.
Vn dng nhng kin thc hc v cu to nguyn t, LKHH, m in, s oxi
ho v phn ng oxi ho - kh gii thch mt s tnh cht ca n cht v hp
cht ca halogen.
Vit PTHH minh ho cho tnh cht ho hc ca n cht v hp cht halogen.
Gii bi tp nh tnh v nh lng c lin quan n kin thc trong chng.
Gio dc lng say m, thc hc tp, thc bo v mi trng.

72
Mt s im cn lu
Halogen l nhm nguyn t u tin c nghin cu sau khi HS hc cc l thuyt
ch o (cu to nguyn t, BTH, nh lut tun hon, LKHH, phn ng oxi
ho - kh...). V vy cn dng phng php suy din (i t ci chung n ci ring)
d on tnh cht ca n cht v hp cht halogen.
Khi nghin cu v flo, brom, iot c th dng phng php loi suy (i t ci ring bit ny
n ci ring bt khc). GV cn hng dn HS so snh cu to ca clo vi cc halogen
khc, t tnh cht ho hc ca clo suy ra tnh cht ho hc ca cc halogen khc.
Trong cc bi luyn tp, cn dng phng php so snh, i chiu thy c s
ging v khc nhau v cu to, tnh cht cc halogen v hp cht ca chng ng
thi nu bt c s bin i c quy lut minh chng cho nhng kin thc hc
trong l thuyt ch o.
Halogen v hp cht ca chng c nhiu ng dng trong i sng v sn xut, GV
cn khai thc kha cnh thc tin, gn kin thc khoa hc vi thc tin HS thy
c ngha ca vic hc tp b mn.
B. Dy hc cc bi c th
Bi 29 KhI qut v nhm halogen
I MUC TIU
Bit c v tr trong BTH cc nguyn t, c im chung v cu to nguyn t,
cu to phn t, s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong nhm halogen.
Hiu c tnh cht ho hc c trng ca cc nguyn t trong nhm halogen l tnh
oxi ho mnh, v sao tnh cht l, ho hc ca cc halogen bin i c quy lut.
II CHUN B|
BTH cc nguyn t ho hc, bng 5.1 SGK - Mt s c im ca cc nguyn t
nhm halogen.
tng cng tnh ch ng ca HS, GV c th giao cho HS chun b trc mt s
ni dung kin thc v BTH cc nguyn t ho hc c lin quan. C th l :
1. Cc nguyn t trong cng mt nhm A c nhng c im g ging nhau ?
a) V cu to lp electron ngoi cng (trng thi c bn, trng thi kch thch).
b) S electron c thn lp electron ngoi cng.
c) S oxi ho.
d) Tnh cht ho hc ca nguyn t.

73
Vn dng i vi nhm VIIA.
2. F c g khc vi Cl, Br, I ?
a) Cu to lp electron ngoi cng ( trng thi c bn, trng thi kch thch), s
electron c thn c kh nng tham gia LKHH.
b) m in.
c) S oxi ho.
3. Quy lut bin i tun hon cu to (cu hnh e lp ngoi cng, bn knh nguyn t,
m in, tnh kim loi - phi kim, tnh oxi ho), tnh cht cc nguyn t, n cht.
Vn dng cc quy lut i vi cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIA ?
C th thit k bi ging bng phn mm Powerpoint.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV :
- Nhm halogen gm nhng nguyn t
no ?
- Cc quy lut bin i v cu to v tnh
cht cc cht th hin trong nhm
halogen nh th no ?


HS nm c mc tiu v nh hng
bi hc.
Hot ng 2 : V tr nhm halogen trong BTH cc nguyn t
GV treo BTH, gii thiu cho HS nhm
halogen, yu cu HS nu tn, vit k hiu
cc nguyn t trong nhm.
GV : V tr ca cc nguyn t nhm
halogen trong chu k c im g c bit ?
HS s dng BTH, xc nh v tr nhm,
c tn, vit k hiu cc nguyn t
halogen.
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.

Hot ng 3 : Cu hnh electron nguyn t v cu to phn t ca cc nguyn t trong
nhm halogen
GV : T v tr trong BTH (chu k, nhm
A) hy cho bit cu to lp electron
ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t
nhm VIIA ?



Yu cu HS tr li cu hi 1 (a, b, c) v 2.
HS trnh by bi chun b, tho lun b
sung kin thc v rt ra :
- S lp e = s th t chu k = n.
- S e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc
nguyn t nhm A = s th t nhm =7.
Lp e ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc
nguyn t nhm VIIA l : ns
2
np
5

T HS vit s phn b electron theo

74
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH




GV : Hy vit cng thc phn t, cng
thc electron, cng thc cu to, cho bit
loi LKHH trong phn t n cht
halogen.
GV : Cho bit c im nng lng lin
kt trong cc halogen ? c im cho thy
phn t cc halogen bn hay km bn ? d
hay kh tham gia vo phn ng ho hc ?
obitan v xc nh s electron c thn
trng thi c bn v trng thi kch thch :
F : c 1e c thn
Cl, Br, I : c 1, 3, 5, 7e c thn.
HS vn dng kin thc phn LKHH tr
li cu hi.

HS tham kho bng 5.1 SGK, nu c
im nng lng lin kt ca halogen t
suy ra phn t X
2
d tch thnh 2
nguyn t, c ngha l phn t km bn,
d dng tham gia vo phn ng ho hc.
Hot ng 4: Khi qut v tnh cht ca cc halogen
GV : Nhng tnh cht vt l no bin i
c quy lut ? V sao nhng tnh cht
li bin i c quy lut ?
GV hng dn HS tm hiu c im
chung v cu to n cht cc halogen.
(thnh phn u l X
2
, u c lin kt
cng ho tr) tr li cu hi.
GV b sung thm tnh tan, tnh c.
GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi 1d.

GV : Em hy ly VD v cc hp cht
ca halogen trong s oxi ho ca
halogen l 1.
GV nhn xt v hng dn HS rt ra kt
lun.
GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi 3.







HS tham kho SGK nu c : trng thi
tp hp, mu sc, nhit nng chy,
nhit si bin i c quy lut.
HS tr li cu hi, tho lun, rt ra :
- S electronlp ngoi cng ca nguyn
t = 7 => tnh phi kim, nguyn t c kh
nng thu thm 1e u c s oxi ho 1.
X + 1e X

- m in ln => l cc phi kim in
hnh, c tnh oxi ho mnh.
HS dn ra cc VD minh ho nh HCl,
HBr, HI, HF, NaCl, NaBr

HS rt ra kt lun nh SGK.

HS tr li cu hi, tho lun, rt ra th t
tnh phi kim ca cc nguyn t nhm
halogen vi cc nguyn t trong chu k
(F > O > N >, Cl > S,)
Halogen l cht oxi ho mnh nht so
vi cc nguyn t trong cng chu k.
Tnh phi kim, tnh oxi ho ca cc nguyn t
nhm halogen theo trnh t F > C l> Br > I.

75
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : V sao trong tt c cc hp cht F lun
c s oxi ho 1 cn cc halogen khc c
cc s oxi ho 1, +1, +3, +5, +7 ?



HS so snh m in ca F vi cc
nguyn t khc, c im cu to
electron lp ngoi cng ca cc nguyn
t Cl, Br, I (trng thi c bn, trng thi
kch thch) gii thch v rt ra kt
lun v s oxi ho ca halogen.
Hot ng 5 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm cc bi tp trong SGK.
Bi 30 clo
I MUC TIU
Bit c : Tnh cht vt l, trng thi t nhin, ng dng ca clo, phng php
iu ch clo trong PTN v trong cng nghip.
Hiu c : Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca clo l phi kim in hnh, c tnh oxi ho
mnh. Clo cn c tnh kh.
II CHUN B|
Tit 1: (GV nn dng phn kt thc tnh cht ho hc ca clo).
Ho cht : 2 bnh ng kh clo, 1 bnh ng nc clo, Na, dy Fe, th nghim m
phng clo tc dng vi hiro, dd KI, KBr, qu tm, tha thu tinh.
Tit 2 : Dng c v ho cht iu ch clo trong PTN, n cn, kp g, hoc th nghim
m phng iu ch clo trong PTN.
M hnh iu ch clo trong cng nghip (thng in phn NaCl).
GV c th p dng phng php dy hc d n, giao cho HS tm hiu v cc ng
dng v tc hi ca clo v nhng vn mi trng c lin quan n clo, tu theo
iu kin, hon cnh c th giao cho HS lm mt bi trnh din a phng tin,
hoc mt bi vit tm hiu v ng dng v tc hi ca clo.
GV giao bi vo cui tit 1, thu bi, kim tra, nh gi, chn nhm c kt qu tt
nht trnh by trong gi hc sau.
GV c th son bi bng phn mm Powerpoin.
Phiu hc tp
Ni dung 1. Nghin cu tnh cht vt l ca clo
- Trng thi ? - Nng hay nh hn khng kh ?

76
- Mu sc ? - c hay khng ?
- Tnh tan ? - Cc tnh cht khc ?
Ni dung 2. Nghin cu tnh cht ho hc
1. Nhn xt v cu to :
- Cu hnh electron ca clo trng thi c bn, trng thi kch thch ?
- S electron c thn ?
- So snh m in ca clo vi nguyn t khc ?
2. T cu to, d on tnh cht ho hc ca clo :
- Clo c tnh cht g ? v sao ?
- Clo tc dng c vi nhng ho cht no ?
3. Cc phn ng chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca clo :
Tn th nghim Hin tng Gii thch , PTHH
Na + Cl
2

Fe + Cl
2

H
2
(k) + Cl
2
(k)
Qu tm + Cl
2
kh
Qu tm + dd Cl
2

Cl
2
+ dd NaBr
Cl
2
+ dd NaI
Vn dng tnh cht ho hc ca clo lm cc bi tp sau y :
Bi 1 : Hy vit cc PTHH ca Cl
2
tc dng vi n cht, hp cht iu ch FeCl
3
.
Bi 2 : Clo tc dng c vi nhng ho cht no sau y ? Hy chn phng n ng nht :
A. Cu, NaBr, KOH, CH
4
, FeSO
4
. C. Mg, C
6
H
6
, KF , KI, KOH.
B. Fe, O
2
, H
2
, H
2
O, NaOH. D. Na, Na
2
O, NaOH, NaBr, NaI.
4. Kt lun v tnh cht ho hc ca clo.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Clo l nguyn t tiu biu v quan trng nht trong nhm halogen. Trong chin
tranh th gii ln th hai, pht xt c dng kh clo git ngi hng lot. Tuy
nhin nhng hp cht ca clo rt quen thuc v v cng quan trng i vi cuc
sng ca chng ta nh mui n NaCl, axit clohiric c trong dch v d dy, mt s

77
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
thuc tr su, phn bn ho hc, dc phm, thuc ty. Vy ti sao pht xt c
li s dng clo lm v kh ho hc ? clo c tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ho hc g ? clo
c nhng ng dng g v iu ch clo nh th no ?
Hot ng 2 : Tnh cht vt l
GV cho HS quan st bnh ng kh clo,
bnh ng nc clo v yu cu HS hon
thnh ni dung 1 trong phiu hc tp.

GV hng dn cho HS nu gp trng
hp ng c kh clo th s cu ban u l
a ngay nn nhn ra ni thong kh v
h hp nhn to.
GV : Nu nh my ho cht thi trc tip
kh clo ra khng kh bng nhng ng
khi rt cao, th vic lm c gy c
trc tip cho con ngi sng trong khu
vc hay khng ? Ti sao ?
HS quan st bnh ng kh clo v bnh
ng nc clo v tr li cu hi v tnh
cht vt l ca clo ni dung 1 trong
phiu hc tp.
HS tham kho SGK v tr li : do clo rt
c, clo ph hoi nim mc ng h
hp gy cht ngi.

HS gii thch da vo t khi ca clo so
vi khng kh tr li cu hi v tham
kho SGK b sung thm mt s tnh cht vt
l khc ca clo nh nhit ho lng, ho rn.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht ho hc
GV yu cu HS tr li ni dung 2.1 trong
phiu hc tp.





GV : Vi c im v cu hnh electron
v m in hy gii thch :
Trong hp cht vi flo v oxi, clo c s oxi
ho dng (+1, +3, +5, +7), cn trong cc
trng hp khc clo ch c s oxi ho 1.






HS tr li cu hi, tho lun, kt lun v :
- Cu hnh electron ca clo (trng thi c
bn, kch thch).
- S electron c thn c kh nng tham
gia LKHH.
- m in F > O > Cl > cc nguyn t
khc.
HS tin hnh :
- So snh m in ca clo vi F, O
trong hp cht vi F, O clo c s oxi ho
dng, trong hp cht vi cc nguyn t
khc clo c s oxi ho m.
- Clo c 1, 3, 5, 7 electron c thn lp
electron ngoi cng (trng thi c bn,
kch thch) c cc s oxi ho dng l
+1, +3, +5, +7.
- Clo c 7e lp electron ngoi cng nn
s oxi ho m l 1.

78
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : T nhng c im trn cho bit
tnh cht ho hc c bn ca clo l g ?




GV b sung :
- Clo c cc s oxi ho :
1 0 +1, +3, +5, +7
(hp cht) (n cht) ( hp cht )
V th trong mt s phn ng s oxi ho
ca clo c th tng ln, clo cn th hin
tnh kh.
GV : Em bit clo c th tc dng vi
nhng ho cht no ?
GV : Sau y chng ta s cng xem xt
bn cht v vai tr ca clo trong cc
phn ng ho hc .

GV lm th nghim Na, Fe tc dng vi
clo, yu cu HS tr li cu hi trong
phiu hc tp.





GV cho HS quan st th nghim m
phng Cl
2
tc dng vi H
2
. GV yu cu
HS vit PTHH clo tc dng vi hiro,
xc nh bn cht ca phn ng, vai tr
ca clo trong phn ng.
GV cha bi ca HS, t chc cho HS
tho lun.
GV hng dn 1 HS lm th nghim ln
lt cho mt mu giy qu kh vo l
HS d on tnh cht ho hc ca clo :
- Cl c 7e ngoi cng => clo l mt phi
kim, nguyn t d thu thm 1e t
cu hnh kh him Ar :
Cl
0
+1e Cl

- Clo c m in ln clo l mt phi
kim hot ng, c tnh cht c trng l
tnh oxi ho mnh.



Nu cc phn ng ho hc ca clo nh
tc dng vi kim loi, hiro, nc, dd
kim
HS quan st th nghim, nu hin tng,
gii thch, vit cc PTHH v vai tr ca
clo trong phn ng cui cng rt ra kt
lun :
- Clo tc dng mnh vi kim loi to
thnh mui clorua l hp cht ion, phn
ng xy ra nhanh, to nhiu nhit km
theo pht sng.
PTTQ : 2R + nCl
2

n
n
2R Cl
+
- Cc phn ng ny u l phn ng oxi
ho- kh, clo ng vai tr cht oxi ho.
HS tr li cu hi vo phiu hc tp, tho
lun kt qu v rt ra nhn xt.
HS lm th nghim, quan st, nu hin
tng, gii thch, vit PTHH, xc nh
bn cht ca phn ng, vai tr ca clo
trong phn ng. Tin hnh tho lun
cha bi v kt lun.
HS tin hnh tng t nh trn v rt ra
kt lun phn ng ca clo vi dd kim
cng thuc loi phn ng t oxi ho, t
kh, clo va l cht oxi ho va l cht

79
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
kh Cl
2
v mt mu giy qu vo bnh
ng dd Cl
2
.
GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi trong
phiu hc tp, t chc cho HS tho lun
kt qu v rt ra kt lun.
GV : Vit PTHH ca Cl
2
tc dng vi
NaOH ? xc nh bn cht ca phn
ng? vai tr ca clo trong phn ng ?
GV hng dn 1 HS lm th nghim cho
dd clo tc dng vi dd KBr, KI.
GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi trong
phiu hc tp, tho lun kt qu.
GV : Clo cn oxi ho vi nhiu cht kh
khc. Hy hon thnh cc PTHH sau
y:
Cl
2
+ SO
2
+ H
2
O ?
Cl
2
+ FeCl
2
?
kh .







HS lm th nghim, quan st, nu hin
tng, gii thch, vit PTHH vo phiu
hc tp, tho lun cha bi v kt lun :
Tnh oxi ho ca Cl yu hn F ; mnh
hn Br, I.
HS hon thnh PTHH (xc nh s oxi
ho, d on sn phm, cn bng PTHH)
t rt ra cc phn ng u c bn cht
l oxi ho kh, clo l cht oxi ho.
Hot ng 4 : Tng kt v vn dng (kt thc tit 1)
Sau khi HS hon thnh bi tp cng c
GV nhn xt, hng dn HS rt ra kt
lun.







GV giao bi tp v nh cho HS v vic
chun b cho tit hc sau.
HS lm cc bi tp trong phiu hc tp.
HS cha bi, cui cng rt ra kt lun v
tnh cht ho hc ca clo vo phiu hc tp.
- Clo l mt phi kim hot ng.
- Tnh cht hc c trng ca clo l tnh
oxi ho mnh : Cl
2
+ 2e 2Cl


clo oxi ho nhiu n cht, hp cht.
- Trong mt s phn ng ho hc clo cn
th hin tnh kh.

Hot ng 5 : T chc tnh hung hc tp (tit 2)
GV : Tit hc trc chng ta bit c
tnh ca clo v nhng tnh cht ho hc
ca clo, clo c nhng ng dng g ? c
iu ch nh th no ?
HS nh hng c ni dung cn nm
c.

80
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 6 : ng dng ca clo
GV: Hy cho bit cc ng dng ca clo ?



GV : Clo l mt ho cht c tnh c tuy
nhin nu hiu bit y v clo, s
dng clo ng mc ch th clo l cht
c li cho con ngi, ngc li s gy
hi khng nh.
GV b sung cc thng tin v tc hi ca
clo v hp cht.
HS tham kho SGK trnh by cc ng
dng ca clo : l mt trong s nhng ho
cht quan trng nht ca nn cng
nghip ho cht.
HS rt ra kt lun :
Khi s dng ho cht chng ta phi tm
hiu y tnh cht l ho hc ca
chng s dng chng sao cho c li
cho chng ta v khng gy hi cho mi
trng.
Hot ng 7 : Trng thi t nhin
GV : Clo c 2 ng v bn l
35
17
Cl
(75,77%) v
37
17
Cl (24,23%). Hy tnh
nguyn t khi trung bnh ca clo.
GV : trong t nhin clo tn ti ch yu
dng hp cht no ? Cho VD. Ti sao clo
khng tn ti dng n cht ?
HS xc nh nguyn t khi trung bnh
ca clo.

HS tham kho SGK, lin h thc t :
- Nu c trng thi t nhin ca clo.
- Lin h vi kin thc hc tit hc
trc tr li cu hi.
Hot ng 8 : iu ch
GV : Nguyn tc iu ch clo l g ?
Dng ho cht no iu ch kh clo
trong PTN ? Vit cc PTHH dng
iu ch clo ?
GV : Quan st hnh 5.3 v cho bit ti
sao lc kh clo bng dd NaCl, dd H
2
SO
4

c ? Ti sao li thu kh clo bng phng
php ri khng kh ?
GV : sn xut clo trong cng nghip
vi lng ln, gi thnh r ta cn ly
nguyn liu no iu ch clo ?
GV : Nu phng php iu ch clo t NaCl
trong cng nghip v vit PTHH xy ra.
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.



HS tho lun v tr li cu hi.



HS thy ngay c ngun nguyn liu
phi sn c trong t nhin, l mui
NaCl.
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.
Hot ng 9 : Tng kt v vn dng

81
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV cha bi v nhn xt kt qu.
GV giao bi tp v nh : Hon thnh
grap bi clo.

HS lm bi tp 3 SGK trang 125.

Bi 31 Hiro clorua - axit clohiric
I MUC TIU
Bit cu to phn t, tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ho hc ca hiro clorua v axit
clohiric, nguyn tc iu ch HCl trong PTN, trong cng nghip. Tnh cht v ng
dng ca mt s mui clorua, nhn bit ion clorua.
Hiu tnh cht ho hc ca dd HCl l tnh axit mnh v tnh kh.
Phn bit c dd HCl, mui clorua vi dd axit v mui khc.
II CHUN B|
Dng c, ho cht iu ch kh HCl nh : dd H
2
SO
4
c, tinh th NaCl, ng
nghim, n cn, gi st. 1 bnh kh HCl, qu tm, chu hoc cc thu tinh ng nc,
nt cao su c ng dn kh xuyn qua, dd NaCl, dd HCl, dd AgNO
3
.
Tranh hoc s thit b sn xut axit clohiric trong cng nghip. Nu c iu
kin, GV chun b dng c, ho cht cho cc nhm HS thc hin cc th nghim
nhn bit ion clorua.
Mt s hnh nh v ng dng ca axit clohiric, mui clorua. Gii thiu mt s hp
cht c cha ion clorua quen thuc v quan trng trong cuc sng.
Phiu hc tp
Ni dung 1. Nghin cu tnh cht vt l
a) Kh HCl :
- Trng thi ? - Mu sc ?
- c hay khng? - Mi ?
- T khi ? nng hay nh hn khng kh ?
- Th nghim th tnh tan ca HCl :
Tn th
nghim
Cch lm Hin tng Gii thch
v kt lun
Tnh tan ca
kh HCl
Mt bnh thu tinh y bng
nt cao su c ng thu tinh
vut nhn, nhng u ng


82
thu tinh vo nc c pha
vi git dd qu tm.
b) DD HCl :
- Trng thi ? - Mu sc ?
- Mi ? - Nng dd m c nht (20
0
C) ?
- Cc tnh cht khc ?
Ni dung 2. Nghin cu tnh cht ho hc
- Axit clohiric c tnh cht ho hc g ?
- Kt lun v tnh cht ho hc ca axit clohiric ?
- Nguyn nhn gy ra tnh cht ho hc ?
Ni dung 3. iu ch HCl
Vit PTHH dng iu ch HCl.
Ni dung 4. Nhn bit ion clorua
Thuc th nhn ra ion clorua l g ?
Ni dung 5. Bi tp cng c
Trnh by phng php ho hc nhn bit 4 bnh khng nhn sau y cha cc dd HCl,
NaCl, HNO
3
, NaNO
3
.
Bc 1 : Chn thuc th, nu cch lm.
Bc 2 : Tin hnh th nghim nhn bit, vit tng trnh.
Bc 3 : Kt lun, vit bo co hon chnh bi nhn bit.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Trong d dy ca chng ta c mt lng axit clohiric nht nh gip tiu ho
thc n, trong cng nghip axit clohiric dng iu ch nhiu ho cht quan
Tn th nghim Cch lm Hin tng Gii thch,
PTHH
NaCl + AgNO
3
Nh t t tng git dd
AgNO
3
vo 1 ml dd
NaCl

HCl + AgNO
3
Nh t t tng git dd
AgNO
3
vo 1ml dd HCl


83
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
trng khc. Vy hiro clorua v dd trong nc ca n - axit clohiric c nhng tnh
cht l, ho hc g ? c iu ch ra sao ? Lm th no nhn ra n v mui ca
n ? l ni dung bi hc ca chng ta hm nay.
Hot ng 2 : Tnh cht vt l
GV cho HS quan st bnh ng kh HCl,
thng bo hiro clorua c mi xc, c
(c th lm ngt th, khi lm th nghim
phi cn thn, khi c du hiu c kh
hiro clorua cn m ca, khn trng thc
hin cc bin php phng c).
GV lm th nghim hoc hng dn HS
lm th nghim th tnh tan trong nc
ca hiro clorua.

GV cho HS quan st dd HCl c.
GV : Ti sao dd HCl m c li bc khi
trong khng kh m ?
HS quan st bnh ng kh HCl v nhn
xt : trng thi, mu sc v hon thnh
cc cu hi ni dung 1.a trong phiu
hc tp.


HS quan st th nghim. Nu hin
tng, tham kho SGK, tho lun t
gii thch v kt lun v tnh tan ca kh
HCl trong nc.
HS quan st dd HCl c, tr li cu hi
ni dung 1.b trong phiu hc tp.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht ho hc
GV : 1. Dd HCl phn ng vi cc
chctong dy no sau y ? chn phng
n ng, vit cc PTHH xy ra, cho bit
phn ng no l phn ng oxi ho - kh :
A. Cu(OH)
2
, CuO, CuSO
4
, Mg, KOH.
B. Fe, Fe(OH)
2
, CaCO
3
, Fe
3
O
4
, AgNO
3
.
C. Al, S, Al(OH)
3
, Na
2
O, Na
2
CO
3
.
D. Fe(OH)
3
, CaO, NaOH, NaNO
3
, Na.
2. Dd HCl tc dng c dy cht no sau
y ? Vit PTHH ?
A. KMnO
4
. B. K
2
Cr
2
O
7
.
C. MnO
2
. D. HClO.
E. C A, B, C, D.
GV : Kh HCl, dd HCl trong dung mi
benzen c tnh cht ho hc nh dd HCl
khng ?
Cui cng GV hng dn HS cht li tnh
cht ho hc ca HCl.
HS lm bi, cha bi, tho lun v rt
ra nhn xt sau :
- Dd axit clohiric l mt dd axit mnh
mang y tnh cht ca mt axit :
- Phn ng ca HCl vi kim loi l
phn ng oxi ho - kh trong cht
oxi ho l H
+
trong HCl. PTTQ :
2R + 2
n
n 2
nH Cl 2R Cl nH
+ +
+
HS tr li cu hi, vit PTHH, xc nh
vai tr ca Cl

(HCl) trong phn ng,


tho lun chung v rt ra kt lun :
- HCl c tnh kh khi tc dng vi cht
oxi ho mnh do Cl

Cl
0
+ 1e
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.


HS nhc li v tng kt v tnh cht ho
hc ca HCl theo s :

84
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH


H Cl
+


Tnh axit, tnh oxi ho

Tnh kh
(dd HCl) (kh, dd HCl)
Hot ng 4 : iu ch
GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi v iu ch
HCl trong phiu hc tp.

GV : yu cu HS quan st hnh 5.5 SGK
v cho bit trong PTN HCl c iu ch t
nhng ho cht no. Vit PTHH.
GV : Hy cho bit :
a) Nu thay NaCl khan bng dd NaCl,
H
2
SO
4
c bng H
2
SO
4
long th phn
ng xy ra nh th no ?
b) Ti sao khng dng axit khc m phi
dng dd H
2
SO
4
c ?
GV : sn xut HCl trong cng nghip
vi lng ln, gi thnh r ta cn ly
nguyn liu no ?
GV gii thiu phng php sunfat cho
HS.
GV cho HS quan st s thit b sn
xut axit HCl trong cng nghip.
GV vit PTHH iu ch HCl bng phng
php tng hp.
Ti sao dn kh HCl t pha di ln, H
2
O
c ti t trn xung ?
GV nhn xt phn tr li ca HS v hng
dn HS rt ra nguyn tc ngc dng p
dng trong qu trnh sn xut ho cht.
GV : Gii thiu bin php thu hi ho
cht trong qu trnh sn xut cc hp cht
hu c cha clo, trnh thi kh HCl vo
HS hon thnh ni dung 3 trong phiu
hc tp, y l mt cu hi m HS c
th vit c nhiu PTHH to thnh
HCl.
HS quan st tranh, tham kho SGK tr
li cu hi vo phiu hc tp.

HS tr li cu hi.




HS nu c ngun nguyn liu phi
sn c v c nhiu trong t nhin l
mui NaCl.
HS ghi phng php sunfat, ho cht
iu ch HCl trong cng nghip vo v.
HS quan st s hnh 5.6 v tr li
cu hi.




HS rt ra phng php tng hp dd HCl
c theo nguyn tc ngc dng.

85
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
khng kh gy nhim mi trng.
Hot ng 5 : Mui clorua v nhn bit ion clorua
GV : Cho bit tnh tan ca cc mui
clorua ? ng dng ca mt s mui
clorua quan trng ?


GV hng dn HS lm 2 th nghim : dd
NaCl tc dng vi dd AgNO
3
v dd HCl
tc dng vi dd AgNO
3
.
GV : C th dng ho cht no lm thuc
th nhn ra ion clorua ?
GV lu : AgCl l cht kt ta mu
trng, khng tan trong axit mnh nh
HNO
3
, b xm en ngoi nh sng do :
2AgCl
nh sng
2Ag + Cl
2

Trng Bt en
HS s dng bng tnh tan, tham kho
SGK nu tnh tan, tnh d bay hi ca
mt s mui clorua, lin h thc t nu
mt s mui clorua quan trng v
nhng ng dng ca chng.
HS lm th nghim, quan st, nu hin
tng, gii thch, vit PTHH vo phiu
hc tp.
HS nu c thuc th nhn ra ion
clorua l dd mui AgNO
3
. HS c th
nu cch nhn bit ion clorua bng cc
cht oxi ho mnh sinh ra kh Cl
2
mu
vng thot ra khi dd.
HS b sung kin thc v AgCl v i n
kt lun nh SGK.
Hot ng 6 : Tng kt v vn dng
GV yu cu HS trao i bi cho nhau, cho
p n mu v hng dn chm im c
th ri yu cu HS chm im cho nhau.
Nu c iu kin, GV chun b y
ho cht cho cc nhm HS lm bi tp
nhn bit cc cht HCl, NaCl, HNO
3
,
NaNO
3
.
GV kim tra, nh gi kt qu v giao bi
tp v nh cho HS.
- HS lm bi tp nhn bit ho cht vo
phiu hc tp.
- HS t nh gi v cha bi cho nhau.

