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SAT II chemistry

SAT II chemistry

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From sparknotes.com i do not own this document
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Published by: Aldiyar on Dec 17, 2012
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You will be expected to be familiar with a few simple, common organic
reactions for the SAT II Chemistry exam, so we’ll go through them briefly
now. Let’s start with combustion reactions. Combustion reactions are
reactions that occur between oxygen and hydrocarbons, or CxHyOz. There
are two main types of combustion reactions—complete and incomplete.
Complete combustion occurs when excess oxygen is present; this type of
reaction produces carbon dioxide and water.

CH4 + 2O2

CO2 + 2H2O

Incomplete combustion occurs when a limited amount of oxygen is
present, and the products of incomplete combustion are often difficult to
determine. There may be carbon monoxide, carbon, and water or some
mixture of all of these. When cooking outdoors on a grill, you often are left
with pure carbon (soot) on utensils. Space heaters and automobiles often
undergo incomplete combustion and produce deadly carbon monoxide
(CO) gas. Here’s the reaction for an incomplete combustion:

2CH4 + 3O2

2CO + 4H2O

Another common organic reaction is called an addition reaction. In
an addition reaction, two reactants join to form a single product:

H2C = CH2 + H2

H3C - CH3

Finally, we have the substitution reactions. In a substitution reaction,
one group replaces another group on the main carbon chain. The atom
that’s most commonly replaced in a substitution reaction is hydrogen. One
common example of this is halogenation, which is the addition of a halide—
remember, group 7A on the periodic table.

CH4 + Cl2

CH3Cl + HCl

Chemistry of Some Common Substances

There will probably be several questions on the SAT II exam that will ask
about some common properties of chemicals. The list below constitutes
some of the things that everyone should know about chemistry.

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