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SAT II chemistry

SAT II chemistry

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From sparknotes.com i do not own this document
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Published by: Aldiyar on Dec 17, 2012
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12/06/2013

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Calorimetry is used to determine the amount of heat released or absorbed
during a chemical reaction. In the lab we can experiment with finding the
energy of a particular system by using a coffee-cup calorimeter. The
coffee-cup calorimeter (shown below) can be used to determine the heat of
a reaction at constant (atmospheric) pressure or to calculate the specific
heat of a metal. The coffee-cup calorimeter is a double plastic foam cup
with a lid; the lid has a hole in it where the thermometer pokes through.

The data to be collected include the volumes of the solutions to be mixed,
the initial temperatures of each solution, and the highest temperature
obtained after mixing. Accurate results depend on measuring precisely and
starting with a dry calorimeter. The total volume recorded must be changed
into grams (use the density and multiply densityvolume = grams). The
change in temperature must be calculated by subtracting the final and
initial temperatures. To find the heat of reaction, multiply the specific heat
capacity, the mass, and the change in temperature: q = mCpDT.

Example

Data (for a specific heat of a metal):

Ma
ss
of
the

24.0
0 g

soli
d
met
al:
Init
ial
tem
per
atu
re
of
the
met
al:

100.
0ºC

Ma
ss
of
wat
er
in
pla
stic
foa
m
cup
:

100.
00 g

Init
ial
tem
per
atu
re
of
the
wat
er:

25.0
ºC

Hig
hes
t
tem
per
atu
re
of
the
wat
er:

30.0
ºC

Find the specific heat of the metal.

q = mCpDT  (Cp = 4.18 J/g ºC)

Explanation

Temperature change for the metal = 100.0 - 30.0 = 70.0ºC
Temperature change for the water = 30.0 - 25.0 = 5.0ºC
We can assume that the heat lost by the metal should equal the heat gained
by the water.
Calculate the heat gained by the water:

Heat gained by water = (sp. heat water)(mass of water)(DT water)
= (4.18 J/g ºC)(100.0 g)(5.0ºC)
= 2090 joules gained

Then find the specific heat of metal:

(Small values for metals are very typical!)

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