PDMS DESIGN

Reference Manual Part 2: Creating the Model
Version 11.3

pdms1131/man30/doc2 Issue 181200

PLEASE NOTE: Cadcentre has a policy of continuing product development: therefore, the information contained in this document may be subject to change without notice. CADCENTRE MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. While every effort has been made to verify the accuracy of this document, Cadcentre shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance or use of this material.

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Contents
1
1.1 1.2 1.3

Introduction ...................................................................................................1-1
About the DESIGN Reference Manual............................................................. 1-1 Organisation of the DESIGN Reference Manual ............................................. 1-1 Organisation of this Manual ............................................................................. 1-2

2
2.1

Equipment and Primitives ............................................................................2-1
The Primitive Modelling Attributes ................................................................. 2-1 2.1.1 Sizing Primitive Building Blocks .................................................................. 2-2 2.1.2 Choosing Nozzle Size, Rating and Height .................................................... 2-3 2.1.3 Modelling Detail Levels................................................................................. 2-3 2.1.4 Obstruction Settings ..................................................................................... 2-4 Positioning at a Known Point ........................................................................... 2-6 2.2.1 Positioning at a Coordinate........................................................................... 2-6 2.2.2 Polar Positioning from the Origin................................................................. 2-8 2.2.3 General Polar Positioning from the Origin................................................... 2-9 Orientation and Connection............................................................................ 2-10 2.3.1 Design Element Orientation ....................................................................... 2-11 2.3.2 Design Element Reorientation.................................................................... 2-12 2.3.3 Primitive Element Connection.................................................................... 2-14 Moving by a Known Distance ......................................................................... 2-16 2.4.1 Moving Along Axes ...................................................................................... 2-16 2.4.2 Moving in any Direction.............................................................................. 2-17 2.4.3 Moving in any Direction: Distance Given in Different Plane .................... 2-19 Moving Through Defined Intersection Planes................................................ 2-19 2.5.1 Moving Through an Intersection ................................................................ 2-20 2.5.2 Moving Either Side of an Intersection........................................................ 2-22 2.5.3 General Moving to an Intersection ............................................................. 2-24 Moving In Front of or Behind Items ............................................................... 2-27 2.6.1 Moving Either Side of a Fixed Object ......................................................... 2-27 2.6.2 Moving On Top of or Under a Fixed Object ................................................ 2-30 2.6.3 Moving an Item Using Reference Points .................................................... 2-33 Moving to a Specified Clearance between Items ............................................ 2-35 2.7.1 Moving to a Clearance Either Side ............................................................. 2-35 2.7.2 Moving an Object to Clear Another Object................................................. 2-38 2.7.3 Moving to a Vertical Clearance................................................................... 2-40 2.7.4 General Moving to a Clearance................................................................... 2-43 Reflecting a Position in a Plane (Mirroring)................................................... 2-44

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

3
3.1 3.2 3.3

Piping, Ducting and Cable Trays .................................................................3-1
Defining a Branch ............................................................................................. 3-1 Branch and Hanger Specifications ................................................................... 3-2 Connecting the Head or Tail ............................................................................. 3-3 3.3.1 The Head or Tail Connection Reference Attribute....................................... 3-5
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3.3.2 Positioning Head or Tail in Free Space ........................................................ 3-6 3.3.3 Head or Tail Positioning Using End Components........................................ 3-7 3.3.4 Head and Tail Positioning by Bottom or Top of Pipe ................................... 3-9 3.3.5 Moving the Head or Tail ............................................................................. 3-11 3.3.6 Reconnecting Pipes after an Equipment Move........................................... 3-13 3.4 Selecting Component and Tube Details from Specifications ......................... 3-13 3.4.1 Choosing Components from a Displayed List............................................. 3-14 3.4.2 Selecting Components from Specifications................................................. 3-19 3.4.3 Selecting the Default Specification Component ......................................... 3-20 3.4.4 Selecting from Several Alternatives ........................................................... 3-20 3.4.5 Selecting ‘Out-of-Specification’ Components .............................................. 3-22 3.4.6 Selecting Components and Tube Separately .............................................. 3-23 3.4.7 Direct Selection by Shortcode ..................................................................... 3-24 3.5 Re-selection of Existing Components and Tube ............................................. 3-26 3.5.1 Re-selecting the New Default Component.................................................. 3-26 3.5.2 General Reselection of Components and Tube ........................................... 3-27 3.6 Standard Component Attributes .................................................................... 3-28 3.6.1 Position and Orientation Attributes ........................................................... 3-30 3.6.2 Component Arrive and Leave Attributes.................................................... 3-31 3.6.3 Swapping the Arrive and Leave P-points ................................................... 3-31 3.6.4 The Component Specification Reference Attribute .................................... 3-33 3.6.5 Variable Length Tube (and Rod) Attributes............................................... 3-33 3.6.6 Insulation Specification Attribute .............................................................. 3-35 3.6.7 Trace Heating Specification Attribute........................................................ 3-35 3.6.8 The Fabrication Flags ................................................................................. 3-36 3.6.9 Position and Orientation Status Flags ....................................................... 3-37 3.6.10Variable Component Attributes .................................................................. 3-38 3.6.11Offline/Straight-Through Component Attribute ........................................ 3-39 3.6.12Multi-Way Component Attributes .............................................................. 3-39 3.7 Orientation and Connection of Components .................................................. 3-40 3.7.1 Component Orientation............................................................................... 3-41 3.7.2 Direction-Changing Components ................................................................ 3-43 3.7.3 Component Connection ............................................................................... 3-45 3.7.4 Forced Component Connection ................................................................... 3-46 3.8 Moving by a Known Distance ......................................................................... 3-47 3.8.1 Moving Components .................................................................................... 3-47 3.8.2 General Moving of Components .................................................................. 3-48 3.9 Positioning Components using Reference Planes .......................................... 3-49 3.9.1 Positioning with respect to the Previous Component ................................ 3-49 3.9.2 Positioning the Component through an Intersection ................................. 3-51 3.9.3 Positioning with respect to an Intersection................................................ 3-53 3.9.4 General Positioning through an Intersection ............................................. 3-57 3.10 Positioning Components ‘Point-to-Surface’ .................................................... 3-58 3.10.1Positioning Components either side of an Object....................................... 3-59 3.10.2Positioning Components On Top of or Under an Object ............................ 3-62 3.10.3General Component Positioning Using Planes........................................... 3-64 3.11 Component Clearance Positioning.................................................................. 3-66 3.11.1Clearance from the Previous Component ................................................... 3-66 3.11.2Component Clearance Either Side.............................................................. 3-68 3.11.3Component Clearance Vertically ................................................................ 3-70
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3.11.4Tube (Bottom of Pipe) Clearance ................................................................ 3-72 3.11.5General Clearance of Components and Tube ............................................. 3-74 3.12 Dragging Equipment and Piping Networks ................................................... 3-77 3.12.1Dragging Equipment and Nozzles .............................................................. 3-78 3.12.2Dragging Piping........................................................................................... 3-82

4
4.1 4.2

Automatic Pipe Routing................................................................................4-1
Accessing the Automatic Pipe Routing Facilities............................................. 4-1 4.1.1 Entering and Leaving Autoroute Mode ........................................................ 4-1 Pipe Routing ...................................................................................................... 4-2 4.2.1 Routing Pipes along Preferred Axes ............................................................. 4-2 4.2.2 Setting Routing Planes.................................................................................. 4-3 4.2.3 Setting Penalty Volumes............................................................................... 4-3 4.2.4 Invoking the Automatic Routing Process ..................................................... 4-4 4.2.5 Setting the Nozzle Offset Factor................................................................... 4-5 Refining the Automatic Pipe Routes................................................................. 4-5 4.3.1 Defining the Rack to be Used........................................................................ 4-6 4.3.2 Defining the Direction of Spread .................................................................. 4-6 4.3.3 Defining the Base Direction .......................................................................... 4-7 4.3.4 Spreading Pipes about the Rack ................................................................... 4-7 4.3.5 Setting the Bottom-of-Pipe Position ............................................................. 4-8 4.3.6 Combined Spreading and BOP Operations .................................................. 4-8

4.3

5
5.1 5.2 5.3

Structural Design Using Catalogue Components ......................................5-1
Creating and Positioning Primary Nodes......................................................... 5-2 Creating and Connecting Sections Automatically............................................ 5-3 Section Attributes ............................................................................................. 5-4 5.3.1 Cross-Sectional Profile via a Specification Reference .................................. 5-4 5.3.2 Generic Type.................................................................................................. 5-5 5.3.3 Start and End Positions ................................................................................ 5-5 5.3.4 Start and End Plane Directions .................................................................... 5-6 5.3.5 Orientation Angle .......................................................................................... 5-7 5.3.6 Joint Start and End References .................................................................... 5-8 5.3.7 Start and End Connection Types .................................................................. 5-8 5.3.8 Start and End Releases ................................................................................. 5-9 Creating and Positioning Secondary Nodes ................................................... 5-11 Creating and Positioning Joints ..................................................................... 5-12 5.5.1 Creating Primary Joints ............................................................................. 5-12 5.5.2 Creating Secondary Joints .......................................................................... 5-13 5.5.3 Setting Joint Geometry via a Specification Reference ............................... 5-13 5.5.4 Positioning and Orientating Primary Joints .............................................. 5-14 5.5.5 Positioning and Orientating Secondary Joints........................................... 5-15 Attributes of Connected Joints ....................................................................... 5-17 5.6.1 Connection Reference .................................................................................. 5-17 5.6.2 Cutting Plane............................................................................................... 5-18 5.6.3 Cutback Allowance ...................................................................................... 5-18 Manually Connecting Sections........................................................................ 5-19 5.7.1 Connecting Sections .................................................................................... 5-19 5.7.2 Disconnecting Sections................................................................................ 5-21 5.7.3 Reconnecting Sections ................................................................................. 5-21
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5.8

5.9

5.10

5.11

5.12 5.13

5.14

Repositioning Steelwork Elements ................................................................. 5-22 5.8.1 Reversing Section Start and End Positions (‘Flipping’) ............................. 5-22 5.8.2 Moving Steelwork Elements ....................................................................... 5-24 5.8.3 Modifying Lengths of Sections .................................................................... 5-25 5.8.4 Reorientating Steelwork Elements ............................................................. 5-26 Positioning and Orientating Using P-lines .................................................... 5-29 5.9.1 Identifying P-lines ....................................................................................... 5-30 5.9.2 Positioning by Using P-lines ....................................................................... 5-30 5.9.3 Orientating by Using P-lines ...................................................................... 5-32 Creating and Connecting Panels .................................................................... 5-34 5.10.1Creating a Panel.......................................................................................... 5-34 5.10.2Splitting a Panel.......................................................................................... 5-34 5.10.3Connecting Panels using Linear Joints ...................................................... 5-35 Fittings, Hangers and Equipment Load Points ............................................. 5-38 5.11.1Fittings and Panel Fittings ......................................................................... 5-38 5.11.2Structure-to-Pipework Connections............................................................ 5-39 5.11.3Structure-to-Equipment Connections ......................................................... 5-39 Design, Owning and Attached Parameters .................................................... 5-40 5.12.1Setting Design Parameters ......................................................................... 5-40 5.12.2Setting Owning and Attached Parameters................................................. 5-41 Representing Curved Beams and Walls ......................................................... 5-43 5.13.1Overview ...................................................................................................... 5-43 5.13.2Defining a Generic Section.......................................................................... 5-44 5.13.3More About Curve Types............................................................................. 5-45 5.13.4How P-lines Are Used For Generic Sections .............................................. 5-46 5.13.5Positioning Items Relative to Generic Sections.......................................... 5-48 5.13.6Generic Fixings Representing Joints and Fittings..................................... 5-49 Representing Building Components ............................................................... 5-50 5.14.1Using Element Soft Types........................................................................... 5-50 5.14.2Controlling Edge Representation in DRAFT.............................................. 5-51

6
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

Design Templates .........................................................................................6-1
The Concepts ..................................................................................................... 6-1 The Design Template Hierarchy....................................................................... 6-2 Parameterisation using Design Datasets ......................................................... 6-3 Assigning Local Names to Template Elements................................................ 6-4 6.4.1 Setting Local Names ..................................................................................... 6-5 6.4.2 Using Local Names in Expressions............................................................... 6-5 Setting Priorities for Evaluating Rules ............................................................ 6-6 Adding Design Points to Template Elements................................................... 6-7 Using a Design Template Item in a Design...................................................... 6-9 Portsets and Linksets ....................................................................................... 6-9

7
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Groups ...........................................................................................................7-1
Defining Group Contents .................................................................................. 7-1 Accessing Groups .............................................................................................. 7-2 Deleting Groups ................................................................................................ 7-3 Copying a Group................................................................................................ 7-3

Index
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1

Introduction

1.1

About the DESIGN Reference Manual
The PDMS DESIGN Reference Manual describes all the DESIGN commands in detail. It also describes how the Design database is structured, the Design database elements and their attributes. DESIGN is normally used interactively. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) provides discipline-based applications which help you to create, check and report on the model. How to use the applications is described in user guides and on-line help. This manual is written for experienced users of PDMS DESIGN who need to use commands, for example, to write batch macros or to customise the GUI. If you are going to customise the GUI, you will also need to refer to the Cadcentre Software Customisation Guide and Cadcentre Software Customisation Reference Manual for information about PML, the Cadcentre programming language.

1.2

Organisation of the DESIGN Reference Manual
The DESIGN Reference Manual has four parts: • Part 1, General Commands, describes general DESIGN commands, which are used, for example, for setting up the display, and querying and navigating around the Design database. It also describes how to use the command syntax graphs, which are used to show all the options available for each command. Part 2, (this volume), describes the commands for creating database elements and setting their attributes. Part 3, Elements and Attributes, contains details of all the elements which can be created in the Design database, their position in the database hierarchy and their attributes. Part 4, Utilities, describes the DESIGN Utilities for data consistency checking and clash detection, and for exporting DESIGN data to programs such as REVIEW.

• •

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1.3

Organisation of this Manual
You should refer to Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual for general information about creating elements and setting the standard attributes which all Design elements have. This manual, Part 2, is divided into the following chapters: • Chapter 2 describes the commands for modelling Equipment and Civils, including positioning, orientating and connecting commands applicable to these elements. Chapter 3 describes the commands for modelling Piping, Ducting and Cable Trays, including selecting Components from the Catalogue, and positioning, orientating and connecting commands applicable to these elements. Chapter 4 describes the commands for Automatic Pipe Routing. Users who require these facilites should enquire about Cadcentre’s Advanced Router product. (See the addresses at the end of this manual.) Chapter 5 describes Structural Design Using Catalogue Components, including positioning, orientating and connecting commands applicable to structural elements. Its main focus is on structural steelwork design, with extensions of the concepts to include their use for representing walls and floors in more general building design. Chapter 6 describes DESIGN Templates, which are groups of elements which can be defined and stored as a single parameterised element, and then inserted into a model. Chapter 7 describes Groups, which have now been largely replaced by Lists and Collections, defined using expressions.

For a comprehensive list of all PDMS attributes and pseudo-attributes, see the Cadcentre Software Customisation Reference Manual.

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2

Equipment and Primitives
This chapter describes the modelling and layout of process equipment and civil items. These include items such as pumps, vessels, walls and heat exchangers, which are modelled within the major hierarchical elements Equipment, Structure, Ptrack and Substructure. These elements own primitive geometric shapes and holes which are dimensioned and assembled to form a suitable model. The items can then be positioned and orientated as a whole by using one of the comprehensive positioning commands - Design items can either be positioned at a known co-ordinate, or moved by a given distance or clearance. The same commands can be used to modify existing positions, orientations and dimensions. There are also a number of special plant modification facilities that are described in a later part of the manual.

2.1

The Primitive Modelling Attributes
The plant design hierarchy is a ‘skeleton’ structure of the elements which represent the chosen organisation of the plant model. The physical appearance and layout of the process items are determined by the value of each element’s attributes; for example, a Box only looks like a box if its XLEN, YLEN and ZLEN attributes are set (on creation they are zero). This section describes those physical primitive element attributes that give a shape to the model. Generally, these attributes will either be set by typing in their values directly or from macros. It is important, however, to recognise that regardless of how it was input, the basic attribute information is the stored physical description of the designed plant.

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2.1.1 Sizing Primitive Building Blocks
Keywords: XLENGTH HEIGHT XOFF DTOP XTSHEAR YLENGTH RADIUS YOFF DBOTTOM YTSHEAR ZLENGTH XTOP YTOP RINSIDE XBSHEAR DIAMETER XBOTTOM ROUTSIDE YBSHEAR YBOTTOM

Description:

The physical shapes of equipment, structural and civil items in the plant are built up by creating, dimensioning and assembling basic geometric elements. These commands directly set the attributes of basic modelling primitives which give them their precise dimensions. The following primitive shapes are available: Box Cylinder Circular Torus Cone Slope-bottomed Cylinder Rectangular Torus Dish Snout Pyramid

Holes may be plunged through ‘solid’ primitives using a corresponding set of negative primitives. The examples given in this subsection refer to the Box and Cylinder; a complete description of all primitive elements and their attributes can be found in Part 3 of the PDMS DESIGN Reference Manual.. Examples: XLEN 1000 (At a Box) The xlength dimension of the box becomes 1000 DIA 3 FT (At a Cylinder) The diameter of the cylinder becomes 3 feet Command Syntax: Refer to Part 3 of the DESIGN Reference Manual.
DIAMETER

HEIGHT

Figure 2-1
2-2

Dimensioning a CYLINDER primitive
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2.1.2 Choosing Nozzle Size, Rating and Height
Keywords: Description: CATREF HEIGHT The Nozzle is the only basic equipment primitive that obtains some of its physical dimensions directly from the PDMS Catalogue. The size and rating are determined by setting the CATREF (Catalogue Reference) attribute which refers to an element in the Catalogue. The Nozzle height, however, is determined on site by setting the corresponding Height attribute. If the CATREF attribute is not set, the ‘Nozzle’ is merely a hierarchical element with no geometry.

Examples: CATR /NFAARPMM (At Nozzle) The size and rating of the Nozzle are set by naming the appropriate Catalogue choice. HEI 2’6 (At Nozzle) The Height of the Nozzle becomes 2’6. Command Syntax: >-- CATref name --> >-- HEIght <uval> -->

2.1.3 Modelling Detail Levels
Keywords: Description: LEVEL This command sets the attribute, common to all primitive elements, that controls modelling detail. The command specifies a range of modelling ‘levels’ which determine the permanent visibility characteristics of the element in DESIGN. The attribute allows plant items to be assembled from overlaid primitives representing varying levels of detail. In this way, several graphical versions of the same object can be available for different purposes. For example, it may be decided to represent an I-section beam as a single box for simple space-modelling in DESIGN, while using its full cross-section for 2D drawing data in DRAFT. The LEVEL attribute is specified as two numbers, representing the inclusive range in which that item will be drawn. In DESIGN, only primitives of visible items whose LEVEL range includes the LEVEL setting specified by the REPRESENTATION command will be drawn (see Chapter 5 in Part 1 of this manual).

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LEVEL ranges for Nozzles and piping are specified in the Catalogue. A company will usually establish rigid standards for the use of LEVELs which are defined permanently in the Catalogue and therefore must be complied with during Equipment and Civils modelling. Examples: LEVEL 6 10 The current primitive will be drawn if the operative drawing LEVEL is within the specified range. Command Syntax:
>-- LEVel integer integer -->

Figure 2-2

Some modelling detail levels for an I-section beam

2.1.4 Obstruction Settings
Keywords: Description: OBSTRUCTION The OBSTRUCTION attribute indicates to the clash detection facility whether a primitive should be considered as a ‘Hard’ or ‘Soft’ obstruction, or not at all. Obstructions can be specified as HARD, SOFT or NONE, or alternatively they can be specified numerically as follows: For ordinary primitives, the following rules apply: • • • No obstruction (internal graphical details) Soft obstruction (access volumes etc.) Hard obstruction (vessel ‘envelopes’ etc.).

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Holes (i.e. negative primitives) also have the OBSTRUCTION attribute. OBSTRUCTION settings for Nozzles and Piping are given in the Catalogue. Note: Examples: OBST SOFT (At a primitive) Current Element will be considered as a ‘soft’ obstruction. OBST HARD (At a primitive) Current Element will be considered as a ‘hard’ obstruction. OBST NONE (At a primitive) Current Element will be ignored during clash detection. OBST 2 (At a primitive) Current Element will be considered as a ‘hard’ obstruction. Command Syntax:
>-- OBStruction --+-| |-| |-| ‘-integer --. | HARD -----| | SOFT -----| | NONE -----+-->

See also Chapter 5 in Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual for details of the Spatial Map which is used during clash-checking.

Figure 2-3

Obstruction settings for use in clash detection

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2.2

Positioning at a Known Point
These commands allow you to place the Current Element at a known position in space. You can: • • • Specify explicit coordinates Specify the position of an existing p-point Cusor pick with a working grid (WGRID) position

The position of the Current Element is normally defined as that of its origin. However options exist to allow any p-point belonging to the item to be used as the positioning reference.

2.2.1 Positioning at a Coordinate
Keywords: Description: POSITION AT This command positions the Current Element directly by giving the 3D coordinates, the name of another element or p-point position, or visually by using the cursor.

Examples: AT E3’ N4’6 U1’ Current Element will be placed at the specified owner coordinate position (see Figure 2-4). AT IDP@ Current Element will be placed at the p-point picked by the cursor. AT@ The Current Element will be placed at the toleranced working grid position indicated by the cursor hit. Prompt alerts appear, and the position is generated by hits in two orthogonal views. POS PIN5 AT E3000 The specified PIN and Current Element will be positioned as a single rigid item, so that the PIN is at E3000 N0 U0 (see Figure 2-5). Command Syntax:
>--+-- POSition <marke> --. | | ‘----------------------+-- AT <bpos> -->

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Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Querying Examples: Q POS Gives position of Current Element origin in owner coordinates Q POS IN SITE Gives position of Current Element origin in Site Q POS IDP@ Gives position of picked p-point

U

N

CE ORIGIN

1'
OWNER ORIGIN

4' 6"

3'

E

AT E 3' N 4' 6" U 1'
Figure 2-4 Positioning the Current Element at a known point

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Figure 2-5

Positioning a PIN and the current element together at a known point

2.2.2 Polar Positioning from the Origin
Keywords: Description: POLAR DISTANCE This command is used to position the Current Element using polar coordinates. This is particularly useful for positioning Nozzles. The coordinates are relative to the owner’s origin.

Examples: POLAR E45N DIST 300 The Current Element will be placed 300 from its owner’s origin along E45N (see Figure 2-6). POLAR PIN1 DIST 3000 The Current Element will be placed 3000 from its owner’s origin along the direction of PIN1 (see Figure 2-6). POS IDP@ POLAR S1OW DIST3 The p-point hit and the current element will be moved as a rigid entity so that the p-point is the specified polar distance from the owner’s origin. Command Syntax:
>--+-- POSition <marke> --. | | ‘----------------------+-- POLar <bdir> DISTance <uval> -->

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Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Figure 2-6

Polar positioning from the origin

2.2.3 General Polar Positioning from the Origin
Keywords: Description: POLAR PLANE DISTANCE This command differs from the basic polar option by allowing the distance from the owner’s origin to be specified more generally. The PLANE element of the command enables this distance to be given in a direction different from the polar direction. For example, an element may be placed on a line North 25 East, and at N250 from the owner’s origin.

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Examples: POLAR N30E PLANE N DIST 1000 Positions the Current Element along the N30E line from the owner origin at N1000 (see Figure 2-7). Command Syntax:
>-+- POSition <marke> -. | | ‘--------------------+- POLar <bdir> -+- PLAne <bdir> -. | | ‘----------------+- DISTance <uval> ->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Figure 2-7

General polar positioning from the origin by specifying a plane

2.3

Orientation and Connection
These commands allow the Current Element to be rotated. In the case of connection, the item is also repositioned. For both commands, the specification of a single axial direction or p-point on the Current Element is sufficient to perform a reorientation. However, a second direction must be specified if the orientation is to be fixed in 3D space.

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2.3.1 Design Element Orientation
Keywords: Description: ORIENTATE Every Design element has its own co ordinate system which consists of a right-handed set of East (X), North (Y) and Up (Z) axes. The precise orientation of an element must be given as two statements fixing the direction of two axes, e.g. ORI Y IS NORTH AND Z IS UP. When rotating symmetrical items, such as cylinders, it may be sufficient to give one axis direction only (allowing DESIGN to choose the other), e.g. ORI P1 IS N45E. Regardless of the command given, orientation always occurs about the Current Element origin.

Examples: ORI Y IS N AND Z IS UP The Current Element is rotated about its origin so that its Y axis is pointing North (in owner coordinates) and its Z axis is pointing up (see Figure 2-8a). ORI P1 IS E The Current Element is rotated so that its P1 p-point is pointing East in owner coordinates (see Figure 2-8b). Command Syntax:
>- ORIentate -+- <bdir> IS <bdir> -. | | ‘--------------------+- AND <bdir> IS <bdir> -. | | ‘------------------------+-->

Querying:
>-- Query ORIentation --+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 2-8a

Design element orientation (1)

Figure 2-8b

Design element orientation (2)

2.3.2 Design Element Reorientation
Keywords: Description: ROTATE BY ABOUT THROUGH AND The ROTATE command allows you to rotate any Design element, including a Group. The rotation required may be specified in any of the following ways: • As a specified angle of rotation about the element’s default axis (i.e. the Z axis).

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As a specified angle of rotation about a given axis, the latter defined by its direction and/or through point. If the direction and/or through point are omitted, the default direction is that of the Neutral Axis or Z axis; the default through point is the Origin. By reference to the element’s axes.

• Examples:

ROTATE BY -45 Rotates by 45° about the element’s Z axis (anticlockwise when looking in the +Z direction, since the rotation is specified as a negative angle). ROTATE BY 45 ABOUT E Rotates by 45° about the E-W axis (clockwise when looking E). ROTATE ABOUT E BY 45 The same as the preceding example. ROT THRO P3 ABOUT S BY -25 Rotates element about an axis which passes in the N-S direction through its p-point 3 position. The rotation is 25° anticlockwise when looking S along this axis. ROTATE AND Y IS N45W25D Rotates element until the Y axis points as closely as possible to the N45W25D direction. Command Syntax: Rotation about a given axis:
>- ROTate ABOut <bdir> + THRough <bpos> -+- BY -+- <uval> ----------------. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> TOwards <bdir> -| | | | | ‘- AND <bdir> IS <bdir> ---------+-> | | BY -+- <uval> ----------------. | | | | ‘- <bdir> TOwards <bdir> -+-> | | ‘ AND <bdir> IS <bdir> -+- THRough <bpos> -. | | ‘------------------+->

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Rotation to pass through a given point:
>- ROTate THRough <bpos> + ABOut <bdir> + BY + <uval> ---------------. | | | | | | ‘ <bdir> TOwards <bdir> | | | | | ‘ AND <bdir> IS <bdir> ------+-> | | BY -+- <uval> ---------------. | | | | ‘- <bdir> TOwards <bdir> + ABOut <bdir> . | | | | ‘--------------+-> | | ‘ AND <bdir> IS <bdir> + ABOut <bdir> -. | | ‘----------------+->

Rotation by a specified amount:
>- ROTate BY + <uval> ---------------. | | ‘ <bdir> TOwards <bdir> + ABOut <bdir> -+- THRough <bpos> -. | | | | ‘------------------+-> | | THRough <bpos> -+- ABOut <bdir> -. | | | | ‘----------------+-> ‘->

Rotation to give a specified orientation:
>- ROTate AND <bdir> IS <bdir> -+- ABOut <bdir> -+- THRough <bpos> -. | | | | ‘------------------+-> | |- THRough <bpos> -+- ABOut <bdir> -. | | | | ‘----------------+-> ‘->

2.3.3 Primitive Element Connection
Keywords: Description: CONNECT This command allows the current primitive element to be ‘connected’ to another element or mapping pin. Any p-point on the Design element may be connected to any other p-point (except p-points on the same element). Mapping pins can also be used to great effect as they can connect and be connected to. In the former case, both the pin and Current Element move as a rigid entity; in the latter, the Current Element moves to the static pin. The connection operation includes positioning and orientation of the Current Element so that the two specified Design Points are coincident and of opposite direction.