Sau khi cc nhm HS tin hnh xong
th nghim, mi nhm c i din ln
trnh by kt qu.

Bi 32 hp cht c oxi ca clo
I MUC TIU

86
Bit cng thc, tn gi mt s oxit v axit c oxi ca clo, quy lut bin i tnh oxi
ho v bn cc hp cht cha oxi ca clo.
ng dng, cch iu ch nc Gia-ven, mui clorat, clorua vi.
Hiu c ti sao clo c cc s oxi ho dng, tnh cht chung ca cc hp cht
cha oxi ca clo l tnh oxi ho.
II CHUN B|
Ho cht : Nc clo, nc Gia-ven, clorua vi, giy mu, 1 bao dim, kali clorat.
Cu hi :
1. Thnh phn, tc dng ca nc Gia-ven, nc Gia-ven c dng lm g ? s dng
nc Gia-ven nh th no tit kim v c hiu qu cao nht (cng c th cng tt) ?
2. Thnh phn, tc dng ca clorua vi ? dng clorua vi lm nhng vic g ?
3. Thnh phn ca dim ? Ti sao que dim chy c ?
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Cc em bit v n cht clo, hp cht ca clo vi hiro, mui clorua v hiu
c tm quan trng ca nhng ho cht i vi cuc sng ca chng ta, hm
nay chng ta s cng nghin cu v nhng hp cht cha oxi ca clo. Chng l
nhng ho cht no ? c cu to v tnh cht ra sao ? c ng dng g v lm th no
iu ch c chng ?
Hot ng 2 : S lc v cc oxit v cc axit c oxi ca clo
GV : Em hy nu tn, vit cng thc cc
oxit, axit c oxi ca clo.
GV : Hy xc nh s oxi ho ca clo
trong cc hp cht . Ti sao clo li c
cc s oxi ho ?
i vi HS kh v gii GV c th yu
cu HS vit CTCT ca cc oxit, axit c
oxi ca clo.
GV yu cu HS tm hiu quy lut bin
i tnh oxi ho, bn, tnh axit ca
cc hp cht axit c oxi ca clo.
HS tham kho ti liu vit c CTPT,
tn cc oxit, axit c oxi ca clo.
HS s xc nh c s oxi ho, gii
thch c clo c s oxi ho dng l do
m in ca O > Cl.



HS tham kho SGK rt ra quy lut bin
i tnh oxi ho, bn, tnh axit ca
cc hp cht c oxi ca clo.
Hot ng 3 : Nc Gia-ven
GV cho HS quan st dd nc Gia-ven,

87
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
gii thiu cho HS thnh phn ca dd.
- Vit PTHH iu ch nc Gia-ven ?
- Trong cng nghip iu ch nc Gia-
ven nh th no ?


GV : Nc Gia-ven c tnh cht g ?
GV hng dn HS lm th nghim :
1. Dd nc Gia-ven + giy mu hoc vi
mu.
2. Dd nc clo + giy mu.
GV t chc tho lun kt qu th nghim,
hng dn HS gii thch hin tng.
GV : Nc Gia-ven c dng lm g ?
GV : S dng nc Gia-ven nh th no
cho c hiu qu nht ?


HS hc tnh cht ca clo nn vit
c PTHH iu ch nc Gia-ven t clo
v dd NaOH long, ngui, kt hp tham
kho SGK nu c phng php iu
ch nc Gia-ven trong cng nghip.
HS lm th nghim, quan st, nu hin
tng.
Nc Gia-ven c tnh ty mu tng t
nc clo.

HS gii thch theo dn dt ca GV rt ra :
nguyn nhn tnh ty mu ca nc
Gia-ven.
HS lin h thc t, tham kho SGK nu
cc ng dng ca nc Gia-ven.
HS tr li cu hi.
Hot ng 4 : Clorua vi
GV cho HS quan st mt t clorua vi v
yu cu HS nhn xt v trng thi, mu
sc, mi.
GV : Clorua vi l sn phm ca phn
ng gia Cl
2
tc dng vi Ca(OH)
2

Vit PTHH iu ch clorua vi.
GV : Phn ng ca clo vi vi c phi
phn ng oxi ho - kh khng ?
GV : Ti sao ni clorua vi l mt mui
hn tp ?

GV :
a) So snh thnh phn, cu to ca
clorua vi v nc Gia-ven v cho bit
clorua vi c tnh cht g.



HS quan st, nu nhn xt v clorua vi
(trng thi, mu sc, mi).

HS tham kho SGK vit PTHH iu ch
clorua vi.

HS xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn
t v tr li cu hi.
HS vit CTCT ca clorua vi, xc nh
s oxi ho ca clo, tham kho ti liu v
tr li cu hi.

HS tin hnh so snh thy rng nc
Gia-ven v clorua vi u l mui ca
HCl v HClO nn suy ra c :
- Clorua vi cng c tnh oxi ho mnh
nh nc Gia-ven.
- C phn ng vi cc axit mnh hn

88
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH

b) Vit PTHH sau :
CaOCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O ?
CaOCl
2
+ HCl ?
GV : Clorua vi c ng dng g ? Ti sao
trong thc t clorua vi c s dng
rng ri hn nc Gia-ven ?
gii phng axit yu HClO.
Vn dng hon thnh 2 PTHH bn.


HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.


Hot ng 5 : Mui clorat
GV gii thiu mui clorat.
GV : KClO
3
c iu ch bng cch
cho Cl
2
tc dng vi kim nng, hy
hon thnh PTHH sau :
Cl
2
+ KOH
o
t
KClO
3
+ KCl + H
2
O

GV :
a) Bn cht ca phn ng Cl
2
tc dng
vi dd kim l g ?
b) Trong cng nghip, sn xut KClO
3

bng cch no ?


GV cho HS quan st tinh th KClO
3
, cho
KClO
3
vo nc v yu cu HS tr li
cu hi v trng thi ? mu sc ? tnh tan
ca KClO
3
.
GV : Vit PTHH khi un nng KClO
3
c
cht xc tc MnO
2
, bit phn ng ny
c dng iu ch oxi trong PTN.
GV lu cho HS v iu kin phn ng
nh SGK.
GV cho HS quan st bao dim, gii thiu
cho HS thnh phn ho cht u que
dim, thnh hp dim v yu cu HS
tr li cu hi : Ti sao khi qut que
dim vo thnh hp th dim li chy ?
GV nhn xt v hng dn HS rt ra kt
lun.




HS hon thnh PTHH.
Nhn xt v bn cht ca phn ng
(phn ng t oxi ho - kh).
HS nhn xt v im ging nhau trong
cch iu ch mui hipoclor v mui
clorat l cho Cl
2
tc dng vi dd kim,
phn ng u l oxi ho - kh ni phn
t. HS tham kho SGK nu cch iu
ch KClO
3
trong cng nghip.
HS quan st tinh th KClO
3
, lm th
nghim th tnh tan ca KClO
3
trong
nc v tr li cu hi, tham kho SGK
nu tnh cht vt l ca KClO
3
.
HS vit PTHH phn ng nhit phn
KClO
3
.



HS tham kho SGK, tho lun chung tr
li cu hi, t HS rt ra kt lun :
- KClO
3
l hp cht kh bn (bn hn
nc Gia-ven v clorua vi).
- KClO
3
l cht oxi ho mnh, d dng
tc dng vi nhiu cht d chy nh P, S,
C, b nhit phn nhit cao.
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.

89
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Vi tnh oxi ho mnh, KClO
3
c
nhng ng dng g ?

Hot ng 6 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm bi tp s 2, 4, 5 SGK.
Bi 33 Luyn tp v clo v hp cht ca clo
I- MUC TIU
Cng c tnh cht vt l, ho hc c trng ca clo, nguyn tc v phng php iu
ch clo, tnh cht cc hp cht ca clo.
II- CHUN B|
GV chun b h thng cu hi, bi tp, giao cho HS mt s cu hi yu cu HS chun
b trc :
Cu 1 : Nu cu to nguyn t, m in ca clo. Gii thch cc s oxi ho ca clo.
Tnh cht l, ho hc ca n cht clo.
Cu 2 : Trnh by tnh cht ho hc ca dd HCl. Vit cc PTHH minh ho.
Cu 3 : Cc hp cht cha oxi ca clo c nhiu ng dng quan trng l nhng ho cht
no (cng thc, tn gi) ? Lp bng tm tt s oxi ho, cch iu ch, tnh cht ho
hc ca chng.
Cu 4 : C cc cht sau : KCl, KClO, KClO
3
, HClO, CaOCl
2
, Cl
2
, FeCl
2
, FeCl
3
, HCl,
AgCl. Hy lp cc s bin ho gia cc ho cht trn v vit cc PTHH thc hin
dy bin ho .
GV c th dy theo phng php grap. HS chun b bi theo nhm, mi nhm chun b
phn tr li 1 cu hi trnh by bng my chiu. GV chun b y cc phng tin
k thut HS trnh by bi ca nhm trn my tnh.
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Clo v hp cht ca clo c tnh cht, ng dng v iu ch nh th no ?
Hot ng 2 : Kin thc cn nm vng

90
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Yu cu HS trnh by cu hi 1, t
chc cho HS tho lun.







GV : Yu cu HS trnh by cu hi 2, t
chc cho HS tho lun.






HS tr li cu hi 1, lp tho lun, b
sung kin thc, rt ra kt lun v cu to
nguyn t, cc s oxi ho ca clo, tnh
cht l, ho ca clo c bit rt ra c
s sau :

1
Cl


d

0
Cl
kh
1
Cl
+


1
Cl
+

3s
2
3p
6
3s
2
3p
5

Tnh oxi ho Tnh kh
HS tr li cu hi 2, tho lun, b sung,
rt ra kt lun v tnh cht ho hc ca
HCl c bit nhn mnh cho HS :
- Hp cht cha Cl

c tnh kh do :
2Cl


0
2
Cl
HS thc hin yu cu ca GV theo bng
mu :
GV : Yu cu HS in thng tin vo
trng trong bng mu, tr li cu hi 3.




Cc hp cht
S oxi ho
iu ch
Tnh cht ho hc
ng dng
GV : Yu cu HS trnh by cu hi 4, t
chc cho HS tho lun.
GV : Trong cc phn ng ho hc :
- Phn ng no th hin tnh oxi ho ca
clo ?
- Phn ng no thuc loi oxi ho - kh
ni phn t ? V sao ?
- Phn ng no cc hp cht cha oxi
ca clo th hin tnh oxi ho ?
- Phn ng no c dng iu ch clo
trong PTN ? trong cng nghip ?
HS thit lp s , tho lun, a ra s
hon chnh.
HS vit PTHH thc hin dy bin ho,.

HS tr li cu hi.

91
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 3 : Bi tp vn dng
GV yu cu HS lm cc bi tp trong
SGK.
HS lm cc bi tp trong SGK, tho lun
v cha bi.

Bi 34 Flo
I- MUC TIU
Bit trng thi t nhin, phng php iu ch, tnh cht ho hc, ng dng ca flo.
Tnh cht v cch iu ch hiro florua, axit flohiric, oxi florua.
Hiu flo l phi kim mnh nht, trong cc hp cht flo ch c s oxi ho 1, ch c
th dng phng php in phn mi c th iu ch c flo.
II- CHUN B|
Bt CaF
2
, dd H
2
SO
4
, parafin, tm knh, dao nhn.
GV c th s dng s grap cng c kin thc vo cui bi.
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Ti sao ni nguyn t flo l mt phi kim in hnh, hot ng ho hc mnh
nht trong s cc phi kim ? flo c g ging v khc vi nguyn t clo ?
Hot ng 2 : Trng thi t nhin, iu ch
GV :
1. Trong t nhin, flo tn ti trng thi
n cht hay hp cht ? V sao ?


2. Cho bit mt s khong cht cha flo
trong t nhin.
Nu c iu kin GV cho HS xem cc
mu vt, quan st cc hnh nh v cc
m khong ca flo. GV c th cung cp
thm thng tin : Flo chim khong

HS tham kho SGK rt ra c trng thi
t nhin ca flo, da vo tnh cht hot
ng ho hc mnh nht ca flo gii
thch.
HS tham kho SGK nu khong cht,
mt s dng tn ti ca flo trong t
nhin.




92
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
6,25.10
2
% tng khi lng v tri t,
ngha l cn nhiu hn Cu, Zn, Ni v
mt s nguyn t quen thuc khc.
GV : Hy cho bit :
1. Nguyn tc iu ch flo.
2. Phng php iu ch flo. Ti sao ch
c th dng phng php iu ch ?




HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.
HS vit PTHH :
cc m : 2 H
+
+ 2e H
2

cc dng : 2 F

2e F
2

Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht, ng dng
GV : Hy cho bit tnh cht vt l ca
flo: trng thi, mu sc, tnh c.
GV : Ti sao ni : flo l phi kim mnh
nht ?
GV : flo c tnh cht ho hc ging v
khc clo nh th no ?

GV : Flo c tnh oxi ho mnh nht vy
flo tc dng c vi nhng ho cht
no ?

GV : Vit PTHH minh ha tnh cht ho
hc ca flo.
GV cha bi v hng dn HS rt ra kt
lun v tnh cht ho hc ca flo.
GV : Nu cc ng dng quan trng ca flo ?
GV c th lng vic gio dc mi trng
vo bi hc. Nu c iu kin GV giao
cho HS tm kim thng tin trn mng
internet tm hiu v tnh hnh s dng
cht CFC v nhng tc hi ca n vi
mi trng.
HS nh li bi khi qut hoc tham kho
SGK tr li cu hi.
HS da vo cu hnh electron, gi tr
m in ca flo tr li.
HS tin hnh so snh cu to v m
in ca clo v flo, t rt ra flo c
tnh oxi ho mnh nht.
HS d on :
+ Flo tc dng c kim loi
+ Flo tc dng vi phi kim
+ Flo tc dng vi hp cht
HS tham kho SGK vit PTHH minh ha
tnh cht ho hc ca flo.
Sau khi cha bi HS rt ra kt lun nh
SGK.
HS tham kho SGK v nu ng dng ca
flo.
Hot ng 4 : Mt s hp cht ca flo
GV :
1. Nu phng php, vit PTHH iu ch
hiro florua.

HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.


93
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
2. Ti sao khng s dng phng php
tng hp nh iu ch hiro clorua ?
GV : HF v HCl c tnh cht vt l khc
nhau nh th no ?



GV c th khuyn khch HS kh, gii v
nh tm hiu, gii thch s khc nhau .
GV :
1. Kh hiro florua tan vo nc to
thnh dd c tnh cht ho hc g ?

2. Dd c tnh cht g khc vi dd HCl ?


Nu c iu kin GV c th lm th
nghim biu din kh nng n mn thu
tinh ca dd HF.

GV :
1. Mun khc ch, hoa vn ln thu tinh
ta lm nh th no ?
2. C th ng dd HF trong chai l lm
bng thu tinh hay khng ?
GV b sung thm tnh tan, tnh c ca
cc mui florua.
GV : Vit cng thc phn t, cng thc
cu to, xc nh s oxi ho ca flo
trong hp cht vi oxi ?
GV :
1. Vit PTHH ca phn ng iu ch oxi
florua.

2. Nu tnh cht vt l ca oxi florua.
3. Nu tnh cht ho hc ca oxi florua.
GV : Hon thnh PTHH sau y :


HS tham kho SGK nu r :
- Hiro florua c nhit si cao hn
hn hiro clorua.
- Hiro florua tan v hn trong nc
trong khi hiro clorua tan c hn.
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi v i
n kt lun :

- Kh hiro florua tan vo nc to
thnh dd axit flohiric c tnh cht axit
yu.
- Dd axit flohiric c tnh cht c bit
n mn thu tinh do tc dng vi SiO
2

c trong thnh phn thu tinh.
HS vit PTHH ca phn ng gia dd
hiro florua vi SiO
2
.
HS tr li cu hi.







HS tr li : hp cht vi oxi ca flo c
- Cng thc phn t : OF
2

- Cng thc cu to : F O F
- S oxi ho : F : 1 ; O : +2.


HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.

HS vn dng hon thnh cc PTHH.

94
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
OF
2
+ H
2
?
OF
2
+ Mg ?
Hot ng 5 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm bi tp s 3, 4 SGK trang 139.

Bi 35 brom
I- MUC TIU
Bit trng thi t nhin, phng php iu ch, tnh cht ho hc ca brom ; phng
php iu ch v tnh cht ca mt s hp cht ca brom.
So snh c tnh cht ho hc ca brom, hp cht ca brom vi cc halogen khc.
II- CHUN B|
Ho cht : nc brom, dd KI, dd h tinh bt.
Phn mm m phng phn ng ho hc ca brom vi kim loi (Al v Br
2
), mt s
hnh nh gii thiu ng dng ca AgBr trong vic ch to phim nh.
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1 : T chc tnh hung hc tp
Chng ta c hc 2 nguyn t halogen l clo v flo, hm nay chng ta cng
nghin cu tnh cht ca n cht v tnh cht mt s hp cht ca brom mt
nguyn t phi kim duy nht trong BTH trng thi lng.
Hot ng 2 : Trng thi t nhin, iu ch
GV : t cu hi :
1. Trong t nhin, brom tn ti trng
thi n cht hay hp cht ?
2. Hy k mt s cht cha brom trong t
nhin.
GV : Hy cho bit :
1. Ngun nguyn liu chnh iu ch
brom l g.

HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.



HS tham kho SGK rt ra c :
- Ngun nguyn liu chnh dng iu
ch brom l nc bin (c nhiu NaBr,

95
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH

2. Nu nguyn tc iu ch brom.


3. Vit PTHH iu ch brom ?
KBr).
- Nguyn tc iu ch : oxi ho ion Br
-

2Br

2e Br
2

Cht oxi ho l Cl
2
.
- PTHH iu ch brom.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht, ng dng
GV cho HS quan st l cha brom lng
GV : Quan st l ng brom v cho bit :
1. Trng thi, mu sc.
2. D hay kh bay hi ?
GV : Brom cn c nhng tnh cht vt l
no khc ?
GV : So snh :
1. Cu to lp electron ngoi cng, m
in ca brom v clo.
2. Tnh cht ho hc ca brom v clo.





GV : Vit cc PTHH minh ha tnh cht
ho hc ca brom.

Nu c iu kin GV cho HS quan st
phn mm m phng phn ng ca brom
vi nhm.
GV : Hon thnh cc phn ng ho hc
sau y v cho bit vai tr ca brom trong
phn ng :
Br
2
+ Cl
2
+ H
2
O HBrO
3
+ HCl
Br
2
+ NaOH NaBrO + NaBr



GV : Sau y ta lm th nghim brom tc
HS quan st brom lng, ng trong l
thu tinh trong sut, nt kn v tr li
cu hi .

HS tham kho SGK b sung tnh c,
d gy bng nng ca brom.
HS vit cu hnh electron lp ngoi
cng ca clo v brom rt ra c :
- Brom c lp electron ngoi cng
ging clo brom c tnh cht ho hc
ging clo.
C th : Brom c tnh oxi ho mnh,
ngoi ra brom cn c tnh kh.
- m in ca brom nh hn clo,
tnh oxi ho ca brom yu hn clo.
HS vit PTHH ca brom tc dng vi :
+ Kim loi
+ Hiro
+ Nc


HS xc nh bn cht v vai tr ca
brom trong cc phn ng.
HS cn bng PTHH v xc nh r vai
tr ca brom. T rt ra kt lun :
- Brom c tnh oxi ho mnh, ngoi ra
cn c tnh kh.
1
Br


0
Br
1
Br
+
,
5
Br
+

Tnh oxi ho Tnh kh

96
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
dng vi dd mui ca iot xem tnh oxi
ho ca brom mnh hn hay yu hn iot.
GV hng dn HS lm th nghim brom
tc dng vi dd mui ca iot.




GV : Nu cc ng dng ca brom ?

HS tin hnh lm th nghim, nu hin
tng, gii thch, vit PTHH xy ra v
rt ra kt lun :
- Tnh oxi ho ca brom yu hn clo v
mnh hn iot
Th hin :
Cl
2
+ 2NaBr 2NaCl + Br
2

Br
2
+ 2NaI 2NaBr + I
2
HS tham kho SGK nu ng dng ca
brom.

Hot ng 4 : Mt s hp cht ca brom
GV : Vit cc PTHH iu ch hiro
bromua.



GV phn tch cc phng n ca HS v
gii thiu cho HS phng php iu ch
hiro bromua trong thc t v vit PTHH
nh SGK.
GV : So snh tnh cht vt l ca hiro
bromua v hiro clorua.


GV : Dd axit bromhiric v dd axit
clohiric c nhiu tnh cht ho hc tng
t nhau, vy HBr v dd HBr c tnh cht g ?



GV : Hon thnh PTHH sau y, ch r bn
cht v vai tr cc cht tham gia phn ng :
HBr + H
2
SO
4
Br
2
+ SO
2
+ H
2
O
HBr + O
2
H
2
O + Br
2

HS c th vit nhiu PTHH iu ch
hiro bromua, VD nh :
- Br
2
tc dng vi H
2
.
- Br
2
tc dng vi H
2
O.
- Br
2
tc dng vi cht hu c nh CH
4
HS tham kho SGK v vit PTHH iu
ch HBr t PBr
3
v H
2
O.


HS tham kho SGK rt ra kt lun hiro
bromua c nhiu tnh cht vt l tng t
nh hiro clorua (trng thi, mu sc,
tnh tan, bc khi trong khng kh m).
HS da vo tnh cht ho hc ca dd
hiro clorua rt ra tnh cht ho hc ca
HBr v dd HBr :
- Dd axit bromhiric l mt axit mnh.
- Kh hiro bromua v dd axit
bromhiric c tnh kh .
HS cn bng PTHH qua nu c
bn cht ca phn ng l oxi ho kh
v Br
l
(trong HBr) l cht kh.


97
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Hy so snh cc tnh cht sau ca dd
axit bromhiric v dd axit clohiric.


- Tnh axit v tnh kh.


GV : AgBr l mt mui c ng dng quan
trng ch to phim nh. Gii thch ?
GV : Brom cng to thnh cc axit c oxi
tng t nh clo. Hy vit v c tn cc
axit c cha oxi ca brom. Cho bit s oxi
ho ca Br trong cc hp cht .

GV : So snh tnh cht sau ca axit
hipobrom v axit hipoclor v : tnh bn,
tnh axit, tnh oxi ho.
HS tham kho SGK rt ra c :
- Tnh axit ca dd axit bromhiric
mnh hn dd axit clohiric.
- Tnh kh ca dd axit bromhiric
mnh hn dd axit clohiric.


HS lin h thc t, tham kho SGK gii
thch ng dng ca AgBr
HS vit cng thc cc axit c oxi ca
brom c tn v xc nh s oxi ho t
rt ra c : Trong cc hp cht
cha oxi, brom cng c cc s oxi ho
dng +1, +3, +5, +7.
HS tham kho SGK rt ra c :
Tnh bn, tnh axit, tnh oxi ho ca
axit hipobrom u km hn axit
hipoclor.
Hot ng 5 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm bi tp s 4, 6 SGK trang 142.

Bi 36 Iot
I- MUC TIU
Bit trng thi t nhin, phng php iu ch, tnh cht ho hc, ng dng ca iot ;
tnh cht ho hc mt s hp cht ca iot ; phng php nhn bit iot.
So snh c tnh cht ho hc ca iot, hp cht ca iot vi cc halogen khc.
II- CHUN B|
Ho cht : iot, ru etylic, nc brom, dd KI, dd h tinh bt.
Phn mm m phng th nghim Al tc dng vi iot, th nghim v s thng hoa
ca iot, mt s hnh nh gii thiu bnh nhn mc bnh biu c, cch phng bnh biu
c, mt s sn phm ng dng ca iot trong thc t nh 1 l cn iot, 1 gi mui iot
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC

98
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV gii thiu gi mui iot v t cu
hi: Theo cc em mui iot ny lm g
? Ti sao ?
GV : Iot c g gng v khc vi cc
halogen khc.
HS lin h thc t tr li cu hi.


- HS nm c mc tiu v nh hng
bi hc.
Hot ng 2 : Trng thi t nhin, iu ch
GV :

1. Trong t nhin iot tn ti dng n
cht hay hp cht ?
2. Cc hp cht cha iot tp trung u ?
GV c th b xung tr lng iot trong t
nhin t nht so vi cc halogen khc,
chim 4. 10
5
% khi lng v Tri t
v phn tn.
GV: Ngi ta iu ch iot t rong bin.
Em hy cho bit :
1. Phng php tch mui iot t rong bin.
2. Nguyn tc iu ch v vit PTHH
iu ch iot.
HS tham kho SGK, lin h thc tin rt
ra c :
- Trong t nhin iot tn ti dng hp
cht.
- Hp cht ca iot c trong nc bin,
mt s loi rong bin, iot c trong tuyn
gip ca ngi.




HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht, ng dng
GV cho HS quan st tinh th iot v yu
cu HS : nu trng thi, mu sc ca n
cht iot.
GV lm th nghim th tnh tan ca iot
trong nc, cho HS quan st l cn iot.
GV : Cho bit tnh tan ca iot trong nc
v trong dung mi hu c.
GV lm th nghim iot thng hoa.
Em hy m t hin tng thng hoa ca
iot ?

GV: Iot c tnh cht ho hc g ging v
khc vi cc halogen khc ? Ti sao ?
HS quan st tinh th iot nu c trng
thi, mu sc ca tinh th iot.



HS quan st th nghim, tham kho SGK
tr li cu hi.
HS quan st th nghim, m t ton b
hin tng thng hoa ca iot. Vi HS
kh gii GV c th yu cu gii thch
hin tng thng hoa ca iot.
HS lin h vi cc halogen khc :
- Iot cng c tnh oxi ho mnh.

99
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH

GV: Phn ng ho hc no th hin tnh
oxi ho ca iot ?
GV : Sau y ta s xem iot th hin cc
tnh cht ho hc nh th no.
GV lm th nghim 1 : iot tc dng vi
nhm hoc c th cho HS quan st th
nghim m phng iot tc dng vi Al.

GV :
1. Vit PTHH phn ng ca iot tc dng
vi hiro ?
2. Cho bit phn ng ca iot vi hiro c
g khc vi phn ng ca cc halogen
khc vi hiro.


GV : Hy dn ra phn ng ho hc
chng minh : tnh oxi ho ca iot yu
hn brom.
GV : Ngoi cc tnh cht trn iot cn c
tnh cht ho hc g m cc halogen
khc khng c ? Ta cng xem th
nghim iot tc dng vi h tinh bt.
GV hng dn HS lm th nghim.
GV hng dn HS rt ra kt lun v tnh
cht ho hc ca iot.
GV: Cho bit cc ng dng ca iot ?
GV hng dn HS v nh c thm t
liu SGK trang 146.
- Tnh oxi ho ca I<Br<Cl<F.
HS : Phn ng th hin tnh oxi ho ca
iot l : tc dng vi kim loi, tc dng
vi hiro

HS quan st th nghim, nu hin tng,
gii thch, vit PTHH, xc nh vai tr
ca iot trong phn ng vi nhm, tin
hnh tho lun v rt ra : Iot oxi ho
mnh kim loi kh b un nng hoc c
cht xc tc.
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi v rt
ra c : Iot ch oxi ho hiro nhit
cao, c cht xc tc, phn ng thun
nghch v thu nhit kh nng tham gia
phn ng ho hc ca iot yu hn cc
halogen khc.
HS vit PTHH ca phn ng chng minh
tnh oxi ho ca iot yu hn brom.

HS lm th nghim, cc HS khc quan
st, nu hin tng, gii thch v rt ra :
Iot c tnh cht c bit l to thnh
vi h tinh bt hp cht c mu xanh

HS tng kt li v i n kt lun v tnh
cht ho hc ca iot.
HS tham kho SGK, lin h thc t nu
ng dng ca iot.
Hot ng 4 : Mt s hp cht ca iot
GV :
1. Vit cng thc phn t, cng thc cu
to hp cht ca iot vi hiro.
2. So snh bn ca hiro iotua vi cc
hiro halogenua khc.

HS tr li cu hi, tham kho SGK so
snh tnh bn ca hiro iotua vi cc
hiro halogenua khc, vit PTHH phn
hu hiro iotua.

