Volume 2, Number 2, December 2001
The Journal of Acoustic Ecology
World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE)
The World Forum for Acoustic Ecology, founded in 1993, is an international association of affiliated organizations and individuals, who share a common concern for the state of the world’s soundscapes. Our members represent a multi-disciplinary spectrum of individuals engaged in the study of the social, cultural, and ecological aspects of the sonic environment.
The Journal of Acoustic Ecology
Volume 2, Number 2, December 2001 issn 1607-3304
Board Members of the WFAE and its Affiliates Soundscape is a biannual English language publication of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE). It is conceived as a place of communication and discussion about interdisciplinary research and practice in the field of Acoustic Ecology, focussing on the inter-relationship between sound, nature, and society. The publication seeks to balance its content between scholarly writings, research, and an active engagement in current soundscape issues. Editorial Committee Gary Ferrington Nigel Frayne Hildegard Westerkamp With assistance from: Harold Clark and Rahma Khazam. Correspondents Sabine Breitsameter (Germany) Helmi Järviluoma (Finland) Henrik Karlsson (Sweden) Bernie Krause (USA) Brandon LaBelle (USA) Andra McCartney (Canada) Veena Sharma (India) Keiko Torigoe (Japan) Original Design, Soundscape Logotype: Robert MacNevin Layout, Prepress: Reanna Evoy Printing: Snap Printing, Melbourne Front Cover Photo: Gregg Wagstaff Ear Graphic p. 8: Dirk Marwedel Rear Cover Photo: Gregg Wagstaff Membership Committee: John Campbell - chair (AFAE and WFAE); Justin Winkler (FKL); Clarissa DeYoung (CASE); John Drever (UKISC); Meri Kytö (FSAE); Nigel Frayne (WFAE board). Mailing List and Distribution Melbourne: John Campell and Nigel Frayne The printing and distribution of this edition of the journal were made possible through membership contributions and donations. Special thanks to R. Murray Schafer and Hildegard Westerkamp Contents copyright © 2001, Soundscape. The authors retain copyright on each article. Republication rights must be negotiated with the author. Credit for previous publication in Soundscape—The Journal of Acoustic Ecology must be given. Photographers, artists, and illustrators retain copyright on their images. Opinions expressed in Soundscape—The Journal of Acoustic Ecology are not necessarily those of the Editors. World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE) Nigel Frayne - AFAE Rep. and Board Chair Darren Copeland - CASE Rep. Gabriele Proy - FKL Rep Simo Alitalo - FSAE Rep. Gregg Wagstaff - UKISC Rep. Gary Ferrington - Secretary and Webmaster Hildegard Westerkamp - Chair Journal Committee Australian Forum for Acoustic Ecology (AFAE) Nigel Frayne - President Lawrence Harvey - Vice President Helen Dilkes - Treasurer John Campbell - Secretary Canadian Association for Sound Ecology (CASE) Association Canadienne pour l’Écologie Sonore (ACÉS) Darren Copeland - President Clarissa DeYoung - Treasurer Tim Wilson - Secretary Victoria Fenner - Member-at-large R. Murray Schafer - Member-at-large Ellen Waterman - Member-at-large Hildegard Westerkamp - Member-at-large
Forum Klanglandschaft (FKL) Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy Gabriele Proy - President Dr. Justin Winkler - Vice President and Treasurer Lorenz Schwarz - Administrator and Webmaster Prof. Dr. Günter Olias - Board Rep. Germany, and Treasurer Dani Schwarz - Board Rep. Austria Prof. Albert Mayr - Board Rep. Italy Suomen Akustisen Ekologian Seura (Finnish Society for Acoustic Ecology—FSAE) Helmi Järviluoma - Chairperson Simo Alitalo - Vice-chair Meri Kytö - Secretary/Treasurer Petri Kuljuntausta - Member (Harri Huhtamäki personal deputy member) Heikki Uimonen - Member (Ari Koivumäki personal deputy member) United Kingdom & Ireland Soundscape Community (UKISC) Management committee: Andrew Deakin John Drever Jony Easterby Scott Hawkins Rahma Kazahm Peter Lennox Pedro Rebello Gregg Wagstaff
Ideas for journal themes, proposals for new sections, as well as visual materials, are welcomed. You may submit either a proposal or a complete manuscript of a potential article to Soundscape. The Editorial Committee would generally prefer to communicate with you beforehand regarding your idea for an article, or receive a proposal, or an abstract (contact information below). Please also download our Guide to Contributors: Instructions for the Preparation of Materials for Submission to Soundscape (PDF) on the WFAE Website at: http://interact.uoregon.edu/MediaLit/wfae/ journal/index.html Upcoming Issue: Acoustic Ecology in the Age of Digital Networks and New Audio Technologies. Future themes: The Ecology of Underwater Sound, Sacred Soundscapes, Sound Design, Economics and Acoustic Ecology. Submissions. Please send articles, letters, and materials for the following sections in this journal: Feature Articles; Current Research: a section devoted to a summary of current research within the field; Dialogue: an opportunity for editorial comment by the membership; Sound Bites: a summary of acoustic ecology issues found in the press; Sound Journals: personal reflections on listening to the soundscape; Soundwalks from around the world; Reviews: a section devoted to the review of books, CDs, videos, web sites, and other media addressing the theme of Acoustic Ecology (please send your CDs, tapes, books, etc.); Reports, articles, essays, letters from students and/or children; Announcements of acoustic ecology related events and opportunities; Quotes: sound and listening related quotations from literature, articles, correspondence, etc.; Random Noise: a section that explores creative solutions to noise problems. Please send correspondence and submissions to: Soundscape —The Journal of Acoustic Ecology School of Communication, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6 Canada. E-mail: email@example.com.
The Journal of Acoustic Ecology
Volume 2, Number 2, December 2001
Contribution Guidelines ........... 2 Editorial ...................................... 3 Report from the Chair ............... 4 Regional Activity Reports .......... AFAE .............................. FSAE ............................... CASE/ACÉS ................... FKL ................................. UKISC ............................. 5 5 5 6 6 7
Dialogue ..................................... 8 Current Research ....................... 9 FEATURE ARTICLES Acoustic Communication Studies at Simon Fraser University ........ 11 Bringing Soundscapes Into the Everyday Classroom ............ 16 Teaching Acoustic Ecology: ...................................... 21 Stockholm Soundscape Project ........................................ 25 “With the Calm, Comes Silence” ......................... 30 The Concept of Soundscape and Music Education in Japan ......... 33 Sound Reflections ...................... 36 Acoustic Ecology and Environmental Studies ................ 39 Book Reviews ............................. 40 Sound Journals .......................... 45 Perspectives ................................ 46 Sound Bites ................................ 48 Resources .................................... 50 Announcements ......................... 53 Quotes ........................................ 54 WFAE—Membership and Subscription Information ......... 55
magine if all sound-related disciplines added soundscape listening, analysis and topics of acoustic ecology to their course curriculum. Imagine if, for example, future nurses, doctors, and medical staff were trained to conduct soundwalks through hospital environments followed by critical sound analyses and connect the results of such study to questions of convalescence and healing. Imagine if architecture students were requested to analyse acoustic environments of existing buildings with the same intensity as music students are asked to analyse existing musical compositions; or if students of urban planning were asked to analyse acoustic environments of existing parks or residential areas; if sound design and soundscape analysis were as high a priority in film schools as visual design and script writing; if environmental studies departments made courses on sound ecology a high priority; if business courses emphasized silence as a marketing tool for all machinery; if police education would teach the complexities of law enforcement in noise issues; if clothes designer courses would teach about the sound of fabric; if journalism courses would create ear cleaning courses focussing on the sound of language, voice, sound and music in media; if school teachers and principals were trained to create school soundscapes conducive to learning? And so on. Some of this type of education, I am sure, already exists in many parts of the world, probably in small pockets, where an individual or group are seriously concerned with the quality of sound environments. It may exist formally as a course in an educational institution; or less obviously as a subtle influence on listeners in public spaces through conscious design; or informally in daily life where an intensely listening person influences those that cross his or her path. When we first asked for submissions for this issue on soundscape education, I imagined all sorts of articles arriving at our doorstep that would cover the above spectrum—a vision that existed already in the early days of the World Soundscape Project and during the time when R. Murray
Schafer wrote his book The Tuning of the World (1977). We saw it as one of our main tasks then to bring together the various professions that are dealing with acoustics, sound and noise. Soundscape studies and acoustic eco-logy seemed to be the ideal forum to bridge or somehow unify these disciplines. To date—25, 30 years later—this vision has hardly taken root, we did not receive the imagined spectrum of articles for this issue, and pursuing such a vision is obviously a larger task than anyone had anticipated. Despite that, we do believe that we are offering you some exciting texts in this issue of the journal: eight articles, written almost exclusively by music educators or authors with some type of musical background (aside from the regular reports and sections). Perhaps this should not have surprised us, since the basis of all soundscape work is listening and musicians are indeed specialists in listening. In addition, soundscape education perhaps has matured most within the field of music education, partially because of Schafer’s books—already written in the sixties, breaking the narrow boundaries of music education then and still highly relevant today—such as Ear Cleaning (1967), The New Soundscape (1969), When Words Sing (1970), The Rhinoceros in the Clasroom (1975), later brought together in The Thinking Ear (1986). Four of the eight feature articles—by Michael Cumberland, Robin McGinley, Gregg Wagstaff, and Jonathan Savage/Mike Challis, plus Ulrike Heuer’s report in Perspectives— are written by authors who have worked with school students and, in one case, with a high security unit of young offenders at a prison. Several authors mention that they were motivated to go into schools because of what they perceived to be declining listening skills. Some believe that this is caused by the incessant onslaught of media, environmental noise, information overload etc., and stress that it is not only students who need help in deepening their ability to listen but that they themselves have benefited from the work. Some have observed that, by setting up a situation where soundscape listening is the 3
central focus for learning and information gathering, a whole new dynamic emerges in the classroom: respect for everything and everybody that is heard and an equalisation of differences and hierarchies. In other words, it is not so much the pedagogical approach or an educational method that deepens the understanding of soundscape issues and social, cultural and environmental relationships, but the action of listening itself. It creates a radically different dynamic from the forced student-to-teacher-listening that is still so prevalent in many classrooms of our schools. The students benefit from the courses described in these articles, precisely because their hearing perception has been opened to the whole world, an opportunity has been given to them to analyse, interpret and understand the heard, and a more conscious relationship to the environment and society has been formed as a result. The other four feature articles speak from the context of university education: Barry Truax’ article is of value in providing an historical perspective of efforts in teaching acoustic ecology since the mid-seventies. Co-editor Gary Ferrington has contributed much to this issue with two articles and a discussion in the dialogue section, all of them challenging us to consider seriously how acoustic ecology can belong inside the universities. In his article “Teaching Acoustic Ecology: An International Overview”, he presents a collection of courses that, in the words of the author, “illustrates a diversity of on-going efforts by educators who believe studies in acoustic ecology are important.“ Tadahiko Imada in his feature article and Vincent Valentine in his research proposal for his doctoral dissertation (in Current Research) both are considering soundscape education as a way to infuse music education with new life. Imada’s article discusses how soundscape education may be able to heal a rift within his own musical culture of Japan that was created by the “imposition of European musical epistemology.” Hopfully this issue is the beginning of many more that will discuss the theme of soundscape education in the context of other sound-related disciplines. The essence of soundscape studies and acoustic ecology is interdisciplinary. The only form of specialization within this field lies at its very basis: information gathering through listening and subsequent analysis. But the act of listening itself involves the whole world, reaches into all aspects of life, and thus we cannot help but touch all disciplines through our work. And this is precisely where things become complex and perhaps often unmanageable for many who specialize in sound-related disciplines. Not only does real listening always reveal what is—such as social, cultural, political, environmental problems or uncomfortable inner truths—but one also encounters a difficult balancing act, that results because of the very nature of such listening, between a certain disorientation of hearing too much and a potential loss of context and overview through over-specialization. Indeed, anyone who is involved in soundscape studies and acoustic ecology knows this complex issue all too well: of attending to detail and specifics on the one hand in our work and study, but on the other hand of not loosing touch with the larger contexts that inevitably provide the deeper meanings. Listening itself (and all the learning that results from it) informs us of how to balance our perception between focal and global attention, between the sound and its ambience, between the word and its tone of voice as it were. And in today’s world this practice of listening may be an important metaphor for what we need to practise in general: attention to the immediate situation in our daily lives and its continuous shifts, while staying as aware as we can of the world context as a whole. Hildegard Westerkamp for the Editorial Committee 4
