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A. Understanding a printed (1) text
text the Which themost is important in the step f; eadthefollowing about process, paying design aftention the to process, design according thewriter? to f( I lstructure,paragraphing and 3. Which demands inventiveness step most subheadings. andcreativity? look Asyouread, fortheanswers the to Which usually step involves detailed questions. following Remember youdo that calculations? nothave understand word answer What happen thedesign not to everv to can if is properly thequestions, communicated to the organisation willuse who it? 1. Thewriter outlines steps six which are followed when normally designing a What they inwhat and system. are order followed? arethevusuallv

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The DesignProcess
we system'. a system, meanthe entire By talk We frequently aboutdesigning'a to combinationof hardware,informationand peoplenecessary accomplish poweldistribution network may A mission. system be an electric somespecified pressure flawsin welded for for a regionof the nation,a procedure detecting parts.A of or a combination productionstepsto produceautomobile vessels, which in turn are madeup of usuallyis dividedinto subsystems, largesystem components. that leadsto a workable of sequence steps acclaimed There is no universally to the let However, us moreor lessarbitrarilyconsider process consist design. steps: of the following of Recognition a need of a problem Definition Gathering information Conceptualization Evaluation of Communication the design proceeds from top to bottom in the list, but it generally process The design that in practicesomeof the stepswill be carriedout in must be understood leadingto iterationis a commonfact of design. paralleland that feedback

Recognition of a need
They may situation. with Needsusuallyarisefrom dissatisfaction the existing the because public has reliability,or iust change be to reducecost,increase boredwith the product. become


Definition of a problem
Probablythe most critical stepin the designprocess the definitionof the is problem.The true problemis not always what it seems be at fust glance. to Because steprequiressucha smallpart of the total time to create final this the design, importance oftenoverlooked. its is Figure2-3 illustrates how the final designcan differ greatlydepending upon how the problemis defined. It is advantageous define the problem as broadly as possible.If the to definitionis broad,youwill be lesslikelyto overlook unusual oiunconventional solutions.Broad treafinent of problems that previouslywere attackedin piecemeal fashioncanhavea big payoff.However, should realize the you that degreeto which you can pursuea broadproblemformulationtowarda final designwill dependon factorsoften outsideyour control.In most cases, the extentto whichyou areableto follow a broadproblemformulation depend will on the importance the problem,the limits on time andmoney of thathave teen placedon the problemand your own positionin the organization. One approach you shouldnot takeis to consider existing that the solutionto the problemto be the problemitself. That approach immediately submerges youin the treesof the forest,andyouwill find yourself generating solutions a to problemyou havefailedto define. The definitionof a problemshouldincludewriting downa formalproblem statement, which shoulderpressas specifically possible as what the designis intendedto accomplish. shouldincludeobjectives goals,definitions It and of any specialtechnicalterms,the constraints placedupon the design,and the criteriathat will be usedto evaluate design. the Perhaps best way to proceedis to develop problemstatement the the a at initial problem definition step and then, in the seconditerationafter much information has been gathered,develop a much more detailed problem statement is usuallycalledthe problemanalysis. that

by As proposedby the proiect sponsor As specifiedin the proiect request As designed the seniordesigner

As producedby manufacturinq

site user's As installedat the user'ssite installed

What the userwanted

Figure L3 Note how the design depends on the viewpoint o[ the individrrel who definesthe problem.


Gathering information
Perhapsthe greatestfrustrationyou will encounterwhen you embarkon your first designproblem will be due to the deartfi or plethoraof information.No longer will your responsibilitystop with the knowledgecontainedin a few problemmaybe in a technicalareain which chaptersof a text. Your assigned you have no previousbackgroundand you will not evenhavea single basic reference the subiect.At the other extreme on you maybe presented with a mountain of reports of previous work and your task will be to keep from drowningin paper.Whateverthe situation,the immediate taskis to identiff the piecesof informationand find or develop needed that information.