100
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Hiro iotua tan vo nc to thnh
dd axit iothiric. Hy so snh cc tnh
cht ho hc sau y ca axit iothiric
vi axit clohiric, bromhiric v tnh axit
v tnh kh.
GV : Hon thnh cc PTHH sau y v
cho bit vai tr ca hiro iotua trong
phn ng :
HI + H
2
SO
4
c I
2
+ H
2
S + H
2
O
HI + FeCl
3
FeCl
2
+ I
2
+ HCl
GV hng dn HS rt ra kt lun v tnh
cht ho hc ca hiro iotua.
GV : Da vo bng tnh tan v cho bit
tnh tan ca cc mui iotua.
GV : gii thiu cho HS v mt s hp
cht cha oxi ca iot nh oxit, axit, mui
t hng dn HS rt ra kt lun v
cc s oxi ho dng ca iot.

HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.



HS cn bng PTHH, thy v nu c
vai tr ca HI l cht kh.



HS tng kt li v i n kt lun nh
SGK.
HS s bng tnh tan nhn xt tnh tan ca
cc mui iotua, tham kho SGK rt ra :
a s cc mui iotua tan, tr mui AgI,
PbI
2
khng tan, u c mu vng.
Hot ng 5 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm bi tp s 4, 5 SGK trang 145.
Bi 37 Luyn tp chng 5
I- MUC TIU
Cng c cc kin thc v cu to nguyn t, m in, s oxi ho ca cc
halogen, tnh cht cc hp cht ca halogen vi H, cc hp cht cha oxi quan trng
ca clo, iu ch cc halogen.
So snh rt ra quy lut v s bin i tnh cht cc halogen v hp cht ca chng.
II- CHUN B|
GV chun b h thng cu hi, bi tp, giao cho HS mt s cu hi yu cu HS chun
b trc.
Cu 1 : 1. Lp bng so snh cu to nguyn t v tnh cht cc halogen, vit PTHH
minh ho.
2. Quy lut bin i tnh cht ca halogen ? Vit PTHH minh ho.
Cu 2 : 1. Tnh cht ho hc ca cc dd hiro halogenua ? Vit cc PTHH minh ho.

101
2. Quy lut bin i tnh cht ca dd hiro halogenua? Vit cc PTHH minh ho.
Cu 3 : S oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong hp cht cha oxi ca flo v cc halogen
cn li c im g khc nhau ? V sao ?
Cu 4 : Trnh by nguyn tc, phng php iu ch cc halogen. Vit cc PTHH.
GV cng c th p dng phng php grap dy bi luyn tp.
III. THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
- Cu to, tnh cht, cch iu ch halogen ; cu to tnh cht cc hp cht ca chng c
g ging v khc nhau ?
- Tnh cht n cht, hp cht ca halogen bin i theo quy lut no ?
Hot ng 2 : Kin thc cn nm vng
GV hng dn HS k bng so snh cu
hnh electron nguyn t, m in, tnh
cht ho hc ca halogen. GV hng
dn tho lun cu hi 1 v rt ra kt
lun.

GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi 2, hng
dn HS tho lun, rt ra kt lun.





GV : Dng thuc th no nhn ra ion
halogenua ?
GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi 3, hng
dn HS tho lun, rt ra kt lun v cc
hp cht cha oxi ca halogen.
GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi 4, t chc
cho HS tho lun, rt ra kt lun v
nguyn tc iu ch, phng php iu
ch v PTHH ca phn ng iu ch cc
halogen.
HS k bng so snh cu hnh electron,
m in, tnh cht ho hc, tho lun, b
sung, rt ra kt lun v im ging nhau,
khc nhau gia cc halogen, quy lut
bin i m in, tnh oxi ho ca
chng.
HS tr li cu hi, tho lun, b sung
kin thc, rt ra kt lun v im ging
nhau (CTPT, CTCT, tnh cht ho hc),
khc nhau (HF vi cc hiro halogenua
cn li), quy lut bin i tnh axit, tnh
kh ca chng. HS vit PTHH minh
ho.
HS nu cc thuc th nhn ra ion
halogenua (AgNO
3
,...).
HS tho lun cu hi 3, rt ra kt lun v
s oxi ho ca cc halogen trong hp
cht vi oxi.
HS k bng so snh.
iu
ch
Nguyn tc
iu ch
Phng
php
PTHH
F
2

Cl
2


102
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH



Br
2

I
2

HS tho lun v kt lun v iu ch cc
halogen.
Hot ng 3 : Bi tp vn dng
GV ra bi tp. HS lm cc bi tp trong SGK, tho lun,
cha bi v rt ra kt lun nhng kin
thc cn nh tng bi.
Bi 38 bi thc hnh s 3
tnh cht ca cc halogen
I- MUC TIU
Bit mc ch, cch tin hnh cc th nghim.
K nng s dng dng c, ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim.
Quan st cc hin tng xy ra, vn dng kin thc gii thch, vit PTHH.
Khc su hn v tnh oxi ho ca cc halogen, so snh tnh oxi ho ca cc
halogen.
II- CHUN B|
1. Dng c : Nh hng dn trong SGV.
2. Ho cht
Nh hng dn trong SGV. Dng c, ho cht HS tin hnh th nghim theo nhm.
3. Hc sinh
n tp nhng kin thc lin quan n cc th nghim trong tit thc hnh.
Nghin cu trc bit dng c, ho cht, cch thc hnh tng th nghim.
4. Gio vin
Chun b phiu hc tp :
C cc ho cht NaBr, NaI, clo, nc brom, c th thc hin cc phn ng ho hc
nh th no chng minh tnh oxi ho ca cc nguyn t gim dn t Cl
2
, Br
2
, I
2
.
D on cc hin tng xy ra.
Vit PTHH ca cc phn ng.

103
III- MT S LUU
1. Cl
2
, Br
2
l nhng cht c, phi cn thn khi lm th nghim.
2. Ngoi cch thc hin nh hng dn trong SGK, c th thc hin cc th nghim
trong bi vi lng nh, bng cc dng c n gin nh hm s gi th nghim thc
hnh, hoc v cc v thuc vin.
3. GV nu gi cho HS tm hiu mt s dng c, ho cht d tm kim, rt n gin
nh mt s c, qu cha tinh bt (lm th nghim nhn bit tinh bt v iot).
4. Phn b thi gian hp l.
IV- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
Hot ng 1 : M u tit hc
1. GV : Nu mc ch tit thc hnh. Nhng yu cu HS cn thc hin.
2. S dng phiu hc tp kim tra vic chun b bi ca HS v hng HS vo nhng ni
dung quan trng ca tit thc hnh.
Hot ng 2 : iu ch clo, tnh ty mu ca kh clo m
Cho vo ng nghim mt lng KClO
3
bng ht ng. Nu dng KMnO
4
th lng
ho cht phi ln hn. y cht ming ng nghim bng nt cao su km ng ht nh
git c cha dd axit HCl c. Kp mt mnh giy mu m vo ming ng nghim.
t ng nghim trn gi ng nghim (hnh 2 trang 179 SGV).
Khi tin hnh th nghim, ta bp nh qu bp cao su ca ng ht nh git.
Hng dn HS quan st hin tng xy ra trong ng nghim. Nhn xt, gii thch v
vit PTHH.
Lu :
Trc khi lm th nghim phi th xem nt y ng nghim c kn khng kh clo
khng bay ra ngoi.
C th thc hin th nghim theo phng n khc : dng ng nghim 2 nhnh.
Rt vo nhnh ngn ca ng nghim hai nhnh mt t dd HCl c. Cho vo nhnh di
mt lng nh KClO
3
. y ming ng nghim bng nt cao su, kp mt mnh giy
mu m vo ming ng nghim (hnh 3a trang 179 SGV).
Khi tin hnh th nghim, ta ch vic nghing ng nghim dd axit HCl t nhnh
ngn chy sang nhnh di tc dng vi KClO
3
(hnh 3b trang 179 SGV).
Hot ng 3 : So snh tnh oxi ho ca clo, brom v iot
Tin hnh th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
Hng dn HS quan st, gii thch, vit PTHH.
Hot ng 4 : Tc dng ca iot vi tinh bt

104
GV hng dn HS tin hnh th nghim nh SGK.
Hoc c th lm cch khc, dng my lt khoai lang (hoc khoai ty, chui xanh
...). Dng ng nh git nh 1 2 git dd nc I
2
ln lt khoai, quan st hin tng
xy ra. Th nghim ny nhn ra tinh bt v iot.
Hot ng 5 : Cng vic cui tit thc hnh
GV : Nhn xt, nh gi kt qu tit thc hnh. Yu cu HS vit tng trnh.
HS : Thu dn dng c, ho cht, v sinh PTN, lp hc.
Bi 39 bi thc hnh s 4
tnh cht cc hp cht ca halogen
I- MUC TIU
Bit mc ch, cch tin hnh cc th nghim.
S dng dng c, ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim. Quan
st hin tng xy ra, vn dng kin thc gii thch v vit PTHH.
Cng c kin thc v tnh cht ca axit clohiric, tnh ty mu ca clo m.
II- CHUN B|
1. Dng c : Nh hng dn trong SGV.
2. Ho cht : Nh hng dn trong SGV.
Dng c, ho cht HS thc hin th nghim theo nhm.
3. Hc sinh
n tp nm vng kin thc lin quan n cc th nghim trong bi thc hnh.
Nghin cu trc bit dng c, ho cht, cch tin hnh tng th nghim.
4. Gio vin : Chun b phiu hc tp :
Phiu s 1 :
Thc hin cc phn ng ho hc ca axit HCl vi Cu(OH)
2
, CuO, CaCO
3
, Zn. D
on hin tng xy ra, gii thch, vit PTHH v xc nh vai tr ca cc cht trong
phn ng.
Phiu s 2 :
Hon thnh s sau :




NaCl, NaNO
3
HCl, HNO
3
+ Dng thuc th no ?
+ Hin tng g xy ra ?
NaNO
3
NaCl

HNO
3
HCl

C 4 dd HNO
3
, HCl, NaNO
3
, NaCl.
+ Dng thuc th no ?
+ Hin tng g xy ra ?

105




III- MT S LUU
1. Khi tin hnh cc th nghim thc hnh, GV c th hng dn HS theo nhng cch
khc nhau, c bit lu vi HS nhng phng n d thc hin bng dng c n
gin, tit kim ho cht.
2. Axit clohiric d bay hi, lu HS phi cn thn.
3. y l bi thc hnh u tin THPT, HS lm quen vi dng bi tp thc hnh. GV
nn hnh thnh cho HS cch thc hin theo trnh t sau :
nh s th t cc bnh ng ho cht.
Phn loi cc ho cht cn nhn bit thuc loi no (HNO
3
, HCl thuc loi axit ;
NaCl, NaNO
3
thuc loi mui).
Chn thuc th ph hp (giy qu tm nhn ra axit, AgNO
3
nhn ra Cl

).
Tin hnh th nghim.
Tng trnh theo s .
3. Phn b thi gian hp l cho tng th nghim.
III - THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
Hot ng 1 : M u tit thc hnh
1. Gio vin : Nu mc tiu tit thc hnh. Nhng yu cu cn thc hin.
2. S dng phiu hc tp kim tra vic chun b bi ca HS v hng dn HS thc hin
nhim v tit hc.
Hot ng 2 : Tnh axit mnh ca axit clohiric
Tin hnh th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
Quan st hin tng xy ra v gii thch.
T nhng th nghim trn, GV gi HS rt ra kt lun v tnh axit mnh ca axit HCl.
HS vit PTHH ca cc phn ng.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh ty mu ca nc Gia-ven
GV : Hng dn HS thc hin th nghim nh SGK.
Lu : tit kim ho cht, ta c th hng dn HS tin hnh th nghim trong cc
hm s gi th nghim: t mu vi hoc giy mu vo hm s. Nh tip vo hm
s vi git nc Gia-ven. Hng dn HS quan st hin tng xy ra v gii thch
nguyn nhn.

106
Hot ng 4 : Bi tp thc nghim nhn bit cc dd
GV : - Hng dn HS nh s 1, 2, 3, 4 vo cc bnh ng ho cht.
- Tho lun v la chn cc ho cht, cch thc hin cho ph hp.
- Sau khi HS tho lun, GV tm tt c th thc hin theo cch sau :
HNO
3
, HCl, NaNO
3
, NaCl
Th bng giy qu tm



Giy qu tm chuyn thnh Khng c phn ng
HNO
3
, HCl NaNO
3
, NaCl
Th bng AgNO
3



Kt ta trng Khng c phn ng Kt ta trng Khng c phn ng
NaCl HNO
3
HCl HNO
3

HS la chn ho cht, thc hin th nghim theo s .
Lu : C th th bng nhng cch khc nhau th d : Dng kim loi (nh Zn, Fe, Al)
nhn ra axit (HNO
3
, HCl) v mui (NaNO
3
, NaCl) sau dng dd AgNO
3
nhn ra
Cl

. Hoc c th dng dd AgNO


3
trc nhn ra HCl, NaCl v HNO
3
, NaNO
3
sau
dng giy qu tm...
Hot ng 5 : Cui tit thc hnh
GV : Nhn xt, nh gi tit thc hnh. Yu cu HS vit tng trnh.
HS : Thu dn dng c, ho cht, v sinh PTN, lp hc.

107
Chng 6
nhm oxi

A. M u
Mc tiu ca chng
HS bit v hiu :
Tnh cht vt l, ho hc ca cc n cht O
2
, O
3
, S.
Tnh cht l ho hc ca cc hp cht ca oxi (H
2
O
2
) v ca lu hunh (H
2
S, SO
2
,
SO
3
, H
2
SO
4
).
Nhng ng dng quan trng ca oxi, lu hunh v hp cht ca chng.
HS c k nng :
Lm mt s th nghim v tnh cht ho hc ca O
2
, S v hp cht ca chng
(H
2
O
2
, H
2
S, SO
2
, SO
3
, H
2
SO
4
).
Quan st, gii thch, kt lun cc hin tng th nghim, cc hin tng xy ra trong
t nhin ( nhim khng kh, t, nc, s suy gim tng ozon, ma axit...) qua
gio dc thc bo v mi trng.
Lp PTHH ca phn ng c bit l phn ng oxi ho - kh, xc nh cht kh, cht
oxi ho.
Gii bi tp nh tnh v nh lng c lin quan n kin thc trong chng.
Mt s im cn lu
1. H thng kin thc
GV cn nm vng kin thc HS c hc cc lp di, kin thc HS c
trang b t nhng chng u khai thc cng c nhng kin thc c, hnh
thnh kin thc mi, khc su kin thc trng tm, trnh trng lp.
2. Phng php dy hc
Vn dng cc l thuyt ch o nh cu to nguyn t, LKHH, nh lut tun
hon, phn ng ho hc d on tnh cht ho hc cc n cht, hp cht ca
cc nguyn t trong nhm oxi, xc minh cc d on v tnh cht bng cc th
nghim, thc hnh ho hc.

108
Mt s tnh cht mi ca cc cht HS cha c hc c th khai thc cc th
nghim di dng th nghim nghin cu.
Gn nhng kin thc v ng dng v iu ch cht vi tnh cht vt l, ho hc v
vai tr ca chng trong t nhin.
B. Dy hc cc bi c th
Bi 40 KhI qut v nhm oxi
I- MUC TIU
Bit c v tr nhm oxi trong BTH cc nguyn t, c im chung v cu to
nguyn t, s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong nhm oxi.
Hiu c tnh cht ho hc c trng ca cc nguyn t trong nhm oxi l tnh
oxi ho mnh, quy lut bin i tnh cht ho hc ca cc nguyn t v hp cht
ca chng.
II- CHUN B|
BTH, bng 6.1 SGK.
GV giao cho HS chun b trc mt s ni dung lin quan n nhng kin thc hc.
C th l : n li kin thc v BTH v nh lut tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc.
1. Cc nguyn t trong cng nhm A c nhng c im g ging nhau ? (cu to lp
electron ngoi cng, ho tr, s oxi ho, tnh cht ho hc ca nguyn t, thnh
phn v tnh cht hp cht). Vn dng i vi nhm VIA.
2. Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t oxi v lu hunh trng thi c bn, trng
thi kch thch, so snh :
a) Cu to lp electron ngoi cng ( trng thi c bn, trng thi kch thch), s e
c thn c kh nng tham gia LKHH.
b) m in.
c) S oxi ho.
3. Cc quy lut bin i tun hon tnh cht cc n cht, hp cht, (tnh kim loi, phi
kim, tnh oxi ho, tnh axit ca hp cht vi hiro, hiroxit). Vn dng cc quy lut
i vi cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIA.
GV c th thit k bi ging bng phn mm Powerpoint.

109
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Chng ta nghin cu v nhm cc nguyn t phi kim halogen, chng ny
tip tc nghin cu mt nhm cc nguyn t phi kim na l nhm oxi.
- Nhm oxi gm nhng nguyn t no ?
- Cc quy lut bin i cu to v tnh cht cc cht th hin trong nhm oxi nh th no.
Hot ng 2 : V tr nhm oxi trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t
GV treo BTH, gii thiu cho HS nhm
oxi, yu cu HS nu tn, vit k hiu cc
nguyn t trong nhm.
GV : Hy cho bit trng thi tn ti v
mc ph bin trong t nhin ca cc
nguyn t nhm oxi.
HS s dng BTH, xc nh v tr nhm,
c tn, vit k hiu cc nguyn t trong
nhm oxi.
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.

Hot ng 3 : Cu to nguyn t ca nhng nguyn t trong nhm oxi
GV : Yu cu HS tr li cu hi 1, t
chc cho HS tho lun v rt ra kt lun.









GV: Yu cu HS tr li cu hi 2, t
chc cho HS tho lun hng dn HS rt
ra nhn xt.


HS vn dng kin thc hc chng
BTH v nh lut tun hon cc nguyn
t ho hc tr li cu hi 1, rt ra :
- S lp e = s th t chu k.
- S e ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc
nguyn t nhm A = s th t nhm.
Lp e ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc
nguyn t nhm VIA l : ns
2
np
4

T HS vit phn b electron theo
obitan v xc nh s e c thn ca
nguyn t trng thi c bn.
HS tr li cu hi 2, tho lun v im
ging nhau, khc nhau trong cu to lp
electron ngoi cng ca nguyn t O v S.
- Nguyn t O khng c obitan d ch c
2e c thn lp ngoi cng.
- Nguyn t S, Se, Te c obitan d trng
thi c bn c 2e c thn, trng thi
kch thch c 4 hoc 6 e c thn c kh
nng to cc hp cht c lin kt cng ho
tr, trong chng c s oxi ho +4, +6.

110
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 4 : Tnh cht ca cc nguyn t trong nhm oxi
GV yu cu HS tr li cu hi 3, t chc
cho HS tho lun v rt ra kt lun v
tnh cht cc n cht.












GV : Tin hnh tng t nh trn rt
ra kt lun v tnh cht hp cht ca cc
nguyn t nhm oxi.

HS vn dng kin thc chng cu to
nguyn t tr li cu hi 3, tho lun v
rt ra :
- Nguyn t ca cc nguyn t nhm oxi
c 6 electron lp ngoi cng nn
chng l cc phi kim (tr Po).
- Tnh cht ho hc c trng l tnh oxi
ho mnh do m in ln.
- Tnh phi kim, tnh oxi ho ca cc
nguyn t nhm oxi yu hn so vi cc
nguyn t nhm halogen cng chu k
(F>O, Cl>S,).
- Tnh phi kim, tnh oxi ho ca cc
nguyn t nhm oxi gim dn theo trnh
t : O>S>Se>Te>Po.
HS vn dng kin thc chng BTH v
nh lut tun hon cc nguyn t ho
hc, tham kho SGK rt ra :
- Hp cht vi hiro (H
2
S, H
2
Se, H
2
Te)
l cc kh c tan vo H
2
O to dd c tnh
axit yu.
- Tnh bn gim H
2
O>H
2
S>H
2
Se>H
2
Te.
Hp cht hiroxit H
2
RO
4
l nhng axit.
Hot ng 5 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm cc bi tp trong SGK.

Bi 41 0xi
I- MUC TIU
Bit vai tr quan trng ca oxi i vi i sng v sn xut, bit phng php iu
ch oxi.
Hiu c nguyn nhn tnh oxi ho mnh ca oxi.

111
II- CHUN B|
Dng c, ho cht : 2 bnh kh oxi c iu ch sn, 1 dy magie, 1 mu than,
ru etylic, 1 b dng c iu ch oxi (t H
2
O
2
, KMnO
4
hoc KClO
3
c cht xc tc
MnO
2
).
Mt s t liu v nn cht ph rng, chy rng, khai thc rng, s sa mc ho t
ai trn th gii, Vit Nam, mt s ng dng quan trng ca oxi.
Nu c iu kin GV chun b dng c ho cht hc sinh thc hin th
nghim theo nhm hoc c nhn.
Phiu hc tp
1. Nghin cu cu to n cht oxi.
2. T cu to ca oxi d on tnh cht ho hc ca oxi : Oxi c tnh cht g ? V sao ?
Cc phn ng dng chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca oxi.
Tn th nghim Cch lm Hin tng Gii thch
O
2
+ Mg
t nng dy Mg ri a vo bnh
kh oxi.

O
2
+ C
t nng mu than cho chy ri
a vo bnh kh oxi

O
2
+ C
2
H
5
OH

mt t cn ra a ri chm la.


3. T tnh cht l, ho ca oxi nu ng dng ca oxi.
4. iu ch oxi :
a) Trong PTN.
b) Trong cng nghip.
5 . Oxi trong t nhin vi nn ph rng, khai thc rng.
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Em hy cho bit nguyn t no ph
bin nht trn Tri t ? Nu nhng hiu
bit ca em v nguyn t .
GV nu mc tiu ca bi nh trong SGK.
HS tr li cu hi.


HS nm c mc tiu v nh hng
bi hc.

112
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 2 : Cu to phn t oxi, tnh cht vt l v trng thi t nhin ca oxi
GV :
1. Vit cu hnh electron v s phn b
electron theo obitan ca nguyn t oxi.
2. T cu to lp electrron ngoi cng gii
thch lin kt ho hc trong phn t oxi.


GV : Cc em bit oxi chim khong
20% th tch khng kh, chng ta thng
xuyn ht th khng kh, vy em bit
g v tnh cht vt l ca oxi ?
GV thng bo thm v tan ca oxi.

HS vit cu hnh electron v s phn b
electron theo obitan ca nguyn t oxi,
xc nh s electron lp electron ngoi
cng, xc nh s electron c thn, t
cu to lp electron ngoi cng gii
thch lin kt ho hc trong phn t oxi.
Bng kin thc bit a s HS s nu
c trng thi, mu sc, t khi, tnh t
tan trong nc ca oxi.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht ho hc ca oxi
GV : Ti sao ni oxi l nguyn t phi
kim hot ng, c tnh oxi ho mnh ?
GV : Nu cc loi phn ng ho hc
chng minh tnh oxi ho ca oxi ?
GV hng dn HS tin hnh th nghim
magie, than, ru etylic tc dng vi oxi.
GV gi cho HS xem xt bn cht ca
phn ng da vo du hiu s oxi ho.


GV gii thiu cho HS cc hin tng
chy trong t nhin (chy rng, cc v
ho hon) HS thy c bn cht
cc hin tng chy trong t nhin chnh
l tc dng ho hc ca oxi. Qua GV
yu cu HS nhn xt v iu kin phn
ng, nhit to ra t phn ng, bn cht v
trng thi ca cht tham gia phn ng .
GV gii thiu thm v cc qu trnh h
hp, phn hu cht hu c, s g ca kim
loi u l cc qu trnh oxi ho.
HS xut pht t cu to nguyn t,
m in ca oxi, gii thch.
HS d kin cc loi phn ng : vi kim
loi, phi kim, kh him.
HS lm th nghim, quan st th nghim,
nu hin tng, gii thch, vit PTHH
vo phiu hc tp v tin hnh tho lun
nhm v tnh cht ho hc ca oxi.
Sau khi tho lun, HS rt ra nhn xt v
tnh cht ho hc ca oxi nh SGK.
HS nhn xt v iu kin phn ng, nhit
to ra t phn ng, bn cht v trng thi
ca cht tham gia phn ng, t rt ra
kt lun theo SGK.


113
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 4 : ng dng ca oxi
GV :
1. Nu cc ng dng ca oxi.
2. Ch r trong cc ng dng vn
dng tnh cht l ho g ca oxi.
GV c th cung cp thm cc t liu v
ng dng ca oxi cho bi ging thm
phong ph.

HS tham kho hnh 6.3 ng dng ca
oxi trong SGK, kt hp vi nhng kin
thc mi hc rt ra nhng ng dng ca
oxi.


Hot ng 5 : iu ch oxi
GV: Vit cc PTHH c th dng iu
ch oxi trong PTN.
GV nhn xt cc PTHH do HS a ra,
dn dt HS rt ra c phng php iu
ch oxi trong PTN.


GV yu cu HS quan st hnh 6.4 - iu
ch oxi bng cch phn hu H
2
O
2
, yu
cu HS gii thch cch thu kh oxi.
GV :
1. Cho bit cc cht trong t nhin c
cha hm lng oxi nhiu nht ?
2. Trnh by phng php iu ch oxi
trong cng nghip.

HS c th a ra nhiu phn ng ho hc
to ra O
2
.
Di s dn dt ca GV, HS rt ra c :
Trong PTN, c th iu ch oxi, bng
phn ng phn hu cc hp cht giu
oxi, km bn vi nhit nh KClO
3
,
KMnO
4
, H
2
O
2
...
HS hon thnh cc PTHH dng iu
ch oxi trong PTN.
HS vn dng tnh cht vt l ca oxi
gii thch cch thu kh oxi.
HS lin h thc t, tham kho SGK nu
cch iu ch oxi t khng kh, ch r
s dng tnh cht vt l no ca oxi
iu ch oxi, vit s tch oxi t khng
kh, nu cch iu ch oxi t nc v
vit phng trnh in phn H
2
O.
Hot ng 6 : Oxi trong t nhin
GV : Cho bit qu trnh no trong t
nhin sinh ra oxi, vit PTHH ca phn
ng .
GV: Lng oxi trong khng kh duy tr
cho s sng ca tri t b nh hng
trc tip bi nhng yu t no ?
tng cng tnh tch cc ch ng
ca HS kt hp vi vn GDMT, GV
Bng kin thc sinh hc, HS d dng xc
nh c qu trnh quang hp sinh ra oxi
v vit PTHH ca phn ng quang hp.
y l mt cu hi m, HS c nhiu
hng tr li, c th cu tr li ca HS
cp n nhiu lnh vc khc nhau, GV
nn khuyn khch HS a ra cc kin
c nhn ca mnh.

114
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
c th cho HS thc hin nhng iu tra
ngn v nhng vn suy thoi v pht
trin rng trn th gii hoc a
phng.
Hot ng 7 : Tng kt bi
Tu theo trnh ca HS, GV c th cho HS thc hin grap bi oxi hoc lm bi tp
vn dng nh sau :
1. Ngi ta s dng n x axetilen hn, ct kim loi. Phi trn hn hp kh oxi v
axetilen vi t l nh th no c hn hp chy tt nht, tit kim ho cht nht ?
2. Trong dy chuyn sn xut H
2
SO
4
t qung pirit st FeS
2
, ngi ta dng oxi trong
khng kh t qung. Tnh th tch khng kh (ktc) cn dng t 1 tn qung.

Bi 42 ozon v hiro peoxit
I- MUC TIU
Bit c cu to phn t, tnh cht vt l, ho hc ca ozon v hiro peoxit.
Hiu c nguyn nhn tnh oxi ho mnh ca ozon, hiro peoxit. Vn dng gii
thch ng dng ca chng.
Gio dc thi , hnh vi o c : bo v tng ozon l bo v Tri t.
II- CHUN B|
Ho cht : dd H
2
O
2
, dd KI, dd KMnO
4
, dd h tinh bt, qu tm, dd H
2
SO
4
.
Cc t liu, hnh nh m phng v tng ozon, s ph hu tng ozon, mt s hnh
nh v thin tai l lt, hn hn, mt s bnh nhn b ung th mt, da do nh hng ca
tia cc tm.
Nu c iu kin, GV chun b y dng c, ho cht HS thc hin cc th
nghim c nhn hoc theo nhm nghin cu v tnh cht ho hc ca hiro peoxit, cc
phng tin my tnh truy cp internet HS khai thc thng tin trn mng.
Phiu hc tp
Ni dung 1 : Nghin cu v ozon
1. Cu to phn t : CTPT ?
CT electron ? CTCT ? Lin kt ho hc ? So snh bn cc lin kt ?
2. So snh tnh cht ho hc ca ozon v oxi ?