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Examples: CONN P2 TO P1 OF /A The P2 of the Current Element is connected to the specified p-point on another element (see Figure 2-9). CONN PIN1 TO IDP@ The Current Element and PIN1 are moved and rotated so that PIN1 connects to the p-point hit. CONN IDP@ TO IDP@ AND X IS N The first point hit (belonging to the Current Element) is connected to the second point (belonging to another element). The Current Element is rotated so that its X axis is North in owner coordinates (see Figure 2-10). Note: The first p-point in the command must belong to the Current Element.

Command Syntax:
>-- CONnect <marke> TO <marke> -+- AND <bdir> IS <bdir> --. | | ‘-------------------------+-->

Querying:
>-- Query ORIentation --+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Figure 2-9

Connecting primitives by direct specification

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Figure 2-10

Connecting primitives by using cursor selection

2.4

Moving by a Known Distance
All the commands described in this section move the Current Element by a specified distance in a given direction. The simplest method is to move from the present position along an axis direction using a command such as BY EAST 1000. However, the command options provided enable more complex manoeuvres to be made. For instance, an element may be moved ‘towards’ another item until its Easting has changed by a given amount.

2.4.1 Moving Along Axes
Keywords: Description: BY This command displaces the Current Element by given amounts along any East, North, Up (etc.) axes. These are normally the axes of the owner, but the axial system of any element, such as the SITE, can be specified if required.

Examples: BY E300 N400 Moves the Current Element by the specified amounts along the owner’s axes (see Figure 2-11). BY E3000 WRT SITE Moves the Current Element by the specified amount along the Site’s East axis (see Figure 2-11).

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Command Syntax:
>-- BY <pos> --+-- <axes> --. | | ‘------------+-->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

N
N
BY E3000 WRT SITE CE

OWNER AXES

BY E3000

E
SITE AXES

E

Figure 2-11

Moving along specified axes

2.4.2 Moving in any Direction
Keywords: Description: Examples: MOVE N45E DIST 100 The Current Element is displaced along East 45 North in owner coordinates by the specified distance (see Figure 2-12a). MOVE TOW IDP@ DIST 100 The Current Element is displaced towards the picked p-point by the specified amount (see Figure 2-12b).
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MOVE ALONG

TOWARDS DISTANCE

This command displaces the Current Element in any specified direction by a given distance.

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Command Syntax:
>-- MOVe --+-- ALOng --. | | ‘-----------+-- <bdir> DISTance <uval> -->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Figure 2-12a

Moving a given distance in a given direction (1)

Figure 2-12b
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Moving a given distance in a given direction (2)
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2.4.3 Moving in any Direction: Distance Given in Different Plane
Keywords: Description: MOVE ALONG TOWARDS PLANE DISTANCE

This command differs from the basic option by allowing the distance moved to be specified in a different plane from the actual movement direction.

Examples: MOVE TOW /DATUM PLANE E DIST 1000 The Current Element is moved towards the specified design item until its Easting (in owner coordinates) has changed by 1000 (see Figure 2-13). Command Syntax:
>-- MOVe --+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- <bdir> -+-- PLAne <bdir> --. | | ‘------------------+-- DISTance <uval> ->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Figure 2-13

Moving in a direction specified in a different plane

2.5

Moving Through Defined Intersection Planes
The commands described in this section move the Current Element along a given direction until it intersects with a fixed Reference Plane. Any p-point on the Current Element may be used for the manoeuvre, although the default is the origin. This point is moved to the Reference Plane which is specified by the 3D position through which it passes. The orientation of the Reference Plane defaults to perpendicular to the movement direction. In no case is the volumetric geometry of any of the Design model considered. Although you do not need to know the actual distance moved, you must provide ‘point-to-point’ dimensions in these commands. In other words, these

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commands cannot calculate physical clearances (see Sections 2.6 and 2.7 for such commands).

2.5.1 Moving Through an Intersection
Keywords: Description: Examples: MOVE N30W THR /BOX Moves the Current Element along the given direction until it ‘intersects’ the Reference Plane through the origin of the named element (see Figure 2-14). MOVE E THR E3000 Moves the Current Element along the given owner axis until it ‘intersects’ the Reference Plane through E3000 N0 U0 (see Figure 2-15). MOVE ALONG N45E THR IDP@ Moves the Current Element along the given direction until it ‘intersects’ the Reference Plane through the picked p-point (see Figure 2-16). Note: The Reference Plane is perpendicular to the movement direction. MOVE THROUGH This command moves the Current Element until its origin intersects with the Reference Plane through a fixed 3D point.

Command Syntax:
>-- MOVe --+-- ALOng --. | | ‘-----------+-- <bdir> THRough <bpos> -->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 2-14

Moving along a given direction through an intersection

Figure 2-15

Moving to intersect a plane through a given point

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Figure 2-16

Moving to intersect a plane through a given point

2.5.2 Moving Either Side of an Intersection
Keywords: Description: Examples: MOVE N30W DIST 30 TO(or FROM) /BOX Move the Current Element N30W until its origin intersects a Reference Plane 30 before (or beyond) the origin of /BOX (see Figure 2-17). MOVE E DIST 1000 FROM /VESSEL5 Move the Current Element East until its origin intersects a Reference Plane 1000 beyond the origin of /VESSEL5 (see Figure 2-18a). MOVE ALONG N45E DIST 20 TO /COL8 Move the Current Element along N45E until its origin intersects a Reference Plane 20 before the origin of /COL8 (see Figure 2-18b). Note: The Reference Plane is perpendicular to the movement direction. MOVE DISTANCE FROM TO

This command moves the Current Element until its origin intersects the Reference Plane a given distance either side of a fixed 3D point.

Command Syntax:
>-- MOVe --+-- ALOng --. | | ‘-----------+--

<bdir> DISTance <uval> --+-- FROm --. | | ‘-- TO ----+-- <bpos> -->

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Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

... DISTANCE 30 FROM /BOX

30

REFERENCE PLANES

... DISTANCE 30 TO /BOX

MOVE N30W...

CE

(START POSITION)

Figure 2-17

Moving either side of an intersection

Figure 2-18a

Moving either side of a plane specified relative to another element

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Figure 2-18b

Moving either side of a plane specified relative to another element

2.5.3 General Moving to an Intersection
Keywords: Description: MOVE PLANE THROUGH FROM TO DISTANCE

This command differs from the basic options by allowing the movement direction and Reference Plane to be specified independently. For example, by specifying PLANE NORTH an element may be moved towards a point until a particular Northing in the Site is intersected. In addition, any design point on the Current Element (not only the origin) can be used as the positioning datum; for instance, the p-point on the flanged face of a nozzle.

Examples: MOVE IDP@ TOW /DATUM PLANE N THROUGH N1000 Move the picked p-point (or the Current Element) towards /DATUM until it intersects N1000 (see Figure 2-19a). MOVE ALONG E PLANE N45W DIST 20 TO /TANK5 Move the Current Element East until it intersects an oblique Reference Plane 20 before the origin of /TANK5 (see Figure 2-19b). Note: DISTANCE is measured in the direction of the Reference Plane and not the movement direction.

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Command Syntax:
>- MOVe -+- <marke> -. | | ‘-----------+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- <bdir> -. | | ‘----------+- PLANe <bdir> -+| | | | | || || ‘-

<dist> -+- FROm -. | | |- TO ---+- <bpos> -. | | ‘-------------------| | FROm ----. | | | TO ------| | | | THRough -+- <bpos> ---------+->

<dist>

= >- DISTance - <uval> ->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 2-19(a)

Moving to an intersection by separately specifying direction and plane

Figure 2-19(b)

Moving to an intersection by separately specifying direction and plane

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2.6

Moving In Front of or Behind Items
The commands described in this section move the Current Element to the intersection with a Reference Plane, a specified distance from the surface of a fixed geometric object. Any p-point on the Current Element may be specified as the positioning datum, although the default is the origin. In no case is the geometry of the Current Element considered. However, the full geometry of the fixed element is taken into account. Although the designer does not need to know the actual distance moved, he must provide a ‘point-to-surface’ dimension.

2.6.1 Moving Either Side of a Fixed Object
Keywords: Description: MOVE DISTANCE INFRONT BEHIND This command moves the Current Element until its origin is a specified distance one side or the other of a fixed geometric object. This takes into account the volume of the referenced element but not of the Current Element. Therefore it is applicable to, say, spacing the centreline of a vessel or column a certain distance from the surface of a wall.

Examples: MOVE E DIST 1000 BEH /WALL10 The Current Element is moved East until its origin is 1000 beyond the far side of /WALL10 (see Figure 2-20). MOVE N45E DISTANCE 20 INFRONT /EXCH5 The Current Element is moved until its origin is 20 to the near side of /EXCH5 (see Figure 2-20 and Figure 2-21). Command Syntax:
>- MOVe -+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- <bdir> DISTance <uval> -+- FROm -. | | ‘- TO ---+- <bpos> -+- INFront -. | | ‘- BEHind --+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

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Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-- <gid> ---. | | ‘-----------------------+-->

Figure 2-20

Moving either side of a fixed object

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Figure 2-21

Moving either side of a fixed object in a specified direction

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2.6.2 Moving On Top of or Under a Fixed Object
Keywords: Description: MOVE DISTANCE ONTOP UNDER This command moves the Current Element until its origin is a specified distance above or below a fixed geometric object. This takes into account the shape of the referenced object but not that of the Current Element. It is therefore applicable to, say, placing the centreline of a vessel a certain distance above the top surface of a beam.

Examples: MOVE D ONTO /BOX Moves the Current Element along a vertical line until its origin lies in the upper surface of /BOX (see Figure 2-23). MOVE ALONG E45D DISTANCE 3000 UNDER /BEAM Moves the Current Element along E45D until its origin is 3000 vertically below /BEAM (see Figure 2-22 and Figure 2-23). Note: ONTOP means above in owner co-ordinates regardless of original Current Element position. The DISTANCE is always measured vertically in owner co-ordinates.

Command Syntax:
>- MOVe -+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- <bdir> DISTance <uval> -+- FROm -. | | ‘- TO ---+- <bpos> -+- UNDer -. | | ‘- ONTop -+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 2-22

Moving above/below a fixed object in a specified direction

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Figure 2-23

Moving above/below a fixed object

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2.6.3 Moving an Item Using Reference Points
Keywords: Description: MOVE ALONG UNDER PLANE DISTANCE INFRONT BEHIND ONTOP

This command differs from the basic options by allowing any point on the Current Element to be moved to a specified distance from the surface of a fixed design item. In addition the distance may be specified in a direction independent of the movement direction.

Examples: MOVE P1 E INFRONT /BOX The Current Element will be moved East until the specified p-point is zero distance in front of /BOX (see Figure 2-24). MOVE NOZZLE1 S DIST 200 INF /RACK (at an Equipment element) Moves the current Equipment by positioning the Nozzle at the specified location. Command Syntax:
>- MOVe <marke> -+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- <bdir> PLAne <bdir> DISTance <uval> <repla> ->

<repla> = >--+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘--

FROm --. | TO ----+-- <bpos> --> INFront --. | BEHind ---| | UNDer ----| | ONTop ----+-- <gid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---+-->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 2-24

Moving to a point at a specified distance from a surface

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2.7

Moving to a Specified Clearance between Items
These commands allow the Current Element to be moved to a specified clearance from a fixed object or position. Their separation takes into account both the Current Element volume and the referenced element volume. For the basic options, the clearance dimension is always specified in the movement direction. It is therefore important to place the Current Element at an appropriate position from which to make the clearance move. A simpler alternative is available for placing the Current Element vertically above or below the reference element independently of movement direction. In these instances a vertical clearance can be specified directly using the ONTOP or UNDER options.

2.7.1 Moving to a Clearance Either Side
Keywords: Description: Examples: MOVE ALONG E45N CLEAR BEHIND /BOX Move the Current Element until its volume is zero clearance behind BOX (see Figure 2-25). MOVE E CLEAR 1000 INFRONT /DATUMBOX Move the Current Element East until its volume is 1000 this side of the given fixed item (see Figure 2-26). MOVE E45N CLEAR 100 BEH IDP@ Move the Current Element along E45N until its volume is 100 beyond the cursor hit p-point (see Figure 2-26). Command Syntax:
>- MOVe <marke> -+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- <bdir> CLEArance <uval> -+- INFront -. | | ‘- BEHind --+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

MOVE CLEARANCE INFRONT BEHIND This command moves the Current Element until its geometric volume is a specified clearance from a fixed Design element, Point or position.

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Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-- <gid> --. | | ‘----------------------+-->

Figure 2-25

Moving to a given clearance in a specified direction

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Figure 2-26

Moving to a given clearance

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2.7.2 Moving an Object to Clear Another Object
Keywords: Description: MOVE CLEARANCE INFRONT BEHIND ONTOP UNDER This command takes into account the geometry of both the Current and Referenced elements. In this way a minimum clearance can be specified between two Design items (for example, to ensure that a walkway is a sufficient distance away from a heated autoclave).

Examples: MOVE E CLEARANCE 1000 BEH /WALL10 The Current Element is moved East until its entire volume is 1000 clear of the side of /WALL10 (see Figure 2-27). MOVE D CLEARANCE ONTO /BEAM The Current Element is moved down until it has a zero clearance above the element /BEAM (see Figure 2-27). Command Syntax:
>- MOVe -+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- CLEArance <uval> -+| || || ‘-

INFront -. | BEHind --| | UNDer ---| | ONTop ---+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 2-27

Moving to clear another object

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2.7.3 Moving to a Vertical Clearance
Keywords: Description: MOVE CLEARANCE ONTOP UNDER This command moves the Current Element until its volume is a specified vertical clearance above or below a fixed element, Point or position.

Examples: MOVE ALONG U30W CLEAR ONTO /BEAM The Current Element will be moved vertically until it is zero clearance above /BEAM (see Figure 2-28). MOVE E60D CLEAR 1000 UNDER PIN6 The Current Element will be moved E60D until it is 1000 below the specified Design point (see Figure 2-29). Command Syntax:
>- MOVe -+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- <bdir> CLEArance <uval> -+- UNDer -. | | ‘- ONTop -+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 2-28

Moving to a given vertical clearance in a specified direction

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Figure 2-29

Moving to a given vertical clearance

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2.7.4 General Moving to a Clearance
Keywords: Description: Examples: MOVE TOWARD /TANK5 PLANE E CLEARANCE 30 INF /TANK5 The Current Element will be moved towards /TANK5 until it has 30 clearance ‘this side’ in an East/West direction (see Figure 2-30). Command Syntax:
>- MOVe -+- ALOng -. | | ‘---------+- <bdir> -+- PLAne <bdir> -. | | ‘----------------+- TOwards <bpos> -. | .--------------------------------<-------------------------------’ | ‘- CLEARance <uval> +- INFront -. | | ‘- BEHind --| |- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

MOVE PLANE CLEARANCE INFRONT BEHIND This command differs from the basic option by allowing the movement direction and clearance to be specified in different planes.

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 2-30

Moving to a given clearance relative to a specified plane

2.8

Reflecting a Position in a Plane (Mirroring)
The mirroring facility lets you change the position of the current element or group by reflecting it in a specified plane. The current element and its hierarchy of members will be repositioned so as to achieve a mirror image of their initial relative positions. If the current element is a Group, all members of the group and their hierarchies of members will be reflected. The values of positional attributes and directional attributes are derived by direct reflection in the plane. Orientations are processed such that they remain right-handed. For most elements this is achieved by reflecting the Y and Z axes directly, while reflecting and reversing the X axis. The exceptions to this rule are: • • Toruses (CTOR, RTOR, NCTO, NRTO), whose X and Y axes are reflected directly while the Z axis is reflected and reversed; The piping elements Tee, Nozzle, Elbow, Coupling, Reducer and Flange, where the p-points are used to decide the axis of greatest symmetry for the reversal. For example, an ELBO with p-point directions along X and Y will be reversed in the Z direction.

You will most likely use the mirror positioning options in conjunction with the COPY command (see Sections 8.1.5 and 8.1.6 of Part 1) to create a new part of the design model which is a mirror image of an existing part.

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Note:

Since mirror-image components will not always be available in the Catalogue, no attempt is made to reflect catalogue geometry or to reference alternative catalogue components. MIRROR Moves the current element to a new position which is calculated by reflecting the initial position in a specified plane.

Keywords: Description: Examples:

MIRROR PLANE E45D THRO /TANK5 Reflects position of current element in plane which has given direction and which passes through /TANK5 (see Figure 2-31). Command Syntax:
>-- MIRRor -- <plane> -->

where <plane> is any of the standard ways of specifying a plane through a given point in a given direction:
<plane> = >-+| | | | | | | | | | | | | | || | | | | || | | | | | | || || ‘DISTance <uval> -+- <repla> ------. | | ‘----------------| | <repla> --------------------------| | THRough <bpos> -------------------| | CLEArance -+- <uval> -. | | | | ‘----------+- <repla> -| | | |- <planf> -| | | ‘-----------| DISTance - <uval> -+- <repla> -. | | | | |- <planf> -| | | | | ‘-----------+-------------------| | CLEArance -+- <uval> -. | | | | ‘----------+- <repla> -. | | | | |- <planf> -| | | | | ‘-----------+----------------| | <repla> -------------------------------------------| | THRough <bpos> ------------------------------------| | <planf> -------------------------------------------+-> PLAne <bdir> -+| | | || || ‘-

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<repla> = >--+-| |-| | | | | |-| ‘-<planf> =

INFront --. | BEHind ---+-- <sgid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---| | FROm --. | | | TO ----+-- <bpos> ------+-->

>--+-- ONTop --. | | ‘-- UNDer --+-- <sgid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---+-->

/TANK5

Plane through /TANK5

Plane direction E45D

Current Element (owning three primitives)

MIRROR PLANE E45D THRO /TANK5

Figure 2-31

Mirroring a position in a plane

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3

Piping, Ducting and Cable Trays
This chapter describes the commands to create Piping (including Hangers), Ducting and Cable Trays. Then the commands to position, orientate and connect piping components are described. The key element in these disciplines is the Branch. This is a two-ended entity which can be joined with other Branches to form a network. The network can finish where a Branch is connected to an Equipment Nozzle, reaches the site limits, or stops at a vent or drain valve. The Branch element owns Component elements drawn from the PDMS Catalogue whose sequence and position define the centreline route. Straight variable lengths of Tube are automatically routed between adjacent Components and are therefore not individual Component elements themselves. There are no special Design hierarchy elements for ducting and cable trays. They are routed as Branches, but with Components drawn from parts of the Catalogue dedicated to the relevant discipline. It is convenient, therefore, to refer to pipes, ducting and cable trays collectively as ‘piping’, since PDMS treats them similarly. The principles applied to ‘routing’ two-ended pipe Hangers are also identical to those used for Branches. Where no distinction is made, the term ‘piping’ also applies to Hangers.

3.1

Defining a Branch
Before routing takes place, various preparatory steps are taken to define the Specification and the start and end points of the Branch or Hanger. The Piping Specification and Insulation Specification are defined first, so that all Components created within the Branch can be selected correctly. The Head and Tail attributes can be set either by explicit positioning or by connection to another item (e.g. a Nozzle). The Tail position may be in free space, when it is determined by the Leave point of the final Component in the Branch. It is quite normal in such circumstances to route the pipe with only the HEAD attributes set up. (The reverse may also apply if routing backwards.) When a Branch is connected to another item, the attributes of the element that it is connected to are set to refer to the Branch. For example, if a Branch Head is connected to a Nozzle, then the CREF (Connection Reference) attribute of the Nozzle is set to refer to the Branch. Note that when a Branch is connected to a Nozzle, the Noxzzle may be part of a database to which the piping engineer does not have write-access. In this case, an Inter-DB Connection Macro is created, which can be run by the

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designer who does have write access to the second database. This macro is a sequence of commands that, for example, sets the CREF of a Nozzle that has been connected to by the piping designer. For more information, see Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual.

3.2

Branch and Hanger Specifications
PSPE HSPE

Keywords: Description:

On creation of a Branch (or Hanger) these are normally the first attributes to be set. If the Specification of the Pipe has already been set, then this will automatically be cascaded down to Branch level when it is created. The PSPE attribute of a Branch controls all subsequent Component selection operations which choose a Component’s physical details from the stated Specification.

Examples: PSPEC /A35B8 (At Pipe level) The PSPE attribute of the Pipe and all subsequently created Branches will be set to /A35B8. PSPEC /A15A2 (At Branch level) The PSPE attribute of the Branch will be set to /A15A2. All subsequent selection commands at that Branch or one of its Components will use that Specification by default. Note: The Specification named must be currently available to the designer.

Command Syntax:
>-- PSPEcification

name -->

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3.3

Connecting the Head or Tail
CONNECT The CONNECT command, when applied to Branches (or Hangers), sets up the Head or Tail to match exactly the item to which it has been connected. For example, if the Head is connected to a 3-inch flangedfaced nozzle at E3000 and pointing North, the CONNECT command will set all the Head attributes (HBOR, HCON, HPOS and HDIR) to corresponding values. In addition, the Head and Nozzle are logically ‘tied together’ by two attributes which ‘point’ to each other - the Nozzle CREF will point to the Branch, and the Branch HREF (Head Reference) will point to the Nozzle. The final effect of CONNECT, which only applies to Heads, is that the Tube (or Rod) that may be required between the Head and the first Component is automatically selected. A Branch Head or Tail can connect to the following items: • • • A Nozzle The Head or Tail of another Branch A ‘free’ p-point of a multi-way Component in another Branch (e.g. a Tee)

Keywords: Description:

Examples: CONN PH TO /1205-N5 (Where /1205-N5 is a Nozzle) The Head attributes of the current element (Branch or Hanger) are set to match the position, orientation, bore and connection type of the Nozzle (see Figure 3-1). CONN PT TO LAST MEM The Tail attributes of the current element will be set to match the Leave Point of the last Component (that is not an Attachment point). CONN PT TO /100-A8/T2 (Where /100-A8/T2 is a TEE) The Tail attributes of the current element will be set to match the free ppoint on the specified TEE (see Figure 3-1). CONN PT TO P4 OF /VF205 (Where /VF205 is a VFWA.) The Tail attributes of the current element will be set to match the specified p-point. (Where /100-A8/1 is another Branch) The Head attributes of the current element will be set to match the Tail of the specified Branch. CONN PH TO PT OF /100-A8/1 CONN PH TO ID NOZZ@ As in the first example, but with the Nozzle identified by cursor selection.

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Note:

Before a CONNECT command is given, the Branch Specification attribute must be set. Connection to elements not within the designer’s jurisdiction (Read Only) will cause an inter-DB connection macro to be created automatically (see Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual).

Command Syntax:
>-- CONnect <marke> TO --+-- <marke> --. | | ‘-- <gid> ---+-->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-| |-| |-| ‘-PHead --. | HHead --| | PTail --| | HTail --+-->

>-- Query --+-- HPosition --. | | ‘-- TPosition --+-- WRT --. | | ‘-- IN ---+--

<gid> -->
CE

/1205-N5
PH

CONN PH TO /1205-N5

H E A D

BRANCH

T A I L

CONN PT TO /100-A8/T2 BRANCH CENTRELINE

PT

PA

PL

/100-A8/T2

Figure 3-1

Connecting a Branch Head or Tail

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3.3.1 The Head or Tail Connection Reference Attribute
Keywords: Description: HREF TREF These attributes hold the name of the element to which the Branch or Hanger is connected. They are usually set automatically as a result of a CONNECT PH (or PT) command, but they may also be set explicitly. When they are set, the corresponding attribute (CREF, HREF or TREF) of the item connected to is reset so as to point back to the Branch or Hanger.

Examples: TREF /PIPE2 HEAD Sets TREF of current element to point to Head of /PIPE2 and setsHREF of /PIPE2 to point back to the current element. HREF NULREF Unsets HREF; i.e. disconnects Head from any other element. Command Syntax:
>--+-- HRef --. | | ‘-- TRef --+-- <gid> --+-- HEAD --. | | | | |-- TAIL --| | | | | ‘----------+ | | ‘-- NULREF -------------+-->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-| |-| |-| ‘-CE ------. | HEAd ----| | BRANch --| | TAIl ----+-->

>-- Query --+-- HREF --. | | ‘-- TREF --+-->

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3.3.2 Positioning Head or Tail in Free Space
Keywords: Description: HPOS TDIR HBOR TCON HDIR HCON TPOS TBOR

It is sometimes necessary to terminate a Branch (or Hanger) in free space; for instance, where a Branch reaches the Battery Limits. Where this termination ends with a length of TUBE (or ROD) and no Head or Tail connection can be made, it is necessary to set the Head/Tail attributes individually.

Examples: HPOS E10 N5 U5 The Head position is set as specified in owner coordinates. HDIR N WRT WORLD The Head direction is set as specified in World coordinates. HBOR 80 The Head Bore is set as specified. HCON OPEN The Head Connection Type is set as specified. Note: If a data consistency error is to be avoided, the HCONN or TCONN of a free end must be set to one of the following: OPEN, CLOS, VENT, DRAN (drain), or NULL.

Command Syntax:
>--+-- HPos --. | | ‘-- TPos --+-- <bpos> --> >--+-- HDir --. | | ‘-- TDir --+-- <bdir> --> >--+-- HBOre --. | | ‘-- TBore --+-- <uval> --> >--+-- HCOnn --. | | ‘-- TCOnn --+-- word -->

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Querying:
>-- Query --+-| |-| |-| ‘-PHead --. | HHead --| | PTail --| | HTail --+-->

3.3.3 Head or Tail Positioning Using End Components
Keywords: Description: POSITION PH PT THROUGH DISTANCE

These commands allow the Head or Tail position to be set by using the end Component in that Branch or Hanger. This will normally occur when the Tail is to finish with a piece of variable length Tube. This command treats the Tail position as a pseudo-Component and places it at the specified point along the previous Component’s Leave p-point direction. If the Head is to be positioned in this way, Backwards Routing Mode must be in force.

Examples: POS PT DISTANCE 1000 The TPOS attribute will be set to the position 1000 from the leave p-point of the last Branch member (i.e. previous Component). POS PH THROUGH E3000 (In BACKWARDS mode) The HPOS attribute will be set to the intersection between the line from the Arrive p-point of the Previous Component and the perpendicular plane through E3000 N0 U0 in owner coordinates.