Report from the Chair
he WFAE board has been involved in some intense deliberations in the past few months. The most important of these relates to the future of Soundscape, this journal, and the relationship with FKL, one of our founding affiliated organisations. The two issues are in fact quite inter-related and draw us into a contemplation of some deeper issues about WFAE affiliation. The recent FKL Annual General Meeting raised the question as to whether an organisation like the WFAE could or even should be engaged in the publication of a journal. At the time of printing FKL is still deliberating on this issue and whether it should remain affiliated with the WFAE. The discussion has prompted the other affiliates to reaffirm their commitment to the journal as a critical medium through which we can communicate. While the FKL board deliberated on its future the WFAE board determined that the previous journal, Vol.2 No.1, with its theme on Blind Listening should be distributed to FKL members at WFAE cost to demonstrate solidarity and support. The potential departure of FKL posed a question as to whether the WFAE was being really effective in only distributing the journal to our own membership. We began to pursue other distribution models which might enable non-members to access the journal such as electronic or web based models. Consideration was also given to its cost structure. Eventually it was decided that in the future the journal would be distributed by way of a subscription model. The details and fee structures are published on page 55 in this journal. It is important to stress that all affiliated members will continue to receive the journal on receipt of the same annual fees. In addition it is now possible for non-members, both individuals and organisations, to also subscribe to Soundscape. It is believed that the WFAE has an important role to play in the dissemination of information and the promotion of discussion about acoustic ecology amongst the widest possible readership. Along with the various discussion lists (thanks to the UKISC and SFU Vancouver) and the excellent web site (thanks to Gary Ferrington and University of Oregon), the journal provides a tangible product of our mutual global collaboration. The journal could not exist however without the extraordinary dedication of the Journal Committee, in particular Hildegard Westerkamp, Gary Ferrington and until recently, Bob MacNevin. It is financially reliant on WFAE membership fees as well as the generosity of a number of people, notably the Westerkamp family for ongoing support and Murray Schafer who has provided us with the capacity to produce this bumper issue on Education. On behalf of the board and the membership I extend our warmest thanks to you all. In addition to a broader readership it is expected that future issues will feature a broader perspective through the introduction of guest editors. The Journal Committee is considering to expand in size. In this current issue Harold Clark and Rahma Khazam already assisted significantly with their editing skills and we are looking forward to more future work with them and others. The next issue of Soundscape (Vol. 3 Number 1) will be guest edited by Sabine Breitsameter and Brandon LaBelle on the theme of Acoustic Ecology in the Age of Digital Networks and New Audio Technologies (working title). Outside of journal activities, dialogue is continuing with a number of potential new affiliated organisations and the WFAE seems set to continue to grow and consolidate. It is important for us to continue to have an active board and a clear determination as to what we want to achieve together and to continually question what we are doing and how best to go about it. Nigel Frayne Chair of the Board, WFAE
Regional Activity Reports
Australian Forum for Acoustic Ecology (AFAE)
by Nigel Frayne
Finnish Society for Acoustic Ecology (FSAE)
By Simo Alitalo
Through the first half of 2001 AFAE members have been active in their own fields of activity including projects, performances and book launches. There have been further developments with both the plans for the Symposium as well as the Capitol Soundscape Project reported in the last journal. The membership in the AFAE is slightly reduced this year. This is the cause of some concern and points to the need to create more opportunities for us to meet and engage the broader community. We will be considering ways to resume the seminar series (Resonance) of last year and promote greater awareness through an international Symposium. Our most recent meeting was a small gathering of members to meet Helmi Järviluoma who kindly traveled across to Melbourne from her original destination, Sydney. Helmi briefed us on the current status of the research programme, Acoustic Environments in Change. It was a great opportunity to meet face to face and exchange information in an informal setting. We are very grateful to Helmi for making the effort to come to Melbourne. The excitement generated by the prospect of the Capitol Soundscape Project at RMIT University, reported in the last journal, has subsided with the news that the project will not proceed in its original form. This has resulted in further delays and complications for our collaboration on the Symposium. The previously mentioned dates in July have now been pushed back to November or December. Details will be published just as soon as possible. Generally our members are continuing to be active in their own work. Of note is the recent release of AFAE member, Ros Bandt’s book, Soundsculpture in Australia (see review on page 40). This important book documents the range of artists and projects that form the historical basis upon which future work in this field will be referred. Contact: Nigel Frayne: firstname.lastname@example.org
Back Issues of Soundscape Now Available On Line
Adobe Acrobat PDF versions of Soundscape are now available for download at the URL below: htt p://interact.uore gon.edu/me dialit/w fae/ journal/index.html The free Acrobat Reader can be downloaded from here: h t t p : / / w w w. a d o b e . c o m / p r o d u c t s / a c r o b a t / readstep2.html
During the fall of 2001 FSAE has concentrated on building networks and co-operation with other organizations with similar interests. In September the Acoustic Enviroments in Change research project (AEC) organized “Kylä kuuluu!” (Villages to be heard) exhibition at the Sibelius Museum in Turku. Acoustic Enviroments in Change revisits the six European villages whose soundscapes were charted and documented in 1975 by the World Soundscape Project. The AEC project is lead by FSAE chairperson PhD Helmi Järviluoma. During the three weeks of the exhibition members of the public could discover how the soundscapes and the acoustic ecology of these villages have been studied and interpreted by scholars. Soundscape activist, composer and philosopher of time Albert Mayr gave his Chronochronica sound performance during the opening weekend. He also gave a guest lecture on the same subject at Turku University, Musicology Department. In the main lobby of Turku University a group of young environmental and media artists from Tampere presented their point of view and hearing of the selfsame villages. From Turku the exhibition went to the Lahti Design Institute. Field trip notes and materials from the AEC research project can be found on the internet: www.6villages.tpu.fi. In October 2001 FSAE joined forces with The Finnish Association for Nature Conservation, The Finnish Federation of Hard of Hearing, The Guides and Scouts of Finland and The Finnish Cross Country Skiers in order to organize The Day of Quiet for the second time. One of the main objectives of The Day of Quiet (October 8) is to restore areas and places of natural silence and reduce the noisiness of leisure time. Noise has become an intrinsic part of leisure activities through the increasing use of motorised vehicles like snow scooters, 4Wdrives, SUV´s, water scooters etc. Thus nature reserves and national parks can no longer provide an acoustic shelter for those who wish to escape the hectic and noisy work environments. The organizing associations in their declaration demand that noise production in nature reserves and recreational parks should be regulated more strictly and that right to quiet should become a genuine civil right. A seminar entitled Polymorphic Soundworld was organized in connection with The Day of Quiet in Helsinki on October 8, 2001. In November Meri Kytö, the dutiful secretary/treasurer of the FSAE, left us in order to take part in a graduate student exchange program in Barcelona, Spain. Contact: Simo Alitalo: email@example.com
edu WFAE additional information: firstname.lastname@example.org/medialit/wfae/home/ Home to an extensive collection of Acoustic Ecology related materials—assembled and maintained by Gary Ferrington. Germany.com
Forum Klanglandschaft (FKL)
by Gabriele Proy
Sonic Geography Imagined and Remembered is a collection of ten essays on the relationship between acoustic ecology and culture inspired by the international conference Sound Escape. radio programs. p. performances.uoregon.rol3. workshops. Scott Smallwood and Gregg Waggstaff (see also page 52). As the newly elected FKL president I focused on building up a different democratic structure within the organisation’s board and to strengthen our work as a team. Austria in May and the following one will take place in Meran. Contact: Forum Klanglandschaft (FKL) Hammerstr. (While you are at the WFAE Website—Join our Discussion List!) WFAE Board: garywf@oregon. and so on.uoregon. Gabriele Proy. A report of that meeting was published by Desmond Mark in Journal No 25 of the Institute for Musicsociology. Penumbra Press in Ottawa will publish the proceedings later this year through sponsorship from the Frost Centre for Canadian Studies at Trent University. John Levack Drever. This year’s FKL Annual General Meeting will be held in Vienna. On our FKL homepage you can find information about conferences. The FKL is interested to remain within the WFAE. However.ca
During the past year the FKL board has been discussing its future and its relationship with the WFAE. because the FKL represents members from Austria. • The conference Ökologie des Hörens—Von der Lärmumwelt zum Klangdesign (The Ecology of Hearing Perception—From Noise to Sound Design) which took place in Tutzing. electronic media.
WFAE—Electronic Contact Information
Website: http://interact. 14 CH-4058 Basel. Switzerland Fax: +41 61 691 0064 www.com. CASE has continued to investigate territory for new project initiatives. The board of directors encourages project submissions from the Canadian membership that create links with the general population and acoustic ecology issues and research.com/vereine/klanglandschaft
. soundwalks. It contains soundscape compositions by José Luis Carles. Italy in 2003. ON M5V 3A8 Canada phone: (416) 340-9838 E-mail: cansound@interlog. Vienna University of Music. Suite 361 Toronto. some exciting news was reported by Ellen Waterman regarding the projected publication of Sonic Geography Imagined and Remembered. research. For the complete story and more information see page 44 of this Journal. March 2002. If you would like to propose a project.Canadian Association for Sound Ecology (CASE) Association Canadienne pour l’Écologie Sonore (ASÉS)
by Darren Copeland Since the last issue of Soundscape. We are glad that we were able recently to find a solution with the WFAE concerning the issue of subscriptions to Soundscape-The Journal of Acoustic Ecology. the conference proceedings from the conference Sound Escape held in Peterborough. Moreover. November 2001. In the end it was decided not to dissolve the FKL and to try a fresh start. Thomas Gerwin. please contact Darren Copeland at email@example.com Membership Secretary: wfm@sfu. held at Trent University in 2000. 53) You can find more details on our FKL homepage. See below for details! Contact: Canadian Association for Sound Ecology c/o Musicworks 401 Richmond Street West. seminars. Italy and Switzerland internal discussions regarding differing statutes even within these countries are necessary. In the meantime. public actions. soundscape art and publications on soundscape theory. It was not clear until the last FKL Annual General Meeting in 2001 whether we could make a new start or whether the organisation would have to be dissolved. Canada in the summer of 2000. Among others I would like to mention: • The SAN Sounding Soundscape Composition CD which was curated by John Levack Drever and produced by the Sonic Arts Network in November 2001. concerts. • A sound journey of the river “Speyerbach” by Martin Grund which will be presented at a concert in Lambrecht. Werner Cee. Among many others Andres Bosshard and Justin Winkler gave lectures at the conference. different organisational statutes in Switzerland compared to those in Australia demand special agreements in our international co-operation. Dallas Simpson. • A WFAE sponsored acoustic ecology onference with the theme of Music in Urban Spaces will take place in Bologna in May 2002 (for more details see announcements section in this journal. Projects can take many different forms: publications. December 2001.