115
3. Chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca ozon ?
4. ng dng ca ozon vn l thng tng ozon v nhim kh quyn.
Ni dung 2 : Nghin cu v hiro peoxit
1. Cu to phn t
Cng thc electron ? Cng thc cu to ? LKHH ? bn LKHH ? S oxi ho ?
2. Nghin cu tnh cht ho hc ca Hiro peoxit
a) D on tnh cht ca H
2
O
2
?
b) Th nghim nghin cu tnh cht ho hc ca H
2
O
2
:
Tn TN Cch lm D on Hin
tng
Gii thch ,
PTHH
H
2
O
2
+ KI +
qu tm
2ml dd H
2
O
2
+ 2ml dd
KI + qu tm

H
2
O
2
+ KI + h
tinh bt
2ml dd H
2
O
2
+ 2ml dd
KI + 2 git h tinh bt

H
2
O
2
+ KMnO
4

+ H
2
SO
4
2 ml dd KMnO
4
+ 5 git
H
2
SO
4
+ 2ml H
2
O
2


c) Kt lun v tnh cht ho hc ca H
2
O
2
.
3. ng dng ca H
2
O
2
?
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV: Ozon v hiro peoxit l g ? Em
bit g v nhng ho cht ?
GV nhn xt cc phng n tr li v kt
lun : ozon l mt ho cht rt quan
trng, c nh hng ln n s sng trn
Tri t, hiro peoxit l cht c nhiu
ng dng quan trng. Ti sao ozon v
hiro peoxit li c nhng vai tr, tc
dng quan trng nh vy, iu c lin
quan g n tnh cht ca chng ? Bi
hc hm nay s gip chng ta tr li
c cu hi ny.
Vi cu hi ny hc sinh c nhiu
phng n tr li.
D kin mt s phng n tr li ca
hc sinh.
HS nm c mc tiu v nh hng
bi hc.

116
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 2 : Ozon
GV gii thiu cho hc sinh : ging nh
kim cng v than ch l hai dng th
hnh ca nguyn t cacbon, oxi (O
2
) v
ozon (O
3
) cng l hai dng th hnh ca
nguyn t oxi.
GV : Yu cu HS tr li cu hi.
Ni dung 1.1 trong phiu hc tp.

GV cha bi ch cho hc sinh so snh
bn ca cc lin kt ho hc trong
phn t ozon i n kt lun : lin kt
n km bn hn lin kt i nn phn
t ozon (O
3
) km bn hn phn t oxi
(O
2
). Ozon l mt phn t khng thng
nn cu to ca ozon c vit nh trong
SGK.
HS tr li cu hi ni dung 1 vo phiu
hc tp.
Sau khi GV cha bi v b sung kin
thc, HS rt ra kt lun v cu to phn
t ozon :
- CTCT :
O
O O
- Lin kt ho hc : nguyn t oxi trung
tm to mt lin kt cho - nhn vi mt
trong hai nguyn t oxi v to hai lin kt
cng ho tr vi nguyn t oxi cn li.
- Lin kt n (cho - nhn) km bn hn
hai lin kt cng ho tr nn phn t
ozon (O
3
) km bn hn phn t oxi (O
2
).
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht ca ozon. ng dng ca ozon
GV : Nu cc tnh cht vt l ca ozon.

GV gii thiu cho HS s hnh thnh ozon
t oxi do tc dng ca tia cc tm hoc
s phng in trong cn dng.
GV : Da vo c im cu to phn t,
d on tnh cht ho hc ca ozon.
GV t chc cho HS tho lun d on v
tnh cht ho hc ca ozon.



GV : Vy ozon c th tc dng vi
nhng ho cht no ?


GV nhn xt cc phng n tr li ca
HS tham kho SGK, nu cc tnh cht
vt l ca ozon.



HS d on tnh cht ho hc ca ozon
c th theo (t duy logic) : Ozon v oxi
u l n cht ca nguyn t oxi. Ozon
km bn hn oxi nn d phn ng hn
oxi. Oxi l cht oxi ho mnh. Vy ozon
phi l cht oxi ho mnh v mnh hn
oxi.
HS c th tr li :
- Ozon tc dng vi kim loi, hiro
- Cc cht tc dng vi oxi s tc dng
vi ozon.
- Ozon tc dng vi cc cht kh

117
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
hc sinh.
GV : C th dng phn ng ho hc no
chng minh tnh oxi ho ca ozon
mnh hn oxi ?








GV :
1. Trnh by hiu bit ca em v cc ng
dng ca ozon.
2. Ti sao khi nng ozon ln(>10
6
%)
ozon li l cht gy nhim mi trng ?


HS tham kho SGK dn ra phn ng ca
ozon vi Ag, dd KI v vit PTHH ca
phn ng.
HS nhn xt v cc sn phm to thnh
rt ra : Cc ng ca ozon u sinh ra oxi
(O
2
) tc l : O
3
+ 2e O
2
+ O
2

lin kt n (lin kt cho - nhn) km
bn hn hai lin kt cng ho tr nn khi
xy ra phn ng lin kt n b ph v
thnh oxi nguyn t c tnh oxi ho
mnh hn oxi phn t, d dng thu
electron hn to thnh O
2
.
HS tho lun v cc ng dng ca ozon,
vn dng kin thc va hc gii thch
cc ng dng, tc hi gy nhim mi
trng ca ozon.
Hot ng 4 : Cu to phn t hiropeoxit
GV : Hiro peoxit (nc oxi gi) c
cng thc phn t l H
2
O
2
. Vy nc oxi
gi c cu to nh th no ?
GV cho HS quan st m hnh phn t
H
2
O
2
, gii thiu cho HS cu trc khng
gian ca H
2
O
2
l phn t khng thng, t
chc cho HS tho lun v cu to ca H
2
O
2
,
tr li cu hi 2.1 trong phiu hc tp.

HS quan st m hnh phn t H
2
O
2
, cu
trc khng gian ca H
2
O
2
, tho lun
nhm theo ni dung 2 ca phiu hc tp
t rt ra :
- Cng thc phn t hiro peoxit : H
2
O
2
.
- Cng thc cu to :
H
O O
H
- Lin kt gia nguyn t H v nguyn t
O l lin kt cng ho tr phn cc, lin
kt gia hai nguyn t O l lin kt cng
ho tr khng phn cc, l lin kt n.
Hot ng 5 : Nghin cu tnh cht ca H
2
O
2

GV cho HS quan st dd H
2
O
2
.
GV : Nu tnh cht vt l ca hiro peoxit ?
HS quan st dd H
2
O
2
kt hp tham kho
SGK rt ra tnh cht vt l ca H
2
O
2
.

118
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Vi c im cu to nh trn,
hiropeoxit c tnh cht ho hc g ?









GV : C th dng nhng phn ng ho
hc no chng minh cc tnh cht ca
hiro peoxit ?



GV hng dn cc nhm HS tin hnh
th nghim : H
2
O
2
tc dng vi KI (c
h tinh bt, qu tm), H
2
O
2
tc dng vi
KMnO
4
(c H
2
SO
4
).
GV : Ti sao ngi ta li dng H
2
O
2

iu ch oxi (O
2
) trong PTN ?
GV : Ti sao H
2
O
2
km bn ?
GV hng dn HS lin h lin kt ho
hc gia hai nguyn t oxi trong HO
OH v trong O=OO i n nhn
nh H
2
O
2
km bn l do lin kt n
OO trong H
2
O
2
km bn tng t nh
trong phn t ozon.
HS tin hnh tho lun nhm d on
tnh cht ho hc ca H
2
O
2
. HS c th
d on tnh cht ca H
2
O
2
theo logic
sau : S oxi ho ca oxi trong H
2
O
2
l
1 nn c 2 kh nng :
- Nhn thm 1 electron xung mc
oxi ho 2 th hin tnh oxi ho.
- Nhng i 1 electron ln s oxi ho
0 th hin tnh kh.
Vy hiro peoxit va c tnh oxi ho va
c tnh kh .
HS xut cc phn ng chng minh d
on ca mnh :
- Nu H
2
O
2
c tnh kh s tc dng vi
cht oxi ho (v d nh dd KMnO
4
)
- Nu H
2
O
2
c tnh oxi ho s tc dng
c vi cht kh (v d nh dd KI).
Cc nhm HS tin hnh th nghim, quan
st, nu hin tng, gii thch, vit
PTHH, tho lun v kt qu v khng
nh tnh oxi ho, tnh kh ca H
2
O
2
.
HS nh li nguyn tc v phng php
iu ch oxi trong PTN, gii thch :
- Do H
2
O
2
km bn, d b nhit phn hu.
HS tng hp li cc kt qu th nghim,
b sung kin thc v i n kt lun v
tnh cht ho hc ca hiro peoxit.
Hot ng 6 : ng dng ca hiropeoxit
GV : Nu ng dng ca H
2
O
2
. Cc ng
dng c vn dng tnh cht l ho g
ca hiro peoxit ?

HS tham kho SGK, lin h thc tin nu
cc ng dng ca H
2
O
2
, vn dng tnh
cht l ho ca hiro peoxit gii thch
cc ng dng .

119
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 7 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm bi tp nhn bit kh oxi v kh ozon ; nc v nc oxi gi.
Bi 43 lu hunh
I- MUC TIU
Bit cu to tinh th, tnh cht l, ho hc, ng dng v phng php iu ch lu
hunh .
Hiu c nguyn nhn lu hunh va c tnh oxi ho va c tnh kh.
II- CHUN B|
Ho cht : lu hunh, nhm, nc ct.
Dng c : n cn, ng nghim, gi st.
Tranh v hoc hnh nh m t cu trc tinh th, s bin i trng thi phn t ca
lu hunh theo nhit , khai thc lu hunh trong lng t.
Phiu hc tp
Ni dung 1 : Nghin cu tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh.
1. Tnh cht vt l v cu to hai dng th hnh ca lu huunh :
- Trng thi, mu sc.
- Tnh tan (trong nc, trong dung mi hu c).
- Hai dng th hnh ca lu hunh l g ? Cho bit s ging v khc nhau v cu to v
tnh cht gia hai dng th hnh.
2. nh hng ca nhit i vi cu to phn t v tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh
Th nghim : Cho mt t bt lu hunh vo ng nghim ri un nng.
Ghi kt qu th nghim v in y thng tin v bng sau :
Nhit Trng thi Mu sc Cu to phn t
< 113
0
C
119
0
C
> 117
0
C
>445
0
C
1400
0
C
1700
0
C


120
Ni dung 2 : Tnh cht ho hc ca lu hunh
1. Cu to nguyn t :
in thng tin vo bng sau :
Oxi Lu hunh
Cu hnh elctrron
(trng thi c bn, kch thch)

m in
S oxi ho
Tnh cht ho hc
2. Cc phn ng ho hc chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca lu hunh
Tn TN Cch lm Hin tng Gii thch, PTHH
S + Al t nng S ti khi xut hin
lp hi mu nu ri cho 1
mnh Al vo

S + H
2
Dn kh H
2
qua hi S nu

S + O
2

Ni dung 3 : ng dng v sn xut lu hunh
1. Nu cc ng dng ca lu hunh ?
2. Sn xut lu hunh :
- Nguyn liu sn xut lu hunh ?
- Nu bin php khai thc S t do ?
- Nu nguyn tc v vit PTHH dng iu ch lu hunh t hp cht ?
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV: Trong bi hc trc chng ta nghin cu v oxi, hp cht ca oxi, bi hc
hm nay ta s nghin cu v nguyn t th hai trong nhm l nguyn t lu
hunh. Vy lu hunh c cu to, tnh cht vt l, ho hc nh th no, c g ging
v khc vi oxi.
Hot ng 2 : Tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh
GV cho HS quan st bt lu hunh v
yu cu HS tr li cu hi ni dung 1.1
trong phiu hc tp.
HS quan st bt lu hunh, HS lm th
nghim th tnh tan ca lu hunh trong
nc, nu trng thi, mu sc, tnh tan ca

121
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Chng ta cng nghin cu v cu
to ca lu hunh va quan st.
GV cho HS quan st tranh v m t hai
dng th hnh ca lu hunh, gii thiu
cho hc sinh hai dng th hnh ca lu
hunh.


GV hng dn HS lm th nghim
nghin cu nh hng ca nhit i
vi cu to phn t v tnh cht vt l ca
lu hunh.
GV t chc tho lun chung v kt qu
th nghim v i n kt lun nhit c
nh hng n cu to v tnh cht vt l
ca lu hunh ng thi cho HS phn
bit r ngha ca vic vit k hiu n
cht lu hunh l S.
lu hunh trong nc vo phiu hc tp.

HS quan st tranh v m t hai dng th
hnh ca lu hunh, tham kho SGK rt
ra s khc nhau v cu to tinh th, mt
s tnh cht vt l, s ging nhau v tnh
cht ho hc, s bin i qua li gia hai
dng th hnh theo nhit .
Cc nhm HS lm th nghim, quan st,
nu hin tng, ghi kt qu vo phiu
hc tp.

HS tho lun v rt ra kt lun :
- Nhit c nh hng n cu to v
tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh.
- Cng thc phn t ca lu hunh thc
cht l S
8
, n gin ta dng k hiu l S.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht ho hc ca lu hunh
GV : Yu cu HS tr li cu hi 2.1
trong phiu hc tp, t chc cho HS tho
lun v rt ra kt lun.
GV :
1. Lp s bin i gia cc trng thi
oxi ho :
0
S thnh
2
S

;
4
S
+
;
6
S
+



2. Theo s trn, cho bit lu hunh c
tnh cht ho hc g.






HS tr li cu hi vo phiu hc tp, tho
lun v rt ra kt lun nh SGK.


HS thc hin lp s bin i s oxi
ho

6
S
+


2
S


0
S
4
S
+

T rt ra :

0
S
2
S

=> S c tnh oxi ho


0
S
4
S
+

=> S c tnh kh

0
S
6
S
+


122
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Hy nu cc phn ng ho hc
chng minh cc tnh cht trn ca lu
hunh.



GV lm cc th nghim lu hunh tc
dng vi nhm, hiro (nu m bo cc
iu kin phng c).






GV :
1. Vit PTHH, xc nh vai tr cc cht
trong cc phn ng sau:
S + O
2

o
t
?


S + F
2

o
t
?
GV cha bi ca HS, hng dn HS rt
ra kt lun v tnh cht ho hc ca S.
GV ch cho HS nhn xt v iu kin
phn ng (nhit cao) lin h vi cu
to phn t ca S nhm lm cho HS hiu
r S trng thi hi c kh nng phn
ng rt ln.
Vi i tng HS kh, gii GV c th
yu cu HS xc nh CT e, CTCT ca
SO
2
, SF
6
HS hiu s vn dng gn
ng ca quy tc bt t khi gii thch mi
lin kt ho hc trong phn t cc cht.
HS bit lu hunh l mt phi kim v
vy dng xut c :
- Lu hunh tc dng vi kim loi to
mui.
- Lu hunh tc dng vi hiro to H
2
S.
- Lu hunh tc dng vi oxi to SO
2
.
Cc nhm HS quan st th nghim, gii
thch hin tng v vit PTHH ca phn
ng vo phiu hc tp, tho lun v vai
tr ca lu hunh trong phn ng v rt
ra kt lun :
1. Lu hunh tc dng vi nhiu kim loi
v hiro nhit cao :
S th hin tnh oxi ho khi phn ng vi
kim loi v hiro:
0
S
2
S


HS vn dng kin thc v tnh cht ho
hc ca oxi, tham kho SGK vit cc
PTHH, phn tch vai tr ca S da vo s
thay i s oxi ho.


HS rt ra kt lun :
- Lu hunh tc dng vi mt s phi kim
nh oxi, clo, flo (cc cht oxi ho mnh
hn S), trong cc phn ng S th hin
tnh kh :
2
S


4
S
+

2
S


6
S
+




123
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 4 : ng dng ca lu hunh v sn xut lu hunh
GV : Nu cc ng dng quan trng ca
lu hunh.
GV gii thiu cc trng thi tn ti ca
lu hunh.
- Lu hunh t do cc m lu hunh,
hm lng, phn b cc m S trn th
gii.
- Lu hunh trong hp cht : SO
2
, H
2
S
thu c t cc cht thi cng nghip v
phn hu rc thi hu c.
GV :
1. C th khai thc lu hunh t nhng
ngun nguyn liu no ?
2. Nu nguyn tc khai thc S.
GV treo tranh khai thc S trong t nhin.
GV : khai thc lu hunh t do,
ngi ta lm nh th no ?
GV :
1. Xc nh s oxi ho ca S trong SO
2
,
H
2
S.
2. Nu nguyn tc iu ch S t cc ho
cht .




3. Vit cc PTHH ca phn ng iu ch
S t SO
2
, H
2
S.

GV : Phn ng trn, ngoi tc dng iu
ch S cn c ngha g ?
GV : Trong qu trnh pht trin cng
nghip, nng nghip c bit cng
nghip sn xut ho cht, cn ch n
vn g bo v mi trng ?
HS lin h thc t, tham kho SGK nu
cc ng dng ca S.









Trn c s kin thc do GV cung cp,
HS nu cc phng php iu ch S.

HS quan st tranh, tham kho SGK tr
li cu hi.


HS nhn xt s oxi ho ca S trong cc
hp cht SO
2
, H
2
S t suy ra :
Nguyn tc iu ch S bng phng
php ho hc l :
+ Oxi ho
2
S

thnh S :
2
S

2e S
+ Kh
4
S
+
,
6
S
+
thnh S :
4
S
+

+ 4e S
HS tham kho SGK vit cc PTHH ca
phn ng iu ch S t SO
2
, H
2
S.
HS tham kho SGK tr li :
Phng php ny cho php thu hi S c
trong kh thi c hi nh SO
2
, H
2
S.
HS c th a ra nhiu phng n, tho
lun v rt ra kt lun.


124
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 5 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm bi tp trong phiu hc tp.
Bi 44 hiro sunfua
I- MUC TIU
Bit cu to phn t, tnh cht l, ho, trng thi t nhin, iu ch H
2
S trong PTN.
Hiu c v sao H
2
S li c tnh kh mnh.
Vn dng cc kin thc hc gii thch c nguyn nhn gy nhim mi
trng, gio dc hnh vi, thi vi vn mi trng.
II- CHUN B|
Ho cht : FeS, dd Na
2
S, dd HCl, giy qu tm, dd Pb(NO
3
)
2
.
Dng c : bnh cu, ng nghim, cc thu tinh, ng dn cao su.
Bng tnh tan, mt s t liu v tnh hnh nhim mi trng do H
2
S.
C th thit k bi ging bng phn mm Powerpoint.
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Thng 11 nm 1950, Mexico, mt nh my Pozarica thi ra mt lng
ln kh hiro sunfua, mt hp cht ca lu hunh vi hiro. Ch trong vng 30 pht
cht kh cng vi sng m trng ca thnh ph lm cht 22 ngi v khin
320 ngi b nhim c. Vy hiro sunfua c nhng tnh cht l, ho hc g,
hirosunfua c nh hng g n cuc sng ca chng ta ?
Hot ng 2 : Cu to phn t, tnh cht vt l
GV :
1. Vit cu hnh electron ca S v H ?
2. Gii thch lin kt ho hc trong phn
t H
2
S.
3. Xc nh s oxi ho ca lu hunh
trong H
2
S.
GV:
1. Nu tnh cht vt l ca H
2
S.
HS lm vic c nhn, vit cu hnh
electron ca S, H, vit cng thc
electron, cng thc cu to, xc nh
loi lin kt ho hc, s oxi ho ca S
v H trong H
2
S.


HS tham kho SGK rt ra tnh cht vt

125
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
2. Gii thch hin tng kh thi cha H
2
S
lm cht ngi.
3. Khi tip xc vi hiro sunfua (H
2
S)
trong PTN, cc ngun H
2
S trong t nhin
(rc thi, kh bioga do phn hu cht thi
ng vt) cn phi ch iu g ?

l, vn dng tnh c ca H
2
S gii
thch hin tng kh thi cha H
2
S lm
cht ngi. T HS rt ra : khi tip
xc vi H
2
S, cc ngun H
2
S trong t
nhin (rc thi, kh bioga do phn hu
cht thi ng vt) cn c thi
nghim tc, thn trng, c cc bin
php phng c.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht ho hc
GV : H
2
S c tnh cht ho hc g ?
GV thng bo H
2
S tan trong nc to
thnh dd axit rt yu (yu hn H
2
CO
3
) gi
l axit sunfuhiric.
GV : Hon thnh cc PTHH, gi tn sn
phm cc phn ng sau :
H
2
S + NaOH
1 mol 1 mol
H
2
S + NaOH
1 mol 2 mol
H
2
S + Pb(NO
3
)
2

GV :
1. Thc hin qu trnh bin i s oxi ho :
2
S


0
S ,
4
S
+
,
6
S
+





2. Hiro sunfua c tnh cht ho hc g ?
GV : Sau y chng ta cng nghin cu
xem H
2
S c nhng tnh cht ho hc nh
ta d on khng.
GV biu din th nghim iu ch H
2
S t
FeS vi HCl, t H
2
S trong O
2
d v O
2

thiu hoc cho HS quan st phn mm m
HS vn dng kin thc hc trong bi
khi qut rt ra dd ho tan kh H
2
S c
tnh axit gi l dd axit sunfuhiric.

HS thc hin cc PTHH v rt ra nhn
xt :
- Dd axit sunfuhiric c tnh axit rt
yu.
- Axit sunfuahiric c th to thnh hai
loi mui : mui axit, mui trung ho.


HS vit cc qu trnh oxi ho
2
S

:

2
S


0
S

+ 2e


2
S


4
S
+

+ 6e


2
S


6
S
+

+ 8e
H
2
S c tnh kh.



Cc nhm HS quan st, nu hin tng,
gii thch v vit PTHH ca phn ng,
tho lun v rt ra nhn xt :

126
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
phng th nghim trn.







GV :
1. Gii thch, vit PTHH ca phn ng
xy ra trong cc hin tng sau :
- Dd axit sunfuhiric tip xc vi khng
kh, dn tr nn vn c mu vng.
- Dn kh H
2
S vo dd Clo (mu vng) thy
dd b mt mu, sn phm c xc nh
c H
2
SO
4
.

2. Cho bit vai tr ca hiro sunfua trong
phn ng.

GV t chc cho HS tho lun chung t
khng nh v tnh kh ca H
2
S.
- Hiro sunfua tc dng mnh vi oxi,
tu iu kin nhit , lng oxi phn
ng m c th sinh ra S hoc SO
2
.
- Trong phn ng vi oxi, hiro sunfua
th hin tnh kh do :

2
S


0
S

+ 2e


2
S


4
S
+
+ 6e

HS lin h vi kin thc va hc, tham
kho SGK gii thch hin tng, xc
nh sn phm, vit PTHH ca phn
ng xy ra, phn tch vai tr ca H
2
S
trong phn ng, tho lun v rt ra :
- H
2
S b O
2
oxi ho dn thnh S, b Cl
2

oxi ho thnh H
2
SO
4
. Trong cc phn
ng H
2
S c tnh kh do :

2
S


0
S

+ 2e


2
S


6
S
+
+ 8e

HS kt lun v tnh kh ca H
2
S.

Hot ng 4 : Trng thi t nhin, iu ch
GV cung cp thm t liu v lng H
2
S
sn sinh trong t nhin. VD : Ngi ta
c tnh cc cht hu c trn Tri t sn
sinh khong 33 tn H
2
S hng nm. Trong
s mt lng ln t rc do con ngi
thi vo mi trng, H
2
S l ho cht gy
nhim mi trng nng n, c th gy c
trc tip, phn ln chuyn thnh SO
2
gy
ra hin tng ma axit .
GV : Theo cc em lm th no gim
lng H
2
S thi vo mi trng ?



HS tham kho SGK rt ra trng thi t
nhin ca H
2
S.





Cc nhm HS xut cc phng n,
tho lun v rt ra nhn xt chung :
Trong cng nghip, cc kh thi c hi

127
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH




GV : Kh H
2
S l ho cht c hi i vi
con ngi nn ngi ta khng iu ch n
trong cng nghip m ch iu ch mt
lng nh trong PTN nhm nghin cu
tnh cht l, ho hc ca n. Hy trnh by
phng php ho hc iu ch H
2
S.


phi c x l v ti ch. Cc cht hu
c, rc thi sinh hot phi c thu gom
v c bin php s l trnh gy nhim
mi trng.
HS quan st th nghim iu ch H
2
S
trong phn tnh cht ho hc (th
nghim t chy H
2
S) : un nng mui
sunfua (FeS) vi dd axit mnh (HCl) v
vit PTHH ca phn ng.
Mt s HS c th nu cch iu ch
H
2
S bng cch cho H
2
tc dng vi S
nhit cao.
Hot ng 5 : Tnh cht ca mui sunfua
GV hng dn HS lm th nghim
dd Na
2
S tc dng vi dd Pb(NO
3
)
2
, gn
ly kt ta, nh thm vi git dd HCl.
GV : Cho bit tnh tan ca mui Na
2
S,
PbS, FeS. Mu sc ca cc mui .





GV : Cho bit tnh cht ca mui sunfua.


GV : Mun nhn bit gc sunfua c th
dng ho cht no ?
GV gii thiu cho HS thuc th thng
thng l dd Pb(NO
3
)
2
do to kt ta mu
en, khng tan trong axit long nh HCl,
H
2
SO
4
, HNO
3
.
HS lm th nghim, quan st hin
tng, gii thch, vit PTHH ca phn
ng.
HS rt ra nhn xt : Na
2
S tan trong
nc, dd thu c khng mu ; FeS
mu en khng tan trong nc nhng
tan trong dd axit HCl, H
2
SO
4
long ;
PbS mu en khng tan trong nc,
khng tan trong dd axit HCl, H
2
SO
4

long.
HS s dng bng tnh tan, tham kho
SGK nu tnh cht, mu sc ca mui
sunfua.
HS c th nu nhiu thuc th nhn
ra hiro sunfua.

Hot ng 6 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS lm cc bi tp 1, 2, 3, 4 SGK trang 176, 177.

128
Bi 45 Hp cht c oxi ca lu hunh
I- MUC TIU
Bit c cu to phn t, tnh cht l, ho, trng thi t nhin, iu ch lu hunh
i oxit, lu hunh trioxit. Hiu c v sao lu hunh ioxit va l cht kh, va l
cht oxi ho.
Bit c cu to, tnh cht l, ho hc ca axit sunfuric long, c. Hiu nguyn
nhn s khc nhau v tnh oxi ho ca axit sunfuric long, axit sunfuric c.
Vn dng gii thch hin tng nhim khng kh, ma axit, lin h gio dc mi
trng.
II- CHUN B|
Tit 1 :
Dng c v ho cht cc th nghim iu ch SO
2
t Na
2
SO
3
vi H
2
SO
4
, SO
2
tc
dng vi dd KMnO
4
.
T liu ma axit, ng dng ca SO
2
.
Tit 2 :
Ho cht : H
2
SO
4
c, nc ct, Fe, Cu, ng saccaroz, BaCl
2
, Na
2
SO
4
.
T liu : S ng dng ca H
2
SO
4
, sn xut H
2
SO
4
, mt s bi bo v tnh hnh s
dng axit H
2
SO
4
trong thc t, hnh nh v bng axit.
Bi hc ny c nhiu kin thc quan trng lin quan n nhng vn nng hi nh
nn nhim mi trng, ma axit, nhng v n tt axit v.v do GV nn giao cho
HS cc bi tp tm kim t liu phc v cho bi hc.
III- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV gii thiu cho HS hin tng ma axit v nhng tc hi ca n.
GV : Th phm chnh gy ra hin tng ma axit chnh l lu hunh ioxit mt
hp cht cha oxi ca S.
Hot ng 2 : Cu to phn t, tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh ioxit
GV :
1. Vit cu hnh electron ca S v O.
2. Gii thch lin kt ho hc trong phn
t SO
2
.
.


HS lm vic c nhn tr li cu hi, i
n kt lun v cu to ca SO
2
nh
SGK.

129
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
3. Vit cng thc cu to, xc nh s
oxi ho ca S trong SO
2
.
GV : Nu tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh
ioxit ?


HS tham kho tnh cht vt l ca SO
2

trong SGK v tr li cu hi.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh cht ho hc ca SO
2

GV : T thnh phn nguyn t, s oxi
ho ca S hy d on tnh cht ho hc
ca SO
2
.




GV : Vit PTHH ca phn ng :
SO
2
+ H
2
O
SO
2
+ NaOH
1:1

SO
2
+ NaOH
1:2

Gi tn sn phm, nhn xt s oxi ho
ca cc nguyn t trong phn ng ho
hc ?
GV :
1. Hy thc hin qu trnh bin i s
oxi ho sau :

0
S
4
S
+

6
S
+

2. Ngoi tnh cht oxit axit, SO
2
cn c
tnh cht g ?
GV biu din th nghim iu ch SO
2
t
Na
2
SO
3
tc dng vi H
2
SO
4
long, dn
kh thu c vo dd thuc tm KMnO
4
.