Command Syntax:
>-- POSition --+-| |-| |-| ‘-PHead --. | PTail --| | HHead --| | HTail --+-- DISTance <uval> --. | | ‘-- THRough <bpos> ---+-->

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Querying:
>-- Query --+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘-PHead ------. | PTail ------| | HTail ------| | HHead ------| | HPosition --| | TPosition --+-->

LAST COMPONENT

D

PL

D PT

1000

POS PT DISTANCE 1000

N

PH D

PA

D

30
OWNER AXES

LAST COMPONENT (BACKWARDS MODE)

E

POS PH THROUGH E30

Figure 3-2

Head/Tail positioning using end components

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3.3.4 Head and Tail Positioning by Bottom or Top of Pipe
Keywords: Description: BOP TOP INFRONT BEHIND ONTOP UNDER

This command allows the Head or Tail of a Branch to be moved vertically to a specified clearance above or below a Design element or Point. If the Head or Tail Tube has been selected, then its crosssection will be taken into account. (Otherwise the HPOS or TPOS will be moved to the specified clearance, as no Tube geometry is available.)

Examples: BOP ONTO /BEAM (At the Head) This will position the Tube on top of /BEAM with a clearance of 0. TOP UNDER U3000 (At the Tail) This will position the Tail under the elevation U3000 with a clearance of 0. Note: If no Tube can be found emerging from the point specified, then only the point’s position can be used.

Command Syntax:
>--+-- BOP --. | | ‘-- TOP --+-- <uval> --. | | ‘------------+-| |-| | |-| |-| |-| ‘--

FROm --. | TO ----+-- <bpos> --> INFront --. | BEHind ---| | ONTop ----| | UNDer ----+-- <gid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---+-->

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Querying:
>-- Query --+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘-PHead ------. | PTail ------| | HTail ------| | HHead ------| | HPosition --| | TPosition --+-->

UP

PH

PT

BOP ONTO /BEAM

TOP UNDER U3000

PH PT 3000 /BEAM

OWNER AXES

HORIZONTAL

Figure 3-3

Head/Tail positioning by Bottom/Top of pipe

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3.3.5 Moving the Head or Tail
Keywords: Description: MOVE BY DISTANCE

This command allows the Head or Tail position to be moved by a specified distance, relative to its current position, in the direction of PH or PT. Alternatively, it allows the Head or Tail to be moved by an amount specified in any coordinates.

Examples: MOVE PT DIST -2000 Moves the Tail by 2000 from its current position, in the opposite direction to PT. MOVE PT BY E2000 S500 Moves the Tail by 2000 East and 500 South from its current position Command Syntax:
>-- MOVe --+-| |-| |-| ‘-PHead --. | HHead --| | PTail --| | HTail --+-- BY <pos> --+-- WRT --. | | | | |-- IN ---+-| | | ‘--> | ‘-- DISTance <uval> -->

<gid> -->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘-PHead ------. | PTail ------| | HTail ------| | HHead ------| | HPosition --| | TPosition --+-->

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Figure 3-4

Moving the Head or Tail

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3.3.6 Reconnecting Pipes after an Equipment Move
Note: Keywords: Description: Applicable to Nozzles that have been moved since a Branch was connected to them. Largely superseded by the DRAG command. RECONNECT If an Equipment item is moved using an ordinary positioning command, none of the Branches connected to it will move with it. RECONNECT will reconnect all the HEADS and TAILS of Branches connected to an Equipment, moving them to new positions if necessary. Other elements in the Branches are not affected and must be realigned using ordinary routing commands.

Examples: RECON Finds all Nozzle elements which are Offspring of the current element. For each Nozzle, any Branch Head (or Tail) which is connected to it is repositioned at the Nozzle. Command Syntax:
>-- RECOnnect -->

3.4

Selecting Component and Tube Details from Specifications
Selecting from Specifications in PDMS is fundamental to all Piping design work. When you created a Component element (say an ELBO), you must then give the CHOOSE (or SELECT) command to form a link from the Component to the Catalogue description of the item, via the chosen Specification. As the correct choice of Component can involve a large number of considerations, each Selection would be very arduous if conducted manually. DESIGN assists you by automatically examining the current element and its immediate neighbours for default parameters, then searching for an appropriate item in the Specification. Of course, ultimate control rests with the designer, who can fully or partially override this choice. However, in the majority of cases, the default Selection will be suitable. In a similar manner, the straight TUBE between adjacent Components is Selected from a Specification. This is usually done automatically at the same time as Component Selection, so the designer only needs to be concerned with separate TUBE selection in certain special circumstances detailed in this section.

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Most of the examples here assume that certain common PDMS conventions are followed, (e.g. P3 of a TEE is the off-line p-point). It is advisable to discuss the structure of your own company Catalogue and Specifications with your Catalogue Administrator before reading this section. In order to make the correct Selections, you will also need a printed copy of each Specification that you wish to use.

3.4.1 Choosing Components from a Displayed List
Keywords: Description: CHOOSE This is only available in DEV GRAPHICS mode. The CHOOSE command displays Selection options on screen forms which can be picked using the cursor. Once an element has been created using the NEW command, CHOOSE may be used to list what is available in the Specification. The effect of choosing from the displayed list and applying the form setting via the OK button is to set the SPREF and LSTUBE attributes of the current Component, taking into account the choice made and the current bore. Specification-dependent Design attributes (if any) will also be set, i.e. HEIG, ANGL, RADI and SHOP. The Component may (optionally) be positioned and connected to the previous (or next) Component (or to the pipe head or tail). If the Cancel button is selected, the Component’s attributes will remain unchanged. It may be that a newly selected Component is unsuitable for connection to the previous (or next) Component (or to the Pipe Head or Tail), for example due to incompatible connection types. In such a case, the new Component will be force-connected and a warning alert displayed. This action can be turned off by giving the command CHOOSE FORCECONNECT OFF Connection attempt will still be made, but Component will be left at Site origin if connection types are incompatible. If the force-connect facility is OFF, a connection attempt will still be made following component selection. In this case however, the newly selected Component will be left at the Site origin if connection types are incompatible. This action can be turned off by giving the command CHOOSE AUTOCONNECT OFF No connection attempt will be made; Component will be left at Site origin. The default state is CHOOSE FORCECONNECT ON.
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If only one choice of Component is available, for example flanges of only one type are valid at a particular bore, DESIGN will set SPREF and LSTUBE automatically. If there are no valid choices, for example there are no Components of a particular type for the specified bore, an error alert is displayed. The CHOOSE command may be used within the same command line as a NEW command. Examples: CHOOSE Displays a general Selection form for the current element. Selection criteria displayed will depend on those available in the specification. Example form:
CHOOSE Current bore 100.00 mm Forced Connections are ON RATI 150.00 300.00

OK

CANCEL

NEW GASK CHOOSE

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CHOOSE TEXT Displays a Selection form listing choices based on the Specification Component’s (SPCOM’s) Detail Description Text (obtained from the RTEX attribute of the relevant DTEX element) and Material Description Text (obtained from the XTEX attribute of the relevant MTEX element). Example form:
CHOOSE Current bore 100.00 mm Forced Connections are ON Component Description EQUAL TEE BW SCH 40 X 40 REDUC TEE BW SCH 40 X 80 REDUC TEE BW SCH 40 X 80 Unset Unset

OK

CANCEL

NEW TEE CHOOSE TEXT

CHOOSE RTEX CHOOSE STEX CHOOSE TTEX Displays a Selection form listing choices based on the SPCOM’s Detail Description Text (obtained from the RTEX, STEX or TTEX attribute of the relevant DTEX element). Example form:
CHOOSE Current bore 100.00 mm Forced Connections are ON Component Description 150# RING GASKET 3MM THK 300# RING GASKET 3MM THK

OK

CANCEL

NEW GASK CHOOSE RTEX (or STEX or TTEX)

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CHOOSE XTEX CHOOSE YTEX CHOOSE ZTEX Displays a Selection form listing choices based on the SPCOM’s Material Description Text (obtained from the XTEX, YTEX, or ZTEX attribute of the relevant MTEX element). Example form:
CHOOSE Current bore 100.00 mm Forced Connections are ON Component Description SPIRAL WOUND SS ASBESTOS FILLED SPIRAL WOUND SS ASBESTOS FILLED

OK

CANCEL

NEW GASK CHOOSE XTEX (or YTEX or ZTEX)

CHOOSE ALL Combines the above CHOOSE and CHOOSE TEXT options. Example form:
CHOOSE Current bore 100.00 mm Forced Connections are ON RATI
150.00 150# RING GASKET 3MM THK SPIRAL WOUND SS ASBESTOS FILLED 300.00 300# RING GASKET 3MM THK SPIRAL WOUND SS ASBESTOS FILLED

OK

CANCEL

NEW GASK CHOOSE ALL

CHOOSE SPEC /RF150 As CHOOSE, but selections are made from the named specification rather than from that of the owning Branch.

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CHOOSE DEFAULT Default settings will be selected wherever they occur in the Specification. For example, if the default STYP for a Reducer is CONC, only Concentric Reducers will be listed in the selection form. NEW REDU CHOOSE WITH ABOR 100 LBOR 80 Choose from Reducers with specified arrive and leave bores only NEW ELBO CHOOSE WITH STYP LR Choose from long-radius Elbows only. Note: The Selection criteria (see syntax diagram) are independent.

The CHOOSE function assumes that the Specification hierarchy is as follows, and use of the command will generate an error if this is not so: • • The first level must contain the question TYPE The second level must contain the question PBOR or BORE

Command Syntax:
>- CHOOse -+- AUTOConnect --. | | |- FORCEConnect -+- ON --. | | | | ‘- OFF -+-> | |- SPec <gid> -. | | ‘--------------+- DEFault -. | | ‘-----------+- RTEX -. | | |- STEX -| | | |- TTEX -| | | |- XTEX -| | | |- YTEX -| | | |- ZTEX -| | | |- TEXT -| | | |- ALL --| .----<----. | | / | ‘--------+- WITH -*- <wivl> --| | | | | ‘- <wiwor> -+-> ‘->

where:

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<wivl> is

>--+-- PBOre integer --. | | |-- ANgle ----------| | | |-- RAdius ---------| | | |-- ABOre ----------| | | |-- LBOre ----------| | | |-- PREssure -------| | | |-- TEMperature ----| | | ‘-- RATing ---------+-- <uval> -->

and
<wiwor> is >--+-- STYpe --. | | |-- TYpe ---| | | |-- ACOnn --| | | |-- LCOnn --+-- word --> | |-- PCOnn integer word --> | ‘-- word --+-- value --. | | ‘-- word ---+-->

3.4.2 Selecting Components from Specifications
An alternative method of selecting items from a Specification is to create the piping Component, and then to ask the system to select a component of the correct type from the current piping Specification. If there is a choice of component during selection, it is sometimes necessary to specify answers to specification questions such as STYPE or BORE before the correct item is selected. Typical commands could be as follows: NEW ELBO SEL WITH STYP LR NEW TEE SEL WI PBOR 3 150 NEW FLAN SEL WI STYP WN NEW REDU SEL WI STYP ECC LBOR 100

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3.4.3 Selecting the Default Specification Component
Keywords: Description: SELECT The SELECT command chooses a Component and its ‘Leave’ Tube from the Branch Specification. Selecting the default Specification Component allows DESIGN to choose the appropriate item. This is based upon information DESIGN can obtain from the Design and from ‘default’ controls within the Specification. Default Selection is particularly applicable to common fittings such as FLANGEs, GASKETs, ELBOWs etc. The information automatically determined from the current element and its surroundings is as follows: SPECIFICATION (ARRIVE) BORE Obtained from the PSPE attribute of the Branch. Obtained from the (Leave) bore of the Previous element (reverse in Backwards Mode). Obtained from the corresponding Current Element attributes. Obtained from the corresponding Current Element attribute. Obtained from the corresponding Branch attributes.

ANGLE, HEIGHT, RADIUS SHOP TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE

3.4.4 Selecting from Several Alternatives
Keywords: Description: SELECT The SELECT command chooses a Component and Leave Tube from the Specification and sets the appropriate current element attributes. In order to make a Selection from the Specification, parameters for all the Specification Headings for that type of Component must be automatically obtained or provided by the designer. In many cases, the default choice may not be suitable. This may be because: • One or more of the Specification Headings has no default parameter for that Component (e.g. the Leave bore of a Reducer cannot be assumed) You wish to choose a non-default item (e.g. socket weld, not a weld-neck)

In both instances, the designer must specify the relevant Headings with the required Entry as part of the SELECT command. After a successful SELECT command, the design attributes will be updated with the relevant values from the Specification. The relevant
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attributes are ANGLE, RADIUS and SHOP, and HEIGHT if specified in the SELECT command. Examples: SELECT The default Component and Leave Tube will be selected from the Branch Specification. The Current Element SPREF and LSTU attributes will be set to the chosen Specification Component names. SEL WI STYPE BALL The current element and Leave Tube will be selected using the default choices except for the STYPE Heading which has been specified. SEL WI STYPE ECC PBOR 2 50 The current element and Leave Tube will be selected using the default choice except for the Headings specified. (If the Component LEAVE is 2, then the Leave Tube will also be 50 bore.) SEL WI ANGLE 45 The current element and Leave Tube will be selected using the default choice except for the ANGLE heading. Also, the ANGLE attribute of the Current Component will be set to 45. (Similar behaviour occurs with HEIGHT and RADIUS.) SEL WI LBOR 50 The current element will be selected using the default choice. However the Leave p-point and Leave Tube will be selected with the specified nominal bore. Command Syntax:
.------<-------. / | >-- SElect WIth --*-- SPec <gid> --| | | |-- <wivl> ------| | | |-- <wiwor> -----’ | ‘-->

For Selection criteria that are only in the Specification, the Specification itself may also contain information to assist default Selection. This information is in the Default Line of the Specification. Querying:
>-- Query --+-- SPRef --. | | ‘-- TUbe ---+-->

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.-----<-----. / | >-- Q SPECification --*-- <qspci> --+-->

where <qspci> is:
>--+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘-PBOre integer --. | ANgle ----------| | RAdius ---------| | ABOre ----------| | LBOre ----------| | PREssure -------| | TEMperature ----| | RATing ---------| | STYpe ----------| | TYpe -----------| | PCOnn integer --| | ACOnn ----------| | LCOnn ----------| | word ----+-->

3.4.5 Selecting ‘Out-of-Specification’ Components
Keywords: Description: SELECT SPEC

If an ‘out-of-specification’ Component is required, this can be Selected using the SELECT WITH SPEC command. This command uses the stated Specification rather than the default Specification. Other Headings necessary to specify which ‘out-of-specification’ item is required can be given in the same command.

Examples: SEL WI SPEC /A3AH The current element will be Selected from the given Specification using the default choice. SEL WI SPEC /A3AH STYPE CTRL The current element will be Selected from the given Specification using the default choice except for STYPE.

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Note:

The Leave Tube will be selected from the default (Branch) Specification in all cases.

Command Syntax:
.-----<-----. | >-- SElect WIth SPec <gid> --* | |-- <wivl> ---| | | |-- <wiwor> --’ | |-- <gid> --> | ‘--> /

<wivl> and <wiwor> are explained in the section on Standard Syntax Graphs in Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual. Querying:
.-----<-----. / | >-- Query SPECification --*-- <qspci> --+-->

<qspci> is explained in the section on Standard Syntax Graphs in Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual.
>-- Query --+-- SPRef --. | | ‘-- TUbe ---+-->

3.4.6 Selecting Components and Tube Separately
Keywords: Description: SELECT LSROD SPREF HSROD TUBE ROD HSTUBE LSTUBE

In some instances it may be necessary to Select Tube (or Rod) separately from its owning Component, or vice versa. This command enables separate Selection to occur. SELECT TUBE is most frequently used at the HEAD of a Branch where there is Tube between the Head and the First Component.

Examples: SEL TUBE (At Branch) The Branch HSTU attribute (Head Specification Tube) will be Selected according to the default choice of TUBE. SEL TUBE WI STYP GLAS (At Component) The Component LSTU attribute (Leave Specification Tube) will be Selected with the default choice of TUBE except for STYPE.
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Command Syntax:
>-- SElect --+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘-SPref ---. | LStube --| | HStube --| | LSrod ---| | HSrod ---| | TUbe ----| .-----<-----. | / | ROD -----+-- WIth -- *-- <wivl> ---| | | |-- <wiwor> --’ | |-- <gid> --> | ‘-->

Querying:
.-----<-----. / | >-- Query SPECification --*-- <qspci> --+--> >-- Query --+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘-SPRef ---. | TUbe ----| | LStube --| | HStube --| | LSrod ---| | HSrod ---+-->

3.4.7 Direct Selection by Shortcode
Keywords: Description: SHORTCODE The actual Specification Component name (SPREF for Components, LSTU or HSTU for Tube) can be specified in order to Select a Component. This overrides the ordinary Selection process by directly choosing the required item. The shortcode option assumes Selection from the Current Branch Specification by automatically providing the specname part. Thus it is assumed that the Specification Component name is of the form /specname/shortcode.

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Examples: SHOR /EL50 The current element SPRE attribute will be set to /specname/EL50 where /specname is obtained from the Branch. SHOR TUB /TU50 The current element LSTU (or HSTU) attribute will be set to /specname/TU50 where /specname is obtained from the Branch. Note: /specname is shown as * on PDMS Specification listings.

Command Syntax:
>-- SHORtcode --+-- SPRef ---. | | |-- TUbe ----| | | |-- LStube --| | | |-- HStube --| | | |-- LSrod ---| | | |-- HSrod ---| | | ‘------------+-- name -->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘-SPRef ---. | TUbe ----| | LStube --| | HStube --| | LSrod ---| | HSrod ---+-->

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3.5

Re-selection of Existing Components and Tube
If a Component or Tube is required to be respecified, you may restate any of the Selection commands described elsewhere in this manual. However, each time this is done all the non-default Specification entries must be restated, even if most or all of these are identical to the old Specification Component. The RESELECT command allows the designer to make use of the original Selection parameters for a Component to simplify the Selection of a new Component. This is useful for situations where only a single change has taken place since the original Selection; for example, if the Branch Specification (PSPE attribute) was changed or the nominal bore of a group of Components had to be increased. The RESELECT command operates as follows: 1. 2. Any new Selection parameters are considered (either changed defaults or specified by the user). If any more parameters are required, they are obtained from the old Specification Component.

3.5.1 Re-selecting the New Default Component
Keywords: Description: RESELECT The RESELECT command chooses a new Component and its Leave Tube from the Branch Specification. The default Selection parameters are obtained from the current element’s surroundings (in the same way as for SELECT). If any further Selection parameters are needed, they are obtained from the old Component Specification entries. The need to respecify is therefore reduced.

Examples: RESEL The current element and Leave Tube will be Selected from the new default choice(s). Any parameters required that are not obtainable from defaults will be derived from the old Specification Component. Note: This command only operates on Components that have already been Selected.

Command Syntax:
>-- RESElect -->

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Querying:
.-----<-----. / | >-- Query SPECification --*-- <qspci> --+-->

<qspci> is explained in the section on Standard Syntax Graphs in Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual..
>-- Query --+-- SPRef ---. | | ‘-- TUbe ----+-->

3.5.2 General Reselection of Components and Tube
Keywords: Description: RESELECT This command allows existing Components and Tube to be Reselected according to new parameters. Where new parameters are not stated or available through defaults, they are obtained from the old Component Specification entries.

Examples: RESEL WITH STYPE BALL The current element and Leave Tube will be Selected using any default parameters and the STYPE specified. Any further parameters required will be obtained from the old Specification Component. RESEL WI SPEC /NEWSPEC The current element and Leave Tube will be Selected using the new Specification and any default parameters. The remaining necessary parameters will be obtained from the old Specification Component. RESEL TUBE WI STYPE GLAS (At Branch) The current element HSTU attribute will be Selected using default parameters and the specified STYPE. If any further parameters are necessary they will be obtained from the old Specification Component.

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Command Syntax:
>-- RESElect --+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘-SPref ---. | LStube --| | HStube --| | LSrod ---| | HSrod ---| | TUbe ----| .-------<------. | / | ROD -----+-- WIth -- *-- SPec <gid> --| | | |-- <wivl> ------| | | |-- <wiwor> -----’ | ‘-->

Querying:
.-----<-----. / | >-- Q SPECification --*-- <qspci> --+-->

<qspci> is explained in the section on Standard syntax Graphs in Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual.
>-- Query --+-- SPRef ---. | | ‘-- TUbe ----+-->

3.6

Standard Component Attributes
This section describes the standard Component element attributes that provide their complete logical and physical descriptions. Although you may set them directly, many of these attributes are automatically determined when using the Specification selection and pipe routing commands described elsewhere. Two classes of standard attribute exist for Components: • • Those which ‘point’ to a Specification item that provides a fixed Catalogue description of the Component Those which cannot be part of the Catalogue description, as they are unique to each occurrence in the Design

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The standard Specification attributes of a Component are: SPREF LSTUBE This points to a Specification Component that provides the complete Catalogue description of the current element. These point to a Specification Component that provides the complete Catalogue LSROD description of the Tube emerging from the current element Leave Point. This points to an Insulation Specification. The Branch ‘TEMPERATURE’ attribute is automatically used to determine an insulation thickness from this Specification. This points to a dummy Tracing Specification and is used by ISODRAFT to indicate trace heating requirements.

ISPEC

TSPEC

The remaining standard attributes are: POSITION The Component’s position in Zone coordinates (neither Branch nor Pipe have a POSITION, though Branch has head and tail positions (HPOS and TPOS). The Component’s orientation in Zone coordinates (neither Branch nor Pipe have an ORIENTATION, though Branch has head and tail directions (HDIR and TDIR). ARRIVE LEAVE BUILT SHOP ORIFLAG POSIFLAG The Catalogue p-point that is on the Arrive side of the Component. The Catalogue p-point that is on the Leave side of the Component. Management information to indicate if the item has actually been built. (Shop fabrication flag.) Used by ISODRAFT to determine in which material list the item is to be shown. (Logical orientation flag.) Set and used automatically by PDMS to determine if the Component has been oriented. (Logical position flag.) Set and used automatically by PDMS to determine if the Component has been positioned.

ORIENTATION

The following attributes do not occur in all Components, but are sufficiently common to be considered as standard: ANGLE HEIGHT RADIUS LOFFLINE The (variable) angle of a Component. The (variable) height of a Component. The (variable) radius of a Component. (Logical Offline flag.) Indicates, for reporting purposes, whether the Component breaks the Tube either side of it.

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CREF

(3-way Component Connection Reference.) Indicates the element that is connected to the third (neither Arrive nor Leave) p-point of the Current Element. (Multi-way Component Connection Reference.) Indicates the elements that are connected to the free (neither Arrive nor Leave) p-points of the Current Element.

CRFA

3.6.1 Position and Orientation Attributes
Keywords: Description: POSITION ORIENTATION The Component position and orientation attributes describe their location with respect to Zone co-ordinates. This is because neither Branch nor Pipe have position or orientation attributes and therefore do not have a co-ordinate system. Component position and orientation are established using the pipe routing or ordinary positioning commands described elsewhere. Querying:
>-- Query --+-- POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | | | ‘------------| | | ‘-- ORIentation ------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘--> >-- Query POSition -->

Command Syntax:

<gid> -->

Gives the Component position in ZONE co-ordinates.
>-- Query ORIentation WRT SITE -->

Gives the Component orientation in SITE co-ordinates.

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3.6.2 Component Arrive and Leave Attributes
Keywords: Description: ARRIVE LEAVE

This command sets the attributes that control which p-points are the Arrive and Leave for a Component. It is usual to set those attributes before Selection and Positioning as they can define: • • The automatic Selection Parameters for that item (particularly REDUCERS) The centreline Logical Route that will affect positioning and orientation of the Component.

However, as the p-point details for Arrive (PA) and Leave (PL) are obtained from the Catalogue, these may only be used or interrogated after Selection. Examples: ARR 2 LEAV 1 The Logical Route will Arrive at P2 and Leave at P1 of the Component. ARR 3 LEAV 2 The Logical Route will Arrive at P3 and Leave at P2 of the Component. Note: Default is Arrive 1, Leave 2.

Command Syntax:
>--+-- ARRive --. | | ‘-- LEAve ---+-- P --------. | | ‘-- integer --+-->

3.6.3 Swapping the Arrive and Leave P-points
Keywords: Description: FLIP This command swaps the Arrive and Leave p-point numbers of a Component so that it can be ‘Flipped’. It does not actually rotate the Component until the next orientation command is given. The FLIP command can be given before Selection, as the Arrive and Leave ppoint numbers are Design attributes independent of the Catalogue. As most Specifications are organised with Reducers having PBOR1 larger than PBOR2, the Select mechanism needs to be told that the Arrive is at P2 by FLIP Selection. Therefore NEW REDU FLIP SELECT WITH LBORE 100 would be a typical command for a bore increase.

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When working in BACKWARDS mode, this situation reverses - the REDU need only be Flipped if a bore reduction is required. Examples: FLIPReverses the current Arrive and Leave p-point numbers for that Component. Command Syntax:
>-- FLIP -->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-- ARRive --. | | ‘-- LEAve ---+-->

ARRIVE

P1 CE

PH

LEAVE FLIP (ARRIVE 2 LEAVE 1) P2

PT Figure 3-5 Component Arrive and Leave attributes (standard and Flipped)

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3.6.4 The Component Specification Reference Attribute
Keywords: Description: SPREF All Piping Components (including ducting, cable trays and pipe hangers) obtain their geometries from the PDMS Catalogue through a Specification. The SPREF (Specification Reference) attribute of these items refers to a Specification Component in a chosen Project Specification that obtains its physical dimensions from the Catalogue. If the SPREF is not set, a Valve, for example, is merely a hierarchical element and has no geometry.

Examples: SPREF /SPEC208/EL50BW The current element is specified by the chosen Specification Component. Note: This attribute is usually inserted automatically as a direct result of the CHOOSE (or SELECT) command. It can, however, be set directly to the name of the required Specification Component.

Command Syntax:
>-- SPRef name -->

3.6.5 Variable Length Tube (and Rod) Attributes
Keywords: Description: LSTUBE LSROD HSTUBE HSROD

Straight lengths of Tube (ducting, trays and rod) between Components are not defined as PDMS elements in the hierarchy. Instead, they are extruded from the Leave p-point of a Component to the Arrive p-point of the next. Their geometric cross-section details are stored in the Catalogue and are pointed at from the Upstream Component via its LSTU attribute. At the Head of a Branch, there is no Upstream Component; therefore a special Branch attribute exists to allow Tube from the Head to the first Component to be specified (HSTU). Generally, you need not be concerned about specifying Tube between Components, as it is automatically determined during the Component Selection process described elsewhere. If short fixed-length stubs of Tube are required, it is usually appropriate to create a Component FTUB element to ensure that this minimum length is adhered to. Similarly, where Tube changes direction, a Component must be inserted (usually a BEND), as variable length Tube is always straight.

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Examples: LSTU /SPEC502/100L (At Branch Component) The Tube between the Leave p-point of this Component and the Arrive of the Next (or Tail) is specified by the named Specification Component. HST /SPEC502/100L (At Branch) As above, but between the Head and Arrive of First Component (or Tail). LSR /HS20/2.5 As first example. HSR /HS20/2.5 As second example. Note: (At Hanger Component.) (At Hanger Component.)

