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Prof ECE Dept

Kepler’s Laws

Unit I – Satellite Orbits

Newton’s law Orbital parameters Orbital perturbations Station keeping Geo stationary and

non Geo-stationary orbits Look Angle Determination Limits of visibility Eclipse-Sub satellite point Sun transit outage Launching Procedures

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE

Launch vehicles and propulsion.

What is a satellite?

A Satellite is an object that goes around, or orbits, a larger object, such as a planet. While there are natural satellites, like the Moon, hundreds of manmade satellites also orbit the Earth. (Or) A satellite is a man-made object launched into space to orbit the Earth, moon, sun or other celestial body. Some examples are weather satellites and communications satellites.

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE

Belonging to AT&T. and equipped with an on-board transmitter that worked on two frequencies. JHANSI RANI Assoct. which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. direct relay communications satellite. Telstar was the first active. R.prof/ECE .002 MHz The first American satellite to relay communications was project SCORE in 1958. launched on October 4.005 and 40. 1957.History The first artificial satellite was the soviet Sputnik-1. 20.

In this process.Satellite communication In satellite communication. So. Thus this type of communication is known as space/satellite communication. JHANSI RANI Assoct. signal transferring between the sender and receiver is done with the help of satellite. the signal which is basically a beam of modulated microwaves is sent towards the satellite. R. Then the satellite amplifies the signal and sent it back to the receiver’s antenna present on the earth’s surface.prof/ECE . all the signal transferring is happening in space.

prof/ECE .Types of satellite R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

prof/ECE . These forces are similar to the forces that keep all the planets in their places in the solar system R.and the force of the Earth's gravitational pull on the satellite.the speed it is travelling in a straight line .Orbit Satellites move in a path around the Earth called an orbit. The orbit is a combination of the satellite's velocity . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

Classification of orbits R.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

this would put the satellite at approximately 35. JHANSI RANI Assoct. At other latitudes. R.236 mi) above the Earth. The satellites are located near the equator since at this latitude. the bulge at the center of the Earth would pull on the satellite.09 seconds to make one full revolution. So based on Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion.prof/ECE .Types of Orbits Geosynchronous Orbits (GEO) Also known as geostationary orbits. satellites in these orbits circle the Earth at the same rate as the Earth spins. there is a constant force of gravity from all directions. The Earth actually takes 23 hours.790 km (22. and 4. 56 minutes.

prof/ECE . The disadvantage of this type of orbit is that since these satellites are very far away. Geosynchronous orbits allow the satellite to observe almost a full hemisphere of the Earth. or cyclones. These satellites are used to study large scale phenomenon such as hurricanes. The other disadvantage is that these satellites have trouble monitoring activities near the poles. R. JHANSI RANI Assoct. These orbits are also used for communication satellites. they have poor resolution.

Also known as an intermediate circular orbit.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.236 mi).Altitude classifications Low Earth Orbit (LEO): Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 0–2000 km (0–1240 miles) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 2.000 km (1.786 km (22. High Earth Orbit (HEO): Geocentric orbits above the altitude of geosynchronous orbit 35.200 mi) to just below geosynchronous orbit. R.

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE

**Advantages of satellite communications
**

1. Mobile/Wireless Communication, independent of location 2. Wide area coverage: country, continent, or globe 3. Wide bandwidth available throughout 4. Independence from terrestrial infrastructure 5. Rapid installation of ground network 6. Low cost per added site 7. Uniform service characteristics 8. Total service from a single provider 9. Small Fading margin (3dB) 10. Wide range of applications

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE

**Disadvantages of satellite communications
**

1. High cost for satellite 2. Short life time maximum of 15 years 3. Redundancy in component 4. Noise and interference 5. Propagation delay

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE

prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.Applications Fixed-Satellite Services (FSS) Broadcasting satellite services (BSS)/ Direct- broadcast satellites (DBS) or Direct-to-home (DTH) Mobile satellite services Navigational satellite services Meteorological satellite services Broadband Digital Communications Environmental Monitoring R.