HS phn tch SO
2
l oxit ca phi kim suy
ra SO
2
l mt oxit axit, c cc phn ng :
- Tc dng vi H
2
O to axit tng ng.
- Tc dng vi baz kim to mui v
nc.
- Tc dng vi oxit ca baz kim to mui.
HS lm vic c nhn, cha bi, rt ra :
- SO
2
tc dng vi dd kim tu theo t l
s mol m to hai loi mui :
+ Mui axit cha ion hirosunfit HSO
3


+ Mui trung ho cha ion sunfit SO
3
2

- Trong cc phn ng th hin tnh oxit
axit ca SO
2
, s oxi ho cc nguyn t
khng thay i.

HS thc hin qu trnh bin i s oxi
ho ca
4
S
+

t suy ra SO
2
c tnh kh
v tnh oxi ho.


HS quan st th nghim, nu hin tng,
gii thch v vit PTHH, nhn xt vai tr
cc cht tham gia phn ng, tho lun
chung v rt ra :
Khi tc dng vi cht oxi ho mnh nh
KMnO
4
, lu hunh ioxit l cht kh do:
4
S
+

6
S
+
+2e
HS vn dng tnh kh ca lu hunh

130
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : Gii thch hin tng, vit PTHH
v xc nh vai tr ca lu hunh ioxit
trong phn ng :
Khi dn kh SO
2
vo dd Brom (mu da
cam) thy dd b mt mu.
GV hng dn HS suy lun sn phm,
hon thnh PTHH v rt ra kt lun.
GV : kh c kh SO
2
, ngi ta thu
ly kh SO
2
thi ra trong qu trnh sn
xut ho cht v chuyn n thnh S.
1. C th dng ho cht no thc hin
c qu trnh chuyn ho ?
2. Vit PTHH, xc nh vai tr cc cht
tham gia phn ng.

GV : Mt s kim loi cng c th b oxi
ho bi SO
2
. Hon thnh PTHH ca
phn ng sau :
Mg + SO
2
S + ?

ioxit gii thch hin tng, suy lun sn
phm, cn bng phng trnh, sau
tho lun chung rt ra kt lun.



HS vn dng kin thc bi lu hunh v
H
2
S nu : c th dng H
2
S phn ng vi
SO
2
to thnh S v vit PTHH ca phn
ng t rt ra :
Khi tc dng vi H
2
S, lu hunh ioxit l
cht oxi ho do :

4
S
+
+4e
0
S

HS suy lun xc nh sn phm, hoc
tham kho SGK hon thnh PTHH, cha
bi, t rt ra kt lun : Khi tc dng vi
Mg, lu hunh ioxit l cht oxi ho do :

4
S
+
+4e
0
S

=>SO
2
l cht oxi ho khi phn ng vi
cht kh mnh hn n.
Hot ng 4 : Lu hunh ioxit cht gy nhim mi trng
GV cho HS tho lun theo cc cu hi :
1. Ti sao ni lu hunh ioxit l mt
trong cc cht ch yu gy nhim mi
trng ?
2. Nguyn nhn chnh gy ra hin tng
ma axit l g ? Tc hi ca ma axit ?
3. Cc ngun sinh ra kh lu hunh
ioxit. Cn lm g hn ch lng SO
2

thi vo mi trng ?


HS tho lun chung c lp cui cng i
n nhn nh : SO
2
l mt trong cc
cht ch yu gy nhim mi trng, l
mt trong nhng nguyn nhn chnh gy
ra hin tng ma axit.
HS c th nu c nhiu ngun thi kh
SO
2
vo khng kh v xut nhiu bin
php ci thin lng SO
2
thi vo mi
trng.

131
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 5 : ng dng v iu ch lu hunh ioxit
GV : Nu cc ng dng ca SO
2
.

GV : Trnh by phng php iu ch
SO
2
trong PTN v trong cng nghip. Vit
cc PTHH ca cc phn ng.
GV : Ti sao ngi ta li tin hnh thu
kh SO
2
bng cch y khng kh (Hnh
6.12) v t ming bng tm xt trn
ming l thu kh SO
2
?
HS tham kho SGK nu cc ng dng
ca SO
2
.
HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.


HS vn dng tnh cht vt l v tnh cht
ho hc ca SO
2
gii thch cch tin
hnh th nghim trn.

Hot ng 6 : Lu hunh trioxit (SO
3
)
Phn cu to phn t, tnh cht vt l
ca SO
3
, GV tin hnh nh hot ng 2.
GV : Tng t SO
2
, SO
3
cng l mt oxit
axit. Hy vit PTHH ca phn ng chng
minh tnh cht oxit axit ca SO
3
(nu ht
thi gian c th giao cho HS lm nh).
GV : SO
3
t c ng dng thc tin, l sn
phm trung gian trong qu trnh sn xut
H
2
SO
4
. Hy nu phng php iu ch
SO
3
trong cng nghip v vit PTHH ca
phn ng xy ra.







HS tham kho v trnh by phng php
iu ch SO
3
nh SGK .

Hot ng 7 : Tng kt v cng c bi hc (kt thc tit 1)
GV c th cho HS vn dng kin thc v
cng c bi bng 2 bi tp sau :
HS lm bi tp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 SGK trang 186.
Bi 1 : Cc cht kh no sau y c th tn ti trong cng mt hn hp iu kin
thng ? V sao ?
A. SO
2
, H
2
S. B. SO
2
, HCl.
C. SO
2
, O
2
. D. SO
2
, H
2
O(hi), Cl
2
.
Bi 2 : Vit PTHH cc phn ng theo s sau :
1 2

0
S
4
S
+

6
S
+

3 5 4


2
S





132
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Tit 2 :
Hot ng 8 : T chc tnh hung dy hc
GV : Trong s cc ho cht c bn,
H
2
SO
4
l ho cht hng u trong nhiu
ngnh sn xut. Axit H
2
SO
4
c nhng
ng dng g v n c hi g khng ?
GV gii thiu cc t liu v ng dng v
c tc hi ca H
2
SO
4
(nhn mnh hin
tng gy bng nng ca H
2
SO
4
).




HS nm c mc tiu v nh hng
bi hc.
Hot ng 9 : Cu to phn t v tnh cht vt l
GV cho HS quan st m hnh c hoc
rng v phn t axit sunfuric.
GV :
1. Vit cng thc cu to ca axit sufuric.
2. Xc nh loi lin kt ho hc, s oxi
ho ca S trong phn t H
2
SO
4
.
GV : Cho bit :
- Trng thi ca H
2
SO
4
nguyn cht.
- Mu sc.
- Cc tnh cht c bit khc.
GV cho HS quan st mt l dd H
2
SO
4

c, tin hnh pha long vi nc, cho
HS s vo thnh ng nghim kim tra
s thay i ca nhit trc v sau khi
pha long.
GV : Nu nguyn tc pha long axit
sunfuric c.
HS quan st m hnh ca phn t H
2
SO
4
.


HS vn dng kin thc v lin kt ho
hc, tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.


HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.


HS quan st cch tin hnh pha long
axit ca GV, nu hin tng, tham kho
SGK gii thch, rt ra kt lun.

Hot ng 10 : Tnh cht ho hc ca axit sunfuric
GV : dd H
2
SO
4
long tc dng vi cc
cht trong dy no sau y ?
A. MgO ; Al(OH)
3
; NaOH ; NaNO
3
; K
2
CO
3
.
B. CuO ; Fe(OH)
2
; FeS ; Fe ; Zn ; KHSO
3
.
C. BaCO
3
; Ba(OH)
2
; Cu ; FeO.
D. S ; Na
2
O ; KOH ; Na
2
SO
3
.
Vit PTHH cc phn ng.








133
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV : H
2
SO
4
c c tnh cht g khc vi
H
2
SO
4
long ? Ta cng nghin cu TN
sau.
GV biu din TN cho Cu vo dd H
2
SO
4

long, c un nng.
GV:
1. Nu hin tng.

2. Gii thch hin tng.



3. Vit PTHH ca phn ng.


4. Xc nh vai tr cc cht tham gia
phn ng.
GV t chc tho lun chung, hng dn
HS rt ra nhn xt v s khc nhau gia
axit sunfuric long v c, xc nh sn
phm, vit PTHH v kt lun v tnh cht
ca axit sunfuric c.
GV : Hon thnh PTHH sau :
Fe + H
2
SO
4
c
o
t
Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+SO
2

+ ?
Fe + H
2
SO
4
c, ngui
o
t
?
S + H
2
SO
4
c H
2
O + ?
H
2
SO
4
+ HI SO
2
+ I
2
+ ?
GV cha bi ca HS, hng dn HS i
n kt lun nh SGK.
GV : Ngoi tnh oxi ho mnh, H
2
SO
4
c
cn c tnh cht ho hc g c bit ?
Chng ta cng nghin cu th nghim sau :
GV biu din th nghim cho H
2
SO
4
c
vo ng saccaroz.
GV : Nu hin tng. Gii thch.
HS tr li cu hi t rt ra tnh cht
ho hc ca H
2
SO
4
long nh SGK.

HS quan st th nghim, nu hin tng,
gii thch, rt ra :

- H
2
SO
4
c cn c nhng tnh cht ho
hc khc vi H
2
SO
4
long .
- H
2
SO
4
c, nng tc dng mnh vi Cu
l kim loi ng sau H to thnh dd c
mu xanh (cha CuSO
4
) ; kh lm mt
mu dd KMnO
4
(l kh SO
2
).
PTHH :

0
Cu +2H
2
SO
4
o
t

2
Cu
+
SO
4
+
4
S
+
O
2
+2H
2
O
-Vai tr cc cht :
+ Cht oxi ho : H
2
SO
4
c
+ Cht kh : Cu
=> H
2
SO
4
c, nng c tnh oxi ho
mnh.


HS tham kho SGK hon thnh cc
PTHH, rt ra kt lun nh SGK.




HS quan st th nghim, nu hin tng,
tham kho SGK gii thch, tho lun v
rt ra :


- H
2
SO
4
c bin ng thnh than (C)
C
12
H
22
O
11

2 4
H SO c
12 C +11H
2
O
H
2
SO
4
c chim nc trong ng

134
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV t chc tho lun chung, hng dn
HS rt ra nhn xt.
GV : Gii thch cc hin tng sau :
- Cho mui CuSO
4
. 5H
2
O (mu xanh)
vo H
2
SO
4
c thy bin thnh mu trng.
- H
2
SO
4
c ri vo giy thy giy b
en v thng.
- H
2
SO
4
c ri vo da gy bng nng ?
GV : Kt lun g v tnh cht ho hc
ca H
2
SO
4
c ?

saccaroz.

HS tho lun, t rt ra :
- H
2
SO
4
c c tnh ho nc.
- H
2
SO
4
c gy bng nng, khi s dng
H
2
SO
4
c phi ht sc thn trng.


HS kt lun : H
2
SO
4
c ngoi tnh axit
mnh cn c tnh oxi ho mnh v tnh
ho nc.
Hot ng 11 : ng dng v sn xut axit sunfuric
GV:
1. Nu ng dng ca axit sunfuric.
2. H
2
SO
4
c vai tr nh th no trong
cng nghip sn xut ho cht ?
GV : Trong cng nghip H
2
SO
4
c sn
xut theo s phn ng ho hc sau :

FeS
2

SO
2
SO
3
H
2
SO
4

S
1. sn xut H
2
SO
4
cn phi qua
nhng cng on no ?
2. Vit cc PTHH ca cc phn ng xy
ra nhng cng on ?
GV : Gii thch :
- Ti sao ngi ta khng dng nc
hp th trc tip H
2
SO
4
?
- Ti sao ngi ta phi cho SO
3
i t
di ln, H
2
SO
4
c ti t trn xung ?
- Olum l g? Ho olum vo nc s
thu c g ?

HS tham kho SGK nu cc ng dng
ca H
2
SO
4
v tr li cu hi.







HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi v vit
PTHH ca cc phn ng iu ch H
2
SO
4
.



HS tham kho SGK tr li cu hi.


135
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 12 : Mui sunfat v nhn bit ion sunfat
GV :
1. Axit sunfuric to thnh my loi mui
sunfat ? Cho VD, gi tn.
2. Nhng mui sunfat no khng tan ?
3. Mu sc ca cc mui sunfat khng
tan ?
GV : C th dng thuc th no nhn
ra ion sunfat ? Hy tin hnh nhn bit
ion sunfat trong dd H
2
SO
4
v dd Na
2
SO
4

bng thuc th .



HS tr li cu hi.


Thuc th nhn ra ion SO
4
2-
trong dd
axit sunfuric, mui sunfat l dd cha hp
cht ca bari.
Hot ng 13 : Tng kt v cng c bi
GV : Hy hon thnh PTHH ca cc
phn ng sau :
H
2
SO
4
+ FeO SO
2
+ ? + ?
H
2
SO
4
+ Fe(OH)
2
SO
2
+ ?+ ?
H
2
SO
4
+ Mg S + ? + ?
H
2
SO
4
+ S ? + ? + ?
C
6
H
12
O
6
2 4
H SO c
? + ?
Trong cc phn ng ho hc , H
2
SO
4

th hin tnh cht g ?







HS lm bi tp theo yu cu ca GV.

Bi 46 luyn tp chng 6
I- MUC TIU
1. Kin thc
Cng c cc kin thc v tnh cht ho hc cc n cht (tnh oxi ho ca O
2
, O
3
, S) ;
tnh cht ho hc ca cc hp cht : H
2
O
2
, H
2
S

, SO
2
, SO
3
, H
2
SO
4
.
2. K nng
Rn cc k nng : vit PTHH chng minh tnh cht ca cc n cht, hp cht ca oxi,
lu hunh.

136
II- CHUN B|
GV chun b h thng cu hi, bi tp, giao cho HS chun b trc mt s cu hi. Cc
cu hi yu cu HS chun b :
Cu 1 : So snh cu to nguyn t, m in, s oxi ho ca oxi v lu hunh.
Cu 2 : So snh tnh cht ho hc ca cc n cht. Vit cc PTHH minh ho.
a. Oxi v lu hunh.
b. Oxi v ozon
Cu 3 : a) Trnh by cu to, tnh cht ho hc ca hiro peoxit.
b) T cc cht H
2
O
2
, O
2
, H
2
O, hy lp s th hin tnh cht ho hc ca H
2
O
2
. Vit
cc PTHH thc hin dy bin ho .
Cu 4 : a) Cc hp cht quan trng ca S l nhng ho cht no (cng thc, tn gi) ?
Lp bng tm tt cu to phn t, s oxi ho ca S, tnh cht ho hc ca chng (tham
kho bng tm tt trong SGK).
b) C cc cht sau : SO
2
, SO
3
,H
2
S , H
2
SO
4
, S, Na
2
S, Na
2
SO
3
, Na
2
SO
4
. Hy lp s
chuyn ho gia cc ho cht trn v vit PTHH cc phn ng thc hin dy bin ho .
GV c th s dng phng php grap dy bi luyn tp, to nhiu iu kin thun
li HS ch ng, tch cc hot ng hn trong gi hc.
III. THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV : Chng ta nghin cu v cc nguyn t nhm oxi v cc hp cht ca chng.
Bi hc hm nay s gip ta cng c li nhng kin thc hc, xem xt chng mt
cch c h thng v vn dng kin thc gii mt s bi tp.
Hot ng 2 : Kin thc cn nm vng
GV : Trc ht ta xt cc nguyn t quan trng nht trong nhm IVA l oxi v lu
hunh. Hy so snh cu to lp electron ngoi cng, m in v s oxi ho ca
O, S.
GV nn hng dn HS k bng so snh.
GV : Cu to quyt nh n tnh cht
ho hc ca cc cht. Em hy :
1. So snh tnh cht ho hc ca nguyn
t oxi v nguyn t S (n cht oxi v
n cht S) ?



HS trnh by ni dung cu hi 1 theo bng
mu do GV hng dn, tho lun, b sung
kin thc cho nhau, cui cng rt ra :

137
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH

Oxi Lu hunh
CH e 2s
2
2p
4
3s
2
3p
4
m
in
3,44 (<F) 2,58 (< F, O, Cl)
Ging
nhau
- u c 6 e lp ngoi cng, 2 e
c thn.
- C m in tng i ln
O
-2
, S
-2
.
Khc
nhau
O khng c
phn lp d
S c phn lp d
c cc trng thi
kch thch:
3s
2
3p
3
3d
1

4
S
+

3s
1
3p
3
3d
2

6
S
+


2. Vit cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht
ho hc ca oxi, ozon v lu hunh.
GV : Oxi v lu hunh to thnh nhiu
hp cht quan trng. Sau y chng ta
s h thng li cc hp cht ca oxi v
lu hunh c hc trong chng.




HS trnh by cu hi 2 theo bng mu do
GV hng dn, tho lun, b sung kin
thc v rt ra :
n cht oxi
(O
2
, O
3
)
n cht S



Ging
nhau
- Tnh oxi ho mnh
O
2
O

, S
2
S


Th hin : Tc dng mnh vi kim
loi, H
2
, hp cht.
Th t tnh oxi ho : O
3
> O
2
> S
+ O
3
tc dng vi Ag, dd KI
+ O
2
tc dng vi cc cht d dng
hn S, oxi ho c S v hp cht ca S
nh H
2
S, mui sunfua.

Khc
nhau

Khng c
tnh kh
- C tnh kh :

0
S
4
S
+
,
6
S
+

- Th hin : Tc
dng vi O
2
, F
2
,
H
2
SO
4
c
,



HS vit cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht
ho hc ca oxi, ozon v lu hunh.

138
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV :
1. Hiro peoxit, c cu to phn t, tnh
cht ho hc nh th no ?




HS trnh by cu hi 3, tho lun chung
rt ra cu to, tnh cht, cc PTHH chng
minh tnh cht ho hc ca hiropeoxit.
HS tham kho bng tm tt trong SGK tr
li cu hi.
2. T cc cht H
2
O
2
, O
2
, H
2
O, hy lp
s th hin tnh cht ho hc ca
H
2
O
2
.
3. Vit cc PTHH thc hin dy chuyn
ho .
GV :
1. Cc hp cht quan trng ca S l
nhng ho cht no (cng thc, tn gi) ?
2. Nu cu to, s oxi ho, tnh cht
ho hc ca chng.
GV : C cc cht : SO
2
, SO
3
, H
2
S,
H
2
SO
4
, S, Na
2
S, Na
2
SO
3
, Na
2
SO
4
.
1. Hy lp cc s bin ho gia cc
ho cht trn.
2. Vit PTHH cc phn ng thc hin
dy bin ho .
3. PTHH no th hin :
a) Tnh kh ca H
2
S, S, SO
2
.
b) Tnh oxi ho ca S, SO
2
, H
2
SO
4
.
HS trnh by s , tho lun, b sung
cho hon chnh, ln bng vit PTHH theo
s va lp, ch r cc PTHH th hin
tnh kh, tnh oxi ho ca cc cht.
Hot ng 3 : Tng kt v vn dng
HS thc hin bi tp trang 190, 191 SGK.
Bi 47 bi thc hnh s 5
tnh cht ca oxi, lu hunh
I- MUC TIU
Bit c mc ch, cch tin hnh cc th nghim.
S dng dng c, ho cht thc hin an ton, thnh cng ca th nghim.
Quan st cc hin tng xy ra, vn dng kin thc gii thch, vit PTHH.
Bit mt s thao tc trong thc hnh th nghim ho hc nh ly ho cht, trn cc
ho cht, ong ho cht, s dng mt s dng c thng thng.

139
Bit s dng dng c, ho cht thc hin an ton, thnh cng th nghim v s bin
i tnh cht cc nguyn t trong nhm, trong chu k.
Quan st cc hin tng th nghim, vn dng kin thc gii thch, vit PTHH ca
phn ng.
II- CHUN B|
1. Dng c : Xem SGV.
2. Ho cht : Xem SGV.
Dng c, ho cht cho HS thc hin th nghim thc hnh theo nhm.
3. Hc sinh
n tp nhng kin thc lin quan n cc th nghim trong bi thc hnh.
Nghin cu trc bit ho cht, dng c, cch tin hnh tng th nghim.
4. Gio vin : Chun b mt s phiu hc tp.
Phiu s 1
D on hin tng g s xy ra khi t chy lu hunh ng trong mung st ngoi
khng kh ri a nhanh vo bnh ng kh oxi. Gii thch, vit PTHH, xc nh vai tr
cc cht trong phn ng.
Phiu s 2
Vit PTHH, xc nh vai tr cc cht trong cc phn ng :
+ St tc dng vi oxi.
+ St tc dng vi lu hunh.
Cho bit bn cht ca cc phn ng ny l g iu kin thc hin cc phn ng .
III- MT S LUU
1. Cc phn ng thc hin trong bi ny u cn un nng nhit cao hoc nhit
phn ng ta ra rt ln. Khi thc hin cc th nghim yu cu HS phi cn thn, lm th
nghim vi lng ho cht nh, lm ng theo s hng dn ca GV.
2. Kh SO
2
rt c, mi hc, gy kh th. Hi lu hunh cng rt c. Khi lm th
nghim phi rt cn thn.
3. Nu c iu kin nn chun b cc phiu hc tp ln bn trong v photo pht n tay
HS th t chc hot ng u tit thc hnh s hiu qu hn.
4. Phn b thi gian hp l.

140
IV- THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
Hot ng 1 : M u tit hc
1. GV : Nu mc tiu, nhng yu cu HS phi thc hin trong tit thc hnh.
Nhc nh HS phi thn trng i vi nhng th nghim d gy nguy him, th nghim
tip xc vi cht c (nh phn ng t st trong oxi, t lu hunh trong oxi, v.v...).
2. S dng phiu hc tp kim tra, vic chun b bi ca HS v hng dn HS thc hin
nhim v tit thc hnh.
3. GV thc hin mu mt s thao tc.
Hot ng 2 : Tnh oxi ho ca cc n cht oxi v lu hunh
a) St tc dng vi oxi
GV : Hng dn HS thc hin th nghim nh SGK.
Lu : phn ng ny thnh cng :
C th ly dy thp l mt on dy phanh xe p, phi dng vi hoc giy gip lau
v nh sch g, du m.
Mu than (hoc que dim) c t chy trc khi cho vo bnh ng O
2
, than (que
dim) chy mnh to ra nhit lng ln khi mo cho phn ng gia O
2
v Fe.
Cn cho mt t ct sch hoc nc di y bnh ng oxi, phng v bnh.
b) St tc dng vi lu hunh
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
Lu : Bt st phi l bt st cn mi, cha b oxi ho phn ng mi thnh cng.
Hot ng 3 : Tnh kh ca lu hunh
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
Hot ng 4 : S bin i trng thi ca lu hunh theo nhit
GV : Hng dn HS lm th nghim, ch quan st s bin i trng thi, mu sc ca
lu hunh.
Lu : Cn hng ming ng nghim v pha khng c ngi trnh ht phi hi lu
hunh c.
Hot ng 5 : Cng vic cui tit thc hnh
GV : Nhn xt, nh gi tit thc hnh. Yu cu HS lm tng trnh.
HS : Thu dn dng c, ho cht, v sinh PTN, lp hc.


141
Bi 48 bi thc hnh s 6
tnh cht cc hp cht ca lu hunh
I- MUC TIU
Bit mc ch, cch tin hnh cc th nghim.
S dng dng c, ho cht thc hin an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim.
Rn luyn k nng quan st hin tng, vn dng kin thc gii thch v vit
PTHH.
II- CHUN B|
1. Dng c : Nh SGV.
2. Ho cht : Nh SGV.
3. Hc sinh
n tp nhng kin thc lin quan n cc th nghim trong bi thc hnh.
Nghin cu trc bit dng c, ho cht, cch thc hin tng th nghim.
4. Gio vin : chun b mt s phiu hc tp
Phiu s 1 : C cc ho cht : FeS, HCl. Hy chn dng c v cch n gin nht
iu ch v th tnh kh ca kh hirosunfua.
Phiu s 2 : C cc ho cht H
2
SO
4
c, Na
2
SO
3
. Hy la chn v lp rp dng c
iu ch SO
2
trong PTN.
Phiu s 3 : Bng nhng th nghim nh no chng minh SO
2
l cht va c tnh
kh, va c tnh oxi ho ?
III- MT S LUU
1. Kh H
2
S v SO
2
l nhng kh c. GV phi lu HS lm th nghim rt cn thn vi
lng ho cht nh, dng c phi kn khng cc kh thot ra lp hc.
2. H
2
SO
4
c d gy bng, lm thng qun o... phi dng gng tay khi lm th nghim
vi H
2
SO
4
c. Cn thn khng H
2
SO
4
c giy vo ngi, qun o.
3. Phn b thi gian hp l.
III. THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
Hot ng 1 : M u tit thc hnh
1. GV : Nu mc tiu ca tit thc hnh. Nhng yu cu HS phi thc hin trong tit hc.
2. S dng phiu hc tp kim tra vic chun b bi nh ca HS v hng dn
chun b cho tit thc hnh.

142
C iu kin nn s dng bn trong, my chiu t chc hot ng ny.
Hot ng 2 : iu ch v chng minh tnh kh ca hiro sunfua
a) Chun b v tin hnh th nghim
GV : Hng dn HS thc hin nh SGK.
Hot ng 3 : iu ch v chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca SO
2

GV : Hng dn HS thc hin th nghim nh SGK.
a) iu ch SO
2
t Na
2
SO
3
v dd H
2
SO
4
v th tnh kh ca SO
2

b) Th tnh oxi ho ca SO
2

Hot ng 4 : Tnh oxi ho v tnh ho nc ca H
2
SO
4
c
a) Tnh oxi ho ca H
2
SO
4
c
trnh c hi, GV hng dn HS thc hin th nghim nh sau :
Cho vi mnh ng vo ng nghim 1, nh 4 - 5 git H
2
SO
4
c vo ng nghim, y
nt cao su km ng dn thy tinh hnh ch L. Nhng su u ng dn vo ng nghim
2 cha khong 2 ml nc c mu giy qu tm. Kp ng nghim 1 bng kp g, cm
kp g trn gi th nghim thc hnh. Dng n cn un nng ng nghim 1 (hnh 8
trang 229 SGV).
Hng dn HS quan st hin tng xy ra, gii thch.
b) Tnh ho nc ca H
2
SO
4
c
HS : thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
Hoc GV hng dn HS thc hin th nghim nh sau :
HS vit ch, v hnh trn giy trng bng dd H
2
SO
4
long, kh. Sau h t giy
gn ngn la n cn. HS quan st, gii thch hin tng, vit PTHH.
Hot ng 5 : Cng vic sau tit thc hnh
GV : Nhn xt, nh gi tit thc hnh. Yu cu HS vit tng trnh.
HS : Thu dn dng c, ho cht, v sinh PTN, lp hc.




143
Chng 7
tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc

A. M u
Mc tiu ca chng
HS bit v hiu :
Nm c cc khi nim v tc phn ng, s khc nhau v tc gia cc phn
ng, cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng v t bit cc phng php lm thay
i tc phn ng cho ph hp vi mc ch.
Nm c khi nim v cht xc tc.
Hiu cn bng ho hc v i lng c trng cho cn bng ho hc.
Hiu s chuyn dch cn bng, cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc lm
chuyn dch cn bng.
HS c k nng :
Tip tc hnh thnh v cng c mt s k nng :
Hnh thnh khi nim tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc.
Rn k nng vn dng nguyn l chuyn dch cn bng ca L Satli vo
cc cn bng ho hc.
Gii cc bi ton v tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc : tnh hng s cn bng,
tnh nng cc cht ti thi im cn bng
Rn mt s k nng tin hnh th nghim nghin cu tc phn ng v cn bng
ho hc. Vit tng trnh th nghim.
Mt s im cn lu
1. H thng kin thc
Gip cho HS thy c s khc nhau v tc phn ng gia cc phn ng khc
nhau.
Lm cho HS thy r khng phi phn ng ho hc no cng xy ra hon ton, cc
yu t nh hng n tc phn ng t c th tm iu kin ti u cho cc qu
trnh sn xut.

144
2. Phng php dy hc
To c cho HS thi quen hc tp di hnh thc nghin cu, t tm hiu v rt ra
kin thc.
C th dy hc theo phng php nu vn v gii quyt vn , hoc m thoi
gi m hng dn HS tm hiu bi, thng qua cc th nghim HS t rt ra kt
lun khoa hc. C th kt hp vi cc phng tin dy hc nh my tnh, my chiu
(projector)
B. Dy hc cc bi c th
Bi 49 tc phn ng ho hc
I- MUC TIU
Nm c cc khi nim tc phn ng, tc trung bnh ca phn ng, cht xc
tc.
Hiu cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng ho hc : nng , p sut, nhit
, din tch b mt, cht xc tc.
Bit vn dng cc yu t trn gii thch cc qu trnh trong thc tin.
II- CHUN B|
Ho cht : dd BaCl
2
0,1 mol/l, dd H
2
SO
4
0,1 mol/l, dd Na
2
S
2
O
3
0,1 mol/l, nc ct,
dd H
2
O
2
(c bn trn th trng), MnO
2
. Nu khng c dd Na
2
S
2
O
3
c th thay th : dd
NaOH 0,1 mol/l, du thc vt hay m ln, dd phenolphtalein.
Dng c : 10 cc 100,0 ml trong c hai cc chu nhit, hai ng ong 25 ml, n
cn v gi n cn.
Nu c iu kin th chun b 4 b dng c cho bn nhm HS lm th nghim, mi
b gm : 1 n cn, 1 kp g, mt gi ng nghim, cc loi ho cht trong l c
ng nh git.
Bng 7.1 c phng ln kh A
4
trong trng hp khng c my tnh v my chiu
projector.
Chun b phiu hc tp v chun b ni dung, bi gii ca cc phiu hc tp vo
my tnh (nu c), projector.

