FINAL YEAR PROJECT I REPORT (Radio over Fiber Technology


Project Advisor (Muhammad Saadi)

Submitted by (Syed Shahzaib Raza - 071020165) (Osama Zaid - 071020149)

Department of Electrical Engineering School of Science and Technology University of Management and Technology

(Radio over Fiber Technology)

Project Report submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Management and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering

(Syed Shahzaib Raza - 071020165) (Osama Zaid - 071020149)

(August 9, 2011)

The demand of mobile communications in the modern world is increasing day by day. It has been noticed that subscribers for the mobile communication technologies are growing rapidly. The data transfer rate should be maximum for uninterruptable communication. The radio over fiber technology offers much more data transfer rate as compared to other technologies. This project is research based on the simulation of WCDMA communication using Radio over Fiber technology. Next generation mobile communication will require high bandwidth for communication. 3G and 4G mobile communications are now being offered by the Telecommunication Industries. The mm-wave in atmosphere gets attenuated and the signal is sometimes lost. However, the upcoming technologies will be using the optical fiber communication system along with wireless communication for the high speed data transfer. This combination will increase the capacity for the cellular base stations to change dynamically and meet the traffic requirements. The Radio over Fiber (RoF) technology is the one which will fulfill the requirements. This technology is actually the integration of optical fiber and mm-wave transmission system. In this project a simulation of WCDMA using Radio over Fiber Technology will be made so that the Bit Error Rate could measured and the performance of this technology will also be calculated.

Table of contents
List of figures List of tables List of abbreviations Chapter I Introduction to Project 1 3 5 ii iii iv

1 Introduction 2 Objective 3 Methodology Chapter II Radio over Fiber

1 Radio over Fiber Technology 2 Radio over Fiber Systems 3 Advantages of RoF Systems 4 Benefits of RoF for Mobile Communication 5 Applications of RoF Technology

6 8 8 9 9

Chapter III Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) 1 Introduction 2 Specifications of WCDMA 3 Operating Modes of WCDMA Chapter IV Simulations 1 Creating a Sine Wave 2 Creating a High Frequency Wave 14 14 10 10 11


3 Sine Functions 4 Creating Various Pulses 5 Amplitude Modulation 6 Frequency Modulation and Demodulation 7 Gaussian Distribution Function 8 AWGN to Signal 9 PSK Modulation and Demodulation Chapter V References

15 15 16 16 17 17 18 19


List of figures

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

Radio over Fiber Technology BPSK Modulation Scheme QPSK Modulation Scheme WCDMA using RoF Methodology Radio over Fiber System Frequency Division Duplex Time Division Duplex


List of tables
Table 1 Parameters of WCDMA


List of abbreviations
3GPP AWGN BER BPSK BS DWDM EDFA FDD GMSK GSM IF IMDD IMT-2000 ITS ITU IVC LAN MSC MVDS OFDM PSK QAM QoS QPSK RAP/RAU RF RFI RoF RS RVC TDD TDMA UMTS UTRA WBMCS WCDMA Third Generation Partnership Project Additive White Gaussian Noise Bit Error Rate Binary Phase Shift Keying Base Stations Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier Frequency Division Duplex Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Global System for Mobile Communications Intermediate Frequencies Intensity Modulated Direct Detection International Mobile Telephony Intelligent Transport Systems International Telecommunication Union Inter-Vehicle Communication Local Area Network Mobile Switching Center Multipoint Video Distribution Services Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Radio Access Point/Radio Access Unit Radio Frequency Radio Frequency Interference Radio over Fiber Remote Station Road-to-Vehicle Communication Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Wireless Broadband Mobile Communication Systems Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

Chapter I.
1 Introduction

Introduction to Project

Radio over Fiber (RoF) technology is now being used in many different countries because of its low cost implementation and high data transfer rate which it offers. RoF systems cover wide areas of deployment for enhanced cellular coverage for its capacity and benefits. These networks include broadband communication networks, satellite communication networks, wireless access networks, IPTV and many more. These networks need high bandwidth for the transmission. The RoF technology offers these benefits for the future networks as it offers high bandwidth, low attenuation and cost. The RoF technology is basically the integration of wireless and optical communication systems. This uses the optical links to transfer the radio signals from the base stations (BSs) to multiple radio access points (RAPs). The basic point of this technology is high speed data transmission using optical fiber links which reduce the complexity of transmission system, as is only requires the optical conversions and modulations. This will provide the great advantage to wireless systems for the increasing capacity of users and the improvement of quality of service (QoS) without acquiring a new radio spectrum. This is basically the analog transmission system whereas the optical fiber includes the digital communication system. Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) technology usually called third generation wireless communication system is now being used all over the world. This system needs microcells and picocells for high speed data transmission and high bandwidth in order to provide services. The system comprises of multimedia communication which includes high definition videos and pictures, internet and audio communication. This supports the high data transmission rate up to 384 kbps for wide area coverage and 2 Mbps for local coverage. The data modulation consists of digital modulation for uplink and downlink. This air interface mature technology provides various business

opportunities for the telecommunication operators, service providers and manufacturers. In WCDMA communication system, FDD is commonly used for macro and microcells and TDD is normally used for picocells. The specifications of this technology were created by 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) which is the joint standardization project of Europe, Korea, Japan, China and USA. In 3GPP, WCDMA is called UTRA (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) FDD and TDD. 3G was named as IMT2000 (International Mobile Telephony-2000) by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union). The larger bandwidth of WCDMA gives multipath diversity for BSs especially in microcells. The advantages of utilizing RoF technology for WCDMA communication system are very much important as it provides the high bandwidth and data transfer rate and low attenuation loss which fulfills the requirement for 3G systems.

Figure 1: Radio over Fiber Technology


2 Objective The objective of this project is to simulate the WCDMA using RoF technology on MATLAB for mobile communication systems. For the achievement of this objective, various simulations have to be performed. There are different simulations blocks that are to be developed. This will be consisting of the different modulation, demodulation schemes, channels, communication system which is to be used and various parameters that are to be used for the transmission. This will help to reduce the system complexity from the BSs. The technology will be used by modulation of laser by a RF signal and will be transmitted on optical fiber channel. The configuration of RoF link will be the interface of radio signals and optical signals which will contain the analog laser transmitter and the photodiode receiver at the BSs. These optical fibers connect the RAPs and Central Processing Units.

Figure 2: BPSK Modulation Scheme


Figure 3: QPSK Modulation Scheme

Figure 4: WCDMA using RoF


3 Methodology

Literature Study

Study of RoF Systems

Study of Mobile Communication Systems WCDMA Communication Systems

Starting MATLAB

Performing Simulations Setting the simulation Block

Comparing AWGN channel using RoF Performing Final Simulation

Observing BER

Final Report Submission End
Figure 5: Methodology


Chapter II.

Radio over Fiber

In this chapter, further explanations regarding RoF technology are mentioned. The basic concept, systems, parameters, advantages and applications of RoF technology are discussed. Further it contains the information of RoF technology in mobile communication networks, implementations and advantages. 1 Radio over Fiber Technology The 3G and future generation systems use the air interface methods using various channels and combination of cells for high traffic so that they could be changed dynamically to meet the requirements. The TDMA, CDMA and WCDMA mobile communication systems acquire the combination or groups of BSs for the implementation of technology to overcome the needs of traffic capacity. But these increase the complexity of the systems and may demand more BSs which will require high cost. User terminals vary in capabilities of transmission rates, cost, mobility and modulation levels. The increase in the complexity of BSs will require more BSs installation for the whole network deployment. The alternate way to decrease the complexity of BSs is to shift the complexity towards the central processing units. The RoF technology implies this alternate in which fiber optical links are used to distribute the radio signals from the CPUs to the RAPs. This needs the optoelectronic conversion of signals. In this technology the basic communication functions like modulation, coding and conversions are performed at CPUs. This results in the centralization of RAPs which allows the dynamic allocation of cells and high mobility management. Fiber optics are the backbone networks of telecommunication as it provides low attenuation loss and high bandwidth. The optical links in RoF systems are analog and produce carrier signals which can be modulated with digital modulation schemes. In RoF system, light signal is modulated by a radio signal and transmitted over a fiber link. This modulation is analog because the radio signal is also analog in nature. This configuration between radio and optical signal consist of optical transmitter located at the CPU and the photodiode receiver which is located at RAP or BS. This reduction in complexity of BS can be found very economical which will increase the capacity of network and decrease the cost of data transmission. The commonly used wavelengths of light are 1300

nm or 1550 nm which have low attenuation loss as compared to other wavelengths and provides high bandwidth which can be up 50 THz. These integrated links are called IMDD (Intensity Modulated-Direct Detection) which involves PM and FM techniques.