PRICE: £25. as well as raising awareness of more wider ranging topics. England Papers by: Dina Abdulkarim and Natheer Abu-Obied. taking place at Sheffield Hallam University. Ross Brown. Culture and Environments February 16-20. Björn Hellström.net HOW TO ORDER Please make your cheques payable to ‘Sound Practice’ send to: John Levack Drever Flat 1. Collins and Philip Tagg. UKISC will also have a general meeting in April of 2002 being held at MAXIS—a Festival of Sound and Experimental Music. Ros Bandt.org. England (February 2001). Robin McGinley. The journal also includes articles. organised by UKISC and held at Dartington. which could not be presented or published in the conference proceedings. and Nicolas Tixier. Thanks also to Andrew Deakin for assisting with the job of editing. related soundscape research and events.UK
. Contact: Gregg Wagstaff: earminded@ecosse. providing coverage of UKISC members’ activities.uk www. Michael Bull. 17 Queens Crescent Exeter EX4 6AY DEVON. It features a conference report by Heidi Grundmann and
January 2002 sees the renewal of UKISC members fees and we hope that Earshot along with the WFAE Soundscape Journal will at least retain (if not boost) its 47 members at present.maxis. Karen E.00 per copy £20.Dartington Hall Centre Devon. Cathy Lane. Paul Moore. Anyone interested in purchasing a copy of Earshot please contact Gregg Wagstaff at the following e-mail address: earminded@ecosse. UKISC has produced the second issue of its journal Earshot which was distributed to its members just before Christmas.00 to members of the UK and Ireland Soundscape Community (UKISC) or all other members of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE).The United Kingdom and Ireland Soundscape Community (UKISC)
by Gregg Wagstaff
Since my last report in the WFAE’s Soundscape Journal (July 2001). Clive Cazeaux. 2001 Dartington College of Arts . Josephine Bosma’s Music & the Net and Bart Plantenga’s Poly-Aural Space. The next issue of Earshot will be themed ‘Sound & Architecture’.UK
NOW AVAILABLE: Proceedings
Sound Practice The First UKISC Conference on Sound. We hope this will provide an opportunity for all UKISC members to gather together ear-to-ear and for us to make plans for co-ordinated UKISC projects in 2002/3. Peter M. Tom Rice.uk). Bruce Smith.net John Drever: johndrever@MOOSE. Christine McCombe. Earshot is intended to be a regional publication. It was no small task bringing this issue to print and our thanks must go to Rahma Khazam (who joined the UKISC management committee last March) for undertaking the role of Earshot’s Chief Editor. for which we are thankful as he was unfortunately unable to attend Sound Practice as originally intended. a hitherto unpublished article by Murray Schafer—Sounds of Place. Teri Rueb. UK Email: johndrever@MOOSE.maxis.CO.CO. This second issue of Earshot focuses on the ‘afterthoughts and repercussions’ of the Sound Practice conference. England ( HYPERLINK http:/ /www. Diane Leboeuf. Nicolas Remy. Lewis.org.
Eco comes from the Greek oikos or house.edu/medialit/wfae/ecoacoustics/ index. After some basic research of Webster’s dictionary I coined the word “ecoacoustics”. Number 1) and haven’t read all the articles yet. Switzerland
Yes. Gary Ferrington. Ecoacousticologist: (1)A practitioner of ecoacousticology. and sociology.. biology. such as those below. The suffix logy refers to the “study of ” a subject such as geology. My wife. The English use of this root includes the term habitat. Perhaps it is time to explain the origins of the word and to add what could be a short set of additional words for use in discussions related to our field of acoustic ecology. USA
Stroking Our Earlobes
Danke für das Soundscape Journal.html. I have often used the word ecoacoustics in my writings about the study of acoustic ecology. it is used elsewhere including the title for a graduate course in Ecoacoustics at Texas A&M University. Ecoacousticology: An interdisciplinary field of research within the area of environmental studies related to the scientific. I wanted a title for the column that was catchy and simple. living organisms and their habitats. mixing more weighty text with informal notes and a number of exquisite. engaged in the study and research of ecoacoustic issues. Here’s a big compliment! Sabine Breitsameter Berlin.uoregon. Oregon. Although most of the web search returns point to the WFAE web site collection of ecoacoustic columns. Sweden
. This was distributed on the acoustic-ecology listerv and is now archived at the WFAE web site at: http://interact. These are: Ecoacoustics: (1) An area concerned with the interrelationship of sound. In a sociological context. who is not very much involved in Soundscape Studies (other than being married to someone who is.
A few years ago I occasionally wrote a column summarizing sound related news articles in the press. Acoustic comes from the Greek akoustikos meaning to hear. (2) A concern with the state of the world soundscape as an ecologically balanced entity. well-chosen illustrations. or to the mailing address at the bottom of page 2. Congratulations! Henrik Karlsson Stockholm. There are three words I use as my references to acoustic ecology. I received the last Journal (Vol 2. as I interpret it. Ecology.).. including other members’ comments. Webster’s defines acoustic as having to do with hearing or with sound as heard. Let me transmit a very personal thank you for the excellent work done! And the courage. But my first impression of the Journal was: IT LOOKS SO BEAUTIFUL—you have really found the optimal layout and way of presentation. has also appreciated this issue. living organisms and their habitats.. social.. is a branch of biology that is concerned with the interrelationship between living organisms and their habitat or environment.Dialogue
We invite your comments and criticism in response to anything you read in Soundscape. 2 Number 1) of the Soundscape Journal. I find it to be really a very good magazine. It has to some limited degree. 8 and cultural aspects of natural and human made sound environments. Since writing those columns I have had the opportunity to search the web from time to time to see if the word ecoacoustics had made its way into the vernacular. is a field within environmental studies that investigates the role of sound in the ecology of the planet. ecology has to do with the study of the relationship between humans and their environments. Please send your reactions to: jwfae@sfu. Ecoacoustics. I thought that by combining eco + acoustics I would be able to suggest that our field is concerned with a new branch of biological and sociological study concerned with the interrelationship between sound.ca. Germany
Last week I got the Blind Listening issue (Vol. I use both acoustic ecology and ecoacoustics interchangeably. dass es ein sehr gutes Magazin ist! Grosses Kompliment! Thanks for the Soundscape Journal. Justin Winkler Basel. Eugene. Ich finde wirklich.
system-environment. One of the objects of my research is to identify and re-examine the specific contributions of the many existing concepts of music education and present them in one global and innovative vision of music education. pedagogy (pure imitation without retrospection. the milieu of music education has not responded to this call for change.
Education Relative to Sound Environment and Music Education
In developments since the 1970s. music education is confronted to integrate these new educational perspectives. Elsewhere. Whether at the elementary level (methods of Dalcroze. stage band). In order for music education to become an essential element of fundamental education. John Paynter (1970). From this model of integral music education. etc. education relative to environment (ERE) aims to enrich our relationship with the world through a holistic understanding of the environment. attitudes. Taking care not to make the mistake of changing only for the sake of change. the notion of competence.
Since the mid 1990s. they hinder identification of the stakes involved in their statements in favor of change in music education. François Delalande (1984) and Raymond Murray Schafer (1986. the environment can be considered from many points of view: nature-environment. harmony. Although these proposals appear worthwhile. life-space-environment. jazz band. since the mid XXth century. and worse still.Current Research
Soundscape Education as an Essential Part of Integral Music Education
By Vincent Valentine
In this text. biosphere-environment. Kodaly) or secondary level (orchestra. this period of educational reform in which we now live provides an opportunity to adopt a more critical atti-
tude toward models and to re-examine their application in music education. two of which are the absence of a point of reference in education and the use of argument based more on opinion than on valid research. Martenot. I will demonstrate the general objective of my doctoral thesis. Actually. It is through development of knowledge. This movement is expressed in various ideas and theories that translate into an apparent consensus on education. As well. fundamental research in music education remains a marginal occupation. That is why we must turn to the works of such innovative practitioners as George Self (1967). which is to develop a model of integral music education. they overlook some serious points. preoccupations concerning citizenship and education relative to environment. standardized teaching) and aesthetics (enculturation of tonal structure). I will then explain the rationale and conditions in which the education relative to sound environment can become an essential component of music education. values and abilities favourable to the optimization of the relation that we hold 9
Photograph by Hildegard Westerkamp
. Claire Renard (1982. Actually. they give supporters of the status quo a false impression of legitimacy. 1992) to find alternatives to prevalent models. resource-environment. music educators seem to have found their optimal pedagogical models. As an academic discipline. problematicenvironment. 1995). pedagogic and aesthetic concerns. music educators will be able to choose those dimensions that best correspond to their context of intervention. for many of these models seem outdated with regard to education (concentration on performance skills). we must consider new approaches that integrate contemporary educative. we have seen an international movement toward reform in education. Orff. can be considered major trends of this “new education” that must be seen from a critical perspective and integrated in an appropriate manner. In the final analysis. This quasi unanimity leaves me perplexed. Willems. community-environment. the concepts of socio-constructivism and cognitivism. These oversights cause many inconsistencies.
R. I invite interested parties to send their comments to me at the following address: vincent. M. Lyon/Montréal : Chronique sociale/Éditions nouvelles. Traité des objets musicaux : essai interdisciplinaire. Schafer. we should clarify the theoretical foundations that allow for the construction of a relationship between education relative to sound environment and music education. Schafer. Schafer’s initial concept rests mainly on the idea of a problematic-environment. 1967.uqam. Third. In the context of my thesis. This awakening of musical abilities is realized through pedagogical activities known as jeux-sonores (sound games) that are inspired by the creative process of musique concrète composers. As well. 1979. It is principally in viewing this problem from a dual ecological and aesthetic perspective that it can be resolved.ca Vincent Valentine is presently pursuing his Doctorate in Education at the Université du Québec in Montréal. « Pédagogie pratique á l’École». Wien : Universal Edition. role play. P. Coll. as one dimension of music education. one of the main sensory receivers of the environment. it contributes to the protection. 1992). 1997. restoration and creation of a healthy and harmonious environment respectful of equality among person-society-environment relations (Sauvé. Schafer’s work. R. I consider ERE as a mechanism for change able to promote the emergence of a society founded on the harmonization among person-society-environment relations.for the environment that ERE contributes to the fundamental education of people. A Sound Education : 100 Exercises in Listening and Sound-Making. Montréal : Guérin. work toward improving the world? Surprisingly. debate. Sauvé. it is possible to consider all activity favourably towards the development of musical comportment. Coll. Schafer’s proposal allows for an unprecedented perspective on music education. it is important to clarify the conceptual and theoretical aspects so that the concern for the sound environment can be best integrated into a model of integral music education and understood as an essential dimension of the fundamental education of people.