145
Phiu hc tp

Ni dung 1
in kt qu vo cc ch trng, tho lun v rt ra nhn xt v tc thay i mu sc
ca mu giy qu :
Cc cht ly theo t
l phn ng
Hin tng quan st Tc phn
ng
Phn ng gia dd
NaOH (c sn
mu giy qu tm)
v dd HCl
S i mu ca qu tm :
Nhanh : Chm :
PTHH : NaOH + HCl
Nhanh :

Chm :
Phn ng gia dd
NaOH (c sn
mu giy qu tm)
v cht bo
S i mu ca qu tm :
Nhanh : Chm :
PTHH : NaOH + C
3
H
5
(OOCR)
3

Nhanh :

Chm :
Phn ng gia dd
CH
3
COOH (c
sn mu giy qu
tm) v C
2
H
5
OH
S i mu ca qu tm :
Nhanh : Chm :
PTHH : CH
3
COOH + C
2
H
5
OH
Nhanh :

Chm :
Ni dung 2. Bng 1 : Mt s th d v tc phn ng
Phn ng ho hc Tc u ca phn ng
NaOH+HOCH
2
CH
2
ClHOCH
2
CH
2
OH +
NaCl
Nng NaOH 0,1 mol/l, HOCH
2
CH
2
Cl 0,2 mol/l
25
o
C

2,27.10
5
mol.l
1
.s
1
H
2
+ I
2
2HI
Nng I
2
= 0,05 mol/l, H
2
= 0,05 mol/l 400
0
C
9.10
5
mol.l
1
.pht
1
NaOH + CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
CH
3
COONa + C
2
H
5
OH
Nng NaOH 0,01 mol/l, CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
0,01 mol/l

1,476.10
2
mol.l
1
.h
1

146
27
o
C
Ni dung 3
Hy in cc thng tin vo cc ch trng, nhn xt cch xc nh cc thng tin :
Thng tin Kt qu
Mt ngi i xe my t H Ni n Hi
Dng (qung ng 66 km) ht 1 gi
20 pht, sau i tip t Hi Dng
n Hi Phng (qung ng 50 km)
cng ht 1 gi 20 pht.
Tc trung bnh t H Ni n
Hi Dng (km.h
1
) :

Tc trung bnh t Hi Dng
n Hi Phng (km.h
1
) :

Tc trung bnh t H Ni n
Hi Phng (km.h
1
) :

Trn 500 ml dd NaOH nng 0,02
mol/l vi 500 ml dd CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
0,02
mol/l. Sau 5 pht nng NaOH trong
dd xc nh c l 0,005 mol/l, cn
sau 10 pht th nng NaOH cn li
l 0,003 mol/l (coi th tch hn hp l
khng i trong sut qu trnh phn
ng)
Tc trung bnh ca phn ng
trong 5 pht u l (mol.l
1
,s
1
) :

Tc trung bnh ca phn ng
trong 5pht tip theo l(mol.l
1
,s
1
)
:

Tc trung bnh ca phn ng
trong 10 pht phn ng l
(mol.l
1
.

s
1
) :

Ni dung 4
1. Hy tm cc phn ng m em bit theo cc yu cu sau :
Tc phn ng ln Tc phn ng trung bnh Tc phn ng nh



2. Tnh tc trung bnh ca phn ng theo bng s liu :
2HI H
2
+ I
2
Thi gian phn ng (giy) Nng ca HI (mol/l) Tc trung bnh
0 0,10
60 0,06

147
120 0,03
180 0,01
Ni dung 5
Cu hi 1 : Trong nhng trng hp di y, yu t no nh hng n tc phn
ng ?
a) S chy din ra mnh v nhanh hn khi a lu hunh ang chy ngoi khng kh
vo l ng kh oxi.
b) Khi cn bp than, ngi ta y np bp l lm cho phn ng chy ca than chm li.
c) Phn ng oxi ho lu hunh ioxit to thnh lu hunh trioxit din ra nhanh hn khi
c mt vanai oxit (V
2
O
5
).
d) Nhm bt tc dng vi dd axit clohiric nhanh hn so vi nhm dy.
e) Thp bn hn nu c sn chng g.
Cu hi 2 : Trong mi cp phn ng sau, phn ng no c tc ln hn ?
a) Fe + dd HCl 0,1M v Fe + dd HCl 2M cng mt nhit .
b) Al + dd NaOH 2M 25
o
C v Al + dd NaOH 2M 50
o
C.
c) Zn (ht) + dd HCl 1M 25
o
C v Zn (bt) + dd HCl 1M 25
o
C.
d) Nhit phn KClO
3
v nhit phn hn hp KClO
3
vi MnO
2
.
Cu hi 3 : Cho phn ng ho hc 298 K :
(CH
3
)
3
Br + H
2
O (CH
3
)
3
OH + HBr
Hon thnh bng s liu sau theo d kin thc nghim :
Thi gian t (s)
t (s) Nng (CH
3
)
3
Br( mol/)l C (mol/l)
V (mol.lt
1
.

s

1
)
0 0,0380
15000 0,0308
35000 0,0233
55000 0,0176
95000 0,0100
145000 0,00502
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp

148
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV c th dng th nghim t chc tnh hung hc tp :
Phng n 1 : GV hng dn cc nhm
HS tin hnh th nghim nh SGK, quan
st, nhn xt v rt ra kt lun.
HS tin hnh th nghim, quan st, nhn
xt v rt ra kt lun.

Phng n 2 : GV hng dn cc nhm
HS ly hai ng nghim, mi ng nghim
ly 2 ml dd NaOH 0,2 mol/l, thm vo mi
cc khong 1 2 git dd phenolphtalein.
Thm vo ng nghim th nht khong
1 ml du thc vt hay mt mu m ln,
un nng ng nghim th nht trn ngn
la n cn. Thm vo ng nghim th
hai 2 ml dd H
2
SO
4
.
GV nhn xt kin ca HS v rt ra
kt lun.

HS tin hnh th nghim, quan st rt ra
nhn xt : Trong ng nghim 1 tc
mt mu ca phenolphtalein rt chm,
trong khi ng nghim th 2 tc mu
mu rt nhanh. so snh ngi ta dng
i lng tc phn ng.



Hot ng 2 : Tc phn ng
GV cho HS hon thnh ni dung 1
ca phiu hc tp.
GV nhn xt bi lm ca HS (GV c
th a bi gii mu trn my chiu cho
HS) v rt ra kt lun v tc phn ng
ho hc.
GV cung cp mt s cch biu din
tc phn ng (Bng 1).
HS hon thnh ni dung 1 ca phiu
hc tp.
p n ni dung 1.



HS a ra kt lun.

Hot ng 3. Tc trung bnh ca phn ng
Phng n 1 :
GV cho HS c SGK phn gii thiu
cch tnh tc trung bnh ca phn ng
v phn xt th d tnh tc phn ng
trung bnh ca phn ng.
GV treo bng 7.1 (c th dng my
chiu hoc bng photocopy). Trong bng
7.1 hng dn HS tm hiu tc phn
ng thay i theo thi gian, v vy xt
tc phn ng phi xt tc tc thi.

HS c SGK v trnh by ni dung :
N
2
O
5
N
2
O
4
+
2
1
O
2

| | | | ( )
| | | | ( )
1 2
t 2 t 2
1 2
t
5 2
t
5 2
t t
O O
.
2
1
1
t t
O N O N
.
1
1
v
1 2
1 2

=


149
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Tuy nhin vic xc nh tc tc thi
rt kh khn nn thng dng tc
trung bnh. GV hng dn HS cch tnh
tc trung bnh ca phn ng.
GV hng dn HS rt ra cng thc
chung cho cch tnh tc trung bnh
ca phn ng tng qut.

Phng n 2 :
GV cho HS hon thnh ni dung 3
ca phiu hc tp.
GV nhn xt, kt lun v biu thc
tnh tc trung bnh ca phn ng.




+ i vi cc phn ng tng qut :
a
1
A
1
+ a
2
A
2
a
1

A
1
+ a
2

A
2



HS hon thnh ni dung 3 v trnh by
kt qu, nhn xt cch tnh.
Hot ng 4. Cng c kin thc
GV cho HS tho lun v hon thnh ni
dung 4 ca phiu hc tp.
Cc nhm HS tho lun v hon thnh
ni dung 4 ca phiu hc tp.
Hot ng 5. nh hng ca nng
Phng n 1 :
GV hng dn HS tin hnh th nghim
nh SGK.


Phng n 2 :
GV hng dn HS tin hnh TN :
Ly hai ng nghim, ng 1 cho 2 ml dd
HCl 1M, ng 2 ly 0,5 ml dd HCl 1M v
thm vo 1,5 ml nc ct. Thm vo
mi ng mt vin km hoc mt mu
magie c cng kch thc, quan st tc
thot kh trong mi ng.

HS tin hnh th nghim, quan st tc
kt ta trong mi cc, rt ra nhn xt.
Vy khi tng nng cht phn ng th
tc phn ng tng.

HS tin hnh th nghim, quan st tc
thot kh trong mi ng, rt ra nhn xt :
ng 1 thot kh nhanh hn ng 2, vy
nng HCl ln hn th tc phn ng
ln hn.
Hot ng 6. nh hng ca p sut
Phng n 1 :
GV cho HS c SGK v gii thch ti
sao khi tng p sut th tc phn ng :
2HI H
2
+ I
2
li tng ?

HS c SGK, rt ra nhn xt : Khi tng
p sut ng ngha vi vic tng nng
ca cc cht kh, p sut tng lm tc

150
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV nhn xt v gii thch li nu cn.
Phng n 2 :
GV t cu hi cho HS :
1. Trong hn hp kh ( cng iu kin
nhit v th tch) mi quan h gia
nng v p sut ring ca tng kh
trong hn hp nh th no ?
2. Khi tng p sut chung ca h th
nng v p sut ca chng thay i
nh th no ?
3. Khi tng p sut ca h th tc
phn ng thay i nh th no ?
phn ng tng.

HS tr li cc cu hi ca GV.
Hot ng 7. nh hng ca nhit
GV hng dn HS tin hnh th
nghim nh SGK. Yu cu HS quan st
hin tng, nhn xt.





GV nhn xt kin ca HS v rt ra
kt lun.
HS tin hnh th nghim, quan st tc
kt ta trong mi cc, rt ra nhn xt.
Trong cc A nhit cao hn cc B
ng thi ta thy tc to kt ta cc
A ln hn cc B. Do khi nhit tng,
tc chuyn ng ca cc tiu phn
tng, dn n s ln va chm tng, tc
phn ng tng.
Vy khi tng nhit phn ng th tc
phn ng tng.
Hot ng 8. nh hng ca din tch b mt
Phng n 1 :
GV hng dn HS tin hnh th
nghim nh SGK.
GV nhn xt kin ca HS v rt ra
kt lun.

Phng n 2 :
GV t cu hi cho HS :
1. Trong thc t ti sao khi lm than t
ong un bp ngi ta li lm nhiu l ?
2. Khi nung vi ngi ta thng p

HS quan st tc thot kh trong
mi cc, rt ra nhn xt.
Vy khi tng din tch tip xc trong cc
phn ng c cht rn tham gia th tc
phn ng tng.

HS tr li cu hi cc cu hi ca GV.

151
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
thnh c 3 5 cm, m khng tng
ln hay nghin vi thnh bt trc
khi nung ?
GV c th gi thm, nhn xt cu
tr li ca HS v kt lun nh hng ca
din tch b mt n tc phn ng.
Hot ng 9. nh hng ca cht xc tc
GV hng dn HS tin hnh th
nghim : Ly hai ng nghim, mi ng
nghim ly 2 3 ml dd H
2
O
2
th
trng. Thm vo ng nghim th hai
mt t bt MnO
2
.
GV nhn xt kin ca HS v rt ra
kt lun.
HS tin hnh th nghim, quan st tc
thot kh trong mi ng nghim v lng
MnO
2
trc v sau th nghim, vit
PTHH v nhn xt : Trong cc cho
MnO
2
c kh thot ra mnh hn, lng
MnO
2
khng thay i so vi trc khi
cho vo phn ng.
2H
2
O
2
2H
2
O + O
2
|
Vy cht xc tc l cht lm tng tc
phn ng v khng tiu hao trong phn ng.
Hot ng 10. ngha thc tin ca tc phn ng
GV cho HS c SGK HS c SGK.
Hot ng 11. Tng kt v vn dng
GV cho cc nhm HS hon thnh ni
dung 5 ca phiu hc tp.
GV cho HS trnh by v nhn xt kt
qu ca ni dung 5 trong phiu hc tp.
HS tho lun v hon thnh ni dung
5 ca phiu hc tp.
HS trnh by kt qu, HS khc nhn
xt.
Bi 50 cn bng ho hc
I- MUC TIU
Hiu c cc khi nim :
+ Cn bng ho hc, hng s cn bng v ngha ca hng s cn bng.
+ S chuyn dch cn bng, cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc v nguyn l
chuyn dch cn bng.
Bit vn dng cc yu t trn gii thch cc qu trnh ho hc trong t nhin v
trong sn sut. Bit s dng hng s cn bng tnh ton cc bi ton ho hc.

152
II- CHUN B|
Ho cht : dd HCl 1,0 mol/l, km vin, mt bnh kh NO
2
, phch nc xay nh,
dd K
2
CrO
4
0,2 mol/l, dd K
2
Cr
2
O
7
0,1 mol/l, dd NaOH 1,0 mol/l, H
2
O
2
th trng.
B dng c : cc 500 ml, hai ng nghim cha kh NO
2
ging nhau (c th chun b
2 ng nghim c nhnh cha NO
2
c ni vi nhau bng ng nha hay ng cao su c
kp). 1 xilanh hn kn mt u cha y kh NO
2
(c th thay bng ng nghim v nt
cao su lm pitong).
Nu c iu kin th chun b 4 b dng c, ho cht cho bn nhm HS lm th
nghim.
Chun b cc phiu hc tp, v chun b ni dung, bi gii ca cc phiu hc tp
vo my tnh (nu c), projector.
Phiu hc tp
Ni dung 1
Cu hi 1 : Quan st hin tng xy ra trong l ng nc oxi gi (H
2
O
2
), gii thch
hin tng bng PTHH. Ngi ta c th iu ch H
2
O
2
bng cch cho O
2
phn ng vi
H
2
O c khng ?
Cu hi 2 :
a) Khi ho tan Cl
2
vo H
2
O c phn ng g xy ra ? Vit PTHH cho phn ng . Mt
khc khi cho HCl vo dd cha HClO s c phn ng ho hc no xy ra ? Vit PTHH.
Nhn xt v hai phn ng ho hc ny.
b) Khi trn ru etylic (C
2
H
5
OH) v axit axetic (CH
3
COOH) c nhng phn ng no
xy ra ?
Ni dung 2 : Trong th nghim cho H
2
tc dng vi I
2
, tc ca phn ng :
H
2
+ I
2
2HI v tc ca phn ng : 2HI H
2
+ I
2
thay i nh th no theo
thi gian ? Hy v th biu din s ph thuc ca tc phn ng ca hai phn ng
trn theo thi gian. Nhn xt v s thay i tc ca hai phn ng ho hc trn khi
tc phn ng ca hai phn ng bng nhau th khi nng ca cc cht thay i
nh th no ?
Ni dung 3 : Cho cn bng ho hc : C
(r)
+ CO
2 (k)
2CO
1. Hon thnh bng kt qu sau :
So snh tc ca phn ng
thun v phn ng nghch
Nng ca
CO
2
Nng ca
CO
Ban u X X
Thm CO
2
vo h


153
Thm CO vo h
Bt CO
2
ra khi h

Bt CO ra khi h
Thm C vo h
Gim C trong h
Nhn xt v s chuyn dch cn bng trong h.
2. Mi lin h gia tc phn ng thun, phn ng nghch vo nng ca CO
2
, CO
v C ?
Ni dung 4 : Cho cc cn bng ho hc :
2SO
2

(k)
+ O
2 (k)
2SO
3 (k)
AH = 198 kJ< 0 (1)
3H
2

(k)
+ N
2 (k)
2NH
3 (k)
AH = 92 kJ < 0 (2)
C
(r)
+ CO
2 (k)
2CO
(k)
AH = + 131 kJ > 0 (3)
tng hiu sut trong sn sut ho hc, ngi ta c th p dng cc bin php lm
cn bng chuyn dch theo hng to ra sn phm (theo chiu phn ng thun). Hy
a ra nhng gi v p sut, nhit , nng t mc ch trn :
Phn ng (1) Phn ng (2)

Phn ng (3)
Nhit (tng hoc gim)
Thm (hoc bt) O
2
vo h i vi phn ng
(1), thm (hoc bt) H
2
vo h i vi phn
ng (2), thm CO
2
(hoc bt) vo h vi phn
ng (3).

p sut chung ca h (tng hoc gim)

Ly bt sn phm ra khi h
Ni dung 5
Cu hi 1 : Hng s cn bng ca phn ng :
C
(r)
+ CO
2 (k)
2CO
(k)
AH = + 131 kJ > 0 (3)
ph thuc vo nhng yu t no ?
A. Nhit . B. Nng ca CO v CO
2
.
C. p sut chung ca h. D. Nng ca CO, CO
2
v C.
Hy khoanh trn vo p n ng.
Cu hi 2 : Vit biu thc hng s cn bng cho cc cn bng sau :

154
2SO
2

(k)
+ O
2 (k)
2SO
3 (k)
(1)
SO
2

(k)
+
2
1
O
2 (k)
SO
3 (k)
(2)
C
(r)
+ CO
2 (k)
2CO
(k)
(3)
Cu hi 3 : Tnh hng s cn bng ca cn bng sau :
H
2 (k)
+ I
2 (k)
2HI
(k)

Bit ti thi im cn bng nhit 430
o
C nng cc cht nh sau :
[HI] = 0,786 mol/l, [H
2
] = [I
2
] = 0,107 mol/l.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp
GV cho HS hon thnh ni dung 1 ca
phiu hc tp.

GV nhn xt a p n ni dung 1.
HS hon thnh ni dung 1 ca phiu
hc tp v trnh by kt qu.
HS khc nhn xt.
Hot ng 2 : Phn ng mt chiu Phn ng thun nghch
GV kt lun v phn ng mt chiu
v phn ng thun nghch.
Phn ng mt chiu l phn ng trong
mt iu kin nht nh ch c mt
hng cc cht tham gia phn ng tc
dng vi nhau to thnh sn phm.
Phn ng thun nghch l phn ng
trong mt iu kin nht nh cc cht
tham gia phn ng tc dng vi nhau
to thnh sn phm v ngc li.
Hot ng 3 : Cn bng ho hc
GV cho HS hon thnh ni dung 2
ca phiu hc tp.
GV nhn xt, a ra p n ni dung
2 v kt lun.
HS hon thnh ni dung 2 ca phiu
hc tp.
HS trnh by kt qu ni dung ca phiu
hc tp.
Kt lun v cn bng ho hc.

trng thi (cn bng) phn ng thun
v phn ng nghch vn din ra nhng
vi tc bng nhau, v vy cn bng
ho hc l cn bng ng.

155
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 4 : Hng s cn bng trong h ng th
GV gii thch cho HS khi nim h
ng th v h d th.

GV yu cu HS c cc s liu thc
nghim khi nghin cu cn bng :
N
2
O
4
2NO
2
trong bng 7.2 v phn
gii thiu v hng s cn bng trong SGK.
Nhn xt v t s :
| |
| |
4 2
2
2
O N
NO
trong cc th
nghim vi nng ban u khc nhau.
HS c v nhn xt v t s gia nng
ca NO
2
v N
2
O
4
vi s m theo h
s t lng ca phn ng.
Hng s cn bng ca phn ng :
aA + bB cC + dD
K
C
=
| | | |
| | | |
b a
d c
B . A
D . C

Trong [A], [B], [C] v [D] l nng
mol/l ca cc cht A, B, C, D trng thi
cn bng; a, b, c, d l h s t lng ca
cc cht trong PTHH.
Hot ng 5: Hng s cn bng trong h d th
GV yu cu HS c SGK phn cn bng
trong h d th, nhn xt s khc nhau
gia h ng th v h d th.
HS c v nhn xt cn bng trong h d
th.
Trong biu thc hng s cn bng nng
ca cc cht rn c coi l hng s
nn khng c mt trong biu thc, cc
gi tr c a vo gi tr ca hng
s cn bng. Th d vi cn bng :
C + CO
2
2CO
K
C
=
| |
| |
2
2
CO
CO

Hot ng 6 : S chuyn dch cn bng
GV tin hnh th nghim theo SGK
(hnh 7.5), yu cu HS quan st v rt ra
nhn xt.
+ Bc 1 : quan st mu ca hai ng
nghim nhit phng.

+ Bc 2 : cho mt ng nghim vo cc
nc (trn thm NaCl c nhit
HS quan st, so snh mu gia hai ng
nghim v gii thch s nguyn nhn dn
n hin tng .
Trong h cha NO
2
lun din ra cn
bng
2NO
2
(nu ) N
2
O
4
(khng mu)
Khi h nhit ca h lm cho nng
ca NO
2
gim, nng N
2
O
4
tng ln

156
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
thp hn) mt thi gian v so snh mu
gia hai ng nghim.


+ Bc 3 ly ng nghim trong cc nc
ra khng kh mt thi gian.
GV nhn xt kin HS v rt ra kt
lun v s chuyn dch cn bng.
do mu ca hn hp b nht i. l
s thay i t trng thi cn bng th
nht nhit phng sang trng thi
cn bng th hai nhit thp hn.
Nu ta ra ngoi cc nc , nhit
ca h tr li nhit phng th h li
tr v trng thi cn bng th nht.

Hot ng 7 : Cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc : nh hng ca nng
GV yu cu HS c SGK v hon
thnh ni dung 3 ca phiu hc tp.
GV nhn xt a p n ni dung 3
ca phiu hc tp v kt lun.
HS c SGK v hon thnh ni dung
3 ca phiu hc tp.
HS a ra kt lun : Khi cn bng c
mt cht rn th vic thm hay bt cht
rn khng lm cn bng chuyn dch.
Hot ng 8 : nh hng ca p sut
GV tin hnh th nghim theo SGK
yu cu HS quan st mu ca hn hp
kh trong xilanh khi :
+ Nn pitong
+ Ko dn pitong
GV nhn xt v gii thch li nu cn.















HS quan st, nhn xt mu ca hn
hp kh trong xilanh :
Trong xilanh tn ti cn bng :
2NO
2
N
2
O
4

(kh mu nu ) (kh khng mu)
+ Khi tng p sut (nn pitong) cn bng
chuyn dch theo hng to thnh N
2
O
4

ng ngha vi vic lm gim s mol kh
trong hn hp, v theo phn ng c 2
phn t NO
2
kt hp thnh 1 phn t
N
2
O
4
dn n lm gim p sut chung
ca h, chng li s tng p sut do tc
dng bn ngoi.
+ Khi gim p sut (ko dn pitong) cn
bng chuyn dch theo hng to thnh
NO
2
ng ngha vi vic lm tng s
mol kh trong hn hp, v theo phn ng
c 1 phn t N
2
O
4
to thnh 2 phn t
NO
2
dn n lm tng p sut chung ca
h, chng li s gim p sut do tc
dng bn ngoi.

157
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH

GV t vn : nu trong cn bng
c tng h s hp thc ca cc cht kh
hai v ca PTHH bng nhau th p sut
chung ca h nh hng nh th no ?
Th d xt phn ng c s tham gia ca
cht kh vi h s t lng nh nhau :
H
2 (k)
+ I
2 (k)
2HI
(k)

HS rt ra kt lun.
Trong trng hp ny khi tng p
sut chung ca h, tc ca c phn
ng thun v phn ng nghch u tng
nh nhau nn khng lm chuyn dch
cn bng ca h.
Hot ng 9 : nh hng ca nhit
GV yu cu HS nhc li khi nim
phn ng thu nhit v phn ng to
nhit, ly th d minh ho.
GV nhn xt kin ca HS v thng
bo cho HS phn ng :
N
2
O
4
2NO
2
AH = 58 kJ
l phn ng thu nhit.
GV yu cu HS tin hnh th nghim
: ngm bnh cha kh NO
2
vo cc nc
, quan st s thay i mu sc v nhn
xt, rt ra kt lun.
HS nhc li khi nim phn ng thu
nhit v phn ng to nhit, ly th d
minh ho.




HS tin hnh th nghim, quan st s
thay i mu sc v nhn xt, rt ra kt
lun.

Hot ng 10 : Nguyn l chuyn dch cn bng (nguyn l L Sa-t-li-)
GV t vn : Da trn cc kt qu
nghin cu nh hng ca cc yu t
n s chuyn dch cn bng, hy rt ra
kt lun chung ca s chuyn dch cn
bng.
GV nhn xt v kt lun.
HS pht biu nguyn l chuyn dch
cn bng.

Hot ng 11 : Vai tr ca cht xc tc
GV yu cu HS c SGK. HS c SGK.
Hot ng 12 : ngha ca tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc trong sn xut ho hc
GV cho cc nhm HS tho lun v
hon thnh ni dung 4 ca phiu hc tp.
GV nhn xt, a ra p n v kt lun.
Cc nhm HS tho lun v hon
thnh ni dung 4 ca phiu hc tp.
HS trnh by kt qu phiu hc tp.
Hot ng 13 : Cng c

158
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
GV cho HS hon thnh ni dung 5
ca phiu hc tp.
GV cha v a ra kt qu.
HS hon thnh ni dung 5 ca phiu hc
tp.
Bi 51 luyn tp : Tc phn ng
v cn bng ho hc
I- MUC TIU
Cng c cc kin thc :
+ Tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc, hng s cn bng.
+ Cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng v chuyn dch cn bng.
Bit vn dng cc yu t tc v s chuyn dch cn bng gii thch cc qu
trnh ho hc trong t nhin v trong sn sut, vn dng hng s cn bng gii cc
bi ton ho hc.
II- CHUN B|
Phiu hc tp
Cho HS chun b cc phiu hc tp nh.
Ni dung 1
Cu hi 1 : Tc phn ng l g ?
Cu hi 2 : S thay i ca tc phn ng :
Cc yu t nh hng S thay i ca tc
phn ng
Th d
Tng nng cht tham gia phn ng
Tng p sut
Tng nhit phn ng

Tng din tch tip xc gia cc cht tham gia phn
ng


C mt cht xc tc
Ni dung 2
Cu hi 1: Cn bng ho hc l g ? Ti sao ni cn bng ho hc l cn bng ng.

159
Cu hi 2 : Th no l s chuyn dch cn bng ? Nhng yu t no lm chuyn dch
cn bng ? Ly v d minh ho.
Cu hi 3 : tng hiu sut qu trnh :
2SO
2
+ O
2
2 5
V O

2SO
3
AH < 0
ngi ta thng :
A. Tng nhit , tng p sut chung ca h.
B. Tng nhit , gim p sut chung ca h.
C. Gim nhit , gim p sut chung ca h.
D. Gi nhit thch hp duy tr tc phn ng, tng p sut chung ca h.
Hy chn p n ng.
Ni dung 3 :
Cu hi 1 : Bi tp 1 (SGK) ; Cu hi 2 : Bi tp 2 (SGK).
Cu hi 3 : Bi tp 3 (SGK) ; Cu hi 4 : Bi tp 4 (SGK).
Ni dung 4 : Cc bi tp trong SGK
Cu hi 1 : Bi tp 5 ; Cu hi 2 : Bi tp 6 ; Cu hi 3 : Bi tp 7
Ni dung 5
Cu hi 1 : Phn ng tng hp amoniac l mt trong nhng sn xut ho hc quan
trng. T amoniac ngi ta sn xut phn m, axit nitric, thuc n Hi trong phn
ng tng hp amoniac biu din PTHH sau :
2N
2 (k)
+ 3H
2 (k)

P,xc tc

2NH
3 (k)

Tc phn ng ho hc tng hp amoniac s tng bao nhiu ln nu tng nng
hiro ln 2 ln khi nhit ca phn ng c gi nguyn.
A. 2 ln. B. 4 ln. C. 8 ln. D. 16 ln.
Cu hi 2 : T khi hi ca st (III) clorua khan so vi khng kh nhit 457
0
C

l
10,50 v 527
0
C l 9,60 v tn ti cn bng : 2FeCl
3 (K)
Fe
2
Cl
6 (K)
.
a) Tnh % s mol Fe
2
Cl
6
hai nhit trn ti thi im cn bng.
b) Phn ng trn l thu nhit hay to nhit ? Ti sao ?
Cu hi 3 : Ngi ta tin hnh phn ng : PCl
5
PCl
3
+ Cl
2
vi 0,3 mol PCl
5
; p
sut u l 1 atm. Khi cn bng c thit lp, p sut o c bng 1,25 atm
(V,T = const).