These attributes are usually set automatically when the CHOOSE (or SELECT) command is used.

Command Syntax:
>--+-| |-| |-| ‘-LSTube --. | HSTube --| | LSRod ---| | HSRod ---+-- name ----. | | ‘-- NULREF --+-->

Figure 3-6

Variable length Tube between Components

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3.6.6 Insulation Specification Attribute
Keywords: Description: ISPEC This attribute points to an insulation Specification. It is automatically cascaded down from the Branch ISPE setting, but can also be set on an individual basis. In conjunction with the Branch TEMPERATURE attribute, the ISPE insulates the Component and the Tube from its Leave point.

Examples: ISPE /I500-HAV The Current Component and Tube from its Leave p-point will be insulated according to the named Specification. (The temperature parameters required to determine insulation thickness will be obtained from the Branch element.) ISP NULREF The Component and Tube from its Leave p-point will be uninsulated. Note: If a whole Branch is to be insulated, the Branch ISPE should be set before Components are created. This setting will then cascade down to all new Components.

Command Syntax:
>-- ISPec --+-- name ---. | | ‘-- NULREF --+-->

Querying:
>-- Query INSUlation -->

Gives the insulation thickness.

3.6.7 Trace Heating Specification Attribute
Keywords: Description: TSPE This attribute provides ISODRAFT with trace heating information. The trace heating Specification pointed to is a dummy Specification defined in SPECON, having no significance other than its name.

Examples: TSPE /TR50A The Current Component will be noted by ISODRAFT with the given trace heating requirements.
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TSPE NULREF Trace heating is removed. Note: If the same trace heating is required for an entire Branch, TSPE should be set at Branch level, from where it will cascade down to all new Components.

Command Syntax:
>-- TSPec --+-- name ---. | | ‘-- NULREF --+-->

3.6.8 The Fabrication Flags
Keywords: Description: SHOP BUILT

These attributes indicate the location and status of construction of each Component. The SHOP flag is used by ISODRAFT to determine in which material list the item will appear. The BUILT flag can indicate whether or not the Component has been fabricated/built during construction.

Examples: SHOP TRUE The current element will be itemised as ‘SHOP FABRICATED’ in ISODRAFT. BUILT FALSE Information attribute indicating that current element has not been built. Command Syntax:
>--+-- SHOP ---. | | ‘-- BUIlt --+-- TRue ---. | | ‘-- FALse --+-->

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3.6.9 Position and Orientation Status Flags
Keywords: Description: ORIFLAG POSFLAG

These attributes are automatically set to TRUE when the Component is positioned and orientated. They are used by DESIGN in several situations where it requires to know if a Component has been properly positioned.

Examples: POSF FALSE This setting will occur if the Components have been transferred from a P&ID and not positioned. The Component will not be drawn in the views. ORIF FALSE POSF TRUE This setting will occur if the item has been Selected in DESIGN but not oriented. ORIF TRUE POSF TRUE After the Component is oriented it will be shown in normal line type. Note: If either POSFLAG or ORIFLAG remains FALSE, the next Component cannot be positioned using ordinary routing commands.

Command Syntax: These attributes are set automatically by DESIGN when positioning and orientation takes place. However, they can be set explicitly as follows:
>--+-- ORIFlag --. | | ‘-- POSFlag --+-- TRue ---. | | ‘-- FALse --+-->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-- POSFlag --. | | ‘-- ORIFlag --+-->

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3.6.10 Variable Component Attributes
Keywords: Description: ANGLE HEIGHT RADIUS DESPARAMETERS

Some Components have variable dimensions that must be specified in situ by the designer. Once a Component has been selected from the Specification, altering, say, the ANGLE may change its physical appearance. Although many Component elements possess the ANGLE, HEIGHT or RADIUS attributes or use Design Parameters, it is the Catalogue that determines whether the value of these attributes will affect the physical Component. For example, changing the ANGLE attribute of a 90-degree fixed-angle elbow to 45 degrees will have no effect. In some cases, the variable value may be difficult to determine. For instance, a BEND in a pipe may possess an angle resulting from an oblique change in direction. In such instances, the DIRECTION command (described elsewhere) can be used to determine the ANGLE setting automatically. The ANGLE, HEIGHT and RADIUS attributes can also be set before selection as a means of choosing between, say, 90-degree or 45-degree fixed-angle elbows.

Examples: ANGL 45 (Before Selection) When the CHOOSE (or SELECT) command is given, it will choose the ‘ANGLE45’ option if available in the Specification. HEIG 300 (After Selection) If a variable height component, this dimension will alter as specified. Command Syntax:
>-- ANGle --+-- <uval> -----------------. | | ‘-- <bdir> TOwards <bdir> --+--> >-- HEIght <uval> --> >-- RADius <uval> --> >-- DESParameters <uval> -->

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3.6.11 Offline/Straight-Through Component Attribute
Keywords: Description: LOFF This attribute controls whether a Component is considered to be ‘inline’ or ‘off-line’. If it is off-line, the reporting utility will treat it as a continuous part of the Tube either side of the Component and will only report one pipe length. This is useful for BENDS (bends in continuous Tube) and OLETS (which tap off the side of a piece of Tube). If the Component is left as in-line, the Tube will be split into two sections with no account being taken of the Arrive-to-Leave length of the Component.

Examples: LOFF FALSE In the reporting utility, the current element will be treated as a full Component which breaks the Tube lengths either side. OFFL TRUE In the reporting utility, the current element will be included as part of a single Tube length running through its Arrive-to-Leave centreline. Note: The default setting for this attribute is dependent upon Component type.

Command Syntax:
>--+-- LOFFline --. | | ‘-- OFFLine ---+-- TRue ---. | | ‘-- FALse --+-->

3.6.12 Multi-Way Component Attributes
Keywords: Description: CREF CRFA

In addition to Arrive and Leave p-points, some Components have further p-points which can become the ends of other Branches. For three-way Components (e.g. TEE), the attribute CREF (Connection Reference) is used to show which Branch is connected to the free ppoint. This is usually set automatically as a result of a CONNECT command, but it may also be set explicitly. For Components with more than three p-points (e.g. CROSS), the attribute CRFA stores the names of up to 10 Branches which connect to this item. Although a Design Component element can possess a CREF or CRFA attribute, it

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is the Catalogue which controls whether the item can actually be connected to by other Branches. Examples: CREF /PIPE1 TAIL Sets CREF of current element to point to Tail of /PIPE1 and sets TREF of /PIPE1 to point back to the current element. CREF NULREF Unsets CREF; i.e. disconnects this point from any other element. Command Syntax:
>-- CREF --+-- <gid> --+-- HEAD --. | | | | |-- TAIL --| | | | | ‘----------+ | | ‘-- NULREF -------------+-->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-- CREf --. | | ‘-- CRFA --+-->

3.7

Orientation and Connection of Components
Orientation and Connection commands make use of the constrained centreline of a Pipe route. When a Component is Selected, it is automatically positioned next to the adjacent Component so that it can be seen. However, it is essential in DESIGN that the item is either oriented or Connected. DESIGN insists on this minimum to ensure that each Component is deliberately manipulated by the user. All the examples in this section assume Forwards routing mode is in operation. Generally, if Backwards is being used, then the effect of these commands will logically reverse.

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3.7.1 Component Orientation
Keywords: Description: ORIENTATE This command rotates the Component about its origin so that (in forwards mode) the Arrive p-point is in the opposite direction to the previous Component’s Leave p-point. If the Component is not concentric, it is necessary to specify the offline orientation as well. This is usually done by giving the direction of an off-line p-point. If it is not possible to achieve an orientation because of the direction of the constrained centreline, DESIGN will leave this off-line direction in the closest orientation to that requested. Examples: ORI Rotate the current element about its origin so that (in forwards mode) its Arrive Point is in the opposite direction to the previous Component’s Leave Point (see Figure 3-7). ORI AND P3 IS U As above, and orient the off-line p-point (P3) in the specified direction (see Figure 3-8). Note: The ORIENTATE command will not change the ANGLE, RADIUS etc. of a variable Component to accommodate an oblique off-line direction.

Command Syntax:
>- ORIentate -+- <bdir> IS <bdir> -. | | ‘--------------------+- AND <bdir> IS <bdir> -. | | ‘------------------------+-->

Querying:
.-------------------<----------------. / | <marke> --*-- DIRection --. | | | | ‘---------------+-- WRT --. | | | | |-- IN ---+-- <gid> --’ | ‘-->

>-- Query

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Figure 3-7

Orienting a Concentric Component

Figure 3-8

Orienting a non-concentric Component by means of an off-line ppoint
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3.7.2 Direction-Changing Components
Keywords: Description: DIRECTION The DIRECTION command orients the Component along the constrained centreline and points the specified p-point in a new direction. Unlike the ORI command, if that new direction requires a change in the ANGLE of a variable-angle Component (e.g. a BEND), this will automatically be adjusted. The ability of a Component to adjust in this way is controlled by the Catalogue.

Examples: DIR E Rotate the Component about its origin such that (in forwards mode) its Arrive point is in the opposite direction to the previous Component’s leave point, and its leave point is East. If this requires a change of angle and the Component has a variable ANGLE attribute, then this will be altered to suit (see Figure 3-9). DIR AND P3 IS U45E As above, but P3 (rather than PL) is pointed to the new direction (see Figure 3-9). Note: If the new direction cannot be adopted by a fixed-angle Component, the item will be pointed in the closest direction to that specified.

Command Syntax:
>-- DIRection --+-- AND <marke> IS --. | | ‘--------------------+-- <bdir> -->

Querying:
.-------------------<----------------. / | >-- Query <marke> --*-- DIRection --. | | | | ‘---------------+-- WRT --. | | | | |-- IN ---+-- <gid> --’ | ‘-->

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Figure 3-9

Changing the direction of variable-angle Components

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3.7.3 Component Connection
Keywords: Description: CONNECT This command places a p-point on the current Component face-to-face with the p-point of an adjacent Component. If the Connection Types or nominal bores of the Connected faces are not compatible, DESIGN automatically Flips (reverses Arrive and Leave) the Component and tries again. If the adjacent element is an Attachment Point (ATTA) then this is ignored and Connection is attempted on the Next Component.

Examples: CONNECT The arrive p-point of the Component is connected to the leave p-point of the Previous Component (see Figure 310). CONNECT TO NEXT The leave p-point of the Component is connected to the arrive p-point of the next Component (see Figure 3-10). CONNECT AND P3 IS U As first example and the off-line p-point is oriented upwards (see Figure 310). Note: Only adjacent Components (not Attachment Points) may be connected to; if Connection Types or bores are incompatible, then an automatic FLIP takes place and CONNECT is attempted again.

Command Syntax:
>- CONnect -+- <marke> -+- TO <marke> -+- AND <bdir> IS <bdir> -> | | | | | ‘--> | ‘--> ‘-->

Querying:
.------------------<----------------. / | >-- Query <marke> --*-- POSition --. | | | | ‘--------------+-- WRT --. | | | | |-- IN ---+-- <gid> --’ | ‘-->

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Figure 3-10

Component connection

3.7.4 Forced Component Connection
Keywords: Description: FCONNECT This operates exactly as the CONNECT command, but ignores Connection and Bore compatibility. The Component will be shown fully positioned, but data consistency checking will still report incompatible connections unless the items are moved apart later.

Examples: FCONN The Arrive p-point of the Component is force-connected to the Leave p-point of the previous Component. FCONN TO TAIL The Leave p-point of the Component is force-connected to the Tail. FCONN AND P3 IS U As first example and the off-line p-point is oriented upwards.
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Note:

Only adjacent Components (not Attachment Points) may be forceconnected. No check on compatibility of bore or Connection Type occurs.

Command Syntax:
>- FCONnect -+- <marke> -+- TO <marke> -+- AND <bdir> IS <bdir> --> | | | | | ‘--> | ‘--> ‘-->

3.8

Moving by a Known Distance
These commands move the Component a specified distance along the constrained centreline. All the commands move the Component from its current position. The distance moved may either be measured along the constrained centreline or some other planar direction. All the examples in this section assume Forwards routing mode is in operation. Generally, if Backwards is being used, then the effect of each command will be logically reversed.

3.8.1 Moving Components
Keywords: Description: Examples: MOVE DISTANCE 1000 The Current Component is moved from its present position 1000 along the constrained centreline (see Figure 3-11). Note: A positive dimension moves the Component away from the Previous Component. MOVE DISTANCE

This command moves the Component along the constrained centreline by a specified distance.

Command Syntax:
>-- MOVe DISTance <uval> -->

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Querying:
>-- Query POSition <bpos> --+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Figure 3-11

Moving a Component by a given distance

3.8.2 General Moving of Components
Keywords: Description: MOVE PLANE DISTANCE

This command moves the Component along the constrained centreline. The distance moved may be specified either in the direction moved or another planar direction.

Examples: MOVE PLANE N45E DIST 1000 The current Component is moved from its present position along the constrained centreline by 1000 along the N45E direction (see Figure 3-12). Command Syntax:
>-- MOVe PLAne <bdir> DISTance <uval> -->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition <bpos> --+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-12

Moving a Component by a distance specified in another plane

3.9

Positioning Components using Reference Planes
This section describes commands that position the Component on the constrained centreline at the intersection with a fixed reference plane. Any p-point on the Component may be used, although the default is the origin. This point is positioned along the constrained centreline through the reference plane which is defined by the 3D position through which it passes. The orientation of the reference plane defaults to perpendicular to the constrained centreline, although a different planar direction can be specified. In no case is the volumetric geometry of the 3D model considered. These commands are therefore not suitable for ‘clearance’ positioning. All the examples in this section assume Forwards routing mode. Generally, if Backwards is being used, then the effect of each command will be logically reversed.

3.9.1 Positioning with respect to the Previous Component
Keywords: Description: DISTANCE POSITION This command positions the Component on the constrained centreline at a specified distance from the origin of previous Component. Any ppoint on the current element may be used, the default being the origin.

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Examples: DIST 1000 The Component will be positioned on the constrained centreline 1000 from the origin of the previous Component (see Figure 3-13a). POS PA DIST 1000 As above, but the Arrive point of the Component is used (see Figure 3-13b). Command Syntax:
>--+-- POSition <marke> --. | | ‘----------------------+-- DISTance <uval> -->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-- POSition --. | | ‘--------------+-- <marke> --+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Figure 3-13 (a)

Positioning with respect to Previous Component

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Figure 3-13(b)

Positioning with respect to Previous Component

3.9.2 Positioning the Component through an Intersection
Keywords: Description: THROUGH POSITION This command allows the designer to position the Component through the intersection with a fixed design element or position (say a Nozzle) or a cursor position. The Component is positioned along the constrained centreline where the reference plane intersecting, say, the specified Nozzle, cuts at right angles. For cursor positioning it is therefore advisable to use orthogonal views for orthogonal piping.

Examples: POS THR /TANK5 The origin of the current Component will be positioned on the constrained centreline where this intersects the perpendicular reference plane through the named element (see Figure 3-14). POS PA THR E3000 The Arrive point of the current Component will be positioned on the constrained centreline where the perpendicular reference plane through E3000 N0 U0 intersects (see Figure 3-15a). THR @ The Component will be placed on the constrained centreline where the perpendicular reference plane indicated by the cursor intersects (see Figure 3-15b).

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NOTE: The reference plane is perpendicular to the constrained centreline. If the cursor is used, the position will be located on the working grid nearest to the cursor. Command Syntax:
>--+-- POSition <marke> --. | | ‘----------------------+-- THRough <bpos> -->

Querying:
>-- Query --+-- POSition --. | | ‘--------------+-- <marke> --+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

Figure 3-14

Positioning through an intersection

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Figure 3-15(a)

Positioning through an intersection

Figure 3-15(b)

Positioning through an intersection

3.9.3 Positioning with respect to an Intersection
Keywords: Description: POSITION DISTANCE FROM TO

This command positions the current Component so that its origin (or specified p-point) intersects the reference plane either side of the specified fixed position.

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Examples: DIST 50 FROM /TANK5 The Component will be moved along the constrained centreline until its origin is 50 beyond the perpendicular plane through the named element (see Figure 3-16). DIST 1000 TO NEXT The Component will be placed on the constrained centreline so that its origin is 1000 before of the Next Component’s origin (see Figure 3-17a). POS PA DIST 20 FROM PL OF PREV The Component will be placed on the constrained centreline so that its Arrive point is 20 from the previous Component’s Leave point (see Figure 3-17b). Note: The reference plane is perpendicular to the constrained centreline. TO means closer to the Previous Component than the reference plane. FROM means further from the previous Component than the reference plane.

Command Syntax:
>-+- POSition <marke> -. | | ‘--------------------+- DISTance <uval> -+- FRom -. | | ‘- TO ---+- <bpos> ->

Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | ‘--------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-16

Positioning with respect to an intersection

Figure 3-17a

Positioning with respect to an intersection

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Figure 3-17b

Positioning with respect to an intersection

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3.9.4 General Positioning through an Intersection
Keywords: Description: POSITION PLANE DISTANCE THROUGH FROM TO

This command differs from the basic options by allowing the reference plane to be specified independently of the constrained centreline. This is particularly relevant for routing sloping lines where a specific Easting or Northing is to be intersected.

Examples: PLANE E DIST 1000 The Component will be placed on the constrained centreline so that its origin is 1000 from the previous Component’s origin in an East/West direction (see Figure 3-18). Command Syntax:
>-+- POSition <marke> -. | | ‘--------------------+- PLANe <bdir> -+- DISTance <uval> -+- FRom -. | | | | ‘- TO ---+- <bpos> -> | ‘- THrough <bpos> ->

Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | ‘--------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-18

Positioning through an intersection defined in an independent plane

3.10 Positioning Components ‘Point-to-Surface’
This section describes commands which position a Component on the constrained centreline at a specified distance from the surface of a fixed design item. Any p-point on the current element may be used for the manoeuvre, although the default is the origin. In no case is the geometry of the current element considered. However, the geometry of the referenced item is considered in one of three ways: • • • If the item is a Design element, then its complete geometry will be considered. If the item is a Piping p-point at the Arrive or Leave of another Component, then the Tube cross-section at that point will be considered. If the item has no geometry, i.e. a non-piping p-point, or is a position, then only that point will be considered.

All the examples in this section assume Forwards mode. Generally, if Backwards mode is being used, the effect of each command is logically reversed.

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3.10.1 Positioning Components either side of an Object
Keywords: Description: Examples: DISTANCE 30 INFRONT /WALL The Component will be placed on the Constrained Centreline so that its origin is 30 ‘this side’ of the specified object (see Figure 3-19 and Figure 320). DISTANCE 125 BEHIND IDP @ The Component will be placed such that its origin is 125 the ‘other side’ of the picked p-point. If this point is an Arrive or Leave, then the Tube crosssection will be taken into account (see Figure 3-20). POS PL INF /ACCESS The Component will be placed such that its Leave Point is zero distance ‘this side’ of the specified object (see Figure 3-20). Command Syntax:
>-+- POSition <marke> -. | | ‘--------------------+- DISTance <uval> -+- INFront -. | | ‘- BEHind --+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

POSITION

DISTANCE

INFRONT

BEHIND

This command positions the Component on the constrained centreline at a specified distance from a geometric object, point or position.

Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | ‘--------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-19

Positioning Components either side of an object

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Figure 3-20

Positioning Components relative to a specified object

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3.10.2 Positioning Components On Top of or Under an Object
Keywords: Description: POSITION DISTANCE ONTOP UNDER

This command positions the Component on the constrained centreline at a vertical distance above or below a fixed geometric object. This takes into account the shape of the referenced object, but not of the current element.

Examples: DISTANCE 35 ONTO /BEAM The Component will be placed on the Constrained Centreline so that its origin is 35 above the specified object (see Figure 3-21). DISTANCE 125 UNDER IDP @ The Component will be placed on the Constrained Centreline so that its origin is 125 below the picked point. If this point is an Arrive or Leave, then the Tube cross-section will be taken into account (see Figure 3-21). Command Syntax:
>-+- POSition <marke> -. | | ‘--------------------+- DISTance <uval> -+- ONTop -. | | ‘- UNDer -+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | ‘--------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-21

Positioning above/below an object

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3.10.3 General Component Positioning Using Planes
Keywords: Description: POSITION UNDER PLANE DISTANCE INFRONT BEHIND ONTOP

This command differs from the basic options by allowing the reference plane to be specified in a different direction from that of the constrained centreline.

Examples: PLANE E DIST 1000 INFRONT /WALL The Component will be placed on the constrained centreline such that its origin is 1000 ‘this side’ of /WALL, measured East-West (see Figure 3-22). Command Syntax:
>-+- POSition <marke> -. | | ‘--------------------+- PLAne <bdir> -. | | ‘----------------+- DISTance <uval> -+| || || ‘-

ONTop ---. | UNDer ---| | INFront -| | BEHind --+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

Querying:
>-- Query POSition --+-- <bpos> --. | | ‘------------+-- WRT --. | | |-- IN ---+-| ‘-->

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-22

Positioning relative to an object specified in a different plane

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3.11 Component Clearance Positioning
The commands in this section position the Component on the constrained centreline to give a specified clearance distance from a fixed design item. The clearance specified usually takes into account both the current element and referenced element geometric shapes. However, the following rules also apply: • • If the current element or referenced element is used and has a geometric shape, then this is considered. If an Arrive or Leave p-point on the current element or referenced element is used, then the Tube cross-sectional geometry at that point is considered (not the Component geometry). If the current element or referenced element has no geometry, or a ppoint is used that is not an Arrive or Leave, or a position is used, then only the position is considered.

A selection of Bottom of Pipe (BOP) commands are also available that provide clearance for the Tube cross-section at a Component Leave Point. All the examples in this section assume Forwards routing mode. If Backwards is in use, then the effect of each command is logically reversed.

3.11.1 Clearance from the Previous Component
Keywords: Description: CLEARANCE This command places the Component at a specified clearance from the previous Component on the constrained centreline. The whole geometry of both Components is considered.

Examples: CLEA 500 The Component will be placed on the constrained centreline 500 clear of the Previous Component (see Figure 3-23). Command Syntax:
>-- CLEArance <uval> -->

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Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | |-- BOP -------| | | ‘-- TOP -------+-- WRT --. | | ‘-- IN ---+--

<gid> -->

Figure 3-23

Clearance from a Previous Component

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3.11.2 Component Clearance Either Side
Keywords: Description: CLEARANCE INFRONT BEHIND

This command places the current Component on the constrained centreline at a specified clearance in front of or behind a fixed design object. If the Arrive or Leave point of the referenced object is used, then the Tube cross-section at this point is considered rather than the full item geometry.

Examples: CLEAR BEHIND /WALL The Component will be placed on the constrained centreline with zero clearance on the ‘far side’ of the specified element (see Figure 3-24). CLEAR 1200 INF PL OF NEXT The Component will be placed on the constrained centreline with 1200 clearance ‘this side’ of the Tube emerging from the Component’s Leave point (see Figure 3-24). Command Syntax:
>-- CLEArance --+-- <uval> --. | | ‘------------+-- INFront --. | | ‘-- BEHind ---+-- <gid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---+-->

Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | |-- BOP -------| | | ‘-- TOP -------+-- WRT --. | | ‘-- IN ---+--

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-24

Component clearance either side of a fixed object

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3.11.3 Component Clearance Vertically
Keywords: Description: CLEARANCE ONTOP UNDER

This command places the current Component on the constrained centreline at a specified vertical clearance above or below a fixed object. If the Arrive or Leave point of the referenced object is used, then the Tube cross-section emerging at this point is considered rather than the full item geometry.

Examples: CLEARANCE ONTO /BEAM The current Component will be placed on the constrained centreline at zero clearance above the specified object (see Figure 3-25). CLEARANCE 50 UNDER /BEAM The current Component will be placed on the constrained centreline at 50 vertical clearance below the specified object (see Figure 3-25). CLEAR 50 ONTO IDP @ The current Component will be placed on the constrained centreline at a clearance of 50 vertically above the picked p-point. If this p-point is an Arrive or Leave, then the Tube cross-section will be taken into account (see Figure 3-25). Command Syntax:
>-- CLEArance --+-- <uval> --. | | ‘------------+-- ONTop --. | | ‘-- UNDer --+-- <gid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---+-->

Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | |-- BOP -------| | | ‘-- TOP -------+-- WRT --. | | ‘-- IN ---+--

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-25

Component clearance above/below a fixed object

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3.11.4 Tube (Bottom of Pipe) Clearance
Keywords: Description: BOP TOP ONTOP UNDER INFRONT BEHIND

This command places the current Component on the constrained centreline so that the Tube cross-section at its Leave point is a specified clearance from another fixed object. The clearance can either be specified as a dimension along the constrained centreline in-frontof/behind the object or vertically on top/under it. If the Arrive or Leave points of the fixed object are used, then its Tube cross-section will also be considered. Using this command, pipes can be spaced on the beams of a rack by Tube-to-Tube clearance.

Examples: BOP ONTO /BEAM The Component will be positioned on the constrained centreline so that the Tube emerging from its Leave point is zero clearance above /BEAM (see Figure 3-26a). BOP 30 BEHIND /FLAN The Component will be positioned on the constrained centreline so that the Tube emerging from its Leave point is 30 clear of the ‘far side’ of /FLAN (see Figure 3-26a). BOP 30 BEHIND PL OF /FLAN As above, but 30 to the far side of the Leave Tube of /FLAN (see Figure 326b). Command Syntax:
>--+-- BOP --. | | ‘-- TOP --+-- <uval> --. | | ‘------------+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| ‘--

FROm --. | TO ----+-- <bpos> --> ONTop ----. | UNDer ----| | INFront --| | BEHind ---+-- <gid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---+-->

Note:

The meanings of BOP and TOP in this context are identical. They are merely provided to allow a sensible choice of syntax.
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Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | |-- BOP -------| | | ‘-- TOP -------+-- WRT --. | | ‘-- IN ---+--

<gid> -->

Figure 3-26a

Tube clearance relative to a fixed object

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Figure 3-26b

Tube clearance taking into account the Tube diameter

3.11.5 General Clearance of Components and Tube
Keywords: Description: POSITION UNDER • • Examples: PLANE E CLEARANCE 1000 The current Component will be placed on the constrained centreline so that it is 1000 clear of the Previous Component in an East-West direction (see Figure 3-27). POS PL CLEAR 100 ONTO /BEAM The current Component will be placed on the constrained centreline so that the Tube from its Leave Point is 100 vertically above /BEAM (same as BOP) PLANE CLEARANCE INFRONT BEHIND ONTOP

This command differs from the basic options in two respects: The clearance dimension can be in an independent plane from the constrained centreline. The current element Arrive or Leave Tube can be used (similar to BOP) rather than the whole element geometry.

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Command Syntax:
>-+- POSition <marke> -. | | ‘--------------------+- PLAne <bdir> -. | | ‘----------------+- CLEARance <uval> -+| || || ‘-

ONTop ---. | UNDer ---| | INFront -| | BEHind --+- <gid> --. | | |- <marke> -| | | ‘- <bpos> --+->

Querying:
>-- Query <marke> --+-- POSition --. | | |-- BOP -------| | | ‘-- TOP -------+-- WRT --. | | ‘-- IN ---+--

<gid> -->

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Figure 3-27

Component clearance specified relative to an independent plane

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3.12 Dragging Equipment and Piping Networks
If equipment is repositioned using ordinary positioning commands, the pipes connected to it do not automatically move with the item.The DRAG command is used to move Constrained Networks of Piping, Equipment and Nozzle elements all together. How the constrained network is created depends on the direction of the dragging operation and the type of item being dragged. When a DRAG command is given, the current element is displayed normally, together with the constrained network. This network finishes where a legal end is found. Items that can be dragged are: • Piping Components. In this case the network is formed by searching outwards in all directions from the component until a legal end is found for each ‘leg’ of the network. Nozzles. The piping network connected to the Nozzle is searched for legal ends. Equipment. The piping networks connected to all Nozzles owned by the equipment are searched for legal ends. A piece of tube that can be extended parallel to the displacement A piece of tube that can be compressed parallel to the displacement without becoming negative in length A Nozzle A point between two mis-aligned components A point between two incompatibly-connected components Any component that has not yet been positioned and orientated Any element in a design area that cannot be modified due to the designer’s access rights

• •

A legal end for a constrained network can be: • • • • • • •

In some instances, the DRAG operation may fail to establish a constrained network. This may be because: • • The internal search limit has been reached A LOCKED element has been found in the network

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3.12.1 Dragging Equipment and Nozzles
Keywords: Description: DRAG AT BY POSITION MOVE

This command repositions the current element and constrained network to the specified position. The DRAG command can be followed by any standard Equipment and Civils positioning or moving command.

Examples: DRAG AT E3000 The current element and constrained network will be dragged to the specified position. DRAG BY N500 U500 The current element and constrained network will be dragged by the specified amount. DRAG MOVE E2000 The current element and constrained network will be moved to the specified position. DRAG MOVE N CLEAR 1000 INF /BUILD10 The current element and constrained network are moved specified clearance in front of element /BUILD10. Command Syntax: The full DRAG command syntax is extensive but may be summarised as follows:
>-- DRAG --+-- <absol> --. | | ‘-- <relat> --+-->

North to the

where <absol> defines any absolute positioning command, e.g. AT, POS, etc. <relat> defines any relative positioning command, e.g. BY, MOVE, etc. The full expanded syntax is given below for reference:
<absol> = >--+-- AT --+-- <bpos> ---. | | | | ‘-- <polar> --| | | |-- <pppos> --. | | | | ‘-- <polar> --+--------+-->

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<polar> = >--+-- POLar <bdir> --. | | ‘------------------+-- <plane> --> <pppos> = >-- POSition --+-- <marke> --+-- AT --+-- <bpos> ---. | | | | | | ‘-- <polar> --| | | | | ‘-- <polar> -----------| | | |-- AT --. | | | | ‘--------+-- <bpos> ---. | | | | ‘-- <polar> --+-------------+--> <plane> = >-+| | | | | | | | | | | | | | || | | | | || | | | | | | || || ‘DISTance <uval> -+- <repla> ------. | | ‘----------------| | <repla> --------------------------| | THRough <bpos> -------------------| | CLEArance -+- <uval> -. | | | | ‘----------+- <repla> -| | | |- <planf> -| | | ‘-----------| DISTance - <uval> -+- <repla> -. | | | | |- <planf> -| | | | | ‘-----------+-------------------| | CLEArance -+- <uval> -. | | | | ‘----------+- <repla> -. | | | | |- <planf> -| | | | | ‘-----------+----------------| | <repla> -------------------------------------------| | THRough <bpos> ------------------------------------| | <planf> -------------------------------------------+> PLAne <bdir> -+| | | || || ‘-

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<repla> = >--+-| |-| | | | | |-| ‘-<planf> =

INFront --. | BEHind ---+-- <sgid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---| | FROm --. | | | TO ----+-- <bpos> ------+-->

>--+-- ONTop --. | | ‘-- UNDer --+-- <sgid> ---. | | |-- <marke> --| | | ‘-- <bpos> ---+-->

<relat> = >--+-- BY <pos> --+-- WRT --. | | | | |-- IN ---+-- <sgid> --. | | | | ‘----------------------| | | ‘-- <relmo> --------------------------+--> <relmo> = >- MOVe -+- <marke> -+- ALOng -. | | | | |---------+- <bdir> <plane> ----. | | | | |- BY <pos> -+- WRT -. | | | | | | | | ‘- IN --+- <sgid> -| | | | | ‘- <plane> ---------------------| | | |- ALOng -. | | | | |---------+- <bdir> <plane> ----------------| | | |- BY - <pos> -+- WRT -. | | | | | | ‘- IN --+- <sgid> -----------| | | ‘-- <plane> --------------------------------+->

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Figure 3-28 Dragging Equipment and Nozzles by a specified amount

Figure 3-29(a)

Dragging Equipment and Nozzles to a specified position

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Figure 3-29(b)

Dragging Equipment and Nozzles to a specified position

3.12.2 Dragging Piping
Keywords: Description: DRAG AT BY POSITION MOVE DISTANCE THROUGH FROM TO CLEARANCE INFRONT BEHIND ONTOP UNDER This command is identical to the DRAG command described in the previous subsection except that, if the current element is a Branch, the bottom/top of piping positioning syntax can be used.

Examples: DRAG THRO @ The current element and constrained network are moved along the constrained centreline until the origin of the current element lies on a reference plane which passes through the cursor position. DRAG MOVE S DISTANCE 1000 The current element and constrained network are moved South by the specified distance. DRAG DISTANCE 1000 ONTO /GRADE The current element and constrained network are dragged so that the origin of the current element is 1000 above /GRADE. DRAG BOP ONTO /BEAM2-1 CLEAR 150 The current (Branch) element and constrained network are dragged so that the Tube will be positioned on top of /BEAM2-1 with a clearance of 150.
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Note:

As it changes orientation as well as position, CONNECT cannot be used in conjunction with DRAG.

Command Syntax:
>-- DRAG --+-- <absol> --. | | |-- <relat> --| | | ‘-- <botop> --+--> <botop> = >--+-- BOP --. | | ‘-- TOP --+-- <uval> --. | | ‘------------+-- <repla> --. | | ‘-- <planf> --+-->

Figure 3-30(a)

Dragging Piping to a specified position

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Figure 3-30(b)

Dragging Piping to a specified position

Figure 3-31

Dragging Piping to a given distance from a fixed object

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Automatic Pipe Routing
The automatic pipe-routing facilities of DESIGN enable simple orthogonal pipe routes to be generated automatically. Additionally, a number of pipes can be ordered and spread across pipe racks once the provisional routes have been determined. In its simplest form, a single Branch may be routed from one point to another, by setting the head and tail positions and using the route command. In a more complex role, these facilities can be used to route a complex set of pipes, avoiding obstructions and following preferred paths. For more complex pipe routing, Ptrac, Pvol and Rplane elements may be used to steer the automatic routing process along preferred areas. These must be created and positioned before entry to automatic routing, because the autoroute process operates with restricted command syntax, which does not allow elements to be created.

4.1

Accessing the Automatic Pipe Routing Facilities
The automatic pipe routing facilities are set aside from the rest of the DESIGN commands in a separate command structure called Autoroute Mode.

4.1.1 Entering and Leaving Autoroute Mode
Keywords: Description: AUTOROUTE EXIT The AUTOROUTE command is used to enter the automatic piperouting facilities. Once in autoroute mode, the command syntax is restricted to those commands necessary for automatic routing and rack ordering. To return to the full DESIGN syntax, the EXIT command is used.

Examples: AUTOROUTE Enters Autoroute mode EXIT Returns to the full DESIGN syntax

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4.2

Pipe Routing
Pipe routing may be simple and direct, or it may be precisely defined, according to the constraints and preferences you set. The autoroute process creates a centreline route using Elbows or Bends which are created during the autoroute operation. The simplest route is one with no constraints, which will result in the shortest possible route, ignoring all other elements in the database. By adding constraints, you can force the automatic routing process to consider alternatives and avoid obstructions. The pipes to be routed must contain empty Branches whose Head and Tail references are correctly set. The constraints which can be applied are as follows: • Obstruction Elements such as Equipment items and Structures may be defined as obstructions which must be avoided by the automatic routing process. Penalty Volumes - Denote, by means of weighting factors, volumes in space which can be either preferred or prohibited areas for pipe routing. Penalty Volumes are created as PVOL elements in the Design database, The WEIGH attribute is used to determine whether the PVOL is a prohibited or preferred area according to its value. High values indicate prohibited areas, low values indicate a preferred area. Example: WEIGH 100 .01 100 Indicate that the X and Z axes are prohibited and the Y axis is preferred. • Routing Planes - Routing Planes are elements which are used to guide the automatic routing mechanism into preferred areas. For example, if a rack was to be positioned between two rows of vessels an RPLANE element would be created along the centreline of the proposed rack. Without the RPLANE element, the autoroute process would route the two rows of pipes either side of the preferred area, rather than down the middle.

4.2.1 Routing Pipes along Preferred Axes
The automatic pipe routing process will only route pipes orthogonally. However it may follow an axis system other than those of the world. Before any routing can take place, the required axis system must be defined. Keywords: Description: AXES All pipe routing will be orthogonal to the axes defined by the AXES command. This may be taken as the current axes of any element in the

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database, but it must be orthogonal with the Nozzles and pipe head directions which are being considered. Example: AXES /ZONE1 The routing axes will be set to the axes of /ZONE1 Command Syntax:
>-- AXes <sgid> -->

4.2.2 Setting Routing Planes
Keywords: Description: Examples: RPLANE /PTRAC1 Sets /ZONE1 as an element in the Routing Plane list. All RPLAN elements, in the hierarchy below /ZONE1 will be considered. RP /RP1 /RP2 Adds /RP1 and /RP2 to the list. A maximum of 150 RPLAN elements may be considered by the automatic routing process. RP Clears the list of Routing Planes. RPLANE The RPLANE command sets up the list of elements which are to be considered as routing planes.

Command Syntax:
.-----<----. / | >-- RPlanes --*-- <sgid> --+-->

4.2.3 Setting Penalty Volumes
Keywords: Description: Examples: PVOL /PV1 Adds /PV1 into the list of Penalty Volumes. If the element being added is not a PVOL, then all items below it in the hierarchy are scanned. PVOL The PVOL command sets the list of penalty volumes which will be considered during the automatic routing process.

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PV /PZONE1 /PZONE2 Adds /PZONE1 and /PZONE2 to the list. A maximum of 1000 PVOLS may be considered during automatic routing. PV Clears the list of Penalty Volumes.

Command Syntax:
.----<-----. / | >-- PVolumes --+--*-- <sgid> --+--> | ‘-->

4.2.4 Invoking the Automatic Routing Process
Automatic pipe routing can be invoked by issuing the ROUTE command with a list of Pipes to be routed. The Pipes to be routed must have empty Branches, with Head and Tail references set. Keywords: Description: ROUTE The ROUTE command begins the procedure of finding logical routes for all of the branches included in the routing list. Each time a successful route has been found, a message is output stating the total Pipe length and the number of Elbows used. During the routing process, Elbows are selected automatically from the Pipe Specification by default. Bends may be selected in preference to Elbows by specifying this option as part of the ROUTE command.

Examples: ROUTE /PIPES All of the Branches belonging to /PIPES will be routed. ROUTE WITH BENDS /PIPES All of the branches belonging to /PIPES will be routed using Bends in preference to Elbows. Command Syntax:
>-- ROute --+-- WIth --+-- ELbows --. | | | | ‘-- BEnds ---| .-----<----. | | / | ‘-----------------------+--*-- <sgid> --+-->

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4.2.5 Setting the Nozzle Offset Factor
Keywords: Description: OFFSETFACTOR Branches which are routed from Nozzles have default Routing Planes a set distance away from the Nozzle. This is to allow a sensible pipe length between the Nozzle and the first change of direction. The default value for this offset is three times the bore of the associated nozzle, and is input in the same terms. For example, a value of 4 would mean that the offset would be four times the Nozzle bore.

Examples: OFFSET 5 Sets the offset to be five times the bore of its associated Nozzle. Command Syntax:
>-- OFFSETfactor integer -->

Querying:
>-- Query OFFSET -->

4.3

Refining the Automatic Pipe Routes
The automatic routing process often results in a set of common centreline routes down the centre of a rack. The following section describes the rack ordering facilities which are able to refine these routes into a more acceptable form. The rack ordering process works by spreading a number of pipes across a predefined rack volume. You have various options which may be set to control the spacing of pipes and the direction of spread across the rack. The parameters which need to be input are: • • • • The location and dimensions of the rack (the RACK command) How the pipes are to be arranged on the rack (the SDIR command) The order in which the pipes will be placed The minimum clearance between adjacent pipes

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4.3.1 Defining the Rack to be Used.
Keywords: Description: RACK The rack is defined by the axes of a PVOL element in the database whose size should be similar to the physical rack area expected. The PVOL width is important, because its edges determine the position of the first pipe if the pipes are to be spread from one side of the rack.

Examples: RACK /PVOL1 Sets /PVOL1 to be the rack. Command Syntax:
>-- RAck <sgid> -->

4.3.2 Defining the Direction of Spread
Keywords: Description: SDIR The spread direction is the direction in which the pipes will be spread laterally when they are ordered along the rack. The default position from which the pipes are spread is the centre of the PVOL. This may be changed to the side of the PVOL by adding the parameter FROMSIDE to the command.

Examples: SDIR E Sets the spread direction to be East about the centre of the PVOL SD N FR Ssets the spread direction to be North, starting from the south side of the PVOL SD N AB As above, but pipes to be spread about centre of rack Note: If no spread direction is specified, the default is taken as the direction of the second largest side of the PVOL

Command Syntax:
>-- SDir <bdir> --+-- FRomside -----. | | |-- ABoutcentre --| | | ‘-----------------+-->

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4.3.3 Defining the Base Direction
Keywords: Description: BASE This is the direction in which the pipes will be moved in order to sit on the rack. By default, this is the direction of the smallest side of the PVOL.

Examples: BASE W Sets the base direction to be West. (This should always be perpendicular to the spread direction.) Command Syntax:
>-- BAse <bdir> -->

4.3.4 Spreading Pipes about the Rack
Keywords: Description: SPREAD SPREAD moves the pipes laterally across the rack in the SDIR direction to give the specified clearance. The default clearance is 50mm between pipe walls on the same centreline.

Examples: SPREAD /PIPES Spreads the pipes in /PIPES about the designated rack SP /PIPES WW 100 Spreads the pipes such that the wall-to-wall clearance is 100mm SP /PIPES WF 4IN Spreads the pipes such that the diameter of Flanges will be considered as part of the calculation. In this case, the distance between a Flange o/d and its adjacent pipe wall, will be a minimum of 4 inches. SP /ZONE1 FF 75 Spreads the pipes such that two opposing Flange diameters will have a minimum clearance of 75mm. Pipes with no Flanges would have a wall-towall clearance of 75mm. SP ALL Repeat previously defined order sequence (for example, on a subsequent rack).

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Command Syntax:
>-- SPread --+-- WW ---. | | |-- FF ---| | | |-- WF ---| | | |-- ALL --| | | ‘---------+-- <uval> --. .-----<----. | | / | ‘------------+--*-- <sgid> --+-->

4.3.5 Setting the Bottom-of-Pipe Position
Keywords: Description: Examples: BOP /ZONE1 Sets the BOP of all pipes in /ZONE1 to sit on the specified rack BOP ALL Repeat previously defined order sequence Command Syntax:
>-- BOP --+-- ALL --> | |-- <uval> --. .-----<----. | | / | ‘------------+--*-- <sgid> --+-->

BOP The BOP command moves the specified pipes such that their outside diameters are resting on the rack plane in the BASE direction.

Note:

No ordering takes place with the BOP command; it is expected that the BOP command is used after a spread.

4.3.6 Combined Spreading and BOP Operations
Keywords: Description: ORDER The ORDER command combines both the SPREAD and BOP operations. It spreads the pipes across the rack to give the required clearances, and then moves them into contact with the rack plane.

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Examples: ORDER /PIPES WW 100 Spreads the pipes such that the wall-to-wall clearance is 100mm and then sets the BOP positions to sit on the rack. OR /ZONE1 FF 75 Spreads the pipes such that the Flange-to-Flange clearances are 75mm, and then sets the BOP positions to sit on the rack. OR ALL Repeat previously defined order sequence Command Syntax:
>-- ORder --+-- WW ---. | | |-- FF ---| | | |-- WF ---| | | |-- ALL --| | | ‘---------+-- <uval> --. .-----<----. | | / | ‘------------+--*-- <sgid> --+-->

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5

Structural Design Using Catalogue Components
This chapter first describes how logically connected structural steelwork may be built up in DESIGN by choosing Components from the Catalogue. Such structures will normally exist in the Design hierarchy at Framework (FRMW) or Subframework (SBFR) level. The concepts are then extended for use in building designs, using other materials such as concrete. The principal types of element involved in steelwork design are: Nodes These define the points within the 3D design model between which steel construction members are to run. Primary Nodes have their position defined in free space, whereas Secondary Nodes have their position defined relative to an owning steel Section. Nodal data, including the attributes of member elements of Nodes, is particularly relevant for stress analysis of the steelwork structure. Sections Sections represent the physical steel members (columns, beams, bracing struts etc.) which make up the interconnected structure. Their cross-sections are defined by reference to Catalogue 2D Profile elements, while their lengths are derived from the positions of the Nodes between which the Sections run. Joints These are Catalogue items which represent the physical connections between structural members. Primary Joints are owned by Primary Nodes; Secondary Joints are owned by Secondary Nodes. Multiple connections are represented by Primary or Secondary Compound Joints, which own a SubJoint for each connection point. Linear Joints are used to connect the edges of panels to structural sections or to other panels. Panels Panels represent any sheet materials used to clad a structural model. Their shape is determined by linking together a set of Panel Vertex elements to form a 2D Panel Loop, which is then extruded in the third dimension to give the required panel thickness.

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Fittings Steelwork Fittings and Panel Fittings are Catalogue items which can represent any ancillary item related to, but not an inherent part of, the structure, such as web stiffeners, lifting lugs, access ports, and so on. They are owned by Sections and Panels, respectively. Compound Fittings and Compound Panel Fittings, each of which owns Subfittings, are used to represent more complex geometry (such as penetrations, where one or more elements pass through another element). Generic Sections (GENSECs) GENSECs can be used to represent any structural item whose geometry can be generated by sweeping a 2D profile along a linear or curved path. The path, defined by a Spine element, is determined by a sequence of Spine Points and Curves. In their simplest linear format, GENSECs may be used instead of Sections and Panels; in more complex formats they can represent curved beams, curved walls, etc. Fixings Generic fixingscan represent any joint or fitting owned (indirectly) by a GENSEC.

5.1

Creating and Positioning Primary Nodes
NEW PNODE NPOS

Keywords: Description:

The first step in creating a new piece of structural steelwork is often the creation and positioning of a network of Primary Nodes within the 3D design model. PNOD elements are created, as for other Design elements, by using the NEW command. They may be positioned either by using a standard positioning command or by setting the NPOS (Node Position) attribute directly. Nodes have no physical size: their positions are used to define the points in space between which steel Sections are to be positioned/strung.

Examples: NEW PNOD /PNOD1 AT E1000 N500 U500 (At FRMW or SBFR level) Creates a Primary Node named /PNOD1 at the specified position. NEW PNOD /PNOD2 COPY PREV BY E1000 Creates a Primary Node which is displaced from the previous one in the specified way. NEW PNOD /PNOD3 NPOS E2000 N1000 D500 Creates /PNOD3, then places it at the specified position.

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Command Syntax:
>-- NPOSition -- <bpos> -->

(The standard element creation syntax is described in Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual.) Querying:
Q NPOS

5.2

Creating and Connecting Sections Automatically
STRING FROM TO

Keywords: Description:

The STRING command is a very powerful multi-functional tool which performs the following operations automatically: • A Section (SCTN) element is created, running between two named Nodes. The Node positions are used to set the Section’s POSS (Start Position) and POSE (End Position) attributes. The order of occurrence of the named Nodes in the STRING command line is used to set the DRNS (Start Direction) and DRNE (End Direction) attributes (on the basis that the Section is strung FROM start TO end). Joint elements (PJOI or SJOI) are created at each Node and are orientated so as to be compatible with the new Section. Thus, both the OPDI (Origin Plane Direction) attribute and the normal to the Cutting Plane (as defined by the CUTP attribute) of each PJOI will be the same as the DRNS/DRNE attribute of the Section. The Section-to-Joint cross-references (JOIS/JOIE for the Section; CREF for the Joints) are set so that they are self-consistent.

Thus the STRING command creates all new elements required to position the physical Section within the structural design model. It leaves you at the new Section (SCTN) level within the hierarchy. Examples: STRING /COLUMN1 FROM /PNOD1 TO /PNOD2 Strings a Section named /COLUMN1 between the specified Primary Nodes. STRING BEAM FROM /PNOD2 TO /SNOD3 NAME /UB80.LEV2 Strings a Section of GTYPE BEAM between the named Primary and Secondary Nodes. The Beam is named separately in the second command line.
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Note:

The presence of a Section is shown on the DESIGN graphical display as a centreline-only representation (broken line) at this stage. The Section has no physical form, other than a derived length (related to the inter-Node separation), until its cross-section has been defined by setting a reference to a Catalogue Profile element.

Command Syntax:
>-- STRIng -+- name -. | | ‘--------+- word -. | | ‘--------+- FRom - <gid> - TO | ‘- TO - <gid> - FRom -

<gid> -. | <gid> -+-->

5.3

Section Attributes
A Section is a linear structural component such as a universal beam, column, brace, tie, strut, etc. Sections are assumed to be ‘prismatic’; that is, they are assumed to have uniform properties throughout their length, including uniform cross-sectional dimensions. The overall dimensions of a 3D design Section are derived from two sources: • • Its cross-sectional dimensions are defined by a cross-reference to a 2D Profile element stored in the Catalogue DB. Its length is derived from the separation between the points defined by its Start Position (POSS) and End Position (POSE) attributes.

This section describes the main attributes which together define a Section as a 3D physical entity within the interconnected structure.

5.3.1 Cross-Sectional Profile via a Specification Reference
Keywords: Description: SPREF The SPREF (Specification Reference) attribute of a Section must point to a valid Profile element in a Catalogue DB in order for the Section to be given a physical representation by DESIGN. This is achieved by setting SPREF to the name of a Specification Component in a Project Specification.

Examples: SPRE /203X203X55KG.UB Sets the Specification Reference of the current Section to point to a Profile in the Catalogue. (The .UB suffix in the Specification Component name would normally indicate that this Profile represents a Universal Beam.)
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Command Syntax:
SPRef name

Querying:
Q SPRef

5.3.2 Generic Type
Keywords: Description: GTYPE The GTYP attribute may be set to a PDMS word which indicates the purpose of the Section within the structure. Its setting is not obligatory. (See the PARAGON Reference Manual for a list of suggested GTYP word settings for Profile elements.)

Examples: GTYP BEAM Sets the GTYP of the current Section to BEAM. Command Syntax:
>--- GTYPe --- word --->

Querying:
Q GTYPe

5.3.3 Start and End Positions
Keywords: Description: POSSTART POSEND When a Section is Strung (see Section 5.2), its start and end positions (POSS and POSE) are set to the positions of the start and end Nodes. When a Section is manually Connected or Reconnected (see Section 5.7), the settings of POSS and POSE are derived from the intersections of the Jline through the End Cutting Planes of the Section and the Joints. In either case, POSS and POSE are set automatically. It is also possible to set POSS and POSE specifically; for example, where a Section extends into free space, with at least one end unconnected. This may be done by specifying the coordinates directly, or by relating them to the position of another design element.

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Examples: POSE E1250 N2000 D750 Positions the Section’s end at the specified point. POSS /PNOD1 Positions the Section’s start at the NPOS of the specified Primary Node. Command Syntax:
>--+-- POSStart --. | | ‘-- POSEnd ----+-- <bpos> -->

Querying:
Q POSStart Q POSEnd

5.3.4 Start and End Plane Directions
Keywords: Description: DRNSTART DRNEND The directions of the start and end cutting planes of a Section (that is, the directions of the perpendiculars to the planes which define the ‘cut’ ends of the Section) are usually defined automatically when the Section is connected within the structural model; either by Stringing (see Section 5.2) or manually (see Section 5.7). The settings of the corresponding DRNS and DRNE attributes are then derived automatically from the directions of the associated Joint’s Cutting Planes. It is also possible to set DRNS and DRNE specifically; for example, where a Section extends into free space, with at least one end unconnected. In this case each cutting plane direction must be in the general direction of the other end of the Section. Examples: DRNS N45W Sets DRNS to the specified direction, regardless of the direction of the Section’s Z-axis.

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DRNE PERP Sets DRNE so that the end cutting plane is perpendicular to the Section’s Z-axis (giving a square end as opposed to a chamfered end for a Section which has a skewed connection). Command Syntax:
>--+-- DRNStart --. | | ‘-- DRNEnd ----+-- <bdir> ---------. | | ‘-- PERPendicular --+-->

Querying:
Q DRNStart Q DRNEnd

5.3.5 Orientation Angle
Keywords: Description: BANGLE The orientation of a Section about its Neutral Axis is defined in terms of an angular clockwise rotation when viewed in the POSS-to-POSE direction. The angle of rotation from the default orientation is held as the setting of the Beta Angle (BANG) attribute of the Section.
BANG

SPREF of SCTN points to PROF in Catalogue

POSS DRNS DRNE

POSE

NA

Examples: BANG 90 Command Syntax:
>-- BANGle value -->

Querying:
Q BANGle

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5.3.6 Joint Start and End References
Keywords: Description: JOISTART JOIEND Section ends which have been connected in the structure have their JOIS (Joint Start) and JOIE (Joint End) attributes set such that they cross-refer to the Joints to which those ends are connected. (The Joints have a similar cross-reference, the CREF attribute, back to the attached Section.) These attributes are set automatically when a Section is connected and you will not usually need to set them specifically. Examples: JOIE /PJOI.RB.2 Sets logical connection from Section’s end to named Primary Joint. Command Syntax:
>--+-- JOIStart --. | | ‘-- JOIEnd ----+--

<gid> -->

Querying:
Q JOIStart Q JOIEnd

5.3.7 Start and End Connection Types
Keywords: Description: CTYSTART CTYEND Section ends which have been connected in the structure have their CTYS (Start Connection Type) and CTYE (End Connection Type) attributes set such that they match those of the Joints to which those ends are connected. This is done by setting CTYS/CTYE to a word which matches the Joint’s CTYA attribute in the Catalogue; see the PARAGON Reference Manual. These attributes are set automatically when a Section is connected and you will not usually need to set them specifically.

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Examples: CTYS BOLT The Section’s start is to be connected to its attached Joint by means of bolts. (The CTYA of the Joint must also be set to BOLT for a compatible connection; see Part 4 of the DESIGN Reference Manual for information about data consistency checking.) Command Syntax:
>--+-- CTYStart --. | | ‘-- CTYEnd ----+-- word -->

Querying:
Q CTYStart Q CTYEnd

5.3.8 Start and End Releases
Keywords: Description: SRELEASE ERELEASE The two Release attributes, the Section Start Release (SREL) and the Section End Release (EREL), may be used to define how the Section behaves under the effect of applied forces and moments. They are relevant only for stress analysis of the structure. The attribute settings allow for two types of movement of the Section ends when external forces are applied, namely: • • Examples: SREL DX RX RY The Start of the Section is constrained such that it can move only in the X direction and can rotate only about the X and Y axes. Linear movement along a specific axis (DX, DY, DZ) Rotation about a specific axis (RX, RY, RZ)

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Command Syntax:
>--+-- SRELease --. .---<---. | | / | ‘-- ERELease --+--*-- DX ---| | | |-- DY ---| | | |-- DZ ---| | | |-- RX ---| | | |-- RY ---| | | |-- RZ ---| | | ‘-- sign --+-->

Querying:
Q SRELease Q ERELease

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5.4

Creating and Positioning Secondary Nodes
A Secondary Node is owned by, and positioned relative to, an existing Section. It enables you to position and connect another Section (an Attached Section) at any point along the length of the first Section (the Owning Section), rather than having to define the position of the Attached Section in ‘free space’.

Keywords: Description:

NEW

SNODE ZDISTANCE

SNOD elements are created, as for other Design elements, by using the NEW command. They are positioned by specifying their distance from their owning Section’s Start Position, measured along the Neutral Axis towards the End Position. This distance, which is held in the Node’s ZDIST attribute, may be specified as an absolute length, as a proportion of the overall distance between POSS and POSE (i.e. a proportion of the derived length of the Section), or by reference to any marker (pin, ppoint, p-line etc.), element or plane.

Examples: NEW SNOD /SNOD1 ZDIST 1500 (At SCTN level) Creates a Secondary Node named /SNOD1 at the specified distance from the start of the Section. The Node is positioned on the Neutral Axis of the owning Section. NEW SNOD /SNOD2 IS 1250 FROM END The position of the new Node is measured from the POSE position rather than from the default reference of POSS. NEW SNOD /SNOD4 ZDIS PROP .33 The new Node is positioned one third of the way along the Section’s Neutral Axis, measured from the start of the Section. NEW SNOD /SNOD3 ZDIS PROP 0.25 FROM END The new Node is positioned one quarter of the way along the Section’s Neutral Axis, measured from the end of the Section. NEW SNODE /SNOD5 ZDIS PLANE W30N DIST 0.0 The new Node is positioned at the intersection of the owning section’s neutral axis with the defined plane.

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Command Syntax:
>-- ZDIStance --+-| |-| | | | | | | | |-| ‘-<uval> --------------. | PROPortion -- value --+-- FRom --+-- STart --. | | | | |-- ENd ----| | | | | ‘-- <gid> --| | | ‘----------------------+ | | <marke> ------------------------------------| | <plane> ------------------------------------+->

Querying:
Q ZDIStance

5.5

Creating and Positioning Joints
Joints elements constitute the physical means by which Sections are connected together. A Primary Joint (PJOI) is owned by a Primary Node. Its position is derived from that of its owning Node. A Secondary Joint (SJOI) is owned by a Secondary Node. Its position is derived from that of its owning Node, and thus, in turn, from the position of the Section which owns that Node. A Compound Joint (PCOJ or SCOJ) is positioned relative to a Node, as for a PJOI or an SJOI, but all settings which define its connections are associated with subsidiary SubJoints owned by the Compound Joint (one SubJoint for each connection). You will most often create and position Joints automatically using the STRING command (see Section 5.2). This section describes how you can carry out these operations independently and how you can modify the positions of Joints which have been created previously. A Joint is a Catalogue Component, which is selected in the design by setting its SPREF attribute to point to the required Component Specification.

5.5.1 Creating Primary Joints
Keywords: Description:
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PJOINT

A new Primary Joint can only be created at PNOD level.
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Examples: NEW PJOI /JOINT1 Creates a new PJOI with a default position and orientation. The default position places the DELPOS (Delta Position) of the Joint at the NPOS of the Node. The default orientation directs the OPDI (Origin Plane Direction) of the Joint UP. Command Syntax: The standard element creation syntax is described in Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual.

5.5.2 Creating Secondary Joints
Keywords: Description: Examples: NEW SJOI /SJOINT1 Creates a new SJOI with a default position and orientation. The default position places the POSL (Position Line) of the Joint through the owning SNOD.The default orientation directs the CUTP (Cutting Plane Direction) of the Joint Up. Command Syntax: The standard element creation syntax is described in Part 1 of the DESIGN Reference Manual. NEW SJOINT

A new Secondary Joint can only be created at SNOD level.

5.5.3 Setting Joint Geometry via a Specification Reference
Keywords: Description: SPREF Both PJOIs and SJOIs must have their geometry defined by setting their SPREF attributes to point to a valid Specification Component in a Project Specification in the Catalogue DB. Both types of Joint may point to the same Specification Component if required.

Examples: SPRE /10X10.BRAK90 (The .BRAK90 suffix in the Specification Component name would normally indicate that this represents a 90 degree bracket joint.)

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Command Syntax:
>--- SPRef name --->

Querying:
Q SPRef

5.5.4 Positioning and Orientating Primary Joints
Keywords: Description: DELPOSITION OPDIRECTION BANGLE

The position and orientation of a Primary Joint are defined by the settings of the following three attributes: • The Delta Position (DELP) is the offset between the Joint’s Origin Plane and the position of its owning Node (the NPOS of the PNOD), expressed in the coordinate system which applies to the FRMW or SBFR. The default is a zero offset, so that the Joint’s Origin Plane passes through the owning Node. The Origin Plane Direction (OPDI) is the direction of the normal to the plane through the Joint’s origin, as defined in the Catalogue representation of the Joint. The Beta Angle (BANG) is the angle of rotation of the Joint about its Origin Plane Direction, measured clockwise as viewed along that direction. The default setting is zero, so that the Joint’s orientation is as defined by its Catalogue representation.
BANG defines orientation about Z axis OPDI defines orientation about X,Y axes

Z Y X
DY DZ

DELP defines X,Y,Z offset relative to PNode

PNode

DX

NPOS defines X,Y,Z coords of PNode

Examples: DELP N4.5 Offsets the Joint by 4.5 (mm) in a northerly direction.

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OPDI N Orientates the Joint so that the normal to its Origin Plane points North. BANG 180 Rotates the Joint about its current Origin Plane Direction by 180 degrees. Command Syntax:
>--- DELPosition --- <bpos> ---> >--- OPDIrection --- <bdir> ---> >--- BANGle ---+--- value ----------------------------. | | ‘--- <bdir> --- TOwards --- <bdir> ---+--->

Querying:
Q DELPosition Q OPDIrection Q BANGle

5.5.5 Positioning and Orientating Secondary Joints
Keywords: Description: POSLINE (ZDISTANCE) BANGLE

The position and orientation of a Secondary Joint are defined with respect to its owning Secondary Node. The position of this Node is separately defined with respect to its owning Section, as described Section 5.4. The Joint’s position with respect to the Section depends, therefore, upon the settings of two attributes: • • The Z-axis Distance (ZDIST) attribute of the owning SNOD. The Positioning Line (POSL) attribute of the SJOI itself. This defines the position of the Joint in relation to the p-line system which has been set up for the owning Section’s Profile within the Catalogue. The default POSL setting is NA (Neutral Axis), so that the Joint’s Origin (more strictly, its JLIN) lies on the Section’s Neutral Axis at the position specified by the ZDIST: that is, the Joint’s Origin is coincident with the position of its owning SNOD.

The Beta Angle (BANG) specifies the angular rotation of the Joint about its Origin Plane Direction. The default setting is zero, so that the Joint’s orientation is as defined by its Catalogue representation.

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BANG defines orientation about Z axis
Z Y X

OPDI defines orientation about X,Y axes

POSL (here set to TOS) defines position

Owning Section (2D view only)

SNode

TOS NA BOS
ZDIST defines position of SNode relative to POSS of Sectio

Examples: POSL TOS The Positioning Line of the Joint is coincident with the TOS (Top of Steel) pline of the Section. POSL BOS The Positioning Line of the Joint is coincident with the BOS (Bottom of Steel) p-line of the Section. Command Syntax:
>-- POSLine word -->

where word is usually one of the following: NA (Neutral Axis) TOS (Top of Steel) BOS (Bottom of Steel)
>-- BANGle --+-- value ------------------. | | ‘-- <bdir> TOwards <bdir> --+-->

Querying:
Q POSLine Q ZDISTance Q BANGle

(At the SJOI) (At the SNOD) (At the SJOI)

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5.6

Attributes of Connected Joints
The attributes and their settings described in Section 5.5 are applicable to any Joints, whether or not they have been connected to attached Sections. In addition, Joints which have been fully connected (that is, those which have both an Owning and an Attached Section) have other relevant attributes set. These are described in this section.

5.6.1 Connection Reference
Keywords: Description: CREFerence The Connection Reference attribute (CREF) of a Joint points to the identifier of the Attached Section. This attribute is set automatically when a Section is connected and you will not usually need to set it specifically. Examples: CREF /BEAM1 START Sets Connection Reference to start of named Section. CREF /BEAM2 END Sets Connection Reference to end of named Section. CREF /COLUMN2 Sets Connection Reference to start of named Section. CREF NULREF Disconnects the Joint. Command Syntax:
>-- CREFerence --+-- <gid> --+-- STart* --. | | | | |--- ENd ----| | | | | ‘------------+ | | ‘--- NULref --------------+-->

where <gid> identifies the Section to be connected. Querying:
Q CREFerence

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5.6.2 Cutting Plane
Keywords: Description: CUTPlane The position of a Joint which has an Attached Section is derived from the intersection of the Attached Section’s Joining Line (JLIN) and the Joint’s Cutting Plane. The Cutting Plane Direction, that is the direction of the normal to the Cutting Plane, is defined by the setting of the CUTP attribute. The default direction is Up. It is the position of the Joint’s Cutting Plane which defines the effective length of the Section (but see also Section 5.6.3). Examples: CUTP N45D The normal to the Cutting Plane points in the specified direction. CUTP PERP The normal to the Cutting Plane is set perpendicular to the Joint’s Origin Plane. Command Syntax:
>-- CUTPlane --+-- <bdir> ---------. | | ‘-- PERPendicular --+-->

Querying:
Q CUTP

5.6.3 Cutback Allowance
Keywords: Description: CUTBack The derived length of an attached Section is, unless otherwise specified, the distance between the Cutting Planes of the Joints at its two ends. The CUTB attribute allows you to specify a length by which the Section should be shortened or extended to allow for any local fitting geometry at the Joint’s attachment point (to allow for weld metal, packing pieces etc.). A positive value of CUTB shortens the derived length of a Section attached to the Joint; a negative CUTB lengthens the attached Section. The default is a CUTB setting of zero.

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Examples: CUTB 6 An attached section will have its derived length reduced by 6mm. CUTB -6 An attached section will have its derived length increased by 6mm. Command Syntax:
>-- CUTBack <uval> -->

Querying: Q CUTBack

5.7

Manually Connecting Sections
This section describes the commands which allow you to connect Sections and Joints ‘manually’; that is, without using the STRING command. The relevant Nodes and Joints must have been created first, as described in the preceding sections of this chapter. This section also explains how to disconnect and reconnect Sections and Joints, so that you can modify existing interconnected structural designs.

5.7.1 Connecting Sections
Keywords: Description: CONNECT START END FREE RECALCULATE When a Section is connected manually, the relevant End Cutting Plane of the Section (DRNS/DRNE) is superimposed on the Cutting Plane (CUTP) of the connecting Joint. This requires that the direction and through point of the Section have been correctly specified; that is, that the correct end points are on an extension of the Section’s Neutral Axis. In cases of misalignment, the Section’s position and orientation are given highest priority. Thus, connecting a Section will not cause the Section to move or rotate. The Joint will be aligned with the Section, if possible (but see the FREE option, below). When the connection is made, the connection cross-references between the Section and the Joint are set. That is, the JOIS/JOIE of the Section and the CREF of the Joint are matched. Further, the relevant Connection Type attribute of the Section (CTYS or CTYE) is set to point to the Attached Connection Type attribute (CTYA) of the Catalogue Joint.

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The FREE option allows the existing joint position to remain fixed, and the POSS and/or POSE of the section to be adjusted. This may cause the section to be displaced sideways, or its direction to rotate. It may also cause SNODEs and FITTINGs along the section to be displaced (even with RECALCULATE). When the connection has been made, the corresponding Start or End Point of the Section (POSS/POSE) is calculated from the intersection of the Z axis of the Section with the new Cutting Plane which passes through the end of the Joint’s JLIN. The RECALCULATE option causes the positions of elements which are members of a Section to be recalculated so that they remain in the same positions if the Section is moved. For example, the ZDIS defining the position of a Secondary Node would be recalculated if the POSS (from which ZDIS is measured) were moved as a result of a CONNECT command, so that the SNOD remained unmoved. If both RECALCULATE and FREE are specified, the position of FITTINGs and SNODEs along the section are recalculated to be as close as possible to their original positions. Examples: CONN END TO /SJOINT3 Where the current element is a Section. CONN WITH START OF /BEAM1 Where the current element is a Joint. CONN START TO /PJOIN2 RECALC Connects the start of the current Section without moving the positions of any secondary elements owned by the Section. Command Syntax: At Section level:
>- CONnect -+- STart -. | | ‘- ENd ---+- FREE -. | | ‘--------+- TO

<gid> -+- RECALCulate -. | | ‘---------------+->

where <gid> identifies a Joint. At Joint level:
>-- CONnect WITH --+-- STart --. | | ‘-- ENd ----+-- OF

<gid> -->

where <gid> identifies a Section.

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5.7.2 Disconnecting Sections
Keywords: Description: DISCONNECT START END RECALCULATE When a Section is disconnected, the connection cross-references (JOIS/JOIE - CREF) are unset and the connection type crossreferences (CTYS/CTYE ) are set to Nulref. The position and length of the Section are not changed, but the Joint (if moved during the connection operation) is returned to its default position. The RECALCULATE option causes the positions of elements which are members of a Section to be recalculated so that they remain in the same positions if the Section is moved. For example, the ZDIST defining the position of a Secondary Node would be recalculated if the POSS (from which ZDIST is measured) were moved as a result of a DISCONNECT command, so that the SNOD remained unmoved. Examples: DISCO START Disconnects the start of the current Section. DISCO END Disconnects the end of the current Section. DISCO Disconnects both the start and end of the current Section. DISCO END RECALC Disconnects the end of the current Section, but retains the positions of any secondary elements owned by the Section. Command Syntax:
>-- DISConnect --+-- STart --. | | |-- ENd ----| | | ‘-----------+-- RECALCulate --. | | ‘-----------------+-->

5.7.3 Reconnecting Sections
Keywords: Description: RECONNECT START END RECALCULATE The RECONNECT command would typically be used to reconnect a disconnected Section in the following circumstances: • Following the movement of a Joint: the attached Section is moved to the new Joint position.
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Following the resetting of a cutback allowance at a Joint (see Section 5.6.3): the length of the Section is modified to allow for the new cutback distance. Following the movement of a Primary Node which has a member Joint attached to an existing Section.

In each case the RECONNECT command attempts to restore the consistency of the connected model. The RECALCULATE option causes the positions of elements which are members of a Section to be recalculated so that they remain in the same positions if the Section is moved. For example, the ZDIST defining the position of a Secondary Node would be recalculated if the POSS (from which ZDIST is measured) were moved as a result of a RECONNECT command, so that the SNOD remained unmoved. Examples: RECON START Reconnects the start of the current Section. RECON END Reconnects the end of the current Section. RECON Command Syntax:
>-- RECOnnect --+-- STart --. | | |-- ENd ----| | | ‘-----------+-- RECALCulate --. | | ‘-----------------+-->

Reconnects both the start and end of the current Section.

5.8

Repositioning Steelwork Elements
The concept of connectivity in structural steelwork influences the types of repositioning operations which are allowed. Repositioning operations using the standard DESIGN commands will also move items whose positions depend on those of the items being directly moved.

5.8.1 Reversing Section Start and End Positions (‘Flipping’)
Keywords: Description: FLIP The FLIP command mutually exchanges references to the Start and End of a steelwork Section, effectively reversing its orientation. This is

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mainly of use for reorientating a Section with a non-symmetrical profile if you have mistakenly strung it the wrong way round. It is best used before any Secondary Nodes or Fittings are placed along the Section. FLIP causes the settings of the following pairs of attributes to be exchanged: • • • Caution: POSS and POSE (Start and End Positions) DRNS and DRNE (Start and End Plane Directions) JOIS and JOIE (Start and End Joint References)

It is not intended that Sections with secondary connections be Flipped, although you can do so if you fully understand the effects outlined below. These effects may not give the results you had intended and may therefore require further design modifications to be made: The settings of the SREL and EREL (Start and End Release) attributes are not exchanged. Since, however, the ends to which they refer have changed (since the original Start is now the End, and vice versa), their effects will be reversed in the physical model. • The Member List of the Flipped Section remains unchanged, so that any cross-references to member elements by list position remain correct. The ZDIST attributes of any SNODs, FITTINGs, etc. remain the same, so that their positions are now derived from the opposite end of the Section (the new Start end), thereby causing these member elements to move. Any Connected items referenced via SJOIs will not move, since the positions of the corresponding SJOIs will not move to the new SNOD positions until they are Disconnected. If you wish to reverse a Section with existing secondary connections you should, therefore, use the following sequence of operations: Disconnect the Section to be Flipped from all attached Sections. Flip the Section, thereby repositioning all of its SNODs and their associated SJOIs (now disconnected) in the reversed locations. Reorientate all connected Sections so that they realign with the modified SJOI locations along the Flipped Section (or reset the ZDIST attributes of the SNODs so that they are repositioned where you want them). Reconnect the Flipped Section to all the attached Sections.

• • •

• Examples:

FLIP Reverses the Start and End attribute settings for the current element as outlined in the preceding description.

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Command Syntax:
>--- FLIP --->

Querying: You may find the following querying commands, used both before and after giving the FLIP command, helpful in checking the precise effects of the command: Q ATT Q DER POS For checking, in particular, all Start and End related settings (POSS/POSE, DRNS/DRNE, etc). For checking the derived positions of SNODs and/or SJOIs.

5.8.2 Moving Steelwork Elements
NOTE: The positioning/moving syntax described in Chapter 2, Equipment and Primitives, also applies to Structural steelwork elements. Keywords: Description: MOVE ALONG BY AT

Movement relative to a fixed starting position (MOVE, ALONG, BY commands) is possible for all structural elements which have a directly defined location in the 3D model; for example, Frameworks, Subframeworks, Primary Joints and Nodes (but not Secondary Joints and Nodes, whose positions are dependent on that of a Section), Routing Planes, Panels, etc. Absolute positioning (AT command) is possible only for Sections, Primary Nodes, Routing Planes and Panels.

Examples: MOVE ALONG E45N DISTANCE 500 Moves Current Element in specified direction by specified distance. BY N1000 E5000 U7000 Moves Current Element as specified relative to its current position. AT E2000 N2000 U1000 Moves the Current Element to the specified position. In the case of a Section, POSS is set to this position; in the case of a Primary Node, NPOS is set to this position.

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5.8.3 Modifying Lengths of Sections
Keywords: Description: EXTEND START END PROPORTIONAL RECALCULATE Once positioned, a Section may have its ends repositioned independently by using the EXTEND command. This effectively lengthens or shortens the Section by a specified amount and resets its POSS and/or POSE attributes accordingly. (You could, of course, set POSS and/or POSE directly, as described in Section 11.3.3, but this would need prior calculation of the new positions needed to achieve the required length change.) The increase or decrease in length may be specified as a direct measurement or as a proportion of the current length of the Section. The <plane> allows you to define the amount of extension required by intersecting the neutral axis with a defined plane. The section is extended (or shortened) to meet the plane. The RECALCULATE option causes the positions of elements which are members of the modified Section to be recalculated so that they remain in the same positions after the change. For example, the ZDIST defining the position of a Secondary Node would be recalculated if the POSS (from which ZDIST is measured) were moved by the EXTEND command, so that the SNOD remained unmoved. Examples: EXTEND END BY E1000 Move POSE by 1000mm Eastward. EXTEND BY E1000 As above (defaults to END). EXTEND START BY W1000 RECALC Move POSS by 1000mm Westward and recalculate the positions of all member SNODs, FITTs etc. so that they remain unmoved. EXTEND START BY U500 E2000 S500 Move POSS by the given amounts. EXTEND END 1750 Move POSE so as to increase the Section’s length by 1750mm (default units). EXTEND -1750 Move POSE (defaults to END) so as to decrease the Section’s length by 1750mm (default units). EXTEND START PROP 0.25 Move POSS so as to increase the Section’s current length by 25%.

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EXTEND PROP -0.2 Moves POSE (defaults to END) so as to decrease the Section’s length by 20%. EXTEND END PLANE E30N DIST 0.0 Moves POSE to meet the defined plane. Command Syntax:
>-- EXTend --+- STart -. | | |-- ENd* -| | | ‘---------+| || | || ‘-

PROPortional - value -. | BY --- <axpos> ------| | | <plane> -------------| | <uval> --------------+- RECALCulate --. | | ‘----------------+->

5.8.4 Reorientating Steelwork Elements
Keywords: Description: ROTATE BY ABOUT THROUGH AND The method of rotating a Section about its Neutral Axis by setting its BANG attribute was described in Section 5.3.5. This section explains the use of the ROTATE command to achieve a greater range of reorientating effects on Sections and on other steelwork elements. The command allows you to specify the rotation required in any of the following ways: • As a specified angle of rotation about a default axis (similar in effect to setting the BANG attribute). This default axis is the Neutral Axis for Sections, Joints and Fittings, and the Z axis for other elements. As a specified angle of rotation about a given axis, the latter defined by its direction and/or through point. If the direction and/or through point are omitted, the default direction is that of the Neutral Axis or Z axis; the default through point is the Origin or Start Position (depending on the type of element involved). By reference to the component’s axes or p-lines.

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Examples: ROTATE BY -45 Rotates by 45° about the element’s Neutral Axis or Z axis (anticlockwise when looking from Start to End or in the +Z direction, since the rotation is specified as a negative angle). ROTATE BY 45 ABOUT E Rotates by 45° about the E-W axis (clockwise when looking E). ROTATE ABOUT E BY 45 The same as the preceding example. ROT THRO POSE ABOUT S BY -25 Rotates a Section about an axis which passes in the N-S direction through its End position. The rotation is 25° anticlockwise when looking S along this axis. ROT ABOUT PPLIN TOS BY 45 Rotates by 45° about the Top-of-Steel p-line (clockwise when looking in the Start to End direction). ROT AND PPLIN BOS IS E45N Rotates element about its Neutral Axis until the Bottom-of-Steel p-line points as closely as possible to the E45N direction. ROTATE AND Y IS N45W25D Rotates element until the Y axis points as closely as possible to the N45W25D direction. ROT AND PPLIN TOS IS PPLIN BOS OF /SCTN1 LEAV DIR WRT /STRU1 Rotates element until its TOS p-line points in the direction of the BOS pline of /SCTN1 in the specified coordinate system. Command Syntax: Rotation about a given axis:
>- ROTate ABOut -+- <plin> -. | | ‘- <bdir> -+- THRough - <bpos> -+- BY -+- <uval> -------------------. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> TOwards <bdir> ---| | | | | ‘- AND -+- <plin> -. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+- IS <bdir> ----| | | |- BY - +- <uval> --------------------. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> - TOwards - <bdir> -+ | | | | ‘- AND -+- <plin> -. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+- IS - <bdir> ----+- THRough <bpos> -| | | ‘------------------+-->

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Rotation to pass through a given point:
>- ROTate THRough - <bpos> -+- ABOut -+- <plin> -. | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+- BY -+- <uval> -----------------------. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> - TOwards - <bdir> ----| | | | | ‘- AND -+- <plin> -. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+- IS - <bdir> ------| | | |- BY -+- <uval> --------------------. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> - TOwards - <bdir> -+- ABOut -+- <plin> -. | | | | | | | | ‘- <bdir>- +--| | | | | ‘-----------------------| | | ‘- AND -+- <plin> -. | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+- IS - <bdir> -+- ABOut -+- <plin> -. | | | | | | ‘- <bdir>- +----| | | ‘-------------------------+-->

Rotation by a specified amount:
>- ROTate BY - -+- <uval> --------------------. | | ‘- <bdir> - TOwards - <bdir> -+- ABOut -+- <plin> -. | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+- THRough - <bpos> ---. | | | | ‘----------------------| | | |- THRough - <bpos> -+- ABOut -+- <plin> -. | | | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+-| | | | | ‘----------------------| | | ‘-------------------------------------------+->

Rotation to give a specified orientation:
>- ROTate AND -+- <plin> -. | | ‘- <bdir> -+- IS - <bdir> -+- ABOut -+- <plin> -. | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+- THRough - <bpos> ----. | | | | ‘-----------------------| | | |- THRough - <bpos> -+- ABOut -+- <plin> -. | | | | | | | | ‘- <bdir> -+--| | | | | ‘-----------------------| | | ‘--------------------------------------------+-->

Note:

In each of the preceding diagrams <plin> identifies a specific p-line.

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5.9

Positioning and Orientating Using P-lines
P-lines in a 3D structure represent lines, derived from points defined in the Catalogue for corresponding Profiles or Joints, which have associated direction vectors in the X-Y plane. A typical configuration for an ‘extruded’ I-section component is illustrated in Figure 5-1; typical p-lines associated with a wider range of profiles are illustrated in the guide Structural Design Using PDMS. A p-line can provide a very convenient reference line or axis within an element’s 3D geometry (as derived in the design model) for positioning or orientating the element itself, or for defining some other geometry relative to the element. Positions may be defined along the length of a p-line; directions may be defined in terms of a p-line’s coordinate axes (the p-line direction being, by default, along its +Z axis). Some examples have already been introduced in the earlier sections of this chapter. This section further illustrates the possible uses of such techniques.

Z Y X PLIN NA POSE Y

Z X SITE axes

SCTN axes

Y Z TOS axes X X PLIN TOS BOS axes Z POSS PLIN BOS Y

Figure 5-1

Typical P-lines and Axes for a Section

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5.9.1 Identifying P-lines
Keywords: Description: PPLINE IDPLINE A p-line may be identified in either of the following ways: • By reference to its PKEY attribute (see the PARAGON Reference Manual for details of how this is set) and its owning element (if this is not the current element). By picking it on the display using the cursor.

• Examples:

PPLINE TOS Specifies the Top-of-Steel p-line of the current element. PPLINE BOS OF /BEAM2 Specifies the Bottom-of-Steel p-line of /BEAM2. IDPLINE @ Specifies the p-line to be picked using the cursor. Command Syntax: (This is the <plin> syntax referred to elsewhere in this manual.)
>--+-- PPLINe -- word --+-- OF <gid> --. | | | | ‘---------------+ | | ‘--- IDPLine -- @ -------------------+-->

where word is the setting of the p-line’s PKEY attribute, as defined in the Catalogue; for example: TOS (Top of Steel), BOS (Bottom of Steel), NA (Neutral Axis), NF (Near Face), FF (Far Face), etc.

5.9.2 Positioning by Using P-lines
Keywords: Description: PPLINE START END OFFSET A position relative to a p-line may be specified in any of the following ways: • • • • As a specific distance along the p-line from its start (typically the POSS of a Section) or its end (typically POSE). As a proportional distance along the p-line, expressed as a fraction of its length (typically the distance from POSS to POSE). As one of its extremities; that is, at the p-line’s start or end. As an offset, expressed as the distance between two specified plines.
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Examples: POSITION PPLINE BOS 500 Calculated position is on the BOS p-line, 500mm from its start (by default); for setting a variable or for querying. POS PPLIN TOS 1000 FROM END Calculated position is on the TOS p-line, 1000mm from its end. POS AT PPLIN NA OF /SCTN2 PROP .25 Calculated position is on the Neutral Axis of /SCTN2, 25% along its length as measured from its start (by default). POS AT PPLIN TOS OF /BEAM1 END Position is defined as the end of the TOS p-line of /BEAM1 (probably, but not necessarily, the POSE setting for /BEAM1). BY PPLIN TOS OFFSET FROM PPLIN BOS Moves the current element (Section or Joint) by the offset distance between its TOS and BOS p-lines. BY PPLIN BOS OFFSET FROM PPLIN TOS Moves the same distance as the preceding example, but in the opposite direction. BY PPLIN TOS -OFFSET FROM PPLIN BOS The same effect as the preceding example. Command Syntax: Note: The following syntax describes only the p-line referencing options for defining a position. These are in addition to the positioning/moving syntax described in Chapter 2, Equipment and Primitives, which also apply to Structural steelwork elements.

Defining a specific position:
>- <plin> -+- <uval> -------------. | | |- PROPortion - value -+----------------------. | | | | ‘- FROm -. | | | | ‘-------------------------------+- STart* -. | | | | ‘- ENd ----+--+-->

Defining a distance as the offset between two p-lines:
>-- <plin> --+-- sign --. | | ‘----------+-- OFFSet FROm <plin> -->

where <plin>, which identifies a specific p-line, is defined in Section 5.9.1.

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Querying:
Q <plin> --+-- <uval> --------------. | | |-- PROPortion - value --+--------------------------. | | | | ‘-- FROm --. | | | | ‘-----------------------------------+-- STart* --. | | | | ‘-- ENd -----+--+--> Q <plin> -- OFFSet --+-- FROm -- <plin> --. | | ‘--------------------+-->

Querying Examples: Q PPLIN TOS END Position of end of p-line. Q PPLIN BOS PROP 0.3 Position of point 30% of distance along BOS from start (by default) towards end. Q PPLIN NA PROP -1.5 FROM END Position of point which is 1.5 times length of Neutral Axis away from end of p-line in direction away from start. Q PPLIN TOS OFFS FROM PPLIN BOS Offset distance between TOS and BOS. Q PPLIN TOS OFFS Offset distance between TOS and Neutral Axis (by default).

5.9.3 Orientating by Using P-lines
Keywords: Description: PPLINE DIRECTION X Y Z LEAVE You can orientate a structural element by referring its axes to the directions of one or more p-lines. By default, references will be taken from the Z (or LEAVE) direction.

Examples: ORI Y IS PPLIN TOS OF /SCTN1 X DIR AND Z IS U Orientates the current element such that its Y axis points in the X direction of the TOS p-line of /SCTN1 and its Z axis points Up. If, for example, the X direction of the TOS p-line of /SCTN1 points East, then this command line is equivalent to ORI Y IS E AND Z IS U.

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Command Syntax:
>-- <plin> --+-- X ------. | | |-- Y ------| | | |-- Z ------| | | |-- LEAve --| | | ‘-----------+-- DIRection -->

Querying:
Q <plin> --+-- X ------. | | |-- Y ------| | | |-- Z ------| | | |-- LEAve --| | | ‘-----------+-- DIRection -->

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5.10 Creating and Connecting Panels
5.10.1 Creating a Panel
A Panel (PANE) element represents any sheet material used to clad a structural model. The geometry of a Panel is defined by a subsidiary Panel Loop (PLOO) element. The 2D shape of the Panel Loop is defined by linking together a set of Panel Vertex (PAVE) elements, each of which has a specific position in the Panel’s coordinate system. The polygon thus formed defines the shape of the Panel in the same way that a Profile defines the cross-sectional area of a Section. The Height (HEIG) attribute of the PLOO defines the distance through which this 2D shape is extruded to form the 3D Panel; that is, it defines the Panel thickness, thus:

= Panel Loop (PLOO)
HEIG of PLOO

= Panel Vertex (PAVE)

Each PAVE can have an optional fillet radius which defines a circular arc which bulges into (negative radius) or out of (positive radius) the PLOO area. The default fillet radius of zero denotes a point. To define a new Panel, you must, therefore, first create a PANE element (using NEW PANE etc.), then create a PLOO below it in the hierarchy, and then create and position as many member PAVEs as necessary to define the shape of the PLOO and thus the PANE. (The Z co-ordinates of the PAVEs are ignored; they are constrained to lie in the plane of the PLOO.)

5.10.2 Splitting a Panel
Keywords: Description: SPLIT ON You can split a Panel along its line of intersection with a given plane or Section. The Panel is split into two or more new Panels which have same owner as the original one. More than one new Panel may result if the original one has re-entrant vertices.

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The vertices of the original Panel are moved to the new Panel(s) as appropriate and new vertices are created where the intersection line crosses the edges of the original Panel. Examples: SPLIT PLANE N THRO N1000 Splits current panel along its line of intersection with the specified plane SPLIT ON /BEAM1 Splits current panel along the Neutral Axis (projected if necessary) of the named section Command Syntax:
>-- SPLIT --+-- PLANE <dir> -- THROugh <bpos> --. | | ‘-- ON <section_id> ----------------+-->

5.10.3 Connecting Panels using Linear Joints
Linear joints are used to connect structural items along edges or faces. They effectively have linear (2D) connectivity, whereas Primary and Secondary Joints have only point (1D) connectivity (even though they have 3D geometry). A Panel Linear Joint (PALJ), owned by a PANE, FRMW or SBFR, is used to connect two Panels together. The start and end of the PALJ are defined by two Panel Vertex (PAVE) points. Logical connections from the attached Panel are made by setting Master Vertex (MVERT) attributes of two of the Panel’s PAVEs to point to the corresponding PAVEs on the linear joint, thus:
* *
PANE1

* *
PANE2 PALJ

MVERT attribute of PAVE points to PAVE of PALJ

*

= PALJ (owned by PANE1) = PAVE (PLOO of PANE1) = PAVE (owned by PALJ)

In this example, PANE1 is the Owning Panel and PANE2 is the Attached Panel. A Section Linear Joint (SELJ), owned by a Section, is used to connect a Panel to a Section. The start and end of the SELJ are defined by two Section Vertex (SEVE) points. Logical connections from the attached Panel are made by setting Master Vertex (MVERT) attributes of two of the Panel’s PAVEs to point to the corresponding SEVE’s on the linear joint, thus:
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* *
PANE

* *
SCTN SELJ

MVERT attribute of PAVE points to SEVE of SELJ

*

= SELJ (owned by SCTN) = PAVE (PLOO of PANE) = SEVE (owned by SELJ)

Keywords: Description:

LINK UNLINK The LINK command lets you set up the necessary connection references for: • • • • • a vertex to another vertex an edge to an edge (an edge is the line between a pair of consecutive vertices) a panel to a joint a panel to a vertex a panel to an edge

In each case, the vertices of the item being linked are defined as slave vertices, while the vertices of the item linked to (which define the properties at the connection point) are defined as master vertices. When you link a panel, any new panel vertices needed will be created automatically to correspond with the master vertices of the item connected to. You can specify the position and direction of creation of the new vertices in the Panel Loop’s vertex sequence as part of the command. If the panel has no PLOOP, one will be created automatically. UNLINK unsets the connection cross-references created by a LINK command.

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Examples: LINK VERT CE TO /PAVE2 Links current vertex (slave) to vertex /PAVE2 (master). LINK PANEL /PANE3 TO EDGE /PAVE5 /PAVE6 AFTER /PAVE2 Links panel /PANE3 to edge between /PAVE5 and /PAVE6 and positions any new vertices needed after /PAVE2 in the PLOOP of /PANE3. Command Syntax:
>- LINK -+-+----------. | | | | ‘- VERTex -+- <vidlist> - TO - VERTex - <vid> -------------. | | |--- EDGE - <eidlist> - TO - EDGE - <eid> -------------------| | | ‘--- PANEl - <pid> - TO -+- JOINt - <jid> ---- <qualifier1> -| | | |- VERTex - <vid> -. | | | | ‘- EDGE - <eid> ---+- <qualifier2> -+-->

where: <vid> is a vertex identifier (name, refno, treename) <vidlist> is a list of vertex identifiers <eid> is an edge identifier (pair of consecutive vids) <eidlist> is a list of edge identifiers (must be an even number of vids) <pid> is a panel identifier (name, refno, treename) <jid> is a joint identifier (name, refno, treename) <qualifier1>:
>-+- FROM -+- START - TO -+- <vid> -. | | |- END ---| | | ‘---------+--. | |- END - TO ---+- <vid> -. | | | |- START -| | | | ‘---------+--| | |- <vid> - TO -+- <vid> -. | | | |- START -| | | | |- END ---| | | | ‘---------+--| | ‘---------------------------| ‘------------------------------------+- FORWards --. ‘- BACKwards -+- AFTer <vid> ---------. |- BEFore <vid> --------| |- BETween <vid> <vid> -| ‘-----------------------+->

The FROM/TO options specify which portion of the joint is to be linked to the panel. Defaults are implied start to implied end of joint. The FORWARDS/BACKWARDS options specify the direction of vertices within the joint.

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The AFTER/BEFORE/BETWEEN options specify the position in the Panel Loop at which to create vertices corresponding to those of the joint (master vertices). <qualifier2>:
>--+-- AFTer <vid> ----------. | | |-- BEFore <vid> ---------| | | |-- BETween <vid> <vid> --| | | ‘-------------------------+->

The AFTER/BEFORE/BETWEEN options specify the position in the Panel Loop at which to create vertices corresponding to those of the master vertices.
>-- UNLINK --+-- <vid> -- FRom -- <vid> --. | | ‘-- ALL ---------------------+-->

Querying: Q LINKS Queries connection references between vertices

5.11 Fittings, Hangers and Equipment Load Points
5.11.1 Fittings and Panel Fittings
A Fitting (FITT) element allows you to indicate a connected implied load, such as a pipe hanger attachment, or an ancillary item related to, but not an inherent part of, the structure, such as a web stiffener or a flange plate. A Fitting is owned by a Section (SCTN) and is positioned along the Neutral Axis of the SCTN at a point defined by the ZDIST attribute (in the same way as for a SNOD). The Fitting may be geometrically modelled in the Catalogue, and selected from the Catalogue, in a similar way to a Joint, as described in Section 5.5. A Panel Fitting (PFIT) element serves a similar function to a FITT, but is owned by a Panel and positioned relative to the Panel’s origin. A Cofitting (COFI) element is used where a fitting spans the junction betwen two or more Panels. In the latter case, one of the Panels owns a PFIT while the others each own a COFI. Each COFI has its Panel Fitting Reference (PFRE) attribute set to point to the assciated PFIT; the PFIT has its Cofitting Reference Array (CFRA) attribute set to point to the COFIs.

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5.11.2 Structure-to-Pipework Connections
Piping models may be linked logically to the Structural model by means of cross-references between the Connection Reference (CREF) attribute of a Fitting on the Structure and the Head or Tail Reference (HREF/TREF) of a Hanger on the Pipework. A Fitting may be regarded, therefore, as the Structural equivalent of an Attachment Point (ATTA) in Pipework design. For connection type compatibility, the Connection Type attribute (CTYA) of the Fitting must match the Connection Type (HCON/TCON) of the Hanger.

5.11.3 Structure-to-Equipment Connections
Equipment models may be linked logically to the Structural model by means of cross-references between the Connection Reference (CREF) attribute of a Fitting on the Structure and the Connection Reference (CREF) of a Load Point (LOAP) element owned by the Equipment. A Load Point has a position within the Equipment model, but no size or orientation. It behaves in this respect like a Node in the Structural model. If an Equipment is moved, any member Load Points which point to Fittings in a Structure will not move, their positions being constrained by the attached Structure.

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5.12 Design, Owning and Attached Parameters
5.12.1 Setting Design Parameters
Keywords: Description: DESPARAMETERS Design parameters (DESP) are array-type attributes of any element which has a Specification Reference (Sections, Joints, Fittings etc.), each of which may store up to 100 real values. They may be used to transfer design data to a corresponding Catalogue component, or to a component’s attached or owning design element. As an example, this enables one or more dimensions of a Joint to be derived from the dimensions of the Section(s) to which it is attached, rather than from preset dimensions defined for it in the Catalogue. A DESP is referenced in the design by its numbered position in the array. Its value must be set before the corresponding component is selected from the Catalogue, so that the required setting is available within the design. Examples: DESP 2.5 7 Sets first two design parameters to 2.5 and 7 respectively. DESP N3 -5.5 Sets third design parameter to -5.5. DESP N3 POSS OF /SCTN1 Sets design parameters 3, 4 and 5 to X,Y,Z coordinates (respectively) of POSS of element /SCTN1. Note: In the last example, a range of three design parameters, needed to hold the co-ordinates of the defined point, was set automatically, starting with the specified third parameter.

Command Syntax: Setting parameters in default order in the array, starting at parameter number 1:

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.--------------<------------. / | >-- DESParameters --+-- <expres> -----------------| | | |-- <uval> -------------------| | | |-- READ ---------------------| | | ‘-- word --+-- OF -- <gid> --| | | ‘------------------+-->

Setting individually specified parameters within the array:
.--------------------<---------------------. / | >- DESParameters -*- Number - integer -+- <expres> ------------| | | |- <uval> --------------| | | |- READ ----------------| | | ‘- word -+- OF - <gid> -| | | ‘--------------+->

Querying:
.--------------<-------------. / | Q --*-- DESParameters - integer ---+--->

Querying Examples: Q DESP 1 DESP 3 Outputs values of design parameters 1 and 3. Q DESP Outputs values of all design parameters. Q (WDESP[1]) Extracts a word from within DESP 1. FINCH DIST Q (DDESP[2]) Extracts a distance (in feet and inches) from within DESP 2.

5.12.2 Setting Owning and Attached Parameters
Owning and attached parameters (OPAR and APAR, respectively) are realarray attributes of Joints. They are set in the Catalogue, and allow the Joint to derive data (usually dimensions) from its owning or attached Section(s) when it is introduced into the design. See the PARAGON Reference Manual for details about the setting of these arrays.

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As with the design parameters described in Section 5.12.1, an OPAR or APAR is referenced in the design by means of its numbered position in the corresponding array.

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5.13 Representing Curved Beams and Walls
5.13.1 Overview
Curved structural items are represented by Generic Section (GENSEC) elements, the geometry of which is defined by sweeping a 2D catalogue profile along a path. This path is represented by a Spine element, owned by the GENSEC, whose route is specified in terms of a sequence of member Spine Points (POINSP) and, optionally, Curves. For example:
End POINSP CURVE

PROFILE Start POINSP

CURVE = SPINE = POINSP

There are six types of Curve, defined by setting the CURTYP (Curve Type) attribute, which govern the way in which the shape of the curve is specified. The options are:

LINE RADI THRU BULG FILL CENT

A straight line (this is the default) A circular arc, defined by a radius and a conditioning point. An arc passing through a specified through-point position. An arc defined by a bulge factor and a conditioning point. A fillet arc and two adjacent straights, defined by a radius and a pole position. A fillet arc and two adjacent straights, defined by a circle centre point, a radius and a conditioning point.

A Spine with only two POINSP members behaves in a similar way to a linear Section (SCTN). The first POINSP owned by the Spine defines its start position (equivalent to the POSS of the Section); the last POINSP defines its end position (equivalent to the POSE of the Section). Items connected to a GENSEC are positioned and orientated relative to a set of p-lines which follow the same path as that defined by the GENSEC’s Spine; that is, the p-lines may be curved. These p-lines are referenced by attached items via Justification Line Datum (JLDATUM) and P-line Datum
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(PLDATUM) elements, which define the frames of reference to be used for positioning and orientating the attached items relative to the parent GENSEC. Fittings and joints are represented by generic Fixing (FIXING) elements, the geometry of which is defined by reference to catalogue items. Fixings can own other Fixings, so that although they behave somewhat like the more restrictive Fitting and Joint elements, they are more versatile for representing compound fittings and joints.

5.13.2 Defining a Generic Section
Keywords: Description: GENSEC SPINE POINSP CURVE Each GENSEC, representing a linear or curved beam or wall, must own a Spine defining its shape. The Spine must own at least two Spine Points, defining its start and end positions. It can also own intermediate Spine Points and Curves to give a non-linear configuration.

Examples: NEW GENSEC Creates GENSEC with no defined geometry. SPREF /203X203X55KG.UB Sets SpecRef of GENSEC to point to catalogue profile. GENSEC now has defined cross-section, but no geometry defining its path. NEW SPINE Creates Spine with no defined path. NEW POINSP First Spine Point defines Start Position (POSS). NEW POINSP Last Spine Point defines End Position (POSE). Spine at this stage is a straight line. NEW CURVE (Created between POINSPs). The attributes of this curve determine the shape of the Spine path between the adjacent POINSPs. (See Section 5.13.3.)

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5.13.3 More About Curve Types
The ways in which the various types of Curve are specified are as follows: • CURTYP = LINE Specifies a straight line between the adjacent POINSPs. This is the default if curved geometry is not defined between two POINSP elements. CURTYP = RADI Specifies a single circular arc between adjacent POINSP elements. The arc is defined by the RADI (radius) and CPOS (conditioning point) attributes. The conditioning point and the preceding and following points define the plane of the arc. The choice of minor or major arc is governed by the arc which approaches closest to the conditioning point. If RADS = false, the specified radius is ignored and the minimum radius is calculated such that the curve is a semicircle between the adjacent POINSPs. CURTYP = THRU Specifies a single circular arc. The arc is defined by the POS attribute, which is interpreted as a through-point on the curve. The through-point and the preceding and following points define the plane of the arc. CURTYP = BULG Specifies a single circular arc. The arc is defined by the BULG (bulge factor) and CPOS (conditioning point) attributes. The conditioning point and the preceding and following points define the plane of the arc. The choice of minor or major arc is governed by the size of the bulge factor. The sign of the bulge factor determines whether the arc curves towards the conditioning point (positive bulge factor) or away from the conditioning point (negative bulge factor). CURTYP = FILL Specifies a combination of an arc and up to two straights. The curve is defined by the RADI (radius) and POS attributes, where the POS setting is interpreted as the pole point of the arc (the intersection of the two end tangents). The pole point and the preceding and following points define the plane of the arc. If RADS = false, the specified radius is ignored and the maximum radius that will fit into the pole is calculated; an endpoint triangle ensures that the fillet terminates on at least one of the end points. CURTYP = CENT Specifies a combination of an arc and up to two straights. The curve is defined by the RADI (radius), CPOS (conditioning point) and POS attributes, where the POS setting is interpreted as the circle centre point. The centre point and the preceding and following points define the plane of the arc. The choice of minor or major arc is governed by the arc which approaches closest to the conditioning point; the conditioning point need not lie in the plane of the arc. If RADS = false, the specified radius is ignored and the maximum radius is calculated to ensure that the
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nearest POINSP to the circle lies on the circle; the arc terminates on this point. Note: Displayed GENSECs treat each segment of the Spine as a separate extrusion. At the vertices between segments, i.e. at the POINSP positions, these extrusions merge together if there is a tangent continuity. If there is a tangent discontinuity, the extrusions are mitred along a plane normal to the mean of the two tangent vectors at the POINSP position.

5.13.4 How P-lines Are Used For Generic Sections
P-lines defined in the Pointset of the Section Profile (as referenced by the SpecRef) follow the path defined by the GENSEC’s Spine. This means that, for a curved GENSEC, the p-line directions are not constant over their lengths. This must be taken into consideration when using them as datums referenced by attached items. The command syntax used for referencing p-lines for SCTNs, as detailed in Section 11.9, is extended when applied to GENSECS. The additional command options available are summarised here. Positions Derived From P-lines (see Section 5.9.2): The distance value along the p-line may be preceded by the keyword DISTANCE. For example: PPLINE TOS DISTANCE distance FROM END ... The position along the p-line may be measured from the plane normal to the end of the GENSEC, from the cutback plane, or from the joint end preparation cutback. For example: PPLINE TOS OF /BEAM1 NORMAL ... PPLINE TOS OF /BEAM1 NOCUTBACK ... PPLINE TOS OF /BEAM1 CUTBACK ... It is possible to define a proportional and an absolute distance position at the same time. For example: PPLINE TOS PROPORTION value DISTANCE distance ... Positions may be measured along the actual p-line specified, or along the Spine and then projected onto the p-line. For example: PPLINE TOS distance VIA SPINE FROM END ... PPLINE TOS PROPORTION value VIA PLINE ... The element specified by the OF keyword may be a POINSP or a CURVE. This redefines the element to be the GENSEC owning the POINSP or CURVE, rather than the current element or an element defined with the p-line choice. This sets: • the direction along which DISTANCE and PROPORTION are to be measured;
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• •

in the case of a CURVE, the POINSP to be used as the origin from which DISTANCE and PROPORTION are measured; the segment of the GENSEC to which PROPORTION is applied as: • • • the named CURVE, the segment following the POINSP (from START), or the segment preceding the POINSP (from END).

For example: PPLINE TOS PROPORTION 0.4 FROM END VIA SPINE OF /CURVE3 calculates a position 40% along /CURVE3 measured from its end. If no POINSP or CURVE is specified, PROPORTION is calculated from the start of the GENSEC. Directions and Offsets Derived From P-lines (see Section 5.9.3): Directions and offsets derived from p-lines can have a derived position inserted after the direction/offset option and before the OF option. This lets you specify the position along the p-line at which the direction/offset is to be calculated. For example: PPLINE TOS X DIRECTION PROP 0.4 VIA PLINE FROM END OF /CURVE3 PPLINE TOS OFFSET FROM PPLINE BOS DISTANCE 200 FROM END If no position is given, the direction/offset is calculated using the start of the GENSEC or element specified by the OF option. Picked Positions on P-lines: The following syntax lets you derive a position on a p-line which is nearest to a probe line: PPLINE pline_name NORMAL/CUTBACK NEAR direction THROUGH position [VIA SPINE/PLINE] BOUND/UNBOUND The probe line starts at the THROUGH position and extends in the specified direction. The expression returns the nearest point on PLINE pline_name. If BOUND is set, the point is either on the p-line or at the ends (where it intersects the NORMAL or CUTBACK end of the GENSEC). If UNBOUND is set, the point can be on the tangential extension of the p-line. The point returned will be in or above the plane through the THROUGH position, normal to the probe line; that is, the point will not be behind the THROUGH position. The VIA SPINE/PLINE option is used if the point is to be returned with its distance along the p-line from the start of the segment. If pline_name is specified as ANY, all plines of the GENSEC will be probed and the closest p-line will be used.

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Identifying P-line Elements: P-line expressions can be used in any positioning command (DISTANCE, PROPORTION, NEAR etc.) in the following way: ID SEGMENT PPLINE ... positioning_command ID ONPLINE PPLINE ... positioning_command ID SEGMENT returns the identity of the POINSP at the start of the segment on which the specified position occurs. ID ONPLINE returns the identity of the p-line on which the specified position occurs. (The latter is only useful for the PPLINE ANY option, otherwise it simply returns the identity of the specified pline.) The following expressions use keywords analogous to the OFFSET option between the p-line specification and the subsequent positioning command: PPLINE PPLINE PPLINE PPLINE pline_name pline_name pline_name pline_name PLDIST positioning_command PLKEY positioning_command SEGMENT positioning_command ONPLINE positioning_command

PPLINE...SEGMENT and PPLINE...ONPLINE return references to the segment and p-line, respectively, on which the point is specified. PPLINE...PLDIST returns the distance along the segment on which the point lies, in the direction specified in the positioning_command (FROM START or FROM END). PPLINE...PLKEY returns the name (the PKEY) of the p-line on which the point lies.

5.13.5 Positioning Items Relative to Generic Sections
A GENSEC cannot own Fixings directly, but only via member Justification Line Datum and P-line Datum elements which together define the p-line configurations to be used as references for positioning and orientating the Fixings. The Justification Line Datum (JLDATUM) element defines a frame of reference for its members based on the p-line system of its owning GENSEC. Each JLDATUM can own a set of P-line Datum (PLDATUM) elements, each of which defines a frame of reference for its members based on a nominated pline of its owning JLDATUM. By manipulating a JLDATUM, all of its member PLDATUMs can be manipulated as a group, together with any Fixings owned by the latter. Note: The JLDATUM and PLDATUM elements together serve similar functions to the Secondary Nodes (SNOD) used for positioning Fittings (FITT), Compound Fittings (CMFI), Secondary Joints (SJOI) and Compound Secondary Joints (SCOJ) relative to Sections (SCTN). They also provide similar functions to those used for positioning Panel Fittings (PFIT) and Compound Panel Fittings (CMPF), depending on the GENSEC configuration (remember that a GENSEC can model a wide range of geometries, including structural sections and panels).
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Specifying Position: The position of a JLDATUM origin may be queried via a pseudo-attribute (Q POS), but this cannot be set explicitly. The position is derived from the following attribute settings: • TPREF and HPREF specify, by reference to POINSPs of the parent GENSEC (more strictly, its Spine), the start and end points, respectively, between which interpolated positions will be calculated. If both are unset, TPREF defaults to start of the GENSEC and HPREF defaults to the end of the GENSEC. If only one is set, the other defaults to the next POINSP in the appropriate direction. PKDI specifies a point, as a proportion of the distance from TPREF to HPREF, from which ZDIST is to be measured. The default setting is 0, giving a position at TPREF. If PKDI is less than 0 or greater than 1, the position will be on the preceding or following segment, respectively, of the Spine. ZDIST specifies the distance of the JLDATUM origin from the PKDI point, as measured along the Justification Line (JUSL) or NA p-line of the GENSEC.
TPREF HPREF

ZDIST PKDI=0 PKDI=0.5 PKDI=1

= Spine of GENSEC = POINSP = JLDATUM Position for PKDI=0.5

Specifying Orientation: The orientation of a JLDATUM may be queried via a pseudo-attribute (Q ORI), but this cannot be set explicitly. The orientation is such that its Z axis is in the direction of the Spine (i.e. the NA p-line) at the POS. The Y axis is in the Y direction (YDIR) of the Spine, modified by the Beta Angle (BANG) setting, at the POS.

5.13.6 Generic Fixings Representing Joints and Fittings
A Fixing can represent any type of joint or fitting attached to a Generic Section. It can own other Fixings, so that it can also represent compound joints and fittings. Its geometry is defined by a reference to a parameterised Catalogue item in the usual way. The position and orientation of a Fixing attached (indirectly) to a GENSEC are specified by reference to the coordinate systems of the parent PLDATUM and JLDATUM. These can be set relative to any POINSP under the GENSEC,
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including a POINSP which has been specially inserted for this purpose if necessary, as summarised in Section 5.13.5. The default position and orientation of the Fixing relative to its owning PLDATUM are specified by its POS and ORI attributes, respectively. Fixings Representing Joints: The detailed position of a Fixing whose SPREF attribute points to a Catalogue Joint is specified using the Joining Line attributes of the owning and attached sections: JLNS (start) and JLNE (end). The JNLS/JNLE are related to the origin and orientation of the joint; if the attached GENSEC is curved, these plines are taken as parallel to the attached end of the GENSEC. When connected, the JLNS/JLNE line of the attached section intersects with the JLIN line of the Fixing on the Joint Origin Plane. A GENSEC attached to a joint at one end will have either its JOIS (start) or JOIE (end) attribute set to reference the Fixing; conversely, the CREF (Connection Reference) attribute of the Fixing will reference the attached GENSEC. This two-way cross-reference is used when either the Fixing or the GENSEC is modified, or when a CONNECT command is used.