. Delalande attempted to identify the common denominators of different music cultures. researcher for the Groupe de recherches musicales (France). Coll. It is therefore music theory taken from the works of Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and enriched by more recent research in electroacoustics that support this idea of music education. an education relative to sound environment should integrate the multiple facets of the relationship with the sound environment. affective. His ideas allow us to see music education as one dimension of education relative to sound environment. R.valentine@sympatico. Raymond Murray Schafer (1979.ca/nobel/baschet). gesture. pragmatic. in spite of the worthiness of his vision. Sauvé. He was the recipient of the Prix Denise-Véronneau 2000-2001 for his work on Baschet’s Instrumentarium for his Master in Education (http:/ /er. Le paysage sonore. « Expression musique» Fondettes : Van de Velde. Le geste musical. this idea of society is concretized in the symbiosynergetic societal paradigm. these common denominators are not found in musical codes or in instrumental techniques that vary from one culture to another. 2) the following pedagogical strategies: problem solving. Paris/Fondettes : Hachette/Van de Velde. 1966.
Education relative to sound environment constitutes for me one of the major foundations on which a proposal for integral music education can be based. Renard. Programme international d’Ètudes supérieures distance en Èducation relative l’environnement. Second. C. Schafer helps us to see the existence and richness of the dimension of sound within the environment. Considering the educational aims of ERE. 1986.Collectif ERE Francophonie. All music contributes to the global sound environment. Delalande. L. 2001. According to Bertrand and Valois (1999). The abilities associated to listening. 1984. (3) the ability to organize sounds and to play them. 1982. Y. These universal conduites musicales have always driven musical invention. First. Renard. (2) the idea of attaching significations to sounds. Self. G. in conduites musicales. Indian River (Ont. New Sounds In Class : a practical approach to the understanding and performing of contemporary music in school. Paris / Bry-surMarne : Buchet/Chastel / Institut National de l’Audiovisuel. Schafer suggests a theory of acoustic ecology based on the interrelations of ecology and music.. To this end. Schaeffer. theoretical avenues that permit us to understand this relationship better. M. To that effect. For example. Fondements Éducatifs pour une nouvelle société. analyzing. 2001). Paris : JC Lattés. which is to say. La musique est un jeu d’enfant. 1992) remains one of the few interested in this question. music education should encourage the development of musical comportment before teaching a particular style of music or instrument. but he also exposes the indifference of our civilization with regard to the ear. 1995. Le temps de l’espace. such as silence. L’Èducation relative á l’environnement (ERE): Problématique et defies. The Thinking Ear : Complete Writings on Music Education. etc. certain elements require critical re-examination. C.. keeping in mind the principles and component dimensions that consti10
tute ERE. As well. Actually. L. at the same time. but more in the musicians’ comportment. F. value analysis. But Schafer goes further. M. Université du Québec á Montréal . The general insensitivity towards the sound environment has generated a global problem of “sound pollution” that has direct repercussions on the quality of life and health of populations. 1992. in following R. they are: (1) the sensibility to sounds and ability to produce them. Schafer. Pour une Èducation relative l’environnement.M. we ought to ask ourselves where the dividing line is between music education and education relative to the sound environment. critical. interpreters and composers. moral. He invites us to consider the sound environment as an immense endless musical composition in which we are the audience. etc.) : Arcana.
Bibliography: Bertrand. Thanks to works by Delalande. et p. reproducing or creating “soundscapes” are as much a part of music as they are acoustic ecology. 1999. Toronto : Arcana. How can music education be a dimension of ERE and. this perspective on education relative to the sound environment is incomplete. case study. etc. For Delalande. Canada. we find in François Delalande (1984). identification of the characteristics and areas of juncture between these two educational spheres is an essential step in providing solid guidelines for instructional design. Music is approached through its basic elements. holistic. project development. such an amalgamation of educational perspectives calls for a conceptual and axiological explanation. « Musiques & Musiciens ». it should include various approaches and pedagogical strategies employed in ERE: 1) the following pedagogical approaches: experiential. As well. In the development of a model of integral music education. sound. However. According to his research. Paris : Seuil. It should be reconsidered. Valois. 1986. such as the Schaferian perspective. (Sauvé.
may well be the oldest. audio recording. Signal and Noise. having roots in a variety of traditional social science areas. and critiquing bad acoustic design features in the soundscape. Its current form began with the establishment of Communication Studies as a department in the Faculty of Interdisciplinary Studies at SFU in 1973 with Schafer as a Professor until his departure in 1975.” The newly emerging field of Communication Studies. The Sound Object. Radio Broadcasting Policy in Canada. Added to that was his critical social perspective and a commitment to environmental activism. with a weekly one hour lecture and a two hour small group tutorial. recording interviews and preparing a short radio program. When I first joined the WSP in 1973 and started teaching. Susan Frykberg. and none at all on sound. this combination of acoustic and electroacoustic topics were squeezed together into single courses. Basic Acoustics of Sound. Masking. provided an excellent background on which to define this new area of study. and soundscape studies in the 1960s and early 70s. Norbert Ruebsaat and Robert MacNevin. radio broadcasting and telephony. and Principles of Acoustic Design. put little emphasis on perception in any form. plus sections from The New Soundscape) supplemented by readings from a wide range of sources in acoustics and psychoacoustics. Since 1974 the courses have been expanded. Murray Schafer and grew out of his work in music education. The Lo-Fi Soundscape. an emphasis on sound as a primary if undervalued aspect of communication came as a novel and welcome addition to the field of study. Student work consisted of weekly exercises creating and evaluating soundwalks. recording voice and environmental sounds. as they still are. the period that saw the seminal research work of the World Soundscape Project (WSP). It remains clear that such a broadly based interdisciplinary perspective is needed to address the issues of acoustic ecology. The Interview Technique. analyzing a radio broadcast. Radio as an Alternative Environment. continuous running curriculum related to soundscape studies and acoustic ecology. For several years. Schafer’s outline for his introductory course from 1973 reveals the ambitiousness of his vision. noise pollution. It was designed for SFU’s standard format of a 13 week course. The texts were based on his writings (The Music of the Environment and the Book of Noise. Schafer originally taught just two undergraduate courses (CMNS 239 & 339) called. researching a community noise topic. but professing an interdisciplinary approach to contemporary society. Schafer’s background in music and education. It was initiated by R. at both the undergraduate and graduate level.Acoustic Communication Studies at Simon Fraser University
By Barry Truax
With a nearly 30 year history. The lecture topics were:
The First Soundscape. the teaching program in the School of Communication. The Recording of Sound.
The Early Courses
A look back at the design and practice of the courses in the early years shows an interesting pattern of development that may assist others in creating similar curricula. Telephones and Telephone Systems. combined with his interest in a broad range of areas in the arts and humanities. Simon Fraser University (SFU). and George Miller’s Language and Communication. For both undergraduate students and faculty alike. there were also 3 and 6 week sections of the 100-level course in the
. studying terminology. “Acoustic Dimensions of Communication. taught and supervised by Barry Truax with the assistance of instructors Hildegard Westerkamp. doing a masking experiment.
Besides Schafer’s texts and The enthusiastic. When the plugs were taken out.significance of sound in my surrounding environment. even if there was a fear of “missing something”. radio broadcast structure. but all realized they now had a choice in any and audio basics. plus a listening commentary analyzing one of the programs from the WSP’s “Soundscapes of Canada” series or other documentaries. commu. because my ears have become extremely sensitive nity noise survey.and still does. soundscape approaches. acoustic space and unfavourable acoustic environment. It developed further into its 1978 everyone’s life and society in general. level. followed by free choice of three projects from the first five areas listed above. A collection of their reports remains on file in the School. response to the courses was mostly quite (a terra incognita in 1974). Some students continued to use the plugs after the assignment. catalogues. no matter what their Vancouver Soundscape. sound references in print advertising). to eliminate a lot of my visual hangups and to re-assess the sound references in literature. sound in radio or TV natural soundscape which is in as much danger of facing 12
. disappearing sounds). student work began with fixed assignments in soundscape analysis and terminology investigation. The second level course covered the same areas in greater depth and organized student work around two free choice projects that could later lead to individualized Directed Study. A few additional highlights from these early course offerings are worth mentioning. Later. S. the course Dictionary of Soundscape Ecology” with definitions of relevant opened their ears (and minds) to an important aspect of terminology began to be used. a formula still in place today. It was to challenge the student’s c+onventional “taking sound for granted” by artificially changing their hearing sensitivity. The Changing Soundscape (interviews. Physiological. “We all brought pre-determined perceptions into commentary essay) with the topics: Field Recording (sound the seminars in the early fall. rhythm. but the purpose quickly became obvious. electroacoustics. and relief was offered from those that were oppressive. Commu. sound sequences. Over the past three months I have been able soundscape creation). Concentration during academic work was often noted to be improved. Sound Presentations (live to technological sounds that the majority of the public either can’t in-class performance). Students bought or were given a pair of E-A-R earplugs and were asked to use them and report their reactions. while others found school in which I offered a similarly breathless survey of sound them discomforting. an evolving document then titled “The level of interest in sound or music had been previously. I know nity Soundscapes (soundscape analysis. another dramatic aural shift occurred as the person experienced a heightened auditory awareness because of their lowered hearing threshold Top: Cover of The Vancouver Soundscape before it re-adjusted to the current ambient Bottom: Barry Truax and Hildegard Westerkamp in the Sonic Studios. Students quickly realized that. sound profiles. When I first sciently pointed out was being endangered. sound level analysis). Radio/Media Analysis (commercial uses hear or take for granted.U. Psychoacoustic and Symbolic Characteristics of Sound (both research and applied examples and analysis).this to be a fact. I have also learned the value of the of audio. It seemed paradoxical to new students that a course on aural awareness would start with earplugs.F. Sounds that would have been ignored were suddenly missed. Given the tradition of always beginning with listening and aural awareness (Schafer’s “earcleaning” concept). one that Schafer had prepublication as the Handbook for Acoustic Ecology. media and computer sound production From the start. One of the more began teaching Schafer’s courses in 1974. They were largely structured around objects and events. there were six two-week thoughtful though not atypical conclusions from a 1974 student assignments in the introductory course (later 5 plus a listening was as follows.commercials. the introductory course in acoustic communication began with the “earplug commentary” . More than one topic in each area could be pursued for greater depth. or imaginary visual perceptions.