160
a) Tnh phn li v p sut ring ca tng cu t.
b) Thit lp biu thc lin h gia phn li v p sut chung ca h.
Cu hi 4 : V sao trong cc vin than t ong, ngi ta to ra nhng l rng ? Gii thch
v sao khi nhm l than ngi ta phi qut gi vo l bng qut tay hoc qut my ?
Cn khi bp than, ngi ta y np l than ?
Cu hi 5 : Tnh nng ti thi im cn bng ca h khi trn 1 mol CH
3
COOH vi
1 mol C
2
H
5
OH. Bit th tch chung ca h ti thi im cn bng l 120 ml v hng s
cn bng nng ca phn ng : CH
3
COOH + C
2
H
5
OH CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
+ H
2
O
nhit th nghim l 4.
III THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
HOAT NG CA GIO VIN HOAT NG CA HC SINH
Hot ng 1. Kin thc cn nh v tc phn ng
Hot ng 2 : n tp v cn bng ho hc
Hot ng 3 : Luyn tp v tc phn ng
Hot ng 4 : Luyn tp v cn bng ho hc
Hot ng 5 : Cng c v vn dng
GV yu cu HS trnh by ni dung 1,
2, 3, 4, 5 ca phiu hc tp.
GV nhn xt v sa cho ng.
HS trnh by ni dung 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ca
phiu hc tp.
HS nhm khc nhn xt.
Bi 52 bi thc hnh s 7
tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc
I- MUC TIU
Bit c mc ch, cch thc hin cc th nghim.
Bit s dng dng c, ho cht thc hin an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trong bi.
Quan st, gii thch hin tng xy ra, vit PTHH ca phn ng.
II- CHUN B|
1. Dng c : Xem SGV.
2. Ho cht : Xem SGV.
3. Hc sinh
n tp nhng ni dung kin thc c lin quan n tit thc hnh.

161
Nghin cu trc bit dng c, ho cht, cch lm tng th nghim trong bi.
4. Gio vin chun b mt s phiu hc tp
Phiu s 1 :
Nhng yu t no nh hng n tc phn ng ?
C th thc hin nhng th nghim no chng minh ?
Phiu s 2 :
Nu np y kh NO
2
(mu nu ) vo 2 ng nghim c nhnh, ni vi nhau bng
ng dn cao su km kp Mo (hnh 7.5 SGK).
Ngm ng nghim a vo nc , ng b vo nc nng 80 90
0
C. Mt lc sau ly
2 ng nghim ra so snh. Hin tng xy ra nh th no ? Gii thch ?
III- MT S LUU
1. chng minh cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng ho hc, cc th
nghim thc hin trong tit thc hnh u c tin hnh theo phng php so
snh, i chng.
2. Th nghim chng minh nhit nh hng n cn bng ho hc thc hin vi
NO
2
l kh rt c phi c gio vin thu sn vo cc ng nghim c nhnh, ni vi
nhau bng ng dn cao su di 3 cm c kp Mo (Hnh 7.5 SGK). Np ng nghim phi
tht kht khng cho kh NO
2
thot ra ngoi.
3. Th nghim v cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng ngoi cch thc hin nh
hng dn trong SGK, c th thc hin theo cch khc, GV nghin cu p dng.
4. Nu c iu kin GV nn th hin cc phiu hc tp ln bn trong. Dng my chiu
t chc hot ng u tit thc hnh cho HS s kt qu hn.
5. Phn b thi gian hp l.
III. THIT K HOAT NG DAY HC
Hot ng 1 : M u tit hc
1. GV : Nu mc tiu tit thc hnh. Nhng yu cu HS phi thc hin trong tit thc
hnh.
2. S dng phiu hc tp kim tra vic chun b bi ca HS v hng dn HS thc hin
nhim v tit hc.
3. GV nu nhng iu cn ch khi thc hin cc th nghim, lu HS quan st, so
snh i vi tng th nghim rt ra kt lun v cc iu kin nh hng n tc
phn ng, cn bng ho hc.
4. GV thc hin mu mt s thao tc, nh thao tc to ra s thay i nhit trong 2
ng nghim c nhnh ng NO
2
, cch quan st, gii thch hin tng xy ra.

162
Hot ng 2 : nh hng ca nng n tc phn ng
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
HS vn dng yu t nng nh hng n tc phn ng gii thch.
Hot ng 3 : nh hng ca nhit n tc phn ng
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
Hot ng 4 : nh hng ca din tch b mt cht rn n tc phn ng
HS : Thc hin th nghim nh hng dn trong SGK.
HS vn dng yu t nh hng din tch b mt cht rn n tc phn ng gii
thch.
Hot ng 5 : nh hng ca nhit n cn bng ho hc
HS : 2 ng nghim c nhnh c np y kh NO
2
, kho K c ng li (hnh 7.5
SGK).
Chun b mt cc nc , mt cc nc nng (khong 8090
0
C) ngm 1 ng
nghim vo cc nc nng, mt ng nghim vo cc nc , sau vi pht, quan st v
so snh mu ca 2 ng nghim.
GV : Hng dn HS quan st hin tng xy ra,
gii thch v vit PTHH.
Lu :
NO
2
l kh rt c, ng nghim thu NO
2
phi
nt tht kn. Yu cu HS khng c m nt ng
nghim ra v kh NO
2
thot ra s nguy him,
ng thi lm thay i lng NO
2
cha trong 2
ng nghim, th nghim km chnh xc.
Th nghim v cc yu t nh hng n tc
phn ng c th thc hin cch khc nh sau:
Dng c : Kp thng ng 2 ng nghim c
nhnh trn gi th nghim. Ni nhnh mi ng
nghim vi ng thy tinh ch U ng knh
3 mm trong cha mt t nc mu ( d quan
st). Dn bng giy c vch k u nhau trn ng ch U (hnh 4).
V d thc hin phn ng nh hng ca nng n tc phn ng :
y mi ng nghim c nhnh c cha 1 2 vin km bng nt cao su km ng nh
git, ng (1) cha dd HCl nng 18%, ng (2) cha dd HCl nng 6%. Nh ng
thi vo mi ng cng mt lng dd HCl.
Hnh 4

163
Hng dn HS quan st hin tng : Ct nc mu trong ng hnh ch U ca ng
nghim (1) dng cao hn, chng t khi nng cht phn ng tng, tc phn ng
tng. Vi dng c ny c th thc hin cc th nghim chng minh cc yu t nh
hng n tc phn ng ho hc.
Hot ng 6 : Cng vic cui bui thc hnh
GV : Nhn xt, nh gi kt qu tit thc hnh. Yu cu HS vit tng trnh th nghim.
HS : Thu dn dng c, ho cht, v sinh PTN, lp hc.
kim tra
chng 1 (Thi gian 45 pht)
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. a) Nguyn t M c s hiu nguyn t Z = 16. Hy cho bit M c bao nhiu lp
electron, lp ngoi cng c bao nhiu electron, M l kim loi hay phi kim.
A. M c 4 lp electron, c 2 electron lp ngoi cng v M l kim loi.
B. M c 3 lp electron, c 6 electron lp ngoi cng v M l phi kim.
C. M c 3 lp electron, c 3 electron lp ngoi cng v M l kim loi.
D. M c 4 lp electron, c 2 electron lp ngoi cng v M l phi kim.
Chn cu tr li ng.
b) Ba nguyn t X, Y, Z c s proton v s ntron nh sau :
X : 20 proton v 20 ntron.
Y : 18 proton v 22 ntron.
Z : 20 proton v 22 ntron.
Hi nhng nguyn t no l ng v ca nhau ?
A. X, Y. B. X, Z. C. Y, Z. D. X, Y v Z.
Chn p n ng.
2. a) Nguyn t nguyn t A c tng s electron cc phn lp p l 7, nguyn t
nguyn t B c tng s ht mang in nhiu hn tng s ht mang in ca A l 8. X
l hp cht ca A v B, khi ly 5,364 gam X.nH
2
O ho tan vo nc thu c dd Z.
Cho Z phn ng vi AgNO
3
d thu c 10,332 gam kt ta. Xc nh A, B v cng
thc phn t X.nH
2
O.
A. Nguyn t A l Ca, nguyn t B l S, hp cht X.nH
2
O l CaS.5H
2
O.
B. Nguyn t A l Al, nguyn t B l Cl, hp cht X.nH
2
O l AlCl
3
.5H
2
O.
C. Nguyn t A l Na, nguyn t B l O, hp cht X.nH
2
O l Na
2
O.H
2
O.
D. Nguyn t A l Al, nguyn t B l Cl, hp cht X.nH
2
O l AlCl
3
.10H
2
O.
Chn cu tr li ng.
b) Hy cho bit s electron ti a c th phn b trn lp O (n = 5).
A. 25. B. 30. C. 40. D. 50.
Chn p n ng.

164
3. a) Nguyn t ca nguyn t Cl (s hiu nguyn t l 17) ng v 35. Hy tnh tng
khi lng ca nguyn t Cl v tng khi lng ht nhn nguyn t Cl. Bit rng
m
P
= 1,073 u, m
n
= 1,0087 u v m
e
= 0,00055 u.
A. Khi lng nguyn t : 35 gam ; khi lng ht nhn : 35 gam.
B. Khi lng nguyn t : 35 u ; khi lng ht nhn : 35 u.
C. Khi lng nguyn t : 35,5 gam ; khi lng ht nhn : 35,5 gam.
D. Khi lng nguyn t : 35,29 u; khi lng ht nhn : 35,28 u.
Chn cu tr li ng nht.
b) Hy cho bit cu hnh electron 1s
2
2s
2
2p
3
biu din cu hnh electron ca nguyn t no ?
A. Bo. B. Cacbon. C. Nit. D. Oxi.
Chn p n ng.
Cu 2 (3 im)
Cc ht vi m c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng : 3s
1
, 3s
2
, 3p
3
, 3p
6
l nguyn
t hay ion ? Ti sao ? Hy dn ra mt phn ng ho hc (nu c) minh ho tnh cht
ho hc c trng ca mi vi ht.
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)
Hp cht Z to bi 2 nguyn t M v R c cng thc M
a
R
b
trong R chim 65,217%
khi lng. Tng s ht proton trong phn t Z bng 77, trong phn t Z c 4 nguyn t
v s khi ca Z l 161. Ht nhn nguyn t M c s ht ntron nhiu hn s ht proton
l 4, cn trong ht nhn nguyn t R c s proton t hn s ntron l 1. Xc nh M v
R, vit cu hnh electron ca chng v vit cng thc phn t ca hp cht Z.
p n
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im) 1. a) p n B. b) p n B.
2. a) p n B. b) p n D.
3. a) p n D. b) p n C.
Cu 2 (3 im)
Cu hnh electron cc lp bn trong ca cc vi ht ny l 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
, ng vi cu hnh
ca neon Ne].
Cu hnh [Ne] 3s
1
ch c th ng vi nguyn t Na (Z = 11), khng th ng vi ion.
Na l kim loi in hnh, c tnh kh rt mnh. Th d : Na t bc chy trong nc
nhit thng.
2Na + 2H
2
O 2NaOH + H
2
Cu hnh [Ne] 3s
2
ng vi nguyn t Mg (Z = 12), khng th ng vi ion. Mg l
kim loi hot ng, Mg chy rt mnh trong oxi v c trong CO
2
.
2Mg + O
2
2MgO
Cu hnh [Ne] 3s
2
3p
3
ng vi nguyn t P (Z = 15), khng th ng vi ion. P l phi
kim hot ng. P chy mnh trong oxi.

165
4 P + 5 O
2
2 P
2
O
5

Cu hnh [Ne] 3s
2
3p
6
:
a) Trng hp vi ht c Z = 18. y l Ar, mt kh tr.
b) Vi ht c Z < 18. y l ion m :
Z = 17. y l Cl

, cht kh yu. Th d :
2 MnO
4

+ 16 H
+
+ 10 Cl

2 Mn
2+
+ 8 H
2
O + 10 Cl
2

Z = 16. y l S
2
, cht kh tng i mnh. Th d :
2 H
2
S + O
2
2 S + 2 H
2
O
Z = 15. y l P
3
, rt khng bn, kh tn ti.
c) Vi ht c Z > 18. y l ion dng :
Z = 19. y l K
+
, cht oxi ho rt yu, ch b kh di tc dng ca dng in (in
phn KCl hoc KOH nng chy).
Z = 20. y l Ca
2+
, cht oxi ho yu, ch b kh di tc dng ca dng in (in
phn CaCl
2
nng chy).
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)
Gi s ht proton, ntron v electron trong nguyn t nguyn t M l P, N, E, trong
P + 4 = N. Gi s ht proton, ntron v electron trong nguyn t nguyn t R l P', N',
E'. Trong P' = E' = N' 1.
Tng s ht proton trong phn t Z : aP + bP' = 77 (I)
% khi lng R trong Z l 65,217% nn % khi lng M l :
(100 65,217)% = 34,783%
Vy ta c :
R
M
%m (P' N')b 2P' b b 65, 217
%m (P N)a 2Pa 4a 34, 783
+ +
= = =
+ +
= 1,875
3,75Pa 2P'b + 7,5a b = 0 (II)
Mt khc : a + b = 4 (III)
S khi ca Z : (P + N)a + (P' + N')b = (2P + 4)a + (2P' + 1)b =161
2(Pa + P'b) + 4a + b = 154 + 4a + b = 162 4a + b = 7 (IV)
Kt hp (III) v (IV) ta c : a = 1 v b = 3. Thay a v b vo phng trnh (I) v (II) ta c :
P + 3P' = 77
3,75P 6P' = 4,5
Gii h phng trnh thu c : P = 26, P' = 17.
M l Fe c cu hnh electron : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
6
4s
2

R l Cl c cu hnh electron : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
5

Cng thc phn t ca Z : FeCl
3
.
chng 2 (Thi gian 45 pht)
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im)

166
1. Trong BTH, mi nguyn t ho hc c xp vo mt nht nh. S th t ca
cho bit :
A. S proton v s ntron trong ht nhn nguyn t ca nguyn t.
B. S electron trong lp v nguyn t v s ntron trong ht nhn nguyn t
ca nguyn t.
C. S n v in tch ht nhn nguyn t, s proton trong ht nhn nguyn t
v s electron lp v nguyn t ca nguyn t.
D. C A, B, C.
Chn p n ng.
2. a) S nguyn t trong cc chu k 1, 2 v 3 bng :
1) 1, 8, 18. 20 2, 8, 8.
30 2, 8, 18. 4) 2, 8, 32.
b) S nguyn t trong cc chu k 4, 5, 6 bng :
1) 8, 8, 18. 2) 18, 18, 18.
3) 18, 18, 32. 4) 8, 18, 32.
A. a) p n 1 ; b) p n 4. B. a) p n 1; b) p n 3.
C. a) p n 2 ; b) p n 3. D. a) p n 2; b) p n 4.
Chn p n ng nht.
3. Hai nguyn t X v Y hai nhm lin tip trong cng chu k ca BTH cc nguyn
t ho hc c tng s proton bng 27. Hy vit cu hnh electron nguyn t v xc
nh v tr ca chng trong BTH.
A. Nguyn t X : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
1
. Nhm s 13, chu k 3, nhm IIIA.
Nguyn t Y : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
2
. Silic chu k 3, nhm IVA, s 14.
B. Nguyn t X : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
5
. Flo s 9, chu k 2, nhm VIIA.
Nguyn t Y : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
. Argon chu k 3, nhm VIIIA, s 18.
C. Nguyn t X : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
. Neon s 10, chu k 2, nhm VIIIA.
Nguyn t Y : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
5
. Clo chu k 3, nhm VIIA, s 17.
D. C A, B, C.
Chn cu tr li ng.
Cu 2 (3 im)
1. Cho 2 nguyn t ho hc c cu hnh electron ca nguyn t l :
+ Nguyn t A : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1

+ Nguyn t B : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
5
4s
1

a) Hi chng c trong cng mt nhm nguyn t khng ? Hy gii thch.
b) Hai nguyn t ny cch nhau bao nhiu nguyn t ho hc ? C cng chu k khng ?
2. Hy so snh tnh axit ca cc cht trong mi dy sau v gii thch :
a) Axit cacbonic, axit silisic ;
b) Axit photphoric, axit sunfuric ;
c) Axit silisic, axit sunfuric.
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)

167
1. Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t l RO
3
. Hp cht vi hiro ca nguyn t l
cht kh cha 5,882% hiro theo khi lng. Ht nhn nguyn t nguyn t R c s
proton bng s ntron.
a) Xc nh nguyn t R.
b) Vit cu hnh electron ca R v ion R
2
.
c) Cation ca nguyn t no c in tch 1+ c cng cu hnh electron
vi R
2
?
2. Cho ion clorua :
35
17
Cl


a) Nguyn t ca nguyn t no c cng cu hnh electron vi ion ny.
b) Hy cho nhn xt v v tr ca nguyn t Cl v nguyn t va xc nh c.
p n
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. p n C.
2. p n C.
3. p n A.
Cu 2 (3 im)
1. a) Hai nguyn t X v Y c cng s electron lp ngoi cng l 1. Nguyn t
ca nguyn t X khng c electron phn lp d trong khi nguyn t ca Y c 5
electron trn phn lp 3d nn X l nguyn t nhm A (nhm IA). Trong khi
nguyn t ca nguyn t Y c electron phn lp 3d nn nguyn t Y thuc nhm
B ca BTH cc nguyn t ho hc. Y l nguyn t nhm B nn c s nhm = 1 + 5 = 6.
Nguyn t Y nhm VIB trong khi nguyn t X nhm IIA.
b) Tng s electron ca nguyn t X bng 11 cn tng s electron ca nguyn
t Y bng 24. Vy chng cch nhau 12 nguyn t. Hai nguyn t X v Y khng
cng chu k v X chu k 3 cn Y chu k 4.
2. a) H
2
CO
3
c tnh axit mnh hn H
2
SiO
3
do s gim tnh axit theo th t t trn
xung trong mt nhm.
b) Trong mt chu k tnh axit ca cc axit c oxi ho tr cao nht ca phi kim
tng dn khi i t tri sang phi do : Tnh axit ca H
2
SO
4
> H
3
PO
4
.
c) Tnh axit ca H
2
SiO
3
< H
3
PO
4
(trong 1 chu k) v H
3
PO
4
< H
2
SO
4
do vy tnh
axit ca H
2
SiO
3
< H
2
SO
4
.
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)
1. a) Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t l RO
3
nn hp cht kh vi H
2
R. Gi s khi
ca R l A, ta c :
2
H
2
%m .100% 5,882%
2 A
= =
+
A = 32 = N + P P = 16.
Vy R l S (lu hunh).
b) S hiu nguyn t ca S l 16 nn cu hnh electron l : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
4
.

168
S + 2e S
2

nn cu hnh electron ca S
2
l : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6

c) Cation M
+
c cng cu hnh vi S
2
: M 1e M
+

V vy cu hnh electron ca M : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
1
; M l K (kali) ; Y l Al (nhm).
2. Nguyn t clo c 17 electron, to ra cation Cl

: Cl + 1e Cl


Nh vy ion Cl

c 18 electron. Cu hnh electron ca ion Cl

l (Ne) 3s
2
3p
6
.
a) Nguyn t c cng cu hnh electron trn l nguyn t agon c Z = 18.
b) Nguyn t agon ng ngay sau nguyn t clo. Chng thuc cng chu k 3.
chng 3 (Thi gian 45 pht)
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. a) Cc lin kt trong phn t NH
3
thuc lin kt :
1) Cng ho tr. 2) Cng ho tr phn cc.
3) Ion. 4) Cho nhn.
b) Cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t kali l 4s
1
, cu hnh electron lp
ngoi cng ca nguyn t brom l 4s
2
4p
5
. Lin kt ca nguyn t kali v nguyn t
brom thuc kiu lin kt :
1. Cng ho tr khng phn cc. 2. Cng ho tr phn cc.
3. Ion 4. Cho nhn.
A. a) p n 1, b) p n 3. B. a) p n 2, b) p n 3.
C. a) p n 3, b) p n 2. D. a) p n 4, b) p n 1.
Chn p n ng nht.
2. Trong cc tinh th sau y : iot, bng phin, kim cng, nc , silic.
a) Tinh th phn t l cc tinh th :
A. iot ; kim cng ; silic. B. bng phin ; nc ; silic.
C. kim cng ; nc ; iot. D. nc ; bng phin ; iot.
b) Tinh th nguyn t l cc tinh th :
A. iot ; kim cng ; silic. B. bng phin ; nc .
C. kim cng ; silic. D. Nc ; bng phin; silic.
Chn p n ng nht.
3. a) S oxi ho ca Mn trong n cht, hp cht v ion sau y : Mn, MnO,
MnCl
4
,
4
MnO

ln lt l :
A. +2 , 2, 4, +8. B. 0, +2, +4, +7.
C. 0, 2, 4, 7. D. 0, +2, 4, 7.
b) S oxi ho ca lu hunh (S) trong
2
H S,
2
SO ,
2
3
SO ,


2
4
SO

ln lt l :
A. 0, +4, +3, +8. B. 2, +4, +6, +8.
C. 2, +4, +4, +6. D. +2, +4, +8, +10.
Chn p n ng nht.
Cu 2 (3 im)

169
1. Cho dy cht sau :
2
Na O, MgO,
2 3
Al O ,
2
SiO ,
2 5
P O , Na
2
S, Al
2
S
3
,
3
SO ,
2 7
Cl O .
Bit rng m in ca cc nguyn t :
Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, O
Ln lt bng : 0,93 ; 1,31 ; 1,61 ; 1,90 ; 2,19 ; 2,58 ; 3,16; 3,44.
Hy cho bit trong cc hp cht th lin kt trong cc hp cht no l lin kt ion,
lin kt trong cc hp cht no l lin kt cng ho tr phn cc.
2. Hy cho bit s khc nhau v cc cu t (cc ht to nn tinh th) trong tinh
th ion, tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t. Hy cho bit s khc nhau v tnh
cht gia tinh th nguyn t v tinh th phn t.
Cu 3 (4 im)
1. Vit cng thc cu to cho cc phn t di y v xc nh cng ho tr ca cc
nguyn t trong cc hp cht :
a) CO
2
v H
2
CO
3
.
b) PH
3
, P
2
O
5
v H
3
PO
4
.
c) H
2
S, SO
2
, SO
3
v H
2
SO
4
.
d) HCl, HClO, HClO
2
, HClO
3
v HClO
4
.
2. Vit cng thc cu to cho cc phn t di y : Na
2
CO
3
, Ca(NO
3
)
2
, Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
v
KClO
3
.
p n
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. p n B.
2. a) p n D ; b) p n C.
3. a) p n B ; b) p n C.
Cu 2 (3 im)
1. Hiu m in ca 2 nguyn t lin kt vi nhau ln hn 1,7 th lin kt
l lin kt ion, nh hn 1,7 l lin kt cng ho tr phn cc.
Na
2
O : 3,44 0,93 = 2,51 > 1,7 nn lin lt gia Na vi O l lin kt ion.
Tng t ta c cc cht to bi lin kt ion l : Na
2
O, Na
2
S, MgO, Al
2
O
3

Lin kt trong cc oxit : SiO
2
, P
2
O
5
, SO
3
, Cl
2
O
7
, Al
2
S
3
l cc lin kt cng ho tr phn cc.
2. Trong tinh th ion, cc cu t l cc ion m v dng. Trong tinh th nguyn
t, cc cu t l cc nguyn t. Trong tinh th phn t, cc cu t l cc phn
t. Lin kt gia cc nguyn t trong tinh th nguyn t l lin kt cng ho tr
rt mnh. V vy, cc nguyn t lin kt vi nhau mt cch cht ch, do tinh
th nguyn t rt bn, rt cng, nhit nng chy v nhit si cao. Trong
tinh th phn t, cc phn t vn tn ti nh nhng n v c lp v ht nhau
bng lc tng tc yu gia cc phn t. V vy, cc tinh th phn t d nng
chy, d bay hi. Cc tinh th nguyn t rt kh ho tan trong cc dung mi
khc nhau. Cc tinh th phn t cu to t cc phn t khng phn cc d ho tan

170
trong cc dung mi khng phn cc. Cc tinh th phn t cu to t cc phn t phn
cc d ho tan trong cc dung mi phn cc.
Cu 3 (4 im)
1. a) Cu to ca cc phn t v cng ho tr ca cc nguyn t trong cc phn t :
2
II IV
O C ; 3
II IV
2
I
O C H
C O O C
O
O
H
H
O

b) Cu to ca cc phn t v cng ho tr ca cc nguyn t trong cc phn t :
3
I III
H P , 5
II
2
V
O P v 4
II V
3
I
O P H
P
H
H H P
O
O P
O
O O
P
O
O
O
O
H
H
H

c) Cu to ca cc phn t v cng ho tr ca cc nguyn t trong cc phn t :
II
2
I
S H , 2
II IV
O S , 3
II VI
O S v 4
II VI
2
I
O S H
S H H S
O
O
H
H
S
O O
S
O O
O
O
O

d) Cu to ca cc phn t v cng ho tr ca cc nguyn t trong cc phn t :
I I
Cl H ,
I II I
Cl O H , 2
II III I
O Cl H , 3
II V I
O Cl H , 4
II VII I
O Cl H
Cl H H O Cl H O Cl O H O Cl
O
O
H O Cl O
O
O

2. Lin kt gia ion kim loi v gc axit l lin kt ion, cn cc lin kt gia cc
nguyn t trong anion gc axit l lin kt cng ho tr phn cc :
C
O
O
O
Na
2
+
2-
O N
O
O
-
2
Ca
2+
S
O
O O
O
3
2-
Al
2
3+
K
+
O Cl
O
O
-

chng 4 (Thi gian 45 pht)
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. Cho qu trnh sau : (1) Fe 2e Fe
2+

(2) Cu
2+
+ 2e Cu
A. Qu trnh (1) l qu trnh kh, qu trnh (2) l qu trnh oxi ho.
B. Qu trnh (1) l qu trnh oxi ho, qu trnh (2) l qu trnh kh.
C. Trong qu trnh trn Fe ng vai tr cht oxi ho, Cu ng vai tr cht kh.

171
D. Trong qu trnh trn Fe
2+
ng vai tr cht kh, Cu
2+
ng vai tr cht oxi ho.
Chn kt lun hon ton ng.
2. Mt s hc sinh pht biu khi nim v phn ng thu nhit nh sau :
A. Phn ng thu nhit l phn ng ho hc gii phng nng lng di dng
nhit.
B. Phn ng thu nhit l phn ng ho hc hp th nng lng di dng nhit.
C. Phn ng thu nhit l phn ng lm cho mi trng xung quanh nng ln.
D. Phn ng thu nhit l phn ng ho hc hp th nng lng ca nh sng.
Chn cu tr li ng nht.
3. Cho cc PTHH sau :
1. 2Al + 9Fe
2
O
3

o
t
Al
2
O
3
+ 6Fe
3
O
4
2. 2KMnO
4

o
t
K
2
MnO
4
+ MnO
2
+ O
2
3. CuSO
4
+ BaCl
2
CuCl
2
+ BaSO
4
+
4. Ca + 2HCl CaCl
2
+ H
2
|
a) Trong cc phn ng ho hc trn, nhng phn ng oxi ho kh l :
A. Phn ng ho hc 1, 2, 3. B. Phn ng ho hc 2, 3, 4.
C. Phn ng ho hc 1, 3, 4. D. Phn ng ho hc 1, 2, 4.
b) Trong cc phn ng ho hc trn, phn ng nhit phn hu l :
A. Phn ng ho hc 1. B. Phn ng ho hc 2.
C. Phn ng ho hc 3, 4. D. Phn ng ho hc 1, 2.
Chn cu tr li ng nht cho cc cu trn.
Cu 2 (3 im)
Hon thnh cc PTHH sau theo phng php thng bng electron :
1. Cu
2
S + HNO
3
CuSO
4
+ NO
2
+ Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
O
2. As
2
S
3
+ HNO
3
+ H
2
O H
2
SO
4
+ H
3
AsO
4
+ NO
3. Fe + H
2
SO
4
(c, nng) Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ SO
2
+ H
2
O
4. Al + HNO
3
Al(NO
3
)
3
+ NH
4
NO
3
+ H
2
O
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)
Ho tan 6,25 gam hn hp Zn, Al vo 275 ml dd HNO
3
thu c dd A, cht rn B c
khi lng 2,516 gam v 1,12 lt kh D (o ktc) cha NO v N
2
O c t khi hi so
vi H
2
l 16,75. Tnh nng dd HNO
3
v khi lng mui thu c khi c cn dd A
(khng cha mui NH
4
NO
3
).
p n
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. p n B.
2. p n B.
3. a) p n D. b) p n B.