The conceptualizationstep is to determine the elernents, mechanisms, processes configurations in some or that combination otherresultin a design or that satisfiesthe need. It is the key step for employinginventiveness and creativity. step involvesthe formulation of a model Very often the conceptualization whichmaybe eitherof the two general types: analyzed experimental. vital and A process synthesis. is aspect the conceptualization of Synthesis the process is of takingelements the conceptand arranging of them in the properorder, sized in and dimensioned the proper way. Synthesis a creativeprocessand is is presentin everydesign. There are no ironclad rules for teaching Design is very individualized. successful design,and unfortunately very little has been wrinen about the step process. conceptualization that is at the heartofthe design

The evaluation step inlolv.esa thoroughanalysis the design.The of term evaluation usedmorein the sense weighinj and is of ar"" i" the sense iudsing of grading. Typically,the evaruation mayinvolve step dea;rJ calculation, often computercalculation, the performance the design of of by using.; ;;lyd;;i modei' In other cases, evaluation the mayinvolveri.nuio. siniulated service testingof an experimental modelor perhaps full-sizedp**r1,p.. a

Cornmunicationof the design
It must of is thyr be keptin mindthatrhepurpose thedesign to satisft the needs a clientor cusromer. of Therefore, finalized thi a.ridi;rt beproperry communicated it may lose much of its impactor- significance. or The communicationusually oralpresentation th. rponroias.well is by to asby a wriltendesign report. Detailed engineering drawings, .o*pu,.iprograms and working models frequentry of the ,deliveraLles,tt e customer. are part to It hardly needs be emphasized communication a one-time to that is not thingto becarried at the endof theproiect. a well-run out In design thereis "***, continualoral and written dialogbetween proiect froyect, the and the customer.
Daip,pp 32-34.McGraw-Hill,1983. G. Dieter.Enginccring


your B.Check understanding
you look While read, fortheanswers these questions: Nowread textagain the carefully. to sentences: 1. Select itemthatbest the completes of these each rAsystem... (a) istheresult a design process. of (b) is made of a sequencesteps. up of (c) means equipment the needed do a job. to (d) may may need people. or not o Thewriter should . . . recommends design that engineers (a) define problem broadly possible. as the as (b) attack problem piecemealfashion. a in (c) use existing point. as the solution a starting (d) notspend much on defining problem. the time too o Theproblem . should . . statement (a) beconsidered after theinformation been gathered. has all only (b) beasdetailed possible. as (c) express the of specifically objectivesthefinaldesign. (d) bewritten theformof a series questions. in of r Theconceptualisation; . . step (a) has in detail many in books design. on been described (b) must canied in accordance specific rules. with be out (c) involves in way. reananging basic the concepts theproper (d) isapproached same by alldesign engineers. in the way you are which think FALSE: 2. In thefollowing, alltheitems mark r A need a newdesign arise design. . . when existing the for can (a) istooexpensive. (b) doesn't reliably. work (c) has been aroundlong a time. (d) isboring. r Thedifficultiesgathering are: for information a newdesign of (a) youmay have previous not ofthe any experience subject. (b) youmay know not which textbook refer to to. (c) there betoomuch may information. (d) there notbeanything may wriften thesubject. on







r The of design: for following factors important thesuccessthefinal are (a) Thedesign befullyanalysed referenceananalytical to model, with experimental must tr model prototype. or (b) The qualitiesthedesign beobserved. must tr of process (c) Interaction thesponsor client isgoing on. while design the D with or (d) The D must to sponsor client betoldwhat expect. or (e) Effective written reports, presentations, oral by of communicationmeans drawings, tr demonstrations etc.



uses words phrases. if youcanworkoutthe 3. Thewriter a number unusual of and See meaning them of fromthecontext, express meaning yourownwords. and the in . o r r to accomplish a specified mission acclaimed universally iteration in piecemeal fashion o a bigpayoff r dearth plethora information and of r ironclad rules

your C. lncrease vocabulary
Remember youcanuse dictionary help answer questions. you that a to these 1. Find words thetextwhich in mean following: the r r r r r you what areaiming achieve a design to with thelackof something requirement something or for youcando something restricts which what standards which by something bejudged can theimpression by anidea made

2. Which thefollowing of adjectives best each thesentences fits into of below? o criticalr finalised unconventionalworkable o r r Wecould your and discuss idea if it seems be to plan evaluation wecould the stage. e Thenextstageoftheprojectis............... everything fails. else r Someofhisdesignsarevery people most would expect, they work. but do I When is............... everything presentation report oursponsors. for and . l fi t f a i l s , .Theyarenotwhat prepare the , wemust

3. Match each theverbs below goes it: of withthephrase whichbest with e o o o r r o o Accomplish Proceed Carry out Create Cenerate Formulate Satisfy Assign solutions a problem to a newidea theneeds a client of a task research test or work fromstep step to someone a project to a problem precise in terms


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