or soundscape composition. within which that technology is inextricably embedded. and the production of “aural history” documentaries was legendary on Canada’s West Coast. taught by former CBC documentary producer Imbert Orchard. and the model of the geographical centre complemented by the margins is replaced by the model of the mass media as a “mainstream” which marginalizes alternative practices. with digital technology taking that shift to yet another level. and soundscape composition. in the meantime. the audio designer. not continued as a regular part of the course are the Sound Presentations mentioned above. needs to have perceptual abilities and imagination. I always expected problems with students asking questions before the lecture. to the Walkman Professional cassette recorders. interviewing. what Orchard called the “document in sound. not to mention the long hours of studio time needed to finish projects. text-sound composition. both technical schools and even other Schools of Communication. In fact. They show that even an “introductory” student comes with a lifetime of exposure to electroacoustic sound. the acoustic community. text-sound piece.extinction as the bald-headed eagle. within a social science milieu. noise. while possibly nerve-wracking for the shyer students. estimated at over 55 hours per week. had expanded to two hours in order to provide more time for group listening in one of the new lecture theatres with a well equipped (quadraphonic) playback system. I would leave the hall quietly (though always exhilarated). Students are asked to observe their exposure to electroacoustic sound. However. Student work in this course begins with an “electroacoustic survey” in place of the earplug commentary. whose regional histories had been the subject of his many productions. Another sound related course had been introduced in 1976. this course introduced students to a form of sound production closely related to that of soundscape work. this volatile situation gives the subject an “edge” of urgency and no end of contemporary examples for debate. and acoustic design. Acoustic Communication. One of the tasks of the course is to elucidate that experience and its effects. not merely an extension.” Two events that have. during a weekday and weekend day. including political economy. The School positioned itself as an applied social science with the “social impact of technology” as its overarching theme. At certain points. During this period I tackled the subject of Silence in a two-part “performance”. Likewise. At the end of the performance. respectively. with a meditative electroacoustic tape accompaniment I had prepared.” When Orchard left. the models and concepts found in communication theory need to be complemented by “real world” experience. First. perhaps unfortunately. In the printed version of the lecture. Equipped with Uher tape recorders and a reel-to-reel tape editing workshop. environmental and media impacts of audio technology. and my “Lecture on Nothing”. p. a theme for which acoustic and electroacoustic communication has many pertinent examples. These tutorial events. 172). always proved both entertaining and highly participatory for the class. to the current brands of MiniDisc recorders. as well as referring to how the text “organizes” the silences and allows the silences to be experienced. it was becoming increasingly difficult to cover both the acoustic and electroacoustic aspects of communication in a single semester course. However. The course has also provided the opportunity for introducing students to non-mainstream applications of audio. Teaching in this area is both exciting and challenging. Besides an essay on media analysis. reflects the School’s ideal of theory combined with practice. partly to deal 13
. aural history project. though refinements and extensions continue to be added. The balance between the local and the global changes dramatically. His expertise in field recording. in addition to technical knowledge. In between. the format of today’s teaching program was in place. as well as what constitutes alternative practice. voice. if only because we are all caught in the midst of ongoing technological change. and a final documentary. I created two new courses in electroacoustic communication (CMNS 258 and 358) which concentrate on the social. and provided a more rational and progressive instruction in studio production. The introductory electroacoustic communication course. but the approach depends on the Instructor. both electrically produced and electronically reproduced. It presents the transition from acoustic to electroacoustic communication in the 20th century as creating a fundamental shift. student work involves practical audio production. the students established the pace of the lecture by reading their quotations. as well as an awareness of the social context. In the audio area. These themes neatly fit the overall direction of the renamed School of Communication when it moved into the Faculty of Applied Sciences on the dissolution of the Faculty of Interdisciplinary Studies. Field recording equipment over the years has migrated from mono and stereo Uher reel-to-reel machines. However. Lectures. handing out quotations about silence to the students with a written message on the overhead projector that they could read them out loud whenever they felt like it. but amazingly enough they always accepted my nods and smiles with equanimity! During the second hour I performed John Cage’s “Lecture on Nothing” from his book Silence. During the first hour I remained totally non-verbal as a lecturer. and served as the counterpart to individualized listening. with the contrasting yet overlapping implications of noise and audio. both sets of courses deal
with the impact of technology. The listener becomes a consumer. 2001. Such an interplay of theory and practice gives greater depth both to the understanding of mass media. the implications of which are coloured by both fear and hype. If I learned nothing else this semester the course would still be of value to me. first published in 1984. For instance. often separate applied work from anything other than audio theory. The three applied projects are a field recording exercise. Cage indicates how many “beats” of silence are to be inserted in the text. Studio work in particular was very difficult to incorporate because of the specialized techniques and instruction that is required. The lecture content of this introductory electroacoustic course found its way into the second half of my book.
The Full Teaching Program
By the late 1970s. The results between 1979 and 1993 have been compiled and appear in my book (Truax. tapes such as Hildegard Westerkamp’s Whisper Study and the theme on Silence from the WSP’s Six Themes of the Soundscape were played. letting the tape run to its conclusion. and the acoustic community becomes a market. and recently revised as a second edition in 2001 (see review page 42). This freed the acoustic based courses (renumbered as CMNS 259 and 359) to deal more extensively with soundscape topics such as listening. The Sound Presentation was based on Schafer’s exercises in creative music education in which students organized their peers (and the Instructor) with a rudimentary “score” and used vocal or found object soundmaking to create a performance. electroacoustic and computer music. also in the lecture/tutorial format. They are still practiced from time to time. Media analysis is a case in point: analyzing what production choices have been made can be complemented by making these choices oneself. the interplay between analysis and production is incredibly fruitful. an editing project. such as experimental video and film.
What seems at first a “fringe” area becomes. but also from the MFA program in the School for the Contemporary Arts (to which I am also appointed). is far from static and continues to evolve. Some who have passed through the courses in the early days have become well known in the arts. In my opinion. at the 200 and 300 level.
Fortunately. once to cover the theory of acoustic and electroacoustic communication. our students. Philosophy. provides some significant opportunities for both the study and practice of acoustic communication. and Paul Dolden. and offered approximately once every two years since. 14
In summary. audiology. and possibly most importantly for members of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE). Computing Science. models of acoustic ecology in general. Ironically. octophonic sound design using Richmond Sound Design’s AudioBox.with the numbers of students. noise measurement and audio. and those under Special Arrangements (i. the growing field of Communication Studies provides the best intellectual foundation for this study. though given the brevity of the 13 week semester. the impact of technology via noise and audio provides Communication Studies with excellent case examples of the more general theme of technological change. acoustic and electroacoustic. the WFAE website provides an
. though stable in its course structure. or share information. for those who wish to pursue it in depth. the teaching program. The upper level continuation of this course is strictly production oriented in the Sonic Research Studio. professional and artistic endeavour. I am always delighted to hear from them from time to time. such as the former student who claimed I saved her life because she had been able to hear the whistle of a train that was about to run into her car in a foreign country. This course has attracted a small but ardent group of graduate students from not only the School of Communication. but countless more. now many generations of them. The second meeting covers research topics in acoustics. emphasizing the research literature relevant to it across the humanities and social sciences. particularly when framed as an applied social science which studies the production and exchange of information. The most obvious pressures and opportunities come from the growth of technology. The mutual engagement should continue to be beneficial to all concerned. Any subscriber can quickly consult with a few hundred others around the world on any topic of interest. such as composers John Oswald. Beyond this. psychoacoustics. as well as many others. Still others are active within the acoustic ecology movement. Not surprisingly. interdisciplinary projects). have gone into every imaginable profession. The course follows the same ideal of the combination of theory and practice. particularly in the digital domain. filmmakers Charles Wilkinson and Peg Campbell. again including both analog and digital methodology side by side. form a tightly focused but broadly based program of study in the field of acoustic communication. First is the connection of like-minded (or “ear minded”) people on the acoustic ecology listserve. The course meets twice a week. starting in the spring of 1977. the two “streams” of courses. a multi-faceted field with tentacles of implication across the entire range of academic. and the acoustic community in particular. have come from a wide variety of backgrounds and proceeded to an even wider range of professions and activities. Kinesiology. In addition. the latter used for editing and multi-track assembly. Jean Piché. complemented by their graduate level equivalents. Less dramatic but equally rewarding are reports from those who have found an aural orientation to their lives a benefit and inspiration. many of whose faces have become a blur to me. applied projects or field work are generally left to a separate Directed Study course. as well as how a better functioning “community” as mediated by technology might be designed. offer insight into both what technology has invaded and disrupted. production work still includes both analog tape and digital workstations. environmental acoustics. as well as occasional students from such diverse departments as Geography. The second aspect of the course expansion was the introduction of a graduate level course in Acoustic Communication (CMNS 859). which lead to individualized Directed Study or field work at the 400 level. the Internet which so far has made relatively little use of sound for academic purposes. leading to multi-track and recently. In turn. and electroacoustics.e. with selected applications in speech acoustics.
hypertext is a way of linking one text with another. for instance. The result is the Handbook for Acoustic Ecology. which does not depend on audio technology for production work. the notable exception being the Department of Communication at Concordia. The visual background pattern of each entry reflects the “parent” discipline. Unfortunately it remains fairly unique within Schools of Communication.ca/sonic-studio/srs. p.but numbers alone are a poor criterion for assessing the importance of this teaching program. After 20 years. Truax is best known for his work with the PODX computer music system which he has used for tape solo works and those which combine tape with live performers or computer graphics. The Distance Education version of Acoustic Dimensions of Communication may be found at: www. audio consumerism. combinations of any two of these areas are increasingly common: music and technology with electroacoustic training (my path).though compared to other more popular areas these figures are small . Understanding acoustic communication. 1978. Other information on the author’s work may be found at www. Analogous concepts found in acoustics (both theoretical and applied). propagation through the medium. including the Distance Education students. Several contributions from students of this course have appeared in the Soundscape journal.sfu. supplemented later by a list of all Handbook terms which pertained to each subcategory. social science and technology with media production.
The detailed course outlines for all of the courses mentioned in this article may be found at: www. These have included both the analytical parameters of sound (specifically magnitude and vibration) and the various stages of transmission from the source to a medium. in other words.invaluable repository of relevant information and links. and in fact. continue to proliferate. see also.htm. Sound examples. Although most tend to be locally based SFU students. and if in turn they exert an influence on others. which I have edited (many times over). xii.g. where it is not possible to illustrate these concepts in a studio environment. itself a communicational issue. and technical background is needed. artistic. The CDs are: (1) The Vancouver Soundscape 1973 recordings. where Andra McCartney is developing similar courses. this classification scheme took the form of a chart (Truax. the social benefit will increase exponentially. the Distance Education version allows students to be located wherever they can access the Internet. and soundscape studies were studied.