Frequency allocations for satellite services R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .

Kepler’s laws .

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .Kepler’s 1st law The Law of Ellipses The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape. with the center of the sun being located at one focus.

Kepler’s First Law Kepler’s first law states that the path followed by a satellite around the primary will be an ellipse. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE . The semimajor axis of the ellipse is denoted by a. and the semiminor axis. The center of mass of the two-body system. An ellipse has two focal points shown as F1 and F2. by b. termed the barycenter. 0<e<1. R. is always centered on one of the foci. The eccentricity e is given by For an el1iptical orbit.

assuming the satellite travels distances S1 and S2 meters in 1 s. for equal time intervals. JHANSI RANI Assoct. a satellite will sweep out equal areas in its orbital plane.prof/ECE . then the areas A1 and A2 will be equal. focused at the barycenter. Velocity at S2 is less than S1 R.Kepler’s Second Law Kepler’s second law states that. Referring to Fig.

prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.Kepler’s 2nd law The Law of Equal Areas : An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time. R.

prof/ECE .Kepler’s nd 2 law R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

the orbital period in seconds is given by R.Kepler’s Third Law Kepler’s third law states that the square of the periodic time of orbit is proportional to the cube of the mean distance between the two bodies. The mean distance is equal to the semimajor axis a.prof/ECE . With n in radians per second. JHANSI RANI Assoct. Kepler’s third law can be written in the form where n is the mean motion of the satellite in radians per second and µ is the earth’s geocentric gravitational constant. For the artificial satellites orbiting the earth.

but the larger orbit is 1. JHANSI RANI Assoct.The Law of Harmonies: The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun.5874 times bigger than the smaller. This is because R13/R23 = 1.58743 = 4 = 22 = P12/P22. Example: Two planets are shown on orbits that are the same shape. as required by Kepler's Third Law.prof/ECE . Notice that the planet on the larger orbit takes twice as long to go around the star. R.

JHANSI RANI Assoct. Isaac Newton was a highly influential Physicist Astronomer Mathematician Philosopher Alchemist theologian. R.prof/ECE .SIR ISAAC NEWTON Born in England.

prof/ECE .Newton's Law of Motion Newton's First Law (Law of Inertia): Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. R. JHANSI RANI Assoct. (or) An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

R. and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.prof/ECE . Newton's Second Law: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force. in the same direction as the net force. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

** Newton's third law :
**

For each and every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE

**Newton's law of universal gravitation
**

It states that every particle in the universe exerts a force on every other particle along the line joining their centers. The magnitude of the force is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the two particles, and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between them.

where m1 & m2 are the masses of the two particles r is the distance between the two masses F is the gravitational force between them G is the universal gravitational constant. G = 6.673 x 10-11 N m2/kg2

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE

**Definitions of Terms for Earth-Orbiting Satellites
**

As mentioned previously, Kepler’s laws apply in general to satellite motion around a primary body. For the particular case of earth-orbiting satellites, certain terms are used to describe the position of the orbit with respect to the earth. Sub satellite path: This is the path traced out on the earth’s surface directly below the satellite. Apogee: The point farthest from earth. Perigee: The point of closest approach to earth.

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE

prof/ECE . R. JHANSI RANI Assoct. The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from north to south. The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from south to north. The line joining the ascending and descending nodes through the center of the earth. Line of nodes. The line joining the perigee and apogee through the center of the earth. Inclination. Line of apsides. Descending node. The angle between the orbital plane and the earth’s equatorial plane. Ascending node.

JHANSI RANI Assoct.R.prof/ECE .

R.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

R.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .Angle of inclination R.

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .

prof/ECE . R.Prograde orbit An orbit in which the satellite moves in the same direction as the earth’s rotation. JHANSI RANI Assoct. Most satellites are launched in a prograde orbit because the earth’s rotational velocity provides part of the orbital velocity with a consequent saving in launch energy. It is also known as a direct orbit. The inclination of a prograde orbit always lies between 0° and 90°.

The inclination of a retrograde orbit always lies between 90° and 180°. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE . Retrograde orbit: An orbit in which the satellite moves in a direction counter to the earth’s rotation. R.

prof/ECE .R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

It is nothing more than the ascending node of the Sun's orbit. in the direction of satellite motion. Argument of Perigee (Perihelion): (ω) The angle between the ascending node and perigee. R.prof/ECE . Vernal equinox (Spring Equinox/First point of Aries): Vernal equinox occurs when the sun crosses the equator going from south to north. Line of Aries(γ): Imaginary line drawn from this equatorial crossing through the center of the sun points to the first point of Aries. measured in the orbital plane at the earths center. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

from the γ line to the ascending node. Astronomers call this point the vernal equinox. “Right ascension of Ascending node" is an angle. Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (Ω): Another term for Longitude of the Ascending Node. (Or) The angle measured in the equatorial plane from a reference point in the sky where right ascension is defined to be zero. It is the angle measured Eastward in the equatorial plane.prof/ECE . measured at the center of the earth. RAAN is a number in the range 0 to 360 degrees. JHANSI RANI Assoct. R. from the vernal equinox to the ascending node.

R.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

For a circular orbit. True anomaly: True anomaly is the angle measured in the direction of motion from perigee to the satellite's position. JHANSI RANI Assoct. Mean anomaly(M): Mean anomaly gives an average value of the angular position of the satellite in its orbit with reference to the perigee. This gives the true angular position of the satellite as a function of time. If the satellite were at the perigee. the mean anomaly would be 0. measured at the earth’s center. R.prof/ECE .

prof/ECE . Argument of perigee (w): Gives the rotation of the orbit’s perigee point relative to the orbit’s line of nodes in the earth’s equatorial plane. Semi-major axis (a): Fixes the size of orbit Eccentricity (e): Give the shape of the ellipse. Mean anomaly (M0): Gives the position of the satellite in its orbit at a reference time known as the epoch. Inclination (i): Fixes the plane’s position. R. Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (Ω): Relates the orbital planes position to the earth. JHANSI RANI Assoct.Orbital Elements Earth-orbiting artificial satellites are defined by six orbital elements referred to as the keplerian element set.

the apogee height and perigee height are often required. the length of the radius vectors at apogee and perigee can be obtained from the geometry of the ellipse: ha = ra – R hp = rp – R R. Apogee and Perigee Heights Although not specified as orbital elements.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

Orbit Perturbations perturbations of the orbit are the results of various forces which are exerted on the satellite other than the forces of attraction of the central. These forces mainly consist of Non – spherical nature of earth The attraction of other bodies like sun and moon Solar radiation pressure Atmospheric drag R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE . spherical and homogeneous body.

This leads to rotation of the line of apsides.prof/ECE . and keeping in mind that an orbit is not a physical entity.spherical earth As the shape of Earth is not a perfect sphere. As the orbit itself is moving with respect to the Earth. As the Earth is bulging from the equatorial belt. R. This causes the satellite to drift as a result of regression of the nodes and the latitude of the point of perigee (point closest to the Earth). it causes some variations in the path followed by the satellites around the primary. JHANSI RANI Assoct.Effects of a non . the resultant changes are seen in the values of argument of perigee and right ascension of ascending node. and it is the forces resulting from an oblate Earth which act on the satellite produce a change in the orbital parameters.

prof/ECE . Due to the non-spherical shape of Earth. R. Working satellites are made to drift back to their position but out-of-service satellites are eventually drifted to these points. This causes a gravity gradient on GEO satellite and makes them drift to one of the two stable points which coincide with minor axis of the equatorial ellipse. and making that point a Satellite Graveyard. JHANSI RANI Assoct. The non-spherical shape leads to the small value of eccentricity (10-5 ) at the equatorial plane. one more effect called as the “Satellite Graveyard” is seen.

Effects of a non . Kepler’s third law gives the nominal mean motion n0 as R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.spherical earth For a spherical earth of uniform mass.prof/ECE .

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .

JHANSI RANI Assoct.Atmospheric drag An approximate expression for the change of major axis is where the “0” subscripts denote values at the reference time t0.prof/ECE . The mean anomaly is also changed. and n0 is the first derivative of the mean motion. an approximate value for the change being: R.

Station keeping Even with a very good launch the satellite can drift some what from its orbit. This is called “orbital drift” The deviation of Earth's gravity field from that of a homogeneous sphere and gravitational forces from Sun/Moon will in general perturb the orbital plane. The process of firing the rockets under ground control to maintain or adjust the orbit is referred to as “ Station Keeping" R.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

R. an oppositely directed velocity component is imparted to the satellite by means of jets.prof/ECE .Station keeping for drift due to ellipticity of earth: The equatorial ellipticity of the earth causes geostationary satellite to drift to one of the two stable points. its nominal station position. coming to a stop and recommencing the drift along the orbit until the jets are pulsed once again. JHANSI RANI Assoct. This results in the satellite drifting back through. which are pulsed once every 2 to 3 weeks. at 75° E & 105 ° W To counter this drift.

JHANSI RANI Assoct. within ±0. These maneuvers are termed east-west station keeping maneuvers.05 °.85°/year To prevent the shift in inclination from exceeding specified limits. R. jets may be pulsed at the appropriate time to return the inclination to zero.prof/ECE . Satellites in the 6/4 GHz band must be kept within ±0. and in the 14/12 GHz band.1 ° of the designated longitude. Station keeping for drift due to gravitational pull: The forces due to sun and moon causes the inclination to change at a rate of about 0.

North-South station keeping tolerance are the same as those for east-west station keeping ± 0.1° in the C band and ± 0.05° in Ku band. Orbital correction is carried out by command from the TT&C earth station. which monitors the satellite position. R. They are more expensive in fuel than east-west station keeping maneuvers. These maneuvers are termed North-South station keeping maneuvers.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct. Counteracting jets must be placed when the inclination is at zero to halt the change in inclination. east-west and North-South station keeping maneuvers are usually carried out using the same thrusters as are used for attitude control.

3.Geostationary orbit Satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be stationary with respect to the earth. 2. JHANSI RANI Assoct. The orbit must be circular. hence the name geostationary. (orbit lies in earth’s equatorial plane) R.prof/ECE . The satellite must travel eastward at the same rotational speed as the earth. geostationary: Three conditions are required for an orbit to be 1. The inclination of the orbit must be zero.

prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct. Kepler's 3rd law is used to find the radius of the orbit R.

as measured from the earth station.prof/ECE .Antenna Look Angels The position of the satellite. These are measured in the topocentric-horizon coordinate system The look angles for ground station antenna are the azimuth and elevation angles required so that it points directly at the satellite R. is usually given in terms of the azimuth and elevation angles and the range d. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

these angles had to change in order to track the satellite. and no tracking is necessary. For the antenna beam width to be very narrow. In case of elliptical orbit. tracking mechanism is required to compensate For the movement of the satellite about the nominal geostationary position For home reception. Eg: antennas used for reception of satellite TV R. In geostationary orbit. In general no tracking should be necessary. it is simple because the satellite is stationary with respect to the earth. JHANSI RANI Assoct. This allows the antennas to be fixed in position.prof/ECE . the antenna beam width is quite broad. with the large earth stations used for commercial communications.

JHANSI RANI Assoct. denoted here by Φss (satellite longitude) Latitude north will be taken as positive angles Latitude south will be taken as negative angles Longitude east of the Greenwich meridian will be taken as positive angles and longitude west. The earth station latitude. Eg: Latitude of 40°S is taken as -40° Longitude of 35°W is taken as -35° R.prof/ECE . as negative angles. denoted here by ΦE The longitude of the sub satellite point. denoted here by λE The earth station longitude.The 3 information's required to determine the look angles for the geostationary orbit are.

Latitude and Longitude R.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

this variation is negligible effect on the look angles. When calculating look angles for LEO satellites. JHANSI RANI Assoct. variation in earths radius is taken into account For GEO.prof/ECE . and the average radius of earth used is R = 6371Km Geometry involving these quantities ES: position of earth station SS: sub satellite point S: satellite d: range from the earth station to the satellite σ: angle to be determined (look angle) R.

JHANSI RANI Assoct.Geometry in determining look angles R.prof/ECE .

aE: center of earth. S) R. ES.b. Φss ) / (a.c) plane triangle (ES. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .Two types of triangle involved in the geometry spherical triangle (N.

λE R. and these sides are defined by the angles subtended by them at the center of the earth.Spherical triangle: These are sides of all arcs of great circles. JHANSI RANI Assoct. spherical triangle in which one side is 90° is called a quadrantal triangle. c= 90° . a: angle between the radius to north pole N and radius to sub satellite point Φss.prof/ECE . a= 90°. b: angle between the radius to the earth station ES and the radius to the sub-satellite point Φss c: angle between the radius to the earth station ES and the north pole N.

3° C: Angle between the plane containing b and a R.3 angles A. C are the angles between the planes A: Angle between the plane containing c and b B: Angle between the plane containing c and a.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct. B. B = Φ E .Φss and Bmax = 81.

JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE . When ES latitude is north. B is (–)ve and when east. Napier’s rules R. c<90° and when south.Φss Note: When ES is west of sub satellite point. c>90° By. B is (+)ve.λE B = Φ E .Summary of spherical triangle to this point: a= 90° c= 90° .

A is acute (<90°).A Ac is obtuse and is given by Ac = 180° . and the azimuth angle is Az = A A is acute. by inspection. JHANSI RANI Assoct. by inspection.A where A is the acute value obtained from above equation.Ad = 180° + A R. A and 180° – A and is determined by inspection.A Ad is obtuse and is given by Ad = 180° .A where A is the acute value obtained from above equation. and the azimuth is. Az = 360° .Two values will satisfy the above equation. Az = Ac – 180° . Az=360° . by inspection.prof/ECE .

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .

prof/ECE .plane triangle Applying the cosine rule for plane triangles to the triangle allows the range d to be found to a close approximation Applying the sine rule for plane triangles to the triangle allows the angle of elevation to be found to R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

elevation angle and area of coverage. This depends upon the height of satellite . when the antenna is pointing along the horizontal. There will be east and west limits on the geostationary arc visible from any given earth station. JHANSI RANI Assoct. The limits will be set by the geographic coordinates of the earth station and the antenna elevation. R.Limits of Visibility Any geostationary satellite has an arc of visibility which can also be called area of coverage or foot print.prof/ECE . The lowest elevation in theory is zero.

The limiting angle is given by R. with the antenna pointing either west or east along the horizontal. A quick estimate of the longitudinal limits can be made by considering an earth station at the equator. JHANSI RANI Assoct. as shown in Fig.prof/ECE .

some finite minimum value of elevation is used. Typically Elmin = 5° The limits of visibility will also depend on the earth-station latitude.3° about the earth station longitude. JHANSI RANI Assoct. Thus.prof/ECE . let S represent the angle subtended at the satellite when the angle R. In practice. to avoid reception of excessive noise from the earth. for this situation. an earth station could see satellites over a geostationary arc bounded by ±81.

prof/ECE . satellite longitude can be determined from . Once angle B is found. angle b is found from From equation. JHANSI RANI Assoct. Once angle S is known. R. Applying the sine rule gives Assuming a spherical earth of mean radius 6371 km as was done previously.

prof/ECE . When the sun is crossing the equator. R.Earth Eclipse of Satellite It occurs when earth’s equatorial plane coincides with the plane of the earths orbit around the sun (the ecliptic plane) near the time of spring and autumnal equinoxes.4° to the ecliptic plane. the satellite passes into earth’s shadow at certain period (10 min’s to 72 min’s) Geostationary satellites would be eclipsed by the earth once each day As. keeps the satellite in full view of the sun for most days of the year. equatorial plane is tilted at an angle of 23. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .

JHANSI RANI Assoct.Earth Eclipse of Satellite R.prof/ECE .

prof/ECE .R. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

the satellite passes into earth’s shadow at certain periods. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE . Spring equinox is the first day of spring Autumnal equinox is the first day of autumn Eclipse being 23 days before equinox and end 23 days after equinox. R. when the sun is crossing the equator.Earth Eclipse of Satellite Around the spring and autumnal equinoxes. these being period of eclipse.

Causes of eclipse During full eclipse. and results in reduction of satellite performance. R. satellite receives no power from solar array and relays only on batteries. Solar fluctuation may cause failure of primary power system Severe thermal stress on a satellite. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE . Reduction in primary power reduces satellite life During eclipse it is necessary to shut down some transponders.

JHANSI RANI Assoct. When the satellite longitude is east of ES. Hence satellite west of ES is more desirable Probability of satellite failure is more during eclipse than at any other time. the satellite enters eclipse during daylight.prof/ECE . R. this is undesirable if the satellite has to operate on reduced battery power. When the satellite longitude is west of ES. the eclipse does not occur until the earth station is in darkness. when the usage is low.

R. The latitude and longitude of the sub-satellite point and height of the satellite above the sub-satellite point can be determined from the radius vector r.Sub satellite point The point on the earth vertically under the satellite is referred to as sub satellite point.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.R.

The height of the terrain above the reference ellipsoid at the sub-satellite point is denoted by Hss The height of the satellite above this.prof/ECE . Thus total height above the reference ellipsoid is R. by hss. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

It lasts for short periods-each day for about 6 days around the equinoxes. Maximum outage time of 10 min being typical. JHANSI RANI Assoct. This effect is termed as sun transit outage.prof/ECE . Sun which is a powerful broadband microwave noise source passes directly behind the satellite (when viewed from Earth) and the receiver with the beam directed towards the satellite picks up both the satellite signal and the noise from the Sun which completely blanks out the signal from satellite.Sun transit outage Another event which occurs during equinoxes is the transit of the satellite between earth and sun. R.

Accuracy of alignment of the antenna direction towards the satellite R. The occurrence and duration of the sun transit outage depends on The latitude of the earth station Receiver location Location of the particular satellite Size.25°).prof/ECE . or more specifically the beam width of the antenna The apparent radius of the Sun as seen from the earth (about 0. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

Once a satellite is placed into a stable orbit. but most satellites are launched by rockets that fall into the ocean after their fuel is spent. R.Launching the satellite Space shuttles carry some satellites into space.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct. it can remain there for a long time without further adjustment. Many satellites require minor adjustments of their orbit before they begin to perform their function. Built-in rockets called thrusters make these adjustments.

prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.How does a satellite stay in it’s orbit? R.

during which the orbital parameters are measured. the final stage is reignited and the spacecraft is launched into a geostationary transfer orbit(GTO).Launching of geostationary satellite • Initially place spacecraft with the final • rocket stage into LEO.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct. while the orbital parameters are measured. Perigee of GTO is that of LEO altitude and apogee that of GEO altitude. a rocket motor (AKM) is ignited at apogee and GTO is raised until it is circular geostationary orbit. After a few orbits in GTO. AKM (Apogee Kick Motor) is used to circularize the orbit at GEO and to remove any inclination error so that the final orbit is very close to geostationary. • • • R. After a couple of orbits.

it will stay in this elliptical orbit. Firing a rocket motor at apogee is called "apogee kick". JHANSI RANI Assoct. • If we do nothing else.Geostationary Transfer Orbit •If we speed the satellite up while it's in low circular earth orbit it will go into elliptical orbit. it will stay at that altitude in circular orbit. and speed it up to the required circular orbit speed. R. and the motor is called the "apogee kick motor".prof/ECE . going from apogee to perigee and back again. if we fire a rocket motor when the satellite's at apogee. • BUT. heading up to apogee.

requires completion of half revolution of transfer orbit R.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.ORBITAL MANEUVERS Hohmann Transfer Can be used to raise or lower altitude Most efficient method At minimum.

This principle was recognized by Hohmann in 1925 and is referred as Hohmann transfer.prof/ECE . R.Hohmann transfer • Most satellites launched today are initially placed into an low earth orbit. • Finally satellite is injected into GEO by imparting a velocity increment at the apogee equal to the difference between satellite velocity at GTO and velocity in GEO. • A transfer between two coplanar circular orbits via elliptical transfer orbit requires the least velocity increment (and hence fuel). JHANSI RANI Assoct. • In the next phase the satellite is injected into an elliptical transfer orbit which has an apogee at the height of GEO and its apsides (line joining perigee-apogee) in the equatorial plane.

original orbit (A) and the final orbit (C). A Hohmann transfer is a fuel efficient way to transfer from one circular orbit to another circular orbit that is in the same plane (same inclination). To change from a lower orbit (A) to a higher orbit (C). This elliptic orbit is carefully designed to reach the desired final altitude of the higher orbit (C). This is why a Hohmann transfer is fuel efficient. an engine This will add velocity to the vehicle causing its trajectory to become an elliptic orbit (B). R. is first fired in the opposite direction from the direction the vehicle is traveling.prof/ECE . In this way the elliptic orbit or transfer orbit is tangent to both the When the target altitude is reached the engine is fired in the same manner as before but this time the added velocity is planned such that the elliptic transfer orbit is circularized at the new altitude of orbit (C). JHANSI RANI Assoct. but a different altitude.

JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .Target Orbit Initial Orbit Transfer Orbit The orbital inclination is given by. cos i= sinξ1 cos θ1 where i=inclination ξ1 =azimuth of launch θ1 =latitude of launching site R.

A Russian Soyuz lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan heading for the ISS Ukrainian launch Vehicle Zenit-2 is prepared for launch R.prof/ECE .Launch Vehicles Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. JHANSI RANI Assoct.

JHANSI RANI Assoct. Expendable launch vehicle (ELV) 2. Types of launch vehicles: 1.Launch vehicles A launch vehicle is a rocket used to carry a payload from the earth station into outer space. R. They usually separate from their payload and crash back to earth.prof/ECE . Reusable launch vehicles (RLV) Expendable Launcher: They are designed for one time use.

R. Payloads are government and commercial communication satellites. weather satellites. remote sensing satellites etc. JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE . ELV is made of one or more rocket stages After each stage has burned its propellant. it is jettisoned from the vehicle.. Eg: US Atlas-centaur & Delta rockets European space agency Airane rockets.

R.prof/ECE . JHANSI RANI Assoct.

Reusable launcher They are designed to be recovered intact and used again for launches. JHANSI RANI Assoct. R. Space shuttle also called the space transportation system (STS) are reusable The solid rocket boosters are recovered and refurbished for future mission and the shuttle vehicle itself is flown back to earth for reuse There are single stage to orbit (SSTO) launch and two stage to orbit (TSTO) launch.prof/ECE .

JHANSI RANI Assoct.prof/ECE .PSLV Polar satellite launch vehicle It is an expendable launch vehicle developed by ISRO It is used for remote sensing PSLV-C8 (CA Variant) carrying the AGILE x-ray and γ-ray astronomical satellite of the ASI lifting off from Sriharikota R.

explanation for satellite commuication basics, as per anna university syllabus for first unit satellite orbits

explanation for satellite commuication basics, as per anna university syllabus for first unit satellite orbits

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