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everything in between. It also takes into account the different horizontal flow regimes. This method uses the general mechanical energy balance and the average in-situ density to calculate the pressure gradient. The following parameters are used in the calculations.

N FR =

2 um gD

(2-38)

λl =

ul um

L1 = 316λ0.302 l L3 = .10λl−1.4516

L2 = .0009252λl−2.4684 L4 = .5λl−6.738

(2-39, 40) (2-41, 42)

Determining flow regimes Segregated if λl < .01 and NFR < L1 or Transition if λl >= .01

λl >= .01 and NFR < L2

and L2 < NFR <= L3

Intermittent if .01 <= λl <.4 and L3 < NFR <= L1 or λl >= .4 and L3 < NFR <= L4 Distributed if λl < .4 and NFR >= L1 or λl >= .4 and NFR > L4 For segregated, intermittent and distributed flow regimes use the following:

y l = y l 0ψ yl 0 = aλb l c N FR

(2-43, 44)

**with the constraint of that yl0 >= λl.
**

ψ = 1 + C [sin(1.8θ ) − .333 sin 3 (1.8θ )]

f g C = (1 − λl ) ln (dλe N vl N FR ) l

(2-45,46)

Where a, b, c, d, e, f and g depend on flow regimes and are given in the following table

For transition flow, the liquid holdup is calculated using both the segregated & intermittent equations and interpolating using the following:

yl = Ayl (Segregated ) + Byl (Intermittent )

A= L3 − N FR L3 − L2

B =1− A

(2-47) (2-48,49)

_

ρ = yl ρ l + y g ρ g

_

g ρ sin θ ⎛ dp ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ dl ⎠ PE g c 144

(2-50,51)

**The frictional pressure gradient is calculated using:
**

2 2 f tp ρ m um ⎛ dp ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = gc D ⎝ dl ⎠ F

(2-52)

f tp fn

ρ m = ρ l λl + ρ g λ g

f tp = f n

(2-53,54)

**The no slip friction factor fn is based on smooth pipe (ε/D =0) and the Reynolds number,
**

N Re m =

ρ m um D1488 μm

where

μ m = μ l λl + μ g λ g

(2-55,56)

**ftp the two phase friction factor is
**

f tp = f n e S

(2-57)

where

S=

(

ln( x ) 2 4 − 0.0523 + 3.182 ln( x ) − 0.8725[ln( x )] + 0.01853[ln( x )]

)

(2-58)

and

x=

λl

y l2

(2-59)

**Since S is unbounded in the interval 1 < x < 1.2, for this interval
**

S = ln(2.2 x − 1.2)

(2-60)

Using Beggs & Brill qo = 2000 bpd μo = 2 cp ρo = 49.9 lb/ft3

qg = 1 mmcfpd μg = .0131 ρg = 2.6 lb/ft3

Temp = 175 oF Pipe = 2.5” Pressure = 800 psi

First find the flow regime, calculate NFR, λl, L1, L2, L3, and L4. NFR = 18.4, λl = .35, L1=230, L2=.0124, L3= .456, L4= 590. So .01 < λl < .4 and L3 < NFR < L1 so flow is intermittent.

**Using the table to get a, b and c:
**

yl 0 = aλb .845 * .350.5351 l = = 0.454 c 29.60.0173 N FR

**Find C and ψ, d, e, f and g from table:
**

f g C = (1 − λl ) ln (dλe N vl N FR ) = (1 − .35) ln (2.96 * .350.305 * 10.28 −0.4473 * 29.6 0.0978 ) = 0.0351 l

ψ = 1 + C [sin(1.8θ ) − .333 sin 3 (1.8θ )] = 1 + .0351[sin(1.8θ ) − .333 sin 3 (1.8θ )] = 1.01

Find yl

y l = y l 0ψ = .454 * 1.01 = .459

**The in-situ average density is
**

ρ = y l ρ l + y g ρ g = .459 * 49.9 + (1 − .459) * 2.6 = 24.29lb / ft 3

_

Potential gradient is

g ρ sin θ 24.29 * 1 ⎛ dp ⎞ = = .169 psi / ft ⎜ ⎟ = 144 ⎝ dl ⎠ PE g c 144

_

**For friction gradient First find the mixture density and viscosity
**

ρ m = ρ l λl + ρ g λ g = 49.9 * .35 + 2.6 * .65 = 19.1lb / ft 3

μ m = μ l λl + μ g λ g = 2 * .35 + .0131 * .65 = .709cp

**The Reynolds Number
**

N Re m =

ρ m um D1488 19.1 * 13.39 * .203 * 1488 = = 109184 .709 μm

**From Moody plot fn is .0045, solve for S
**

x=

λl

y

2 l

=

.35 = 1.66 .459

S=

( (

ln( x ) 2 4 − 0.0523 + 3.182 ln( x ) − 0.8725[ln( x )] + 0.01853[ln( x )]

) )

S=

ln(1.66) = .379 2 4 − 0.0523 + 3.182 ln(1.66) − 0.8725[ln(1.66)] + 0.01853[ln(1.66)]

**Solve for ftp
**

f tp = f n e S = .0045e .379 = .0066

**Find the friction gradient
**

2 2 f tp ρ m um 2 * .0066 * 19.1 * 10.94 2 ⎛ dp ⎞ = = = 4.62lb / ft 3 = .032 psi / ft ⎜ ⎟ gc D 32.17 * .203 ⎝ dl ⎠ F

1)Using the Beggs and Brill method find the length of pipe between the points at 1000psi and 500 psi with the following data. Both vertical and horizontal cases. d = 1.995” γg = .65 qw = 600 bpd μg = .013 cp GLR = 500 scf/stb @ average conditions βο = 1.063 Rs = 92 scf/stb z = .91 oil 22o API qo = 400 stb/day σo = 30 dynes/cm σw = 70 dynes/cm

μo = 17 cp

μw = .63

Pipe Fittings in Horizontal flow To find the pressure drop through pipe fitting such as elbows, tees and valves an equivalent length is add to the flow line. This will account for the additional turbulence and secondary flows which cause the additional pressure drop. These equivalent lengths have been determined experimentally for the most of the fittings. These are found in the following tables. They are given in pipe diameters, which are in feet. So to find the equivalent length for a 45o elbow in 2 inch pipe, find the equivalent length for the elbow in the table, 16, and multiply it by .166 feet, which gives 2.66 feet. This is added to the length of the flow line, the pressure drop for the system is then calculated using one of the methods for horizontal flow.

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