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How Environmental Treatments Affect the Dispersal Characteristics of Carduus nutans

Jonathan Saperstein

Outline
Introduction
Kats

experiment Summer experiment


Methods Predictions Results

and analysis Future directions?

Kats Experiment

Phenotypic

experiment from 2003 where a number of different treatments were tested looked at blocks 2 and 16
and worst situations (without plants completely dying)

Best

Results

of dissections and terminal velocity tests showed no significance between treatment and terminal velocity

Kats Experiment

Kats Experiment

Thought to be attributed to being in storage for nearly 10 years

Summer Experiment

Wanted

to do the same sort of testing with fresh flower heads on a smaller scale existing Carduus nutans plot in Rock Springs decided to test two sets of treatments instead of four
Mowing and not mowing Fertilizing and not fertilizing

Used

We

Methods
Began In

with 35 plants

March, plants were measured for longest leaf length (LLL) and diameter three outlier plants based on LLL

Removed

New total of 32 plants

Each

plant was to be assigned 1 of 4 treatments


FM, FNM, NFM, and NFNM

Methods

Stratified individuals by size

Plants were divided into groups (blocks) of four based on LLL (stratified by size) and each plant within each group received one of the four treatments 4 rows labeled A through D

Considered geographical location in the field

Determined which plants needed to receive fertilizer and fertilized in April

Two level spooonfuls around base

Cleared cut back grass around plants to reduce competition Came back in May to start measuring plants

For non-bolted: LLL and diameter For bolted: LLL and height

Methods

Went to the field and took measurements twice a week throughout the summer Tied blue and pink ribbons around bolted plants to differentiate treatments Once plants reached 40 cm, they were cut (for FM and NFM treatments)

Final Distribution of Treatments in Bolted Plants


Mowed Fertilized Not Fertilized 6 5 Not Mowed 6 3

Methods

When

flower heads were in their paintbrush stage, they were bagged they started turning brown, they were harvested, boxed, labeled, and kept in the storage room

Once

10 cm of stem were cut

Every

flower head on every bolted plant was collected (including secondary and tertiary ones) the end of the summer, every plant was killed

At

Methods
At

the start of Fall semester, I formulated a protocol for dissections with Kat performing dissections and TV drops on 10 healthy seeds per plant
Recorded falling times to within 0.01 s TV tube = 1.27 m, used to calculate TV

Began

Saved Also

all the seeds to be counted later

recorded plant height (taken immediately before harvesting tallest flower head), pappus length and width, and temperature and humidity of the room

Predictions
FM:

received one positive treatments = these plants will have the mid level terminal velocities (orange) received two positive treatments = these plants will have the slowest terminal velocities (green) received two negative treatments = these plants will have the fastest terminal velocities (red) control = these plants will have midlevel terminal velocities (grey)

FNM:

NFM:

NFNM:

TV Analysis
No significance among treatments

Height Analysis
Significant effect of mowing (P<<.05) 40.5cm difference between those mowed and those not mowed

TV v. Height

Significant effect of height, but NS effect of treatment

Seed Traits
* Highly significant relationship between pappus length and height

Seed Traits
No Significance among treatments Highly significant relationship between pappus width and height

Future Directions
Fecundity

tests Plume loading


Release height Pappus diameter Seed mass

Plume loading

Terminal velocity

Dispersal distance

THANK YOU
To

Britta and Kat!