Page 1 of 5

Lloyd’s Register Rulefinder 2010 – Version 9.14 Rulefinder Version 9.14 (July 2010) - Lloyd’s Register Rules and Regulations - Rules for the Manufacture, Testing and Certification of Materials, July 2010 - Steel Castings - General requirements

Section 1 General requirements
1.1 Scope
1.1.1. This Section gives the general requirements for steel castings intended for use in the construction of ships, other marine structures, machinery, boilers, pressure vessels and piping systems. 1.1.2. Where required by the relevant Rules dealing with design and construction, castings are to be manufactured and tested in accordance with Chapters 1 and 2, together with the general requirements given in this Section and the appropriate specific requirements given in Sections 2 to 9. 1.1.3. As an alternative to 1.1.2, castings which comply with National or proprietary specifications may be accepted provided that these specifications give reasonable equivalence to the requirements of this Chapter or alternatively are approved for a specific application. Generally, survey and certification are to be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 1. 1.1.4. Where small castings are produced in large quantities, or where castings of the same type are produced in regular quantities, alternative survey procedures, in accordance with Ch 1,2.4, may be adopted.

1.2 Manufacture
1.2.1. Castings are to be made at foundries approved by LR. The steel used is to be manufactured by a process approved by Lloyd’s Register (hereinafter referred as ’LR’). 1.2.2. All flame cutting, scarfing or arc-air gouging to remove surplus metal is to be undertaken in accordance with recognised good practice and is to be carried out before the final heat treatment. Preheating is to be employed where necessitated by the chemical composition and/or thickness of the casting. The affected areas are to be either machined or ground smooth for a depth of about 2 mm unless it has been shown that the material has not been damaged by the cutting process. Special examination will be required to find any cracking in way of the cut surfaces. 1.2.3. Where two or more castings are joined by welding to form a composite item, details of the proposed welding procedure are to be submitted for approval. Welding approval procedure tests will be required, see also the requirements of 1.9.

1.3 Quality of castings
1.3.1. All castings are to be free from surface or internal defects which would be prejudicial to their proper application in service. The surface finish is to be in accordance with good practice and any specific requirements of the approved specification. 1.3.2. The surfaces are not to be hammered, peened or treated in any way which may obscure defects. 1.3.3. The locations of all chaplets are to be noted and to be subject to close visual inspection (and when necessary ultrasonic examination) to ensure complete fusion.

1.4 Chemical composition
1.4.1. All castings are to be made from killed steel. The chemical composition of the ladle sample is to be within the limits given in the relevant Section of this Chapter. Where general overall limits are specified, the chemical composition is to be appropriate for the type of steel, dimensions and required mechanical properties of the castings. 1.4.2. Except where otherwise specified, suitable grain refining elements may be used at the discretion of the manufacturer. The content of such elements is to be reported in the ladle analysis.

1.5 Heat treatment
1.5.1. All castings are to be heat treated in accordance with the requirements given in the relevant Section of this Chapter. 1.5.2. Heat treatment is to be carried out in a properly constructed furnace which is efficiently maintained and has adequate means of temperature control and is fitted with pyrometers which measure and record the temperature of the furnace charge. The furnace dimensions are to be such as to allow the whole furnace charge to be uniformly heated to

mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9.14\Rulefind... 26/10/2010

The Surveyor is to examine the charts and confirm the details on the certificate.1.6.3. All castings are to be cleaned and adequately prepared for inspection. 1. 1.3.6. Suitable methods include pickling.6.7. a batch testing procedure may be adopted. In the case of very large components which require heat treatment.2. are made from one cast and heat treated in the same furnace charge. magnetic particle or dye penetrant testing is to be carried out by the manufacturer whenever appropriate and also when the castings are in the finished condition. Sufficient thermocouples are to be connected to the furnace charge to show that its temperature is adequately uniform and the temperatures are to be recorded throughout the heat treatment. Where required. wire brushing. The test samples are to be either integrally cast or gated to the casting and are to have a thickness of not less than 30 mm. Re-test procedures are to be in accordance with Ch 2. Castings are to be subject to magnetic particle examination or dye penetrant inspection (for austenitic stainless steel castings.6. provided it gives reasonable equivalence to these Rules. caustic cleaning.7.6 Test material and test specimens 1. or any straightening operation is performed after the final heat treatment.6.14\Rulefind. Copies of these records are to be presented to the Surveyor together with a sketch showing the positions at which the temperature measurements were carried out. local grinding.7. The manufacturer is to provide the Surveyor with a signed report confirming that non-destructive examination has been carried out and that such inspection has not revealed any significant defects. This Section gives the general requirements for non-destructive examination of steel castings.2.7 Visual and non-destructive examination 1. Prods are not permitted on finished machined surfaces.7. The test specimens are to be prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 2. 1.6.5. 1. The dry powder method is not acceptable for the final inspection. this is to include the examination of internal surfaces. where a number of small castings of about the same size. unless more specific requirements for non-destructive examination are included in subsequent Sections of this Chapter. Unless otherwise agreed.7. 1.7. 1.1. 1.2.Page 2 of 5 the necessary temperature. 26/10/2010 . other parts of the Rules or the agreed specification. Test material sufficient for the tests specified in Sections 2 to 9 and for possible re-test purposes is to be provided for each casting. alternative methods will be specially considered.4. shot or sand blasting. 1. 1. 1. Tensile test specimens are to have a cross-sectional area of not less than 150 mm2.9. Where applicable.7. The castings are to be examined in the following areas: mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9.5.1.. Alternative procedures are to be approved by LR. the accuracy and verification of dimensions are the responsibility of the manufacturer. each of which is under 1000 kg in mass. The test samples are to be properly identified and heat treated together with the castings which they represent.6. 1.5. As an alternative to 1.1 has been completed and they have been properly identified.7. All tests are to be in accordance with the requirements of Ch 1.5. If a casting is locally reheated. peened or treated in any way which may obscure defects. Materials and NDE department. using separately cast test samples of suitable dimensions.9. the heat treatment temperature and time at temperature and the date. The test samples are not to be detached from the casting until the heat treatment specified in 1.7. Where specified or required by the Rules non-destructive examination is to be carried out before acceptance. castings may be examined in accordance with a National Specification. The records are to identify the furnace that was used and give details of the charge. a subsequent stress relieving heat treatment may be required in order to avoid the possibility of harmful residual stresses. The surfaces are not to be hammered.7..6. The tests are to be made in the presence of the Surveyor unless otherwise specially agreed.4. All castings are to be presented to the Surveyor for visual examination. this is to be carried out using a suspension of magnetic particles in a suitable fluid. 1. see Section 8) in accordance with 1.4. 1. Where magnetic particle examination is specified or required. As an alternative. At least one test sample is to be provided for each batch of castings.8.1 and 1.3. 1.5.7. 1.

