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Transformer Losses

Transformer Losses

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Published by Solanki Bhavik
Very important & understanding content
Very important & understanding content

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Published by: Solanki Bhavik on Dec 17, 2012
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SRC Systems and Reengineering Consultants I think it is about 1 to 2% Is the conventional answer you get when you ask

someone from the utilities as to What he thinks are the Transformer Losses. So casual is the approach, that we seem to be just not worried about what we are loosing. OR, is it our ignorance?

SRC Systems and Reengineering Consultants
Take the case of a Transformer

A typical 8 MVA Transformer costs about Rs. 30,00,000

CORE

OIL

The suppliers normally would quote between Rs. 28,00,000 to Rs. COIL 32,00,000 and one of them quotes Rs. 80,00,000
THINK

WHOM DO WE SELECT?
LOWEST QUOTATION?

SRC Systems and Reengineering Consultants
What kind of information we need for such a situation?
Know about the Iron Losses (Hysterisis Loss) Know about the Copper Losses (I2R)

What are the acceptable Limits? Have we defined them? This is how electricity is supplied 11 KV 33 KV 11 KV
440 V 440 V 440 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V

220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V

220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V 220 V

33 KV 132 KV 33 KV 220 KV
Input from Gen.Stns-for long distance Trans,stepped up to 400kv & down to

11 KV 11 KV 11 KV

440 V 440 V 440 V 440 V 440 V 440 V

132 KV 33 KV 132 KV

11 KV
11 KV 11 KV

440 V 440 V 440 V

33 KV
33 KV

11 KV

440 V

220 V

220 V

220 V

SRC Systems and Reengineering Consultants
The total power of 8 MVA gets transformed or stepped up /
down AT LEAST 5 to 6 times . Assuming that the standard Transformer Losses are 1.5

%

The net loss in Transformers would be about 9.0% on a cascading basis over the 5 to 6 stages of transformation
1.00 Main Input Power 0.985 First Stage 0.97

Second Stage 0.9557 Third Stage 0.9413 Fourth Stage
0.9272

Every stage is 0.985 times (with 1.5% reduction) the previous stage

Fifth Stage 0.91 Sixth Stage

SRC Systems and Reengineering Consultants
9% of 8 MVA is = 720 KVA * 24 hrs/day * 365 days/year *0.9 pf

OR, say 56,76,480 Kwh
In commercial terms, if we sell this power to the industry, we have a revenue earning potential to the tune of

Rs.1,98,67,680 (@ Rs. 3.5 per Kwh)
Even if we consider the stand alone 8 MVA together with its cascading transformers in six stages

SRC Systems and Reengineering Consultants

Then, what is wrong if we select the Rs. 80,00,000 transformer in place of the Rs. 30,00,000, if the manufacturer can prove that it has only 0.9% transformer loss as compared to the 1.5% of others?
On an annual basis, we will be saving about 40% of Rs. 1,98,67,680 (=.9 % instead of 1.5% loss), which will be equivalent of Rs.79,47,072

SRC Systems and Reengineering Consultants
Or alternatively, when we wish to provide free power to the farmer, on a 8 MVA total network of up to 440 V supply point, we can provide 22,70,592 units of electricity through improved efficiency transformers ( @ 40 % of the total loss at 1.5%) Considering an average annual consumption of about 3,000 Kwh per pump set, Just using the quality transformers on a single 8 MVA network would provide electricity to about 756 farmers for the entire years requirement.

Just imagine, what would it mean at the national level.

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