Over the course of nearly 30 years. the social need is undeniable as the issues surrounding the acoustic environment. electroacoustics. the Handbook. made systematic use of both cross-referencing (see. compare) and a print version of the “link” (now familiar to Internet users) as a capitalized term corresponding to the linked entry (e. the Handbook is now a CD-ROM where these links are active and take the user instantly to the referenced material. The course is offered twice a year (spring and summer) while the campus version is offered once (fall). SOUNDMARK). even in its earliest typewritten form. In some cases.ca/~truax
Barry Truax is a Professor in both the School of Communication and the School for the Contemporary Arts at Simon Fraser University where he teaches courses in acoustic communication and electroacoustic music. has been an ideal candidate for a Distance Education version using the Internet to facilitate an online “tutorial. The other approach to the interdisciplinary aspect of the material has been an attempt to trace similar concepts across disciplines. If our students graduate with an increased awareness and set of skills to deal with these issues. The interdisciplinary scheme also forms the basis of how this material is presented systematically in the upper level course’s lab over an entire semester. are provided to the Distance Education students on 3 CDs which are distributed with the course material. Part of the reason for the slow spread of the concept is the lack of instructors trained in an interdisciplinary manner where a combination of social science. Therefore. reissued from the original vinyl. as introduced by Ted Nelson at that time. In its simplest form. there have been several cases where a student is living or traveling further afield. it became clear in the 1970s that the concept of “hypertext”. a form of cross-reference. Paradoxically. In fact. Presumably. (2) a selection of “world soundscapes”. in Montreal. (3) Barry Truax’s radio program from the “Soundscapes of Canada” series of WSP documents entitled Six Themes of the Soundscape. Showing how traditional scientific disciplines deal with sound as energy and signal transfer also clarifies the essential difference with an information-based communicational model. the missing third area can be added through individual initiative.sfu. an even greater number could be accommodated. editing its Handbook for Acoustic Ecology. and has published a book Acoustic Communication dealing with all aspects of sound and technology. In dealing with the interdisciplinary nature of this terminology. University administrators like to think in such terms . which are a mainstay of the lectures on campus. psychoacoustics. is a benefit to the online discussions by bringing in a wider range of social and aural experience. He has worked with the World Soundscape Project. Therefore the study of this knowledge sheds light on how that knowledge has been constructed. Since she left SFU. music.” The course material was originally prepared and taught by Susan Frykberg in 1997. inevitably requires knowledge gleaned from the specific disciplines which study sound from various perspectives. examples of “voices of persuasion”. and hence soundscapes. the teaching program in acoustic communication at SFU has gone from supporting around 50 course enrollments a year to more than 175 such enrollments. and interaction between sounds. cross-cultural voices. xiii). the tutor marker for the course has been Robert MacNevin who has both streamlined the administration of the course and revised the Study Guide to bring it up to date and incorporate the Handbook CD-ROM. whether print. plus two excerpts from a documentary on noise by former communication student Kevin Bolster. and technologically mediated forms of communication (with or without sound). arts and social science with critical theorists. As a composer. this scheme forms a “thematic search index” where each category and subcategory is presented with an ex-
planatory text and active links to the appropriate terms. with more equipment to support the electroacoustic side. In any case. This CD-ROM has proved invaluable for the Distance Education version of the introductory course. making it clear when one switches discipline.ca/cde/courses/cmns/ cmns259.
. was ideally suited for this enterprise. the introductory course in acoustic communication (CMNS 259).sfu. and hence acoustic ecology. such diversity of location. In the book. Sound examples are also integrated into this new version. It was clear from the early WSP research that a “dictionary” needed to be compiled with terminology and definitions drawn from all of these disciplines. disappearing sounds and Hildegard Westerkamp’s composition Kits Beach Soundwalk. In the CD-ROM. Unlike the campus version. sound or graphics.
When I ask if those guilty are students. “My boyfriend always has something better to say and never wants to hear my side
. Relating listening to students’ everyday lives and interpersonal relationships with family and peers is an important way to begin. hands go up. In my own classroom I accomplish this using soundscape education. I ask if anyone knows another student or adult who cuts them off when they talk—many hands go up. need help in deepening our ability to listen and to hear. I get comments like: “My mum never listens”. 16
I introduce my classes by saying that students will be doing one of the most difficult tasks—they will be learning to listen. Students. many more hands go up. It should be noted that although this paper focuses on experiences with the eleven to fourteen year-old age groups. sound ecology and the teachings of R. and indeed all of us. Murray Schafer. Original size: 20”x32”
very day the twenty-first century student is bombarded with noise—from the media. When I ask if those guilty are adults. the environment. In the small-town Canadian classroom where I currently teach music to 300 middle-school students I see these societal trends resulting in poor listening skills. fingers point. technology and far beyond that of even the later twentieth century. these methods have been used with success from early elementary years to later high-school age years. The stage is set for discussion and the students want to talk. Then I ask if they know anyone who always has a better tale to tell and “one-ups” their own story—more hands go up.Bringing Soundscapes Into the Everyday Classroom
by Michael Cumberland
Figure 2: The Ganaraska River. and whispering fills the classroom.
when did the foot tap and how many times?” They are usually a little taken aback and often reply. I ask for a volunteer to come up front. Under the title we can now write: halfway through the minute a foot tapped three times. surrounded by trees. it was made and we heard it—what is wrong with a sound made by a person?
Returning to the classroom we begin our discussion and comparison of the two different soundscapes. From the same class that created the first listening list. The classroom is quiet now. and pergolas for shade. Students usually think this is an interesting idea. After a few minutes the students have created an ample list of sounds heard in their classroom soundscape. the entire time people were breathing. to write down the words. The teacher must have decided on an appropriate outdoor location. halfway through and three times. Murray Schafer’s. This elicits the overall topic of ecology. I have even prepared some students to imitate these sounds and on my cue to create the cacophony which destroys the quiet exercise. This done. Sometimes there are giggles.” Now. I reply. chainsaws and heavy trucks are roaring nearby. and 3 from R. in their own favourite environment.1 To the rest of the students I say we are going to sit silently for one minute and just listen. I nod to the volunteer to commence timing. Here a simple imagining exercise. I guide the opposing students to ask themselves why it should not count. at the end a student whispered. near the end a foot was tapping 10 . I make my own list. either written or mental. It wasn’t one of the sounds—they did it on purpose. “don’t push me”. After listening for one minute I ask them to write Listening List #2. 25 steps in the hallway outside the classroom. All students agree that the juxtaposition of an unpleasant soundscape upon a beautiful landscape would make the experience an unpleasant one. Technically. and when it was heard is important as eventually the students will be creating a language(music) to record the sounds as symbols. in the middle a student was whispering. helps to clarify the point: imagine a beautiful wilderness lake. but how many of the less obvious did we notice—like breathing. Listening List #1. and white pine trees. and the teacher can relate the preservation of lands and landscapes to correspondingly pleasant soundscapes. including echoes. or soundscape. including the timer. The point is easily demonstrated and students can relate to it immediately. Usually most hands slowly go up.” “Do you ever treat your friends or family that way?” I ask. What follows is a list created by one of my classes in mid-September of this year. three-quarters of the way through a student yawned. telling the students about the beautiful sounds. whereas giggling. Students’ are to assign the letters N for a nature sound. It is an ideal place for students to sit quietly and listen while comparing and contrasting the soundscape. The students get the idea and when I ask for a second and third item I begin to get more detail. burps. here is their second one: • • • • • • for the entire time there were cricket chirps. Here I adapt exercises 1. Although often neglected they make up a vital part of a person’s experience. I ask for more volunteers. 2.” A keenly listening teacher will be able to corroborate the information. students were heard playing on a nearby field. A teacher will notice that no matter how closely one listens to a soundscape. Thus. in the time lapse of listening and writing it is very difficult to remember all the details. Having made sure windows or doors are open to allow for as many sounds as possible to be heard in the classroom I then say no more. When I ask what this means the reply is. and then we compare these soundscapes. it was found to be a B-flat. in the classroom: • • • two seagull cries at the beginning of the minute. there was wind in the beech. I whisper in the student’s ear asking him or her to time one minute—after I have spoken to the class—and to tell the class when the minute is completed. Most students are very curious about this unusual kind of homework and love to relate their own thoughts.of the story”. “Giggling doesn’t count. H for a 17
. At this time I discuss the concept of soundscape and I refer to R. and to be prepared to discuss this. including pleasant or unpleasant sounds. what they heard. with the early morning mist rising from it. A Sound Education. or to abstract constructions such as musical compositions and tape montages. In the next class we talk about why they chose their location. This leads to much discussion as to whether or not they were aware of all the sounds in their class environment. there is usually no good reason not to include the sound. I have experienced. I express the hope that someday sound preserves will be established to help maintain the natural sonic beauty of locations. and flatulence seem to have less legitimacy. It was a sound. the hum of the computer is normally not noticed.” this occurred twice. Certainly there are obvious sounds. particularly when considered as an environment.
Remembering to ask for detail such as number of times a sound was heard.” A debate ensues as to whether or not the sound counts. When the minute is up I quietly ask the class. Murray Schafer’s The Tuning of the World . This time there is usually much more detail in their observations. with students’ eyes closed. I return to my first comment: “Today you will be doing one of the most difficult tasks you have ever done—you will listen. even the most obstreperous of thirteen year olds is rapt with attention. at the end three loud metal bangs were heard from an open door in the nearby high-school auto shop. three times. Soundscape: The sonic environment. the entire time the wall clock ticked. “he told us to be quiet—not silent. “I know. Listening List #1. there was a constant low rumble from Highway 401—a major four-lane highway about one kilometre north. Many chose natural or quiet settings for their locations. and quietly write down every sound heard. 2 Students are then dismissed with an assignment to do their own listening list. Beside our school is a small nature preserve with seating. The term may refer to actual environments. this time to tell the class what they heard. “Great. the entire time there was a quiet computer buzzing. Students may give a response like: “I heard a foot tapping”. and was followed by giggling. After our discussion we make our second listening list. any portion of the sonic environment regarded as a field of study. “They never listen. We change the sonic environment. maple. Underneath the title. having many ears to listen greatly helps in obtaining fuller details. but I have found the students pickup on my seriousness and act accordingly.
• • • • •
When the student thinks about it. they are to list what they have heard.15 times. For some reason sounds such as tapping feet and a person shuffling his feet seem to have legitimacy. I may also relate my own experiences traveling and recording with my alphorn in varying locations in the world. At this time. hiccups. This always creates a lively discussion as to whether humans are part of nature or stand outside it. A student may say.” Then another student raises a hand and says. yet when we listened. For example. “I don’t know—I guess I wasn’t listening.