Figure 6: Radio over Fiber System


2 Radio over Fiber Systems The above mentioned picture shows the basic configuration of Radio over Fiber system. The system has low attenuation loss of signals and very high bandwidth of fiber optic channel. It fulfills the demand of high channel capacity and offers wide area for coverage. It also provides the economical solutions for the installation of BSs or whole network deployment. This system makes the group of cells that can changed dynamically and deliver high bandwidth to the subscribers. The radius of the zones can be reduced which will provide the effective use of radio frequencies. These systems are now being used widely for in-building networks, remote vehicles, office and wireless access points.

3 Advantages of RoF Systems       Low Signal Attenuation Loss High Bandwidth Reduced Power Consumption Flexibility to systems Economical Solutions for Installation Immunity to Noise and Interference in Radio Signals


4 Benefits of RoF for Mobile Communication The RoF systems provide dynamic channel allocation and adaptive antenna selection. Following are the benefits of mobile communication systems using RoF technology:  Wide area coverage  Dynamic radio resource management  Low power consumption for RAPs  Less multipath fading effects  Increased channel capacity and efficiency  Reduced handovers  Centralized processing  Low maintenance cost  High Bandwidth and data transfer rate  Support for future generation networks  Improved quality of signals  Low fiber attenuation loss  No electromagnetic interference  Multimedia broadband communication

5 Applications of RoF Technology           Cellular Networks Satellite Communications MVDS Mobile Broadband Services Wireless LANs Vehicle Communication and Control Next Generation Communication Systems In-Building Networks Multipoint Video Distribution Systems Radio Access Points

Chapter III. (WCDMA)

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

1 Introduction
The WCDMA air interface is the technology which is now providing its services in different countries all over the world. This is also known as UMTS which is the third generation wireless personal communication systems. The WCDMA technology is more efficient than the previously used GSM system due to its characteristics and wideband properties.

2 Specifications of WCDMA

The following table provides the information regarding WCDMA technology, its characteristic, parameters and specifications: Channel Bandwidth Duplex mode Modulation Chip Rate Handover Frame Length Channel Coding Power Control
Table 1: Parameters of WCDMA

5 MHz FDD and TDD QPSK and BPSK 3.84 Mbps Soft and Inter frequency 10 ms Convolution and Turbo codes Open and Fast closed loop (1.6 kHz)

The bandwidth provided is about 5MHz. The length of frame is 10 ms whereas each frame is divided into 15 slots which makes the chip rate of the system to about 3.84 Mcps. The modulation symbols vary from 960k symbols per second to 15 k symbols per second due to which the spreading factors range 256 – 4 for uplink and 512 – 4 for downlink. Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes of channelization are used for separating channels. Convolutional


and turbo channel coding is used. The data modulation is performed by QPSK for downlink and BPSK for uplink. Concluding the whole network architecture, WCDMA is deployed in UMTS. This contains user equipment (UE) link with the BSs. These BSs are responsible for modulation, conversion, error correction and transmission. The BSs can transmit and receive signals from different cells and are controlled by Radio Network Controller (RNC). RNC consists of various BSs and performs radio resource management, call setup, location and QoS. The RNC is connected to PSTN and Internet.

3 Operating modes of WCDMA
WCDMA consists of two modes of operation which provides it diversity. Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) is used for the paired frequency band while Time Division Duplex (TDD) performs operation for unpaired frequency bands available. FDD mode consists of symmetric data transmission as it has 5MHz carrier frequencies for uplink and downlink which are separately used. These two bands transmit data separately from BS to Mobile Switching Center (MSC) and the other from MSC to BS. Thus, the information can be simultaneously exchanged in both directions. The FDD principle of operation can be viewed in the following figure:


Figure 7: Frequency Division Duplex

In TDD principle only one band of 5MHz is available which is shared by both uplink and downlink in time separate mode. The information in uplink and downlink is alternated as the TDD is being used for unpaired spectrum. The bandwidths shared can also be altered between uplink and downlink, but the bandwidth of downlink is usually greater than the bandwidth of uplink. This sharing makes TDD mode more efficient. The following figure shows the TDD principle:


Figure 8: Time Division Duplex


Chapter IV.


