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Technical report on pumps and application
By; Majid hamedina
Pump is a device used to move fluids. approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as national standards. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps are divided into two fundamental types based on the manner in which they transmit energy to the pumped media: kinetic or positive displacement. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure. A classification of pumps by type. such as gases. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. Classification of pump One general source of pump terminology.Technical report on pumps and application Introduction Industrialization imposed an ever increasing demand for moving liquids from one location to another far more practically than by gravity. usually mechanical. In order to motivate the liquid to move through the pipes and channels. liquids or slurries. causing a flow. provided by a prime mover is transferred to the liquid by a device called a pump. It has also gained wide acceptance in the hydraulic machinery field both by the manufacturers and by their customers. In kinetic displacement. definitions. as defined by the HI. a centrifugal force of the rotating element. The energy. impels kinetic energy to the fluid. and standards is the Hydraulic Institute (HI) Standards. called an impeller. rules. they only displace fluid. moving the fluid from . Pumps alone do not create pressure. energy has to be imparted to the liquid. is shown in below diagram.
For example. or other moving bodies. Nevertheless. also have been applied successfully. boiler feed pumps are usually of a multistage diffuser barrel type. preference for a particular type of pump develops. many designs can handle solids in the forms of suspension. an overall liquid behavior must be exhibited by the medium in order to be pumped. although volute pumps in single or multistage configurations. at least by appearance. mud. slurries. especially for the medium and high energy (over 1000 hp) applications. to displace the media from one area into another (i. and this preference is passed on in the particular industry. Examples of pump types and applications and the reasons behind implicational preferences will follow. with radials or axially split casings. . Sometimes the terms ‘inlet’ (for suction) and ‘exit’ or ‘outlet’ (for discharge) are used. the medium must have negligible resistance to tensile stresses. The pumped medium is usually liquid. or a squeezing action of meshing gears. entrained or dissolved gas. however. On the other hand. tars. however. that. positive displacement uses the reciprocating action of one or several pistons.e. moving the material from suction to discharge). The HI classifies pumps by type. paper pulp. Often. and other exotic substances. lobes.. must ultimately deal with specific applications. The user. In other words. do not resemble liquids. based on personal experience. not by application.pump suction to the discharge.
The main elements of a pumping system are: •Supply side (suction or inlet side) •Pump (with a driver) •Delivery side (discharge or process) . All type of pump diagram Liquid transfer To truly understand pump operation. one need to carefully examine the specifics of each individual system in which a pump is installed and operating (see below picture).
).Pump in a system The energy delivered to a pump by the driver is spent on useful energy to move the fluid and to overcome losses: From the pump user viewpoint. etc. Pressure: Tells us how much of the hydraulic resistance needs to be overcome by the pumping element. there are some major parameters of interest: Flow: Flow is a parameter that tells us how much of the fluid needs to be moved (i.e. . in order to move the fluid.. adding chemicals to a process. transferring from a large storage tank to smaller drums for distribution and sale.
Capacity: Imagine a piston steadily pushed against pressure. all of the input power would go into moving the flow against given pressure.” or “delivery..In a perfect world of zero losses.” inside a pipe filled with liquid. or impeller. Capacity is measured in gallons per minute.” the piston will travel a distance “L. rotary gear. useful) power.” Inside the pump. and each gallon of liquid has weight. the fluid is moved against the pressure by a piston. so if we multiply these two together we get footpounds per minute which converts directly to work. so we can easily calculate the pounds per minute being pumped. fluid. During the time “t. Total system head: "Head" is a very convenient term in the pumping business.” we get: “Q” is the volume per unit of time. “A”: Work per unit of time equals power. dividing both sides of the equation by “t. Head or height is measure in feet.” and the exerting force “F” on a piston. Pressure is not as convenient a term because the amount of pressure that the pump will deliver depends upon the weight (specific gravity) of the liquid being pumped and the specific gravity changes with temperature. or transferred to. which in pump language is called “flow.” “capacity.” acting on area. (thus far assuming no losses). From our school days. . “p. and fluid concentration. we remember that work equals force multiplied by distance W=F*d for a steady motion.e. a hydraulic (i. the force is balanced by the pressure “p. So. etc. We could say that all of the available driver power was spent on. is doing work to get this process going.
called "surface pressure head". we will then subtract the suction head from the discharge head and the amount remaining will be the amount of head that the pump must be able to generate at the rated flow. Note that we always measure from the center line of the pump to the highest liquid level.hs The total discharge head is made from three separate heads: hd = hsd + hpd + hfd 1hd = total discharge head 2hsd = discharge static head 3hpd = discharge surface pressure head 4hfd = discharge friction head The total suction head also consists of three separate heads. and a head caused by any pressure that might be acting on the liquid in the tanks including atmospheric pressure.hfs hs = total suction head hss = suction static head hps = suction surface pressure head . Here is how it looks in a formula: System head = total discharge head . you should get a clear picture of what is meant by static head.total suction head H = hd . In addition to the static head we will learn that there is a head caused by resistance in the piping. To calculate head accurately we must calculate the total head on both the suction and discharge sides of the pump.Head of pump definition If you will refer to above figure. fittings and valves called friction head. Once we know these heads it gets simple. hs = hss + hps .