Then. Any teacher could carry out this technique with minimal knowledge of music. the teacher. This is a simple idea. “Ear Cleaning” and “When Words Sing” from The Thinking Ear where Schafer describes converting sounds into written symbols. Again. if needed.T and U. I could never hope to produce these things through a Socratic method of questions and answers. After doing these exercises for six years I have found that they are a time of a thousand discoveries. referring back to the symbols U. We look for duration. rhythm. dynamic. pitch.R. Then. Figure 1 is an example of a class-created soundscape graph. I ask for two sounds from each category (N. Beginning to put the symbolic representation of sounds onto paper is the difficult part of this exercise. but are beginning to make compositional choices when placing elements in the graph.and C) thereby using about a dozen sounds in all. 6. as a class. I use R. Murray Schafer’s book. Original size: 24”x 36”
human sound. This develops a different set of listening skills. and T for a technological or machine sound. Little prompting of students is needed. Next. This material provides a large body of ideas from which to represent sounds accurately. The class analyses the sounds and their constituent elements.” A discussion may ensue regarding the nature and origin of sounds in language. tone colour. No longer are the students completely replicating a soundscape. 18
Chapters 8 and 9. We usually walk through the nature preserve as well as past a busy street. Other times students may create onomatopoeic vocalizations of sounds—the buzzing of a fly or bee may be represented by the letters “bzzzzzzz. in a different colour pen. we begin the creative task of graphing our sounds. 3 A third list may also be created from having a class do a soundwalk as a follow-up unit. and I am always continually amazed at
. and relation of each sound to the whole of the soundscape and its texture amongst the whole. R. tempo. as much as for the students. Here. and C for a continuous sound. A Sound Education. I will give them two minutes to come up with a representation of their favourite sound on the list. This also introduces a creative element. It is a time of creative discovery for me. Though the teacher acts as facilitator it is important to understand that the choices and creation of the symbols must be student generated to give them ownership of the results. and C. 13. they are to assign the letters U for a unique sound (one that was heard only once). Classes often produce pictorial representations of sounds— the sound of wind through the trees may be represented by a picture of a tree with curvy lines going across and past the tree (see Figure 1). the teacher would be well advised to preview Schafer’s The Tuning of The World. and particularly.Figure 1: Sound Symbols Emporium. or the speed of the sound. or loudness of the sound. whether perceived as high or low. It is my experience that when Listening List #1 and Listening List # 2 are combined there are an adequate number of choices from which the students may chose in order to complete the task. it works and students can understand it.H. R for a repetitive sound. following exercises 4. as well as “The Composer in the Classroom”. The vertical axis is used for the instrumentation/orchestration and the horizontal axis for the time—1 minute divided into four 15 second sections.
social. a railroad crossing signal. See Figure 3. to suggest rain. and outdoors? Students can then further develop their new skills. an ocean. I can relate to its positive effects from my own personal experience of soundscape listening over the past eighteen years with R. I then have the students produce a second version using Orff instruments such as xylophones. Firstly. We strive for accuracy of sound relating to written symbols. The purpose of this concert is two-fold. Using voices [this group used percussion instruments as well as voices] create a choric texture to suggest mist. to suggest a stream.
The second student composition uses the sounds of a train as the main focal point. Secondly. In groups of between two and four they create a short soundscape composition to demonstrate a musical story (a program) and use material from a soundscape of their choice.) In the final return of the A section the passengers embark upon the train again and the train travels into the distance and quietly disappears into the sonic horizon. If the teacher can record the two versions and compare them with a recording of the original soundscape it leads to tremendous discussions. day to day. Murray Schafer to speak to the local town council on soundscape and noise abatement issues. At the outset I stated that it was my purpose to help students develop their listening skills. The first composition is of various states of water. when listening is the prime activity for students and teacher—a different. created by a wave drum. trains are in the soundscape. V3). This allows for future analysis and class discussion about the soundscape represented.” Next. and rondo form (ABACA). but once on their way students thrive on the opportunity to create. Exercise 1.5 The Ganaraska River flows through the centre of the town of Port Hope in Southern Ontario and is a very prominent geographic. This is a perfect place for debate about the nature of music. V1. and soundscape feature of the town. they added to these the sounds from a rain-stick. Each one of the student compositions is recorded on a DAT recorder. At the same time a recorder sounds. When the piece was performed students. using the best student compositions. The intriguing and beautiful part of using the surrounding soundscapes—whether in a class. or doing a soundwalk—is that the soundscape is never the same from hour to hour. parents and a superintendent of education loved it. (A recorder playing a descending major third conjurs up the sonic imagery of the ambulance siren. After the graph is completed volunteers are requested to produce a vocal rendition of the soundscape chart.4 The teacher must be prepared to guide initial problem solving within groups. It takes a couple of rehearsals before the class feels the task has been accomplished with much accuracy. A group of four students decided to record a couple of minutes of the sound of the river on a portable tape deck and use the result as the focal point of their composition. Since I initiated this program about 1. in the section regarding choric textures. Are the two versions accurate representations of what we originally heard? How do our versions compare with music heard in settings such as a shopping mall. This is followed by the sounds of a floor-tom and a rain-stick. some students may play a part in municipal politics and have political power. Secondly. The pictorial score is given in Figure 2. It is radically different from the forced listening which is so prevalent in schools and the teacher19
. and the legitimacy of music created from soundscapes. The texture was increased with percussive sounds to create the sound of small waterfalls and the eventual leading of the river to Lake Ontario—and finally crashing waves on the shoreline. outside seated. possibly new. cleverly accelerating in tempo and imitating the sounds of engine pistons and steam being released as the train embarks upon its journey. From these a concert. This composition uses an incident in which a wayward cow was hit by a train. social situation results. At one point there were four train lines using Port Hope as a major terminus for goods on Lake Ontario going to the United States and to northern Ontario. V2. a deceleration. Trains have a long history in the town of Port Hope. Firstly. The original score is completed beautifully with watercolour paints and pastels. I have also used some of this pedagogy and the sound ecology writings of R. when the river roars and groans with massive chunks of ice making their way downstream. As the train arrives at its first imaginary stop the B section commences and we hear the question frequently asked: “Are we there?” The sound of the steam and thundering pistons are heard once more. while in the centre is the total sonic event played simultaneously. As an introduction to the theme they used vocalizations and onomatopoeic sounds of water dripping through a tap. therefore the composition is based upon both actual and imagined sounds from the soundscape and passengers went on an unforgettable train journey. skills. Day and night. to demonstrate rain. while more advanced students use theme-and-variation (V. Compose a piece of “water music” by looping this itinerary of water sounds. In the C section we again hear the accelerating train. and experiment to see who can accomplish this vocalization best. It uses the rondo form to create a light-hearted rendition of the event. Beginning music students use binary (AB) and ternary (ABA) forms. the sound of the passengers’ feet are heard climbing up the steps into the train. and season to season. The A section begins with the conductor’s whistle and the call. a river. whether it is a cricket chirp or an automobile changing gears. a waterfall. Sometimes classes are filled with hilarity as students discover their own vocal capabilities. in The Thinking Ear. These moved into the recording of the Ganaraska River. students are able to publicly demonstrate their knowledge. In each corner of the score are one of the variations of the sound of water. it helps to heighten soundscape and sound ecology awareness in the community in general and in the next generation of decision makers. At the end of this unit there are about seventy student soundscape compositions. Passengers get off the train to have a look as an ambulance arrives to help the cow. Some of my students have been present in the audience. or compositional liberty has taken place. is arranged and performed for the public. The engineer hysterically calls out “Cow!” The cow “moos” in vain and chaos on the tracks ensues. The A section is repeated. followed by the whistle blowing. and metalophones. Murray Schafer. which has a population of roughly 12.the solutions each class comes up with for solving what is basically the same problem. “All aboard. They really enjoy this kind of experimentation.500. Often discussions ensue about the accuracy of representation of the particular soundscape and how much creative. This is what makes the assignment magical for both the teacher and the student. The students took some creative licence. the intention of music. concert hall. and appreciation for a deeper listening of their sonic environment through a creative soundscape composition. but suddenly this is interrupted by many vigorous blasts of the train whistle.000 students have participated. and then another stop. There are two main lines still extant in the town. The idea for this came about from Schafer’s “When Words Sing”. bending its note upwards in imitation of the train whistle. In the hills on either side of the river its sound is discernible. especially during the spring floods. What follows are two examples developed from this unit. I believe this program is successful in two ways. Given time.
1977. Ontario: Arcana Editions. 15-16. Schafer.S.
. Grades 1 . Schafer. The Thinking Ear. 1986. p. Indian River. 215. Toronto: Ministry of Education and Training. we entrust the future to good.S. Interview by Michael Cumberland. Canada. 2001. 4. the noblest ideals. R. He freelances on tuba and alphorn and has traveled extensively in Canada. Indian River. A Sound Education. 1992. The Tuning of The World. 3.ca
Michael Cumberland teaches at Dr. do this. The Thinking Ear. The Ontario Curriculum. Toronto: Ministry of Education and Training. The main ingredients needed from the teacher are confidence. Toronto: McCelland and Stewart Limited. 1998. p. They deal with concepts that are understandable for all ages and can be undertaken with minimal background knowledge and equipment from the teacher. Grades 1 . Ontario: Arcana Editions. 1998. M. caring. 1992. The Tuning of The World. R. His field studies regarding the “natural pitch-resonance properties” of the alphorn were presented at the Sound Escape International Conference in June of 2000. P.
Figure 3: Chaos on the Tracks. and the highest levels of integrity. 2. R. When we. 1998. 15. Murray. Murray. Murray. Hawkins Sr. He continued his studies at McGill University and most recently in Switzerland. Schafer.
Bibliography: The Ontario Curriculum. Murray. Nothing is more important than raising a generation well— teaching our children the best values. details for assignments. Schafer. and enthusiasm.
5. Ontario: Arcana Editions. A Sound Education. Over the long-term many generations will become not only better listeners but also more sensitive decision makers. September 20.8: The Arts. as communities of learners. Ontario: Arcana Editions. p. the United States and Europe recording unique natural soundscapes and echoes with his alphorn. Murray. R. 1977. Schafer. 347 Lakeshore Road.student hierarchy. R. 274-75. Murray. 1998. Schafer. Any questions or further elaboration of curriculum issues. e-mail: dunain@eagle. Canada. Murray Schafer’s works and teachings are needed in the everyday classroom today. they want to. 24-25. in Ontario. Port Hope. 1986. Toronto: McCelland and Stewart. p. Murray. Ontario L1A 1R2.
Endnotes: 1. He received his Bachelor of Music Degree in Performance from The University of Toronto and his Master of Music Degree in Performance from the University of British Columbia. R. R. Ontario. Fax: (905)885-9177. Indian River. Schafer. R. p. Murray. Railroad composition. R. Schafer. Indian River. Here students are not being forced to listen. Indian River.8: The Arts. classroom management technique for large numbers of students and evaluation explanations for the classroom may be addressed to: Michael Cumberland. A Sound Education.
Course activities include the study of acoustics and auditory perception. college of art and design. objects.
Burg Giebichenstein. is teaching a course focused on acoustic and olfactory matters in an interdisciplinary context. and intensify the acoustic education of industrial designers. A course survey was recently posted on the WFAE Acoustic Ecology listserv. such as the design of exposition stands and halls at trade fairs that include conversation corners and sale presentation spaces. The objective of the course is to improve. objectives. Halle. machines and vehicles.Teaching Acoustic Ecology: An International Overview
By Gary Ferrington
ollege or university instruction related to acoustic ecology is difficult to find. NE Germany Reprinted from Burg Giebichenstein Student Guide
. and processes. Students also learn about architectural acoustics and the various moods sound creates in a variety of spaces. and student responses to instruction in acoustic ecology. Without an established curricu lum in this emerging field. Students
Map showing location of Halle. Similar aspects of olfactory design and olfactory ecology will complete the course when it is fully implemented in April. This knowledge is applied in various basic and advanced projects. Ear cleaning and training activities facilitate the development of attentive listening. Industrial sound is also investigated including the acoustic properties of tools. The following is a summary of the material collected from the online survey as well as other contributions. and head of the “multisensual design” project research group at Burg Giebichenstein. It illustrates a diversity of on-going efforts by educators who believe studies in acoustic ecology are important. Students learn about acoustic and olfactory components as features and characteristics of architectural spaces. Respondents were asked to outline the learning goals. associate professor. activities. The acoustic content consists of two main themes: the aesthetics of sound design and acoustic ecology. Germany Hochschule für Kunst und Design School of Art and Design
Dr. Discussion focuses on urban sound design and on the creation of “acusticons” (audio symbols for leading people through an environment). Peter Luckner. it is often the responsibility of individual teachers to integrate acoustic ecology concepts and principles into existing courses. equipment. 2002. broaden.
Pierce posits that to create meaningful sound constructions in films and videos. film location research and interpretive writing as strategies to produce their reports. Learn how to use ProTools software for sound editing. Some have spoken of the course changing their attitude towards the concept of place. two-hour acoustic ecology sessions to students studying for a Post-Graduate Diploma or Masters of Science Degree in Music Information Technology at City University. exhibitions. Iowa. 2. According to McCartney this is a very popular course.record and assess soundscape environments and look at the effects of sound on public health. highways. They debate the major issues raised in acoustic communication theory and in acoustic ecology as well as issues related to information with respect to individuals and the environment. While not an acoustic ecology course per se. Students say that they think about sound in a very different way as a result of these three sessions. They point out their new perception of sound and music. Though they enjoy learning skills such as ProTools and recording techniques. Learn to relate their world listening experiences to the process of constructing meaningful soundscapes.45 minute soundwalk. Students have to choose a place in Montréal.
and the difficulty in capturing sound. The basic values of light. Later. 3. animals move through the observational space. Students are encouraged to observe how people. space. teams of two students each must record and then digitize a single 15 second fragment each of a: 1. A short sound-to-image project with a synced sound track to short Lumiere films. and ways of categorizing sound based on their acoustic attributes and on their social and psychological functions. then write a report on it. students investigate a theme relating to acoustic ecology such as sound as a psychological barrier. we must first understand the meanings of sound in our various daily lives. television programmes. An optional sound of individual choice All of these sounds are put into a common computer desktop folder. psychoacoustics. they are most thankful for the gift of listening. Learn skills in basic quality recording techniques. landscapes. upon completing the course of instruction. Quebec. Nonverbal vocal sound 4. 4. city streets. (Columbia University Press. They greatly appreciate the opportunity to experiment with different materials and with electroacoustic equipment to produce sounds. video. They note that sound becomes tangible and personal.
University of Iowa. A final project of students personal choice—either a soundscape or a soundtrack to a video/film. Iowa City. Students are introduced to soundscape research. United Kingdom
Kendall Wrightson is a visiting lecturer at City University and has offered the acoustic ecology sessions for the past two years. 4. The technology of recording is covered including how microphones function differently than ears. acoustic design. The course engages students in general and detailed analysis of various information complexes: museums. There are only three sessions. The students take notes but cannot talk with one another. During this first session they are assigned a listening journal activity and are asked to bring in sound memories for discussion. Learn transitions between sounds and sound spaces. Students have also reported that their relationship with sound—and with themselves—has changed. and so forth. As a result of this study students are able to theorize about sound in the world and film and learn to talk about sound media in detail. galleries. Course feedback suggests that students are highly motivated. The listening journals and exercises are the most commented on and memorable activities in the semester course evaluations. London. Pierce uses the student remarks as a way to talk about acoustics. The goal of this task contains four aspects: 1. Other student projects include: 1. Domestic interior ambience 2. Public exterior ambience 6. and utilize it. Pierce reports that students love the course. churches.Vision. audio examples and discussions. are able to describe and articulate the major issues and the terminology used by acoustic ecologists. picture. and others. 2. machines. Student analyses are conducted from the standpoint of information values used to influence prospective audiences of films. words and exhibit structures are explored through individual student projects in real locations. Student response has been quite enthusiastic. These sessions include three. country-sides. or as audio works. London. Each student makes a soundscape using only this material. Such understanding facilitates student sound recording and the construction of sounds into meaningful soundscapes for film. Some comment on their increased awareness of soft sounds and noise in their environment. The first two are lecture based with listening exercises. sound. in terms of its construction and potential for design purposes in particular. study it throughout the term. The third session is a group tutorial that focuses on students’ essay topic ideas.
City University. NY. A field trip to the anechoic chamber on campus. A follow-up session discusses the sound walk and journal notes. Readings and presentations from Michel Chion’s book Audio . In Pierce’s course. Even though this course is not specifically focused on acoustic ecology.
. Related to this learning is an assignment in which they are to construct a soundscape. students learn to hear the world with greater attention and understanding. Attention is given to patterns of activity. The curriculum begins with a 30 . A part of the curriculum involves students working with the manipulation and control of sound in the studio as they study sound art and electronic music. A recording activity helps them understand the various pick-up patterns of microphones 22 Professor Andra McCartney teaches a third year Communication Analysis of Environment seminar/practicum course at Concordia University in Montréal. department stores. 1994) 3. or exhibition and theatre visitors. Sound using a mechanical eggbeater 5. Montréal. Students. Canada
Leighton Pierce teaches a one semester course titled Film and Video Production: Sound Design. As part of the learning process. Machine sound with its on and off 3. This is as an intermediate production course for undergraduate and graduate students in the Cinema and Comparative Literature Department at the University of Iowa. United States Concordia University. it is certainly related. This is highly satisfying to Pierce since he believes that listening skills are more durable and deep than technical ones.
The course strives to teach listening skills. MacNevin notes that it is interesting to observe the emerging listening skills of the students. interact with each other and the ideas of the course. and the Handbook for Acoustic Ecology provides students with a set of linguistic and conceptual tools for honing the meaning of acoustic terminology. Since 1998. the human voice. however. there is a layer of denial that must be penetrated before a fuller understanding of the deleterious effects of noise is attained. sound and community. What does emerge at first. The reading and listening assignments. The written work for the course is aimed at students developing acute listening skills. and improved sound (or soundscape) design. and exercises. with two year long projects relating to one’s special interest between each retreat. once they have become more aware. will emerge. p. The overall level of articulation is stressed. The acoustic and psychoacoustic bases of sound are introduced. designed to facilitate an ongoing dialogue between the students (sometimes from quite far afield). the soundscape. is an increased awareness of the almost ubiquitous presence of human-made noise. as they turn their full attention to a vital area of human experience that is commonly taken for granted. and the accurate use of acoustic and aural language. the science of sound.Simon Fraser University. and a working understanding of the steps that might be taken to bring this about—essentially through education of the public. Sometimes (but not always) this new awareness is accompanied by an increased appreciation for quiet. and environmental fields. and a Terminology Quiz. Often. a Noise Pollution Project. while providing students with the tools necessary for the analysis of sound and its behaviour within a variety of soundscapes.11) Acoustic Dimensions of Communication (CMNS 259) is a course offered via Simon Fraser University’s Distance Education. including a Soundscape Monitoring Project. Robert MacNevin has served as tutor marker and has both streamlined the administration of the course and revised the Study Guide—in part to integrate the use of the Handbook for Acoustic Ecology CD-ROM as a valuable teaching tool. Additional work at home includes reading. or naturally balanced soundscapes. British Columbia. three longer written assignments. if not ignored—listening. which consist of students’ descriptions of aural experience written from a subjective point of view. USA
The Deep Listening Certificate Program established 1995 is a venture of the Pauline Oliveros Foundation intended to further develop the work in Deep Listening for creative work and teaching. and keeping sound and movement awareness journals. and to help the student develop the ability to articulate aural experience in writing. Some students feel somewhat “cursed” by aural acuity. Students are required to submit eight assignments via mail or fax over the duration of the course (13 weeks). acoustic design. with emphasis on listening. an understanding of their own roll in trying to help facilitate improvements to the soundscape. Acoustic Dimensions of Communication is designed to develop the student’s perception and understanding of sound and its behaviour in the interpersonal.
Deep Listening Certificate Pauline Oliveros Foundation. and several contributions from CMNS 259 students have been published in Soundscape. students will react to their new-found aural acuity. Canada
Simon Fraser University (SFU) offers both on-campus and offcampus courses related to acoustic ecology (see Truax article in this issue. social. 23
Photograph by Raina Kirn
. are designed to foster aural acuity. The course material was originally prepared by Susan Frykberg in 1997. composing listening exercises. and administered through the Communications Department at SFU. under the supervision of Barry Truax. which focus on themes explored through the other course work. writing. exploring their own voice. especially with the younger students. Students are also encouraged to make use of the valuable resources available through the WFAE website. As the course progresses. and then articulating these new skills in writing. The assignments include: four Sound Journals. Ultimately. Ideally. especially toward the beginning of the course. and learn to question and evaluate their position within the contemporary aural landscape. Burnaby. and the sonic imagination. noise pollution. many students appear to come away from the course with an appreciation for the value of a balanced soundscape. which reviews the wide range of sound terminology used in the course. The program consists of three week-long training retreats. it is hoped that a demonstrated comprehension of course concepts. and to participate in four ongoing E-mail Tutorials. of course. four E-mail
Tutorials. and a Final Essay Project.
sfu.” Taj notes that the course explores the use of sound and silences as an element of architecture based upon an understanding of the basic principles of acoustics. IA 52242 USA Concordia University . It is possible to experience and sustain a substantial shift in perception through practice. University of Iowa. EPB 425. “As conscious designers of built environments and inadvertent creators of acoustic spaces.Pauline Oliveros Foundation .inav. Tutor Marker: (rdm@sfu. Registration and Admissions Information is available from the Centre for Distance Education website at: http://www. Course instruction includes lectures with audio recordings. The practice of Deep Listening continually unfolds over time as a multi-dimensional process. QC H4B 1R6 Phone: 514-848-2555.London.net) Department of Cinema and Comparative Literature. Bombay.ca Phone: (604) 291 3224 Deep Listening Certificate .de Web: www. note: Mr. Quebec. Postfach 200252 06003 Halle/Saale. There are two principle goals of the Deep Listening Certificate program.57. H. Listening. and Designing.ca/cde/courses/cmns/index.ca) Current Information on the Planned Offerings of this Course http://www. Germany Tel: 0345/7751-729 E-mail: multisens@burg-halle. 41 Commercial Road London E1 1LA Phone: +44 (0)20 7320 1840 Fax: +44 (0)20 7320 1830 University of Iowa .htm SFU Admission Information and forms are available at: http://www. Burnaby. BC. Music Information Technology Course Director: Jim Grant The City University. Iowa.
City University . Phone: +44 (0)20 7040 8284 E-mail: music@city. One was to fuse technical knowledge of acoustics with the intuitive insights of an aural poet to bring about a more holistic understanding of sound.ca/cde/reg.html Rizvi College of Architecture.city. Sound and Self: Speaking. Montréal.burg-halle. Observing this process is a big part of the learning. a Bombay architect. It presumes that to have acquired knowledge is to have gained in self-awareness. India
[Ed.pofinc. Department of Music Northampton Square London.deeplistening. EC1 VOB. architects have an impact on the acoustic ecology. Successful completion of the Three-Year Certificate Program qualifies the certificate holder to lead Deep Listening Workshops with mentoring available from the retreat instructors and is a prerequisite for admission to the Apprentice Program.sfu. we feel that the ideas outlined below—although general— may inspire other instructors of architecture to