5.14 Representing Building Components
The elements used to represent structural steelwork designs can also be used to represent the components involved in building design; for example, walls, floors, floor screeds, doors, windows, etc. It is recommended that such elements are created by using the DESIGN Walls & Floors applicationware rather than from the command line, since this will ensure that all relevant attributes are set in a consistent way, but the options are summarised in this section for reference purposes.

5.14.1 Using Element Soft Types
To distinguish the elements used for building representation rather than for other types of structural design, element soft types are used. These are elements which have the same attributes as standard (hard type) elements, but which have different names to identify their functions. The soft types used for building design are as follows: Compound Wall (CWALL): a soft type of Subframework (SBFR), used to hold one or more wall components representing, say, one storey of a multistorey building. Compound Floor (CFLOOR): a soft type of Subframework (SBFR), used to hold one or more floor components representing, say, one storey of a multistorey building. Compound Screed (CSCREED): a soft type of Subframework (SBFR), used to hold one or more screed components representing, say, one storey of a multi-storey building.
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Straight Wall (STWALL): a soft type of Section (SCTN), used to represent a wall created by extruding a 2D catalogue profile from a start position to an end position. [Curved] Wall (WALL): a soft type of Generic Section (GENSEC). This can, in principle, be used to represent any shape of wall created by extruding a 2D catalogue profile along a path defined by a Spine. The Walls & Floors application for Version 11.3 restricts the use of this element to the representation of a Ring Wall, for which the Spine path is all or part of a circle. General Wall (GWALL): a soft type of a Panel (PANE), used to represent a wall created by extruding a user-defined 2D shape through a specified distance (equivalent to the Panel's height/thickness). This could be used, for example, to represent a column, where the 2D shape of the column's cross-section is extruded vertically to the required column height. Wall and Floor Fittings, such as doors, windows, manholes etc.,can be represented by Compound Fittings (CMPF), Sub-Compound Fittings (SBFI), Fittings (FITT), Panel Fittings (PFIT) or Fixings (FIXI) in the usual way.

5.14.2 Controlling Edge Representation in DRAFT
When you plot walls and floors in DRAFT, you may want to remove the lines which represent common edges between such elements (referred to as 'unioning' the elements) to give a more realistic appearance. The elements used to represent buildings have an attribute specifically for this purpose: the DRAFT Union (DUNION) attribute. The elements to which this attibute applies are: Zone, Structure, Framework, Subframework, Compound Wall, Compound Floor and Compound Screed. In each case, the DUNION attribute can take one of the following values: DUNION=0 Common edges always shown All common edges between adjoining elements will be drawn in DRAFT. DUNION=1 Common edges not shown between members Common edges between adjoining elements will be drawn in DRAFT unless a pair of such elements are both members of a common parent, in which case the edge lines will be removed. DUNION=2 Common edges not shown between members and peers Common edges between adjoining elements will be drawn in DRAFT unless a pair of such elements are either both members of a common owner or are at the same hierarchic level with a common parent, in which cases the edge lines will be removed. In the simplest cases, the effects are as shown in the following diagram:

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DUNION = 0

DUNION = 1

DUNION = 2

The overall effect in DRAFT is determined by the composite effects of the settings for all significant elements (i.e. all elements which have a DUNION attribute) above those being drawn. For example: When DUNION = 0, all members of the current element will be 'assembled' together rather than 'unioned': joint lines will therefore be shown between touching members (e.g. between adjoining Panels). When DUNION = 1 for a FRMW or SBFR (or equivalent soft types), all members will be unioned: joint lines between touching members (e.g. adjoining Panels) with the same owner will not be shown. The FRMW or SBFR will not itself be unioned with another FRMW or SBFR. When DUNION = 1 for a ZONE, STRU or FRWM, all member STRUs, FRMWs and SBFRs with DUNION = 2 will be unioned. Thus, joint lines will not be shown between adjoining Panels with different owners. The ZONE, STRU or FRMW will not itself be unioned with another ZONE, STRU or FRMW. When DUNION = 2 for any element, all members with DUNION = 2 will be unioned, and the current element will also be unioned to others which share the same owner and which have DUNION = 2 as long as the owner has DUNION = 1 or 2.

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Design Templates
This chapter explains the concept of Design Templates, which let you create and store standard design configurations for subsequent use, and the Design Datasets which hold the parameterised data settings for such templates.

6.1

The Concepts
A design template is a set of design primitives, panels and nozzles that may be grouped together and then referenced from within another part of the design database as though it were a single item. In many ways, a design template behaves in a similar way to a catalogue component, except that the template items are stored in a special area of the Design DB, rather than in a separate Catalogue DB, and they can use the more powerful sets of primitives and parameterisation facilities available from within DESIGN. Unlike a catalogue component, a design template can be split down into its constituent parts for selective reporting, dimensioning, MTO, etc. A design template is used in a design by creating an instance of the template. When a design template is instanced, the template contents are copied into the design hierarchy and a reference is set to the original template definition. At this release version, a design template may only be copied under a Panel Fitting, a Section Fitting or a Primary Joint. A design element cannot own more than one design template, nor can one design template own another template. Design templates may be parameterised to allow a single template definition to be used in different circumstances. The parameterisation facilities use Design Datasets to store named parameters, which may then be referenced in geometric and p-point definitions. The value assigned to a parameter can be defined in terms of a rule by using any of the standard PDMS expression syntax. Note: The definition of Design Templates is likely to be done by the person who organises PDMS Catalogue and Specification data in a company, while the use of Design Templates for building up a design model will be carried out by a plant designer. Therefore, although both functions are carried out in DESIGN, this chapter is relevant to two different types of PDMS user.

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6.2

The Design Template Hierarchy
Design Template (TMPL) elements are usually stored in a separate Design DB under an administrative Template World (TPWL), which is itself divided into administrative Template Areas (TMAR). Each TMPL is initially created as a copy of an existing set of design elements which have been created in a part of the usual hierarchy below a SITE. The TMPL may then be modified by the addition of positive and/or negative primitives, negative extrusions, etc. For example, a very simple template, consisting of a positive box and a negative box, could be created thus:

World (/*) SITE ZONE EQUI BOX Copy NBOX NBOX TPWL TMAR TMPL BOX

When this template is instanced in a design model, say under a panel fitting, its constituent elements are copied back and all parameterisation rules are executed so that the attributes of the copy are set to suit the local design requirements, thus:
TPWL TMAR TMPL BOX NBOX Copy and Execute Rules PFIT TMPL BOX NBOX PANE PLOO PAVEs

All attributes of the copy are locked to prevent unintentional changes.

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6.3

Parameterisation using Design Datasets
Design Datasets (DDSE) are used to store the properties of design template items, which may then be used to define the template’s parameters. Each property is stored in a Design Data (DDAT) element under a DDSE, with each DDAT being identified by a keyword held in its DKEY attribute. The property definition can be specified by an expression held in the DDPR (Design Data Property) attribute, while a default value for the property (to be used if the expression cannot be evaluated for any reason) can be stored in the DDDF (Design Data Default) attribute. Unlike a design reference to a catalogue component, which can access only a single catalogue dataset via its DTREF setting, a reference to a design template can access more than one design dataset. A local design dataset is owned directly by the current element, a template design dataset is owned by the first template below the current element, while a current design dataset is at the same level as the current element and has the same owner. The following diagram illustrates the relative positions of these types of dataset for a simple hierarchy:

PFIT local TMPL current local BOX current DDSE(2) DDSE(1) template

The pseudo–attributes available for accessing the properties data in the various types of dataset are as follows:
Current Dataset List of property keys Real property values Text or real property values Text or real property default values Reference settings CDPL CDPR TCDP TCDD CFDP Local Dataset DEPL LDPR DEPR DEPD LFDP Template Dataset PRLS TDPR PROP PRDE TFDP

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Note:

The dataset attributes PRLS, PROP and PRDE are also used to refer to catalogue dataset properties. If you query any of these attributes, a search for a catalogue dataset will be made first; if this fails, a search for a design template dataset will be made.

Most commonly, a design attribute value will be defined in terms of a design property by using the CDPR (Current Design Dataset Property) attribute. The CDPR can also be used to define a property in one dataset in terms of a property in another dataset. When a CDPR is used in a rule for a component whose owner can own datasets, the current datasets will be those at the same level as the component: otherwise, the current datasets will be those under the first dataset-owning element above the component. When a CDPR is used in a property expression within a dataset, it refers to a property in the current dataset for the item at which CDPR is evaluated. When used in a querying command or in an expression (for example, when defining a parameterisation rule), the attributes for a specific property are identified by the DKEY for that property. For example: Q CDPL Lists all DKEYs for properties in current dataset. Q CDPR LENG Gives value of LENG property in current dataset. RULE SET XLEN (CDPR LENG) Sets rule for current element’s XLEN attribute using value from LENG property in current dataset. Note: Usually default values are assigned to properties, which are then used to evaluate expressions during the creation of a design template. This lets you see the template geometry in a graphical view, at a practical scale, as you define it. Thus a default value for LENG in the last example would allow a sensible XLEN dimension to be evaluated from the rule for display purposes. When instanced in a design, the value of the LENG property would be derived from, say, a design parameter and the rule would be re–executed to give the correct XLEN.

6.4

Assigning Local Names to Template Elements
When a design template is copied, confusion can arise in the identification of members of the template instance. If a template rule refers to an element by its hierarchic position (e.g. BOX 1 OF TMPL 1 OF ... etc.), rule execution errors can arise if the template instance is modified in any way which affects the ordering of the members list. Even if the element has a PDMS name under the Template World, this name will be lost when the template is copied because an element name cannot be used more than once in a Design database. To avoid these problems, you can assign a local name (LNAME) to a template member. Each local name, and the reference of the corresponding element, is

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stored in an array attribute of the template. Local names are therefore set and queried at member element level, even though they are stored at template level. The local name survives a template copy operation.

6.4.1 Setting Local Names
Keywords: Description: LNAME Lets you assign a local name to a template member, or unset an existing local name. A local name can have a maximum of 20 characters; a maximum of 500 local names can be stored on one template. The local name cannot be modified if either the element or its owning template is locked.

Examples: LNAME /ANTHONY Sets local name for current element LNAME UNSET Unsets local name for current element Command Syntax:
>--- LNAMe ---*--- local_name ---. | | ‘--- UNSET --------+--->

Querying: Q LNAMe Gives local name for current element Q LNLST Lists all local names for elements under current template Q ATT (Note that local names are stored in a compressed numeric format)

6.4.2 Using Local Names in Expressions
Keywords: Description: Examples: LNID /SID Identifies element defined in current template LNID MLNID Lets you identify an element by its local name in a rule or dataset expression.

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MLNID /JOE Identifies element defined in member template (i.e. in template owned by current element) (XLEN OF LNID /SID) Uses dimension of locally named element in expression (XLEN OF MLNID /JOE) Command Syntax:
>---+--- LNid ----. | | ‘--- MLNid ---+--- local_name --->

Querying: Q LNID /SID Q MLNID /JOE For element in current template For element in member template

6.5

Setting Priorities for Evaluating Rules
By default, the rules for the member elements of a design template are executed in descending hierarchic order. If the rule for one member element includes a reference to the result of a rule for another member, it is important that the latter rule is executed before the former, otherwise an incorrect result will be obtained. You can control the order in which the rules for a given template will be executed by assigning a rule sequence number to any element which has a local name. When the template rules are re-executed, the rules for such elements will be executed in ascending order of their sequence numbers: the rules for elements with sequence numbers unset (or zero) will then be executed in the default order. Each rule sequence number, and the reference of the corresponding element, is stored in an array attribute of the template. Rule sequence numbers are therefore set and queried at member element level, even though they are stored at template level.

Keywords: Description:

RSEQNUMBER Lets you assign a rule sequence number to any design template member which has a local name. The rule sequence number must be a positive integer (zero is equivalent to unset). The same sequence number may be assigned to more than one element, but this is not recommended.

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Examples: RSEQN 3 Sets rule sequence number for current element (which must be a member of a design template and must already have a local name) RSEQN UNSET Unsets rule sequence number for current element Command Syntax:
>--- RSEQNumber ---+--- integer ---. | | ‘--- UNSET -----+--->

Querying: Q RSEQN Gives sequence number for current element Q RSEQA Lists sequence numbers for all elements under current template (in the order in which their local names were set) Q RSEQFA Lists local names for elements under current template, sorted by rule sequence number; i.e. in order of rule execution priority

6.6

Adding Design Points to Template Elements
The design datasets for a template, as discussed in Section 6.3, approximate to the Geomset data for a catalogue component. In a similar way, design templates can also own Design Pointsets (DPSE), which approximate to the Pointset data for a catalogue component. These let you assign p-points to design template items, to be used as references for subsequent positioning and orientating operations. A design pointset can store three types of p-point (note that these are not the same as those available in catalogue pointsets): • A Cartesian P-point is specified in terms of its X,Y,Z co-ordinates only, thus:

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Z Y
Origin

Design Point

Orientation

Direction of Normal

X

A Cylindrical P-point is specified as a position on the surface of a cylinder at a given position and with given dimensions, thus:
Design Orientation Point Direction of Normal

Z Y
Origin

Angle defining point position wrt Y axis

X

Cylinder defined by its position, height and radius

A Spherical P-point is specified as a position on the surface of a sphere at a given position and with given dimensions, thus:
Design Point

Z Y
Origin

Orientation Direction of Normal Direction radius acts in, defining point position wrt sphere's centre

X

Sphere defined by its position and radius

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6.7

Using a Design Template Item in a Design
To create an instance of a ‘source’ design template in a design model, you must first create a template below the owning design element and then copy into this the details of the source template (which must be in a template world) from which it is to derive its data. The commands (at the design element which is to own the instance) are: NEW TMPL COPY REXEcute template_identifier where template_identifier is the name of the source template. The effects are as follows: • • • • All elements below the original design template are copied below the new TMPL. All template rules are copied and re–executed, thus setting the attributes of the new TMPL members to suit the design data. The Origin Reference (ORRF) attributes for the new TMPL elements are set to point to their equivalents in the source template. All elements below the new TMPL are locked to prevent unintentional changes to any of their attributes.

If you want to change an attribute explicitly, thereby causing it to differ from the design as specified in the source template, you must first unset the ORRF references which point back to the source and unlock the members. To do so, use the command UNTIE template_instance where template_instance is the name of the copy TMPL in the design model hierarchy.

6.8

Portsets and Linksets
If you list the possible members of most types of design element, you will see two new elements called Portsets (PORS) and Linksets (LNKS). These have been added to the database definition to permit future developments which will allow logical connections to be made to items derived from design templates. They are not intended for general use at this release version of PDMS.

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7

Groups
The commands described in this chapter allow you to define groups of items that can then be manipulated as a single entity. Note that these commands have largely been superceded by the use of lists and collections, defined using expressions.

7.1

Defining Group Contents
GADD GREMOVE MEMBERS ITEMS ALL OF The contents of a Group are defined by adding or removing references to or from the list part of the Group. In order to use the commands described in this section, the current element must be the Group whose member list you wish to modify. Specified elements are then added to the list part of the current element starting from the current list position or are removed from the list part of the current element such that the current list position becomes the Head position. The elements to be added to, or removed from, the Group’s member list may be specified in any of the following ways: • • Explicitly, by name or (system-assigned) reference number. As members of specified elements, where a member of an element is defined as any element immediately below it in the DB hierarchy As items of specified elements, where an item of an element is any element anywhere below it in the hierarchy which has no list part (such as a Valve, Point, Box, etc.) By type (such as Equipment, Branch, Pipe, etc.)

Keywords: Description:

• Examples:

GADD /ZONE1 /VALVE2 Adds /ZONE1 and /VALVE2 to the current Group, starting from the current list position GREMOVE /ZONE1 /BOX3 Removes /ZONE1 and /BOX3 from the current Group and moves the current list position pointer to the Head position

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GADD MEM OF /BRANCH1 /BRANCH2 Adds all the pipe Components in Branches /BRANCH1 and /BRANCH2 to the current Group, starting from the current list position GREM MEM OF /PIPE100 MEM OF /EQUI-B Removes all Branches of the Pipe /PIPE100 and all members of Equipment /EQUI-B from the current Group GREM ITEMS OF /ZONE2 Removes from the current Group all occurrences of those offspring of /ZONE2 which are items GADD ALL EQU BRAN OF /ZONE1 /ZONE2 Adds all offspring of /ZONE1 and /ZONE2 which are of types Equip or Branch to the current Group, starting from the current list position Command Syntax:
>--+-- GADD -----. .-------------. | | / | ‘-- GREMove --+---*-- <selatt> ---+--->

7.2

Accessing Groups
END Groups exist outside the normal design hierarchy in a Group World (GPWL). The available Group Worlds can be seen by querying Members at the top (WORLD) level in the hierarchy. Groups can be accessed either directly by name, or by descending the hierarchy in the normal way. The items in a Group are shown as Members, but it is important to appreciate that the Group does not actually own them. These Members all have normal locations in the design hierarchy, but are also Members of a Group.

Keywords: Description:

Examples: END (At a Group Member) If the current element was accessed via the Group, the Group will be accessed. Otherwise the current element’s owner will be accessed. OWNER (At a Group Member) The current element’s owner will always be accessed regardless of the method of access to the current element. Command Syntax: See the navigation commands described in Part 1 of the PDMS Design Reference Manual.

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7.3

Deleting Groups
DELETE The action of this command differs from normal behaviour if the current element is a Group.

Keywords: Description: Examples:

DELETE GROUP Only the current element and any Offspring that are Groups will be deleted. DELETE GPWLD Only the current element and any Offspring that are Groups will be deleted. DELETE GROUP MEM The Members of the Group are deleted in the following way: • • If the member is not a Group, it is deleted with all its Offspring. If the member is a Group, only the member and any Offspring that are Groups are deleted.

Command Syntax:
>-- DELETE <snoun> -+-- MEMbers --+-- integer --+-- TO integer -> | | | | | ‘--> | ‘--> ‘-->

7.4

Copying a Group
COPY Groups may be copied with a slightly different effect to normal elements.

Keywords: Description: Examples:

COPY /GROUP21 (At a Group.) The Current Group will contain exactly the same Members as /GROUP21. No new elements have been created. COPY MEM OF /GROUP21 (At a Zone.) The current Zone will contain new elements which are identical to the Members of /GROUP21 provided these elements are all legal members of a Zone. COPY MEM OF /GROUP21 RENAME /MAIN /SPARE As above, but with renaming.

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Command Syntax:
>- COPY -+- MEMbers -+- integer -+- TO integer -. | | | | | ‘-----------+--------------+- OF <sgid> -+- REName name name -> | | | ‘-> |- ALL OF -. | | ‘----------+- <sgid> -+- REName name name -> | ‘->

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Index

<plin> syntax, 5-30 ALONG command, 2-33 ARRIVE command, 3-31 AT command, 2-6 Attached parameters, 5-41 Attributes of primitives, 2-1 sections, 5-4 AUTOROUTE command, 4-1 AXES command pipe routing, 4-2 BANGLE command, 5-7, 5-14 BASE command pipe routing, 4-7 BEHIND command, 2-27, 3-9, 3-59 Beta angle joints, 5-14 sections, 5-7 BOP command, 3-9, 3-72 pipe routing, 4-8 Branch head, 3-3 tail, 3-3 Buildings, 5-50 BUILT flag, 3-36 BY command, 2-16 Cartesian p-point in design pointset, 6-7 CDPR attribute, 6-4 CHOOSE command, 3-14 CLEARANCE command, 2-35, 3-66

Cofitting element, 5-38 Cofitting Reference Array attribute, 5-38 Compound fitting element, 5-2 Compound Floor element, 5-50 Compound joint element, 5-1 Compound panel fitting element, 5-2 Compound Screed element, 5-50 Compound Wall element, 5-50 CONNECT command, 2-14, 3-3, 3-45, 5-19 Connection forced, 3-46 CRFA attribute, 3-39 CTYEND command, 5-8 CTYSTART command, 5-8 Current design dataset, 6-3 Current Design Dataset Property attribute, 6-4 CURTYP attribute, 5-43, 5-45 Curve element, 5-43 Curve Type attribute, 5-43, 5-45 CUTBACK command, 5-18 CUTPLANE command, 5-18 Cylindrical p-point in design pointset, 6-8 DDAT element, 6-3 DDDF attribute, 6-3 DDPR attribute, 6-3 DDSE element, 6-3 DELPOSITION command, 5-14 Design Data Default attribute, 6-3 Design Data element, 6-3 Index-1

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Index

Design Data Property attribute, 6-3 Design Dataset element, 6-3 Design parameters, 5-40 Design Pointset element, 6-7 Design Template element, 6-2 DESPARAMETER command, 5-40 Detail level, 2-3 DIRECTION command, 3-43 DISCONNECT command, 5-21 DISTANCE command, 3-49, 3-53 DKEY attribute, 6-3 DPSE element, 6-7 DRAFT Union attribute, 5-51 DRAG command, 3-78 DRNEND command, 5-6 DRNSTART command, 5-6 DUNION attribute, 5-51 Edge drawing, 5-51 Elements connecting, 2-14 moving, 2-16 orientating, 2-11 rotating, 2-12 End position (section), 5-4, 5-5 ERELEASE command, 5-9 EXTEND command, 5-25 FCONNECT command, 3-46 Fitting element, 5-2, 5-38 compound, 5-2 panel, 5-2 Fixing element, 5-2, 5-44, 5-49 FLIP command, 3-31, 5-22 Floors, 5-50 FORCECONNECT command, 3-14 Forced connection, 3-46 FROM command, 3-53 GADD command, 7-1 Index-2

Generic Fixing element, 5-49 Generic Section element, 5-2, 5-43 GENSEC element, 5-2, 5-43 GREMOVE command, 7-1 Group element, 7-1 HBOR command, 3-6 HCON command, 3-6 HDIR command, 3-6 Head of branch, 3-3 HPOS command, 3-6 HREF command, 3-5 HSPE command, 3-2 HSROD attribute, 3-33 HSTUBE attribute, 3-33 IDPLINE command, 5-30 INFRONT command, 2-27, 3-9, 3-59 Instance Design templates, 6-1 Insulation specification, 3-35 ISPEC attribute, 3-35 JLDATUM element, 5-43, 5-48 JOIEND command, 5-8 Joint creating, 5-12 Joint element compound, 5-1 linear, 5-1 primary, 5-1, 5-12 secondary, 5-1, 5-13 Joints attributes, 5-17 linear, 5-35 primary, 5-14 secondary, 5-15 JOISTART command, 5-8 Justification Line Datum element, 5-43, 5-48

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Index

LEAVE command, 3-31 LEVEL command, 2-3 Linear joint element, 5-1 Linear joints, 5-35 LINK command, 5-36 LNAME, 6-5 LNID, 6-5 Local design dataset, 6-3 Local name Design templates, 6-4 LOFF attribute, 3-39 LSROD attribute, 3-33 LSTUBE attribute, 3-33 MIRROR command, 2-45 MLNID, 6-5 MOVE command, 2-17, 3-11, 3-47 Node element primary, 5-1 secondary, 5-1 Nodes primary, 5-2 secondary, 5-11 Nozzle offset factor pipe routing, 4-5 Nozzles specifying, 2-3 OBSTRUCTION command, 2-4 Obstruction level clash detection, 2-4 OFFSETFACTOR command, 4-5 ONTOP command, 2-30, 3-9, 3-62 OPDIRECTION command, 5-14 ORDER command pipe routing, 4-8 ORIENTATE command, 2-11, 3-41 Orientation, 2-11 ORIFLAG attribute, 3-37
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Owning parameters, 5-41 Panel fitting element compound, 5-2 Panel Fitting element, 5-2, 5-38 Panel Fitting Reference attribute, 5-38 Panel Loop element, 5-1 Panel Vertex element, 5-1 Panels connecting, 5-35 creating, 5-34 splitting, 5-34 Parameters attached, 5-41 design, 5-40 owning, 5-41 Penalty volume pipe routing, 4-2, 4-3 PH command, 3-7 Pipe rack pipe routing, 4-6 Pipe routing, 4-1 PJOINT command, 5-12 PLDATUM element, 5-44, 5-48 Pline Datum element, 5-44, 5-48 PNODE command, 5-2 POINSP element, 5-43 POLAR command, 2-8 Polar positioning, 2-8 POSEND command, 5-5 POSFLAG attribute, 3-37 POSITION command, 2-6, 3-49 Positioning, 2-6 POSLINE command, 5-15 POSSTART command, 5-5 PPLINE command, 5-30 Primitives attributes, 2-1 Index-3

Index

Profile element, 5-1, 5-4 PSPE command, 3-2 PT command, 3-7 PVOL command, 4-3 RACK command, 4-6 RECONNECT command, 3-13, 5-21 RESELECT command, 3-26 Ring Wall element, 5-51 Rod attributes, 3-33 ROTATE command, 2-12 ROUTE command, 4-4 Routing plane pipe routing, 4-2, 4-3 RPLANE command, 4-3 RSEQNUMBER, 6-6 Rule sequence number Design templates, 6-6 Screeds, 5-50 SDIR command pipe routing, 4-6 Sections attributes, 5-4 connecting, 5-19 creating, 5-3 disconnecting, 5-21 modifying lengths, 5-25 reconnecting, 5-21 SELECT command, 3-20 SHOP flag, 3-36 SHORTCODE command, 3-24 SJOINT command, 5-13 SNODE command, 5-11 Soft types, 5-50 Spherical p-point in design pointset, 6-8 Spine element, 5-2, 5-43 Index-4

Spine Point element, 5-43 SPLIT command, 5-34 SPREAD command pipe routing, 4-7 SPREF attribute, 3-33 SRELEASE command, 5-9 Start position (section), 5-4, 5-5 Steelwork fittings, 5-2 fixings, 5-2 generic sections, 5-2 joints, 5-1 nodes, 5-1 panels, 5-1 sections, 5-1 Straight Wall element, 5-51 STRING command, 5-3 Subfitting element, 5-2 Subjoint element, 5-1 Tail of branch, 3-3 TBOR command, 3-6 TCON command, 3-6 TDIR command, 3-6 Template Area element, 6-2 Template design dataset, 6-3 Template World element, 6-2 THROUGH command, 3-51 TMAR element, 6-2 TMPL element, 6-2 TO command, 3-53 TOP command, 3-9, 3-72 TPOS command, 3-6 TPWL element, 6-2 Trace specification, 3-35 TREF command, 3-5 TSPE attribute, 3-35 Tube
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Index

attributes, 3-33 UNDER command, 2-30, 3-9, 3-62 Unioning edges, 5-51 UNLINK command, 5-36

UNTIE, 6-9 Wall element, 5-51 Walls, 5-50 ZDISTANCE command, 5-11

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