at the discretion of the Surveyor. Where required by the relevant Rules. position and size of the defects are such that the mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9.. In way of chaplets.7. 1. 1.2 are to be applied where no specific acceptance criteria are stated in the subsequent Sections of this Chapter. Where flame scarfing or arc-air gouging is used.3. At other positions agreed with the Surveyor to include areas which may be subjected to high stress in service.2 are to apply. The radiographic technique and acceptance standards are to be to the satisfaction of the Surveyor and in accordance with any requirements of the approved specification. scarfing or arc-air gouging. Grinding wheels for use on austenitic stainless steels are to be of an iron-free type and shall have been used only on stainless steels. (c).9.9. All proposals to repair a defective casting by welding are to be submitted to the Surveyor before this work is commenced.. 1. (d). In way of riser positions. is to be carried out by the manufacturer in areas generally as indicated for ultrasonic examination in 1. 1.7. the requirements detailed in 1.10. This examination is to be carried out in the following areas: (a).2. These tests are to be carried out in the presence of the Surveyors and are to be to their satisfaction. 1. Complete elimination of the defective material is to be proven by adequate non-destructive examination. ultrasonic examination is to be carried out by the manufacturer. In the event of any casting proving to be defective during subsequent machining or testing it is to be rejected notwithstanding any previous certification. 1. these are to be removed by machining or chipping. At positions where experience shows that significant internal defects may occur: these are to be agreed between the manufacturer and the Surveyor.11.9. Shallow grooves or excavations resulting from the removal of defects may. where required. In way of welds. 1. Complete elimination of the defective material is to be verified by magnetic particle or dye penetrant testing.5.8.9 Rectification and dressing of castings 1.Page 3 of 5 (a). In way of fabrication weld preparations.7.7. At positions where surplus metal has been removed by flame cutting. but Surveyors may request to be present in order to verify that the examination is carried out in accordance with the agreed procedure. In way of fabrication weld preparations. 1.8 Pressure testing 1. for a distance not less than 50 mm from the edge. Radiographic examination. The Surveyor is to satisfy himself that the number.12. (e). castings are to be pressure tested in the final machined condition before final acceptance. bearing bores). At positions which may be subjected to high stresses in service.1.9. (c).13. (e).7. (d). When unacceptable defects are found in a casting. (f). 1.10.2. as agreed with the Surveyor. At all accessible fillets and changes of section. All radiographs are to be submitted to the Surveyor for examination and acceptance. In way of welding. (f). bolt holes. At positions where subsequent machining may expose filamentary shrinkage or other defects (e.14\Rulefind. Flamescarfing or arc-air gouging may also be used provided that preheating is employed when necessary and that the surfaces of the resulting excavation are subsequently ground smooth. (b). 26/10/2010 . for a distance not less than 50 mm from the edge.g. The general acceptance criteria given in 2.4. be accepted provided that they will cause no appreciable reduction in the strength of the castings and that they are suitably blended by grinding.1. (b). Where required by subsequent Sections or by the agreed specification.

