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SAT II chemistry

SAT II chemistry

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Published by Aldiyar
From sparknotes.com i do not own this document
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Published by: Aldiyar on Dec 17, 2012
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A chemical bond is the result of an attraction between atoms or ions. The
types of bonds that a molecule contains will determine its physical
properties, such as melting point, hardness, electrical and thermal
conductivity, and solubility. How do chemical bonds occur? As we
mentioned before, only the outermost, or valence, electrons of an atom are
involved in chemical bonds. Let’s begin our discussion by looking at the
simplest element, hydrogen. When two hydrogen atoms approach each
other, electron-electron repulsion and proton-proton repulsion both act to
try to keep the atoms apart. However, proton-electron attraction can
counterbalance this, pulling the two hydrogen atoms together so that
a bond is formed. Look at the energy diagram below for the formation of

an H–H bond.
As you’ll see throughout our discussion, atoms will often gain, lose, or share
electrons in order to possess the same number of electrons as the noble gas
that’s nearest them on the periodic table. All of the noble gases have eight
valence electrons (s2


) and are very chemically stable, so this phenomenon
is known as the octet rule. There are, however, certain exceptions to the
octet rule. One group of exceptions is atoms with fewer than eight electrons
—hydrogen (H) has just one electron. In BeH2, there are only four valence
electrons around Be: Beryllium contributes two electrons and each
hydrogen contributes one. The second exception to the octet rule is seen in
elements in periods 4 and higher. Atoms of these elements can be
surrounded by more than four valence pairs in certain compounds.

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