Efficient performance over a range of heads and capacities. Kinetic pumps have the following characteristics: . .They are relatively small high speed devices. The vanes of impeller pass kinetic energy to the liquid. .Discharge is relatively free of pulsation. . you must sure that all calculations are made in either "feet of liquid gauge" or "feet of liquid absolute". Essentially.Discharge pressure is a function of fluid density and operational speed. or similar device. . a centrifugal pump has a rotating element. .Mechanical design lends itself to high throughputs. The liquid leaves the impeller at high velocity. A collector (volute or a diffuser) guides the fluid to discharge.” which a rotary pump is. thereby causing the liquid to rotate. The impeller is surrounded by a volute casing. A centrifugal pump is one of the simplest pieces of equipment in any process plant.hfs = suction friction head As we make these calculations.They are economical. propeller.” vs. Kinetic pump Kinetic pumps are dynamic devices that impart the energy of motion (kinetic energy) to a liquid by use of a rotating impeller. . Centrifugal pump A centrifugal pump is known to be a “pressure generator. which “impel” (hence the name impeller) the energy to the fluid. In case you have forgotten "absolute means that you have added atmospheric pressure (head) to the gauge reading. a “flow generator. The below figure shows how this type of pump operates: • • • Liquid is forced into an impeller either by atmospheric pressure. The volute or stationary diffuser ring converts the kinetic energy into pressure energy. or several of them. so that capacity limits are seldom a problem.
with regard to performance of pump we can conclude: Head Flow • The head and flow rate determine the performance of a pump. which is graphically shown in the Figure.Centrifugal pump component Take a look at the below figure. .
casing cover. the head will also increase. A zero flow rate is only acceptable for a short period without causing to the pump to burn out. In the below pictures are shown. a stationary component comprised of a casing. Centrifugal pump and its components Casing: have two functions • • The main function of casing is to enclose the impeller at suction and delivery ends and thereby form a pressure vessel. One of the main purposes is to help balance the hydraulic pressure on the shaft of the pump. A second function of casing is to provide a supporting and bearing medium for the shaft and impeller. There are two types of casings • • Volute casing (see figure) has impellers that are fitted inside the casings. and bearings. a rotating component comprised of an impeller and a shaft. A centrifugal pump has two main components.• • The figure shows a typical curve of a centrifugal pump where the head gradually decreases with increasing flow. And secondly. These casings are mostly used for multi- . First. This in turn causes the flow rate to decrease and will eventually reach zero. As the resistance of a system increases. Circular casing has stationary diffusion vanes surrounding the impeller periphery that convert speed into pressure energy.
Impellers could be open. Vortex pump impellers. A single stage pump has one impeller and is best suited for low head (= pressure) Impellers can be classified on the basis of (which will determine their use): • • • Major direction of flow from the rotation axis Suction type: single suction and double suction Shape or mechanical construction: Closed impellers have vanes enclosed by shrouds. . • • Shaft: Delivery pipe is connected to the outlet of the pump and other end delivers the fluid at required height. polycarbonate. • • The number of impellers determines the number of stages of the pump. Pipe: • Suction pipe is connected to the inlet of the pump and other side is dipped into the fluid in a sump. Open and semi-open impellers. The figure shows an open type impeller and a closed type impeller. cast iron or stainless steel. semi-open or closed. The casings can be designed as solid casing (one fabricated piece) or split casing (two or more parts together) Impeller: • An impeller is a circular metallic disc with a built-in passage for the flow of fluid. but other materials are also used.stage pumps. Impellers are generally made of bronze.
On the next page there are two figure that show centrifugal pump and its related components and how liquid to pump.The shaft transfers the torque from the motor to the impeller during the startup and operation of the pump. .
and damage for many of the components. The pump's efficiency drops. Any vapor bubbles formed by the pressure drop at the eye of the impeller are swept along the impeller vanes by the flow of the fluid. The pump can no longer build the same head (pressure). vibration.Cavitations If the suction pressure at the eye of the impeller falls below the vapor pressure of the fluid being pumped. the fluid will start to boil. When the bubbles enter a region where local pressure is greater than saturation pressure farther out the impeller vane. . The output pressure fluctuates. the vapor bubbles abruptly collapse. This phenomenon is called cavitation. We experience a loss in capacity. There are several effects of cavitations: It creates noise.
impeller eye opening.Effect of cavitation Prevention of cavitation: Raise the liquid level in the tank Lower the pumping fluid temperature Use a pump with a larger. Pump should be airtight Friction losses should be decreased .
High Pressure 10.000+ PSI No Smooth Variable No Requires Less Space Lower Initial Lower Maintenance Higher Power Suitable for a wide range including clean.000+ GPM No 6. Specially to close tolerances fitted pumps suitable for abrasiveslurry service.000+ PSI Yes Smooth Constant 100.000+ GPM Yes 100. Optimum performance with Suitable for high high viscosity fluids viscosity fluids Higher tolerance for Higher tolerance for entrained gases entrained gases Fluid Handling Comparison Table .000+ GPM Yes 4.Parameter Optimum Flow and Pressure Applications Maximum Flow Rate Low Flow Rate Capability Maximum Pressure Requires Relief Valve Smooth or Pulsating Flow Variable or Constant Flow Selfpriming Space Considerations Costs Centrifugal Pumps Medium/High Capacity. Not suitable for high viscosity fluids Lower tolerance for entrained gases Yes Yes Requires More Space Requires Less Space Higher Initial Lower Initial Higher Maintenance Lower Maintenance Lower Power Lower Power Suitable for clean. nonabrasive nonabrasive fluid due fluids. Low/Medium Pressure Reciprocating Pumps Low Capacity. clear. nonabrasive fluids to fluids with abrasive. clear. Low/Medium Pressure 10.000+ PSI Yes Pulsating Constant Rotary Pumps Low/Medium Capacity. Requires clean. clear. highsolid content.
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