1. Creating a Sine Wave

2. Creating High Frequency wave


3. Sine Functions

4. Creating Various Pulses


5. Amplitude Modulation

6. Frequency Modulation and Demodulation


7. Gaussian Distribution Function

8. Add White Gaussian Noise to Signal


9. Phase Shift Keying (PSK Modulation and Demodulation)


Chapter V.


“Over Fiber Technologies For Mobile Communication Network. 1st edition” Hamed Al-Raweshidy and Shozo Komaki Radio. Universal Personal Communication, Norwood, MA: Artech House Publishers. 2002.

 “WCDMA for UMTS-Radio Access For Third Generation Mobile Communication” Harri Holma and Antti Toskala. John Wiley & Sons,Ltd. 2001  “Capacity Improvement in the Downlink of WCDMA with Radio over Fibre Access Network” Nazem Khashjori and H.S. Al-Raweshidy. University of Kent, UK.  “WCDMA-Based Radio over Fibre System Performance with Multiple-User Interference in Multiple Service Transmission” H.S. Al-Raweshidy and S.O. Ampem-Darko. University of Kent, UK. March 2001.  “System Level Performance of WCDMA With Radio Over Fibre Access Network” Nazem Khashjori and H.S. Al-Raweshidy. University of Kent, UK.  “Radio over Fiber Technology for Braodband Wireless Communication Systems” Anthony Ng’oma.  “Simulation of WCDMA Radio over Fiber Technology” S.H. Binti Mohd Razali. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. April 2007.  “Radio Access Point Design for Radio over Fiber Technology” M. M. Mohammoud Hadow. Universiti Tecknologi Malaysia. April 2008.  “Front-End Design of Low Power Radio Access Points for Radio over Fiber Technology” A.S. Mohammed Al-Ahmadi. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. May 2007.  “Design of a Radio-over-Fiber System for Wireless LANs” Anthony Ng’oma, (MTD. Report, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, 2002).  “A Radio over Fiber based Wireless Access Network Architecture for Rural Areas” Hong Bong Kim and Adam Wolisz. (In Proc. of 14th IST Mobile and Wireless Communication Summit, Dresden, Germany. June 2005).  “A Radio over Fiber Network Architecture for Road Vehicle Communication Systems” Hong Bong Kim, Marc Emmelmann, Berthold Rathke, and Adam Wolisz. (In Proc. of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2005 Spring)  “Radio over Fiber Technology for the Next Generation” Hamed AlRaweshidy.

 “Radio over Fiber- An optical Technique for Wireless Access” Xavier Fernando. Ryerson Communication Lab, Toronto, Canada. October 2009  “Radio over Fiber Technology for Wireless Access” D.Opati, GSDC Croatia.  “Radio over Fiber for Picocellular Network Architectures” Michael Sauer, Andrey Kobyakov and Anthony Ng’Oma Science and Technology, Corning.  “GSM signal transmission through external modulated single Mode fiber link” Sathyanandan.S, Swaminathan.R, Lavanya.R, Piramasubramanian.S, Ganesh Madhan.M. ICOP 2009-International Conference on Optics and Photonics Chandigarh,India. Oct.-1 Nov.2009


1. Sin Functions
>>A1=1; >> A2=1.5; >> y1=A1*sin(2*pi*f1*t); >> y2=A2*sin(2*pi/f2*t); >> plot(y1) >> subplot 211 >> plot(t,y1) >> xlabel('t in s') >> ylabel('y in V') >> subplot 212 >> plot(t,y2) >> xlabel('t in s') >> ylabel('y in V') >> y2=A2*sin(2*pi*f2*t); >> plot(t,y2) >> xlabel('t in s') >> ylabel('y in V') >> title('Sin Function') >> subplot 211 >> title('Sin Function') >> axis([Tst,Te,-2,2]) >> subplot 212 >> axis([Tst,Te,-2,2])

2. Creating Various Pulses
>> t=[-10:0.01:10]; >> m=cos(2*pi*t); >> x=square(m); >> y=rectpuls(m); >> z=gauspuls(m); >> subplot 411 >> plot(t,m) >> subplot 412 >> plot(t,x) >> subplot 413 >> plot(t,y) >> subplot 414 21

>> plot(t,z) >> subplot 411 >> axis([-1.5,1.5,-12,12]) >> axis([-12,12,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Input Signal') >> subplot 412 >> axis([-12,12,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Square Pulses of Input Signal') >> subplot 413 >> axis([-12,12,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Rectangular Pulses of Input Signal') >> title('Rectangular or (Binary) Pulses of Input Signal') >> subplot 414 >> axis([-12,12,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Gaussian Pulses of Input Signal')

3. Amplitude Modulation
>>t=[-10:0.01:10]; >> s=cos(2*pi*t); >> subplot 411 >> plot(s) >> axis([-2,2,-5,5]) >> title('Input Signal') >> axis([-5,5,-2,2]) >> plot(t,s) >> axis([-5,5,-2,2]) >> title('Input Signal') >> subplot 412 >>x=ammod(s,1,3,1); >> plot(t,x) >> axis([-5,5,-2,2]) >> title('Modulated Signal') >> subplot 413 >>y=ammod(s,1,3,1,-1.75); >> plot(t,y) >> title('Modulated Signal with -1.75 carrier amplitude') >> subplot 414 >> z=ammod(s,1,3,1,1.75); >> plot(t,z) >> title('Modulated Signal with +1.75 carrier amplitude')


4. Frequency Modulation
>>t=[-10:0.01:10]; >> ws=2*pi; >> s=cos(ws*t); >> y=fmmod(s,3000,9000,50); >> plot(t,y) >> plot(t,s) >> subplot 211 >> plot(t,s) >> subplot 212 >> plot(t,y) >> axis([-10,10,-2,2]) >> axis([-10,10,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Frequency Modulated Signal') >> subplot 311 >> plot(t,s) >> axis([-10,10,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Input Signal') >> subplot 312 >> plot(t,y) >> axis([-10,10,-1.5,1.5]) >> subplot 313 >> z=fmdemod(y,3000,9000,50); >> plot(t,z) >> axis([-10,10,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Frequency Demodulated Signal') >> subplot 312 >> title('Frequency Modulated Signal')

5. Gaussian Distribution
>>t=[-10:0.01:10]; >> ws=2*pi; >> s=cos(ws*t); >> y=fmmod(s,3000,9000,50); >> plot(t,y) >> plot(t,s) >> subplot 211 23

>> plot(t,s) >> subplot 212 >> plot(t,y) >> axis([-10,10,-2,2]) >> axis([-10,10,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Frequency Modulated Signal') >> subplot 311 >> plot(t,s) >> axis([-10,10,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Input Signal') >> subplot 312 >> plot(t,y) >> axis([-10,10,-1.5,1.5]) >> subplot 313 >> z=fmdemod(y,3000,9000,50); >> plot(t,z) >> axis([-10,10,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Frequency Demodulated Signal') >> subplot 312 >> title('Frequency Modulated Signal')

>> t=[-10:0.01:10]; >> m=cos(2*pi*t); >> SNR=5; >> x=awgn(m,SNR);


>> subplot 211 >> plot(t,m) >> axis([-11,11,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('Orignal Signal') >> subplot 212 >> plot(t,x) >> axis([-11,11,-1.5,1.5]) >> title('AWGN Signal') >> title('AWGN Signal with SNR=5')

7. PSK Modulation and Demodulation
>> l=1000; >> M=16; >> m=randint(l,1,M); >> x=pskmod(m,M); >> subplot 311 >> plot(m) >> title('Orignal Signal') >> subplot 312 >> plot(x) >> title('PSK Modulated Signal') >> subplot 313 >> y=pskdemod(x,M); >> plot(y) >> title('PSK Demodulated Signal')


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