172
Cu 2 (3 im)
Hon thnh cc PTHH theo phng php thng bng electron :
1. O H O N ) O N ( Cu O S Cu HNO S Cu
2 2
4
2 3
2
4
6 2 5
3
2 1
2
+ + + +
+ + + + + +

+
+ +
+ +
6 2
2 1
4 5
S e 8 S
Cu 2 e 2 Cu 2
N e 1 N
10

Cu
2
S + 12HNO
3
CuSO
4
+ 10NO
2
+ Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 6H
2
O
2. O N O As H O S H O H HNO S As
2
4
5
3 4
6
2 2
5
3
2 3
3 2
+ + + + +
+ + + +

+
+ +
+ +
6 2
5 3
2 5
S 3 e 24 S 3
As 2 e 4 As 2
N e 3 N
3
28

3As
2
S
3
+ 28HNO
3
+ 4H
2
O 9H
2
SO
4
+ 6H
3
AsO
4
+ 28NO
3. 2Fe + 6H
2
SO
4
(c, nng) Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 3SO
2
+ 6H
2
O
4. 8Al + 30HNO
3
8Al(NO
3
)
3
+ 3NH
4
NO
3
+ 9H
2
O
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)
Khi lng kim loi phn ng l : 6,25 2,516 = 3,734 (gam), s mol N
2
O v NO
l a v b mol. Kim loi d nn HNO
3
phn ng hon ton :
Al + 4HNO
3
Al(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 2H
2
O (1)
8Al + 30HNO
3
8Al(NO
3
)
3
+ 3N
2
O + 15H
2
O (2)
3Zn + 8HNO
3
3Zn(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NO + 4H
2
O (3)
4Zn + 10HNO
3
4Zn(NO
3
)
2
+ N
2
O + 5H
2
O (4)
Ta c : 5 , 33 2 . 75 , 16
b a
b 30 a 44
M
D
= =
+
+
= ; a + b =
4 , 22
12 , 1
= 0,05 (mol)
a = 0,0125 mol, b = 0,0375 mol.
Theo cc PTHH :
sinh ra 1 mol N
2
O cn 10 mol HNO
3
v khi lng mui tng so vi khi lng
kim loi l 8.62 = 496 (gam)
sinh ra 1 mol NO cn 4 mol HNO
3
v khi lng mui tng so vi khi lng
kim loi l 3.62 = 186 (gam)
S mol HNO
3
phn ng : n = 10a + 4b = 0,275 mol nng dd HNO
3
:
C
M
= 1,0 mol/lt

173
Khi lng mui sinh ra :
m + 496a + 186b = 3,734 + 496.0,0125 + 186.0,0375 = 16,909 (gam)
chng 5 (Thi gian 45 pht)
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. a) Nguyn t X c 11 electron cc obitan p, l :
A. Nguyn t Na. B. Nguyn t F.
C. Nguyn t Br. D. Nguyn t Cl.
b) Ho tan kh Cl
2
vo dd NaOH long, d nhit phng thu c dd cha :
A. NaCl, NaClO
3
, Cl
2
. B. NaCl, NaClO, NaOH.
C. NaCl, NaClO
3
, NaOH. D. NaCl, NaClO
3
.
Chn cu tr li ng cho cc cu trn.
2. a) C 3 l ng 3 dd ring bit l BaCl
2
, NaHCO
3
v NaCl b mt nhn. C th dng
mt cht no trong s cc cht sau ng thi nhn bit c c 3 dd :
A. Dd Ba(OH)
2
. B. Dd NaOH.
C. Dd AgNO
3
. D. Dd H
2
SO
4
.
b) iu ch clo, ngi ta c th :
1. in phn mui NaCl nng chy hoc dd NaCl bo ho c mng ngn.
2. Cho KMnO
4
hoc MnO
2
tc dng vi dd HCl c.
3. Cho KClO
3
tc dng vi dd HCl c.
4. Cho Br
2
d tc dng vi dd HCl c.
A. Cc phng php 1, 2, 3. B. Cc phng php 1, 2, 4.
C. Cc phng php 2, 3, 4. D. Cc phng php 1, 3, 4.
Chn cu tr li ng nht cho cc cu trn.
3. a) Mt dd c cc tnh cht :
Tc dng vi nhiu kim loi nh Mg, Zn, Fe u gii phng hiro.
Tc dng vi baz hoc oxit baz to thnh mui v nc.
Tc dng vi vi gii phng kh CO
2
.
Dd l ca cht no sau y ?
A. NaOH. B. HNO
3
.
C. HCl. D. H
2
SO
4
c, nng.
b) Cho 1,20g Mg kim loi phn ng hon ton vi V lt kh X
2
(o ktc) thu c
4,75g hp cht MgX
2
. Hy cho bit X
2
l kh no v tnh th tch V ca kh X
2
phn
ng vi Mg.
A. Kh X
2
l Cl
2
, V = 1,120 lt. B. Kh X
2
l O
2
, V = 3,36 lt.
C. Kh X
2
l Br
2
, V = 2,480 lt. D. Kh X
2
l N
2
, V = 3,360 lt.
Chn cu tr li ng.
Cu 2 (3 im)

174
1. Hiro florua c iu ch bng cch cho axit sunfuric c tc dng vi canxi
florua.
a). Vit cc PTHH xy ra.
b) Tnh khi lng canxi florua cn dng iu ch 250 kg dd axit flohiric 40%.
2. Hon thnh cc PTHH theo s chuyn ho sau :
Cl
2

2
H
HCl
2
) OH ( Ca
CaCl
2
NaCl NaCl NaCl CaCO
3
Na
O H
2
NaOH
2
CO
Na
2
CO
3


B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)
Cho kh Cl
2
tc dng vi dd Ca(OH)
2
thu c clorua vi l hn hp ca CaCl
2
,
CaOCl
2
, Ca(ClO)
2
v nc. Sau khi loi b nc thu c 152,4 gam hn hp A cha
50% CaOCl
2
; 28,15% Ca(ClO)
2
cn li l CaCl
2
(theo khi lng). Nung nng hn
hp A thu c 152,4 gam hn hp B ch cha CaCl
2
v Ca(ClO
3
)
2
. Tnh thnh phn %
theo khi lng CaCl
2
trong B.
p n
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. a) p n D. b) p n D.
2. a) p n D. b) p n D.
3. a) p n C. b) p n A.
Cu 2 (3 im)
1. Hng dn gii :
a) CaF
2
+ H
2
SO
4
CaSO
4
+ 2HF|
b) Khi lng CaF
2
cn dng : m = 195 kg.
2. Cc PTHH :
2NaCl
in phn nng chy
2Na + Cl
2

Cl
2
+ 2Na 2NaCl
Cl
2
+ H
2
2HCl
2Na + 2H
2
O 2NaOH + H
2

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H
2
O
2HCl + Ca(OH)
2
CaCl
2
+ 2H
2
O
CO
2
+ 2NaOH Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
Na
2
CO
3
+ CaCl
2
CaCO
3
+ 2NaCl
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im) Hng dn gii :
Cho Cl
2
tc dng vi dd Ca(OH)
2
:

175
Cl
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
CaOCl
2
+ H
2
O
2Cl
2
+ 2Ca(OH)
2
Ca(ClO)
2
+ CaCl
2
+ 2H
2
O
Hn hp A cha :
2
2
2
CaOCl
Ca(ClO)
CaCl
152, 4.50%
n 0, 60
100%.127
152, 4.28,15%
n 0, 30
100%.143
152, 4.(100 50 28,15)%
n 0, 30
100%.111
= =
= =

= =
mol
mol
mol

Khi nung hn hp A :
3Ca(ClO)
2

o
t
2CaCl
2
+ Ca(ClO
3
)
2
6CaOCl
2

o
t
5CaCl
2
+ Ca(ClO
3
)
2

S mol CaCl
2
trong hn hp B : 0 , 1 6 , 0 .
6
5
3 , 0 .
3
2
3 , 0 n
2
CaCl
= + + = mol
S mol Ca(ClO
3
)
2
trong hn hp B : 2 , 0 6 , 0 .
6
1
3 , 0 .
3
1
n
2 3
) ClO ( Ca
= + = mol
Thnh phn hn hp B :
% 83 , 72 % 100 .
4 , 152
0 , 1 . 111
m %
2
CaCl
= = .
chng 6 (Thi gian 45 pht)
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im)
1. a) Khi iu ch oxi trong PTN bng phng php nhit phn dd H
2
O
2
kh oxi sinh ra
thng b ln hi nc. Ngi ta c th lm kh kh oxi bng cch dn kh i qua cc
ng s cha :
A. Bt CaO. B. Na kim loi.
C. Bt photpho. D. CaSO
4
.10H
2
O.
b) Dng th hnh bn nht ca lu hunh nhit phng l :
A. Lu hung t phng (S
o
). B. Lu hung n t (S
|
).
C. C hai dng S
o
v S
|
. D. Khng c dng no bn.
Chn cu tr li ng.
2. Phn lp c mc nng lng cao nht trong nguyn t ca nguyn t X l 4s v ca
nguyn t Y l 3p. X v Y to hp cht c cng thc l XY, trong phn t cha tng s
cc loi ht n, p, e l 108. Xc nh v tr ca X v Y trong BTH cc nguyn t ho hc
(s th t, chu k, nhm). Bit rng trong thnh phn cu to nguyn t ca X v Y u
c tng s ht mang in gp 2 ln s ht khng mang in.

176
A. X l K : 19, chu k 4, nhm IA ; Y l Cl : 17, chu k 3, nhm VIIA ; XY l KCl
B. X l Ca : 20, chu k 4, nhm IIA ; Y l S : 16, chu k 3, nhm VIA ; XY l CaS
C. X l Ca : 20, chu k 4, nhm IIA ; Y l F : 9, chu k 2, nhm VIIA ; XY l CaF
2

D. X l K : 19, chu k 4, nhm IA ; Y l S : 16, chu k 3, nhm VIIA ; XY l K
2
S
Chn cu tr li ng.
3. tng hiu qu ty trng ca bt git ngi ta thng cho thm vo mt t bt natri
peoxit. Do natri peoxit khi tc dng vi nc s sinh ra H
2
O
2
l mt cht oxi ho mnh
c th ty trng c qun o :
Na
2
O
2
+ 2H
2
O 2 NaOH + H
2
O
2
2H
2
O
2
2H
2
O + O
2

|.
Vy cch tt nht bo qun bt git l :
A. Bo qun trong mt hp khng c np ra ngoi nh nng cho bt git lun
kh ro.
B. Bo qun trong mt hp khng c np trong bng rm.
C. Bo qun trong mt hp c np kn ngoi nng.
D. Bo qun trong mt hp c np ni kh mt.
Chn cu tr li ng.
Cu 2 (3 im)
1. Ngi ta pha long 100,0 ml dd axit sunfuric nng 98%, D = 1,84 gam/ml thnh
dd axit sunfuric nng 20%.
a. Cch pha long phi tin hnh nh th no ?
b. Tnh th tch nc cn dng pha long (khi lng ring ca nc l 1,0
gam/ml).
2. Hon thnh s phn ng :
2 3 2 2 3
NaOH HCl O DdNH Br BaCl AgNO
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A A A A A A A A
Trong A
1
l hp cht ca S v 2 nguyn t khc c khi lng mol bng 51, tng s
nguyn t trong phn t A
1
l 7.
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)
1. Ho tan a gam Fe
2
O
3
vo mt lng rt d dd H
2
SO
4
long, thm b gam st
tinh khit sau thm nc ct n th tch ng 500ml. Ly 25 ml dd ri
thm dn 12,50 ml dd KMnO
4
0,096M th xut hin mu hng tm rt nht
trong dd. Tnh a v b, bit tng khi lng Fe
2
O
3
v Fe tinh khit dng l
7,20 gam.
2. Mt hn hp A c khi lng l 7,2 gam gm 2 mui cacbonat ca 2 kim loi k
tip nhau trong phn nhm chnh nhm II. Ha tan ht A bng dd H
2
SO
4
long thu

177
c kh B. Cho ton b kh B hp th ht bi dd Ba(OH)
2
d thu c 15,76 gam kt
ta. Xc nh 2 mui cacbonat v tnh phn trm theo khi lng ca chng trong A.
p n
A. L thuyt
Cu 1 (3 im). 1. a) p n A. b) p n A
2. p n B
3. p n D.
Cu 2 (3 im)
1. a) Cch pha long : H
2
SO
4
theo SGK.
b) Khi lng H
2
SO
4
: = =
% 100
% 98 . 84 , 1 . 0 , 100
m
4 2
SO H
180,32 (gam)
Khi lng dd H
2
SO
4
20% :
2 4
ddH SO
180, 32
m .100%
20%
= = 901,60 (gam)
Khi lng nc cn dng : m = 901,60 180,32 = 721,28 (gam).
2. Gi cng thc ca hp cht A
1
l X
x
Y
y
S
z
ta c khi lng mol ca A
1
:
Xx + Yy + 32z = 51 z = 1 v x + y = 7 z = 6 ; Xx + Yy = 51 32 = 19
Khi lng mol nguyn t trung bnh ca X v Y l : 3 , 3
6
19
M = = vy mt trong 2
nguyn t c khi lng nguyn t < 3,3 ch c th l H.
Trng hp I : hp cht A
1
l mui axit MHS trong M c 5 nguyn t nn khng th
ca mt nguyn t vy M cng cha X v H : Xx + (y1).1 = 18 ch c nghim ph
hp l x = 1, y = 5, X = 14. Vy A
1
l NH
4
HS (amoni hirosunfua)
Trng hp II : A
1
l mui trung ha X
x
H
y
S ta c : Xx + y = 19, x + y = 6 khng c
gc ho tr II no ph hp.
Cc PTHH :
NH
4
HS + 2NaOH Na
2
S + NH
3
| + 2H
2
O (1)
Na
2
S + 2HCl 2NaCl + H
2
S| (2)
2H
2
S + 3O
2
2SO
2
+ 2H
2
O (3)
SO
2
+ 2NH
3
+ H
2
O (NH
4
)
2
SO
3
(4)
(NH
4
)
2
SO
3
+ H
2
O + Br
2
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
+ 2HBr (5)
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
2NH
4
Cl + BaSO
4
+ (6)
NH
4
Cl + AgNO
3
NH
4
NO
3
+ AgCl+ (7)
B. Bi tp
Cu 3 (4 im)
1. Gi x l s mol Fe
2
O
3
v y l s mol Fe ly

178
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3H
2
SO
4
Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 3H
2
O
x mol x mol
Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ Fe 3FeSO
4

x mol x mol 3x mol
Fe + H
2
SO
4
FeSO
4
+ H
2
|
(y x) mol (y x) mol
10FeSO
4
+ 2KMnO
4
+ 8H
2
SO
4
5Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 2MnSO
4
+ K
2
SO
4
+ 8H
2
O
S mol FeSO
4
c trong 500 ml dd :

0, 096 12, 5 500 5
2x y 0,120
1000 25

+ = =

(mol)
H phng trnh :

160x 56y 7, 20
2x y 0,12
+ =

+ =


x = 0,01 mol a = 1,6 gam ; y = 0,10 ; b = 5,6 gam.
2. Gi cng thc chung ca 2 mui l MCO
3
, n l s mol 2 mui, M l khi lng
mol nguyn t trung bnh ca 2 kim loi
MCO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
= MSO
4
+ CO
2
| + H
2
O (1)
n n n n mol
CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
= BaCO
3
+ + H
2
O (2)
n n mol
S mol BaCO
3
= s mol CO
2
=
15, 76
197
= 0,08 (mol)
n =
7, 2
0, 08
M 60
=
+
M 30 = A gm MgCO
3
, CaCO
3

Gi x, y l s mol MgCO
3
, CaCO
3


84x 100y 7, 20
x y 0, 0, 08
+ =

+ =

x = 0,05 mol v y = 0,03 mol



3
MgCO
84.0, 05
%m .100 58, 33%
7, 2
= =

3
CaCO
%m = 41,67%.
hc k 1 (Thi gian 45 pht)
I Phn trc nghim (3 im)
Hy chn p n ng A, B, C hoc D.
Cu 1 (0,25). Trong cng mt chu k, theo chiu tng ca in tch ht nhn :
A. Tnh kim loi tng.
B. Tnh axit ca cc oxit v hiroxit tng.

179
C. Tnh phi kim gim dn.
D. Tnh axit ca cc oxit v hiroxit gim.
Cu 2 (0,25). Nguyn t ca mt nguyn t c bn lp electron, theo th t t pha
gn ht nhn l : K, L, M, N. Trong nguyn t cho, electron thuc lp no sau y
c mc nng lng trung bnh cao nht ?
A. Lp K. B. Lp L. C. Lp M. D. Lp N.
Cu 3 (0,25). Cc nguyn t v ion Ca
2+
, Cl

, Ne c c im chung l :
A. Cng mt chu k. B. Cng mt nhm.
C. Cng s electron. D. Cng s proton.
Cu 4 (0,25). Nguyn t ca nguyn t no trong cc nguyn t sau lun cho 2
electron trong cc phn ng ho hc :
A. Na (Z =11). B. Mg (Z = 12).
C. Al (Z = 13). D. Si (Z = 14).
Cu 5 (0,25). Cc nguyn t trong cng mt nhm A c c im no sau y chung ?
A. S electron ngoi cng. B. S lp electron.
C. S electron. D. S proton.
Cu 6 (0,25). Dy cc nguyn t no sau y c sp xp theo chiu gim dn tnh
kim loi v tng dn tnh phi kim ?
A. Al, Mg, Br, Cl. B. Na, Mg, Si, Cl.
C. Mg, K, S, Br. D. N, O, Cl, Ne.
Cu 7 (0,25). Trong nguyn t, trng thi c bn, mi electron c :
A. mt mc nng lng nht nh. B. mt mc nng lng thay i.
C. nhiu mc nng lng nht nh. D. nhiu mc nng lng thay i.
Cu 8 (0,25). Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l
3p
3
. V tr ca X trong BTH l :
A. Chu k 3, nhm IIIA. B. Chu k 3, nhm VIA.
C. Chu k 3, nhm VA. D. Chu k 6, nhm IIIA.
Cu 9 (0,25). Tnh cht baz ca cc hiroxit nhm IA theo chiu tng ca s in
tch ht nhn Z l:
A. Tng. B. gim.
C. Khng i. D. Va gim va tng.
Cu 10 (0,25). Nhit si ca cc n cht ca cc nguyn t nhm VIIA theo
chiu tng s th t l
A. Tng. B. gim.
C. Khng i. D. Va gim va tng.
Cu 11 (0,25). S hiu nguyn t ca cc nguyn t trong BTH cho bit :

180
A. S electron ho tr. B. S proton trong ht nhn.
C. S ntron trong ht nhn. D. S khi ca ht nhn.
Cu 12 (0,25). Trong 20 nguyn t u BTH, s nguyn t c nguyn t vi 2
electron c thn trng thi c bn l :
A. 1. B. 2.
C. 2. D. 4.
I Phn t lun (7 im)
Cu 13 (2 im). Nguyn t nguyn t X, cc ion Y
+
v Z
2
u c cu hnh electron
phn lp ngoi cng l 2p
6
. Xc nh v tr ca X, Y, Z (s hiu nguyn t, chu k,
nhm) trong BTH.
Cu 14 (2 im). Tng s ht c bn (p, n, e) trong nguyn t mt nguyn t A l 52.
Bit s ht khng mang in bng mt na s ht mang in cng thm 1.
a) Hy xc nh A.
b) Vit cu hnh electron ca A v tnh cht ho hc c bn ca n cht A.
Cu 15 (3 im). Cho 2,16 gam mt kim loi M v oxit ca kim loi ny c cng thc
M
2
O
3
vi s mol bng nhau tc dng vi dd axit HCl d th thu c 0,224 lt H
2

(ktc).
a) Xc nh kim loi M v oxit M
2
O
3
.
b) Tnh th tch dd HCl 1M ti thiu cn dng.
p n
I Phn trc nghim (3 im)
Cu 1. B Cu 2. D Cu 3. C Cu 4. B Cu 5. A Cu 6. B
Cu 7. A Cu 8. C Cu 9. A Cu 10. A Cu 11. B Cu 12. D
I Phn t lun (7 im)
Cu 13. Cu hnh electron y ca X, Y
+
v Z
2
l : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
Nguyn t, ion

S hiu NT Chu k Nhm
X 10 2 VIIIA
Y
+
11 3 IA
Z
2
8 2 VIA
Cu 14. a) Xc nh nguyn t A
Ta c 2Z + N = 52 (I)
Z + 1 = N (II) Z = 17 v A l clo (Cl).
b) Vit cu hnh electron ca A v tnh cht ho hc c bn ca n cht A.
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
5
; n cht Cl
2
l mt phi kim in hnh.
Cu 15. a) C th xy ra hai trng hp :
Th nht l M c ho tr khng i, bng III

181
PTHH : 2M + 6HCl 2MCl
3
+ 3H
2
M
2
O
3
+ 6HCl 2MCl
3
+ 3H
2
O
n
M
=
2
H
2
n
3
=
0, 224 2
22, 4 3
gii ra c M = 92 loi.
Th hai l M c ho tr thay i II v III, ta c M = 56 l Fe v Fe
2
O
3
. Trong BTH
khng c kim loi no c cc ho tr I v III.
b) Tng s mol HCl ti thiu = 2n
M
+
2 3
M O
6n = 0,02 + 0,06 = 0,08 (mol)
HCl
0,08
V =
1
= 0,08 (lt).
kim tra cui nm
Cu 1. 1. a) S nguyn t trong cc chu k 1, 2 v 3 bng:
Chu k I II III IV V VI VII
A 2 8 18 32 64 128 256
B 2 8 8 18 18 32 32
C 2 10 18 36 54 86 118
D 1 2 8 8 18 32 32
Hy chn p n ng.
b) Anion X

c cu hnh electron nguyn t phn lp ngoi cng l 2p


6
. Bn cht
lin kt ca X vi bari kim loi l :
A. Cng ho tr khng phn cc. B. Cng ho tr phn cc.
C. Ion. D. Cho nhn.
Hy chn p n ng.
c) Cc lin kt trong phn t nit c to thnh l do s xen ph ca:
A. Cc obitan s vi nhau v cc obitan p vi nhau.
B. Ch 3 obitan p hon ton ging nhau.
C. 1 obitan s vi nhau v 2 obitan p vi nhau.
D. 3 obitan p ging nhau v hnh dng v kch thc nhng khc nhau v nh
hng khng gian.
Hy chn p n ng.
d) Nguyn t X c 17 electron cc obitan p, l :
A. Nguyn t I. B. Nguyn t F.
C. Nguyn t Br. D. Nguyn t Cl.
2. Cho cc PTHH ca phn ng sau :
1. CaCO
3

o
t
CaO + CO
2
2. NH
4
NO
3

o
t
N
2
O + H
2
O
3. CuO + H
2

o
t
Cu + H
2
O

182
4. 2AgNO
3

o
t
2Ag + 2NO
2
+ O
2

5. CaO + H
2
O Ca(OH)
2

6. Cu + Cl
2
CuCl
2

7. Na
2
O + CO
2
Na
2
CO
3

8. CuSO
4
+ Fe Cu + FeSO
4

a) Trong cc phn ng ho hc trn cc phn ng oxi ho kh l :
A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. B. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.
C. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6. D. 2, 3, 4, 6, 8.
b) Trong cc phn ng ho hc trn nhng phn ng ho hp l :
A. 1, 2, 5. B. 3, 7, 8.
C. 5, 6, 7. D. 2, 4, 6.
3. a) Trong phn ng ho hc ; Cl
2
+ 2NaOH NaClO + NaCl + H
2
O
A. Cl
2
ch th hin l cht oxi ho.
B. Cl
2
ch th hin l cht kh.
C. Cl
2
va th hin l cht oxi ho, va th hin l cht kh.
D. Cl
2
khng ng vai tr cht oxi ho, cng khng ng vai tr cht kh.
Hy chn p n ng.
b) C cc hp cht : K
2
MnO
4
, KMnO
4
, MnO
2
, MnCl
2
. S oxi ho ca Mn trong cc
hp cht l :
A. +7, +7, +4, +2. B. +6, +7, +4, +2.
C. +7, +6, +4, +2. D. +6, +4, +3, +2.
Hy la chn phng n ng.
Cu 2
a) Cho m gam nhm vo trong bnh kn cha kh clo, t nng phn ng xy ra
hon ton, em cht rn thu c ho tan vo nc thy khi lng cht rn khng tan
l 10 gam. C cn dd thu c 26,7 gam cht rn khan. Tnh m v khi lng clo
tham gia phn ng.
b) Tnh th tch kh clo thu c (ktc) khi un nng nh 3,48 gam MnO
2
vi dd
axit clohiric c d. Lng clo ny phn ng ht bao nhiu gam nhm kim loi v to
thnh bao nhiu gam mui khan.
Cu 3
1. Cho phn ng: A
(k)
+ B
(k)
C
(k)
tc phn ng c tnh theo phng trnh :
V = k.[A].[B]. Gi nng cc cht khng i trong cc th nghim sau:
Nu thc hin phn ng trn 398
0
C th phn ng s kt thc trong 1 pht 36
giy.
Nu thc hin phn ng trn 448
0
C th phn ng s kt thc trong 0 pht 3 giy.

183
a) Nu tng nhit ca phn ng ln 10
0
C th tc phn ng tng ln bao nhiu
ln ? Bit rng
10
T T
T T
1 2
2 2
. k k

= ( gi l h s nhit ca phn ng hay s ln tc
phn ng tng khi tng nhit thm 10 ).
b. Nu thc hin phn ng trn 378
0
C th tc phn ng s tng bao nhiu ln so
vi phn ng 398
0
C v s kt thc trong thi gian bao lu.
2. Ngi ta ho tan hon ton 7,0 gam Fe nguyn cht trong bu kh quyn N
2
bng
H
2
SO
4
long lnh, d. Lc dd thu c vi 1,12 lt kh clo (ktc). Sau th nghim st
tn ti nhng dng mui g vi lng bao nhiu. Thm vo dd mt lng dd KMnO
4

long cha 2,54 gam. S xy ra hin tng g lng thuc tm khng phn ng l bao
nhiu. Tnh th tch clo (ktc) thuc tm cho vo khng phn ng.
p n
Cu 1
1. a. p n B. b. p n C. c. p n A. d. p n C.
2. a. p n D. b. p n C.
3. a. p n C. b. p n B.
Cu 2 Hng dn gii :
a. p n : Khi lng Al ly m
Al
= 15,4 gam, khi lng clo =
2
Cl
m 21,3 gam.
b. p n : Th tch clo thu c =
2
Cl
V 0,896 lt ; khi lng nhm phn ng
m
Al
= 0,72 gam ; khi lng mui to thnh =
3
AlCl
m 3,56 gam.
Cu 3 Hng dn gii :
1. a) Xt phn ng: A
(k)
+ B
(k)
C
(k)
398
0
C: Thi gian phn ng l 1 pht 36 giy = 96 giy
V
t
=
1
t
C
A
A
A
= k
t
[A][B] (I)
448
0
C : Thi gian phn ng l 0 pht 03 giy = 3 giy
V
2
=
2
t
C
A
A
A
= k
2
[A][B] (II)
Ly (II) chia cho (I) ta c:
2 32 32
3
96
t
t
k
k
V
V
5
10
T T
10
T T
2
1
1
2
1
2
O
1
O
2
O
1
O
2
= = = = =
A
A
= =


b) Tng t nh phn xt trn ta c :

184

4
V
V 2
t
t
k
k
V
V
1
3
2
10
T T
3
1
1
3
1
3
O
1
O
3
= = =
A
A
= =

Vy tc phn ng gim 4 ln so vi
phn ng 398
0
C. Do thi gian kt thc phn ng tng 4 ln : ht 4.96 =384 (giy).
2. S mol Fe : n
Fe
=
56
0 , 7
= 0,125 (mol) ; S mol clo :
4 , 22
12 , 1
n
2
Cl
= = 0,05 (mol)
S mol KMnO
4
: 013 , 0
158
054 , 2
n
4
KMnO
= = (mol)
Fe + H
2
SO
4
FeSO
4
+ H
2
(1)
6FeSO
4
+ 3Cl
2
2Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 2FeCl
3
(2)
Theo cc PTHH (1) v (2) s mol cc mui trong dd thu c :

2 4 3 4 3
Fe (SO ) FeSO FeCl
0,1 0,1
n mol ; n 0, 025 mol ; n mol
3 3
= = =
Dd thu c cho tc dng vi KMnO
4
: dd nht mu tm ca KMnO
4
10FeSO
4
+ 2KMnO
4
+ 4H
2
SO
4
5Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ K
2
SO
4
+ 2MnSO
4
+ 8H
2
O
khng c phn ng vi KMnO
4
th s mol Cl
2
cn ly l 0,0625 mol th tch Cl
2

cn ly l : 1,40 lt.