1. heat treatment and the extent and location of all welds made to each casting. As far as possible. positions and nature of the repairs. Where welding is required.. The type of heat treatment required will be dependent on the chemical composition of the casting and the dimensions.9. 1. The welding procedure is to be such that residual stresses are minimised. all welds and adjacent material are to be ground smooth and examined by magnetic particle.16. The foundry is to maintain full records detailing the weld procedure. or liquid penetrant testing.9. all castings which have been tested and inspected with satisfactory results are to be clearly marked by the manufacturer with the following particulars: (a). 1.9. after final preparation for welding. After welding is completed. The manufacturer is to adopt a system of identification.13.9. configuration and positions of the welds. A statement and/or sketch detailing the extent and position of all welds is to be prepared by the manufacturer.7. the dimensions. see 4. giving a weld deposit with mechanical properties similar and in no way inferior to those of the parent castings. are to be re-examined by suitable non-destructive testing methods to ensure that all defective material has been eliminated.12. Where no welding has been made on a casting.9.11. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9. 1.9. Castings in carbon-manganese steels may also be required to be preheated.7. 1. to witness the results of magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination and to examine any radiographs. depending on their chemical composition.6 to 1.9. Special consideration may be given to a local stress relieving heat treatment where both the welded area is small and machining of the casting has reached an advanced stage but prior agreement is to be obtained from LR in writing. (b).10.9. Any excavations are to be of suitable shape to allow good access for welding and. Welding is to be carried out under cover.6 in Chapter 13. 1.4 to 13. All welding is to be carried out by an approved welder and in accordance with an approved welding procedure which includes the features referred to in 1. in positions free from draughts and adverse weather conditions. The welding consumables used are to be of an appropriate composition.9. Manufacturer’s name or trade mark.14. which will enable all finished castings to be traced to the original cast. the manufacturer is to provide the Surveyor with a written statement that this is the case.10.15. For rectification of defective steel castings for crankshafts. All castings in alloy steels other than austenitic and duplex stainless steels are to be suitably preheated prior to welding. or a stress relieving heat treatment at a temperature of not less than 550°C.13.17.2. and copies are to be attached to the certificates for the castings. Welding procedure tests are to be carried out by the manufacturer to demonstrate that satisfactory mechanical properties can be obtained after heat treatment as detailed in 1. Copies of these sketches are to be submitted to LR. 1. ultrasonic or radiographic examination.9. The use of low hydrogen type welding consumables is preferred. On completion of heat treatment. 1.1.14\Rulefind.9. These records are to be available for review by the Surveyor. 1. Grain refining heat treatment requires heating above the upper critical temperature.9.2. cast number or other marking which will enable the full history of the casting to be traced. The acceptance criteria for the NDE of welds are to be in accordance with subsequent Sections of this Chapter or where these do not exist.Page 4 of 5 casting can be effectively repaired. Satisfactory results are to be obtained from all forms of non-destructive examination used.9. all welding is to be carried out in the downhand (flat) position. as appropriate. a grain refining heat treatment is to be given to the whole casting prior to carrying out welding unless agreed otherwise with the Surveyor.5. 1.12.6. The Surveyor is to attend at these inspections.9.8. 26/10/2010 . and copies of individual records are to be supplied to the Surveyor on request. and the Surveyor is to be given full facilities to trace the castings when required. 1. 1.9. Tables 13. 1.. Identification number. Before acceptance.10 Identification of castings 1. 1.2. and the results of these tests are to be presented to the Surveyor.9. 1.9. the castings are to be given the heat treatment specified in Sections 2 to 9.10.

mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9. 1.11. referred to in this clause as the 'Lloyd's Register Group'. where applicable. Results of mechanical tests. 26/10/2010 . Where applicable.7 together with a statement and/or a sketch detailing the extent and position of all weld repairs made to each casting as required by 1.14\Rulefind. (c). damage or expense caused by reliance on the information or advice in this document or howsoever provided. International Maritime Organization. (f). Where small castings are manufactured in large numbers. unless that person has signed a contract with the relevant Lloyd's Register Group entity for the provision of this information or advice and in that case any responsibility or liability is exclusively on the terms and conditions set out in that contract. its affiliates and subsidiaries and their respective officers.11. chemical analysis of ladle samples and.3. (d).Page 5 of 5 (c). Description of castings and steel grade. Date of final inspection. employees or agents are. (g). Test pressure. A LR certificate is to be issued.3. Copyright 2010 Lloyd's Register. The manufacturer is to provide the Surveyor with a written statement giving the following particulars for each casting or batch of castings which has been accepted: (a). Steel making process. where applicable. cast number. LR or Lloyd’s Register and the abbreviated name of LR’s local office.7. Lloyd's Register.5 or the statement detailed in 1.2.1. modified arrangements for identification may be specially agreed with the Surveyor.9.3. Test pressure. 1. see Ch 1. The Lloyd's Register Group assumes no responsibility and shall not be liable to any person for any loss. International Labour Organization or Maritime and Coastguard Agency. Personal stamp of Surveyor responsible for inspection. (b).10. Identification number.. the chemical analysis of the product or test bar. (d). individually and collectively. General details of heat treatment including the temperature and time at temperature..11. (e). in the case of the Special grade (see Section 2). All rights reserved.15. 1.1.11 Certification of materials 1.9. 1. (f). (e). Purchaser’s name and order number. the manufacturer is to provide a signed report regarding non-destructive examination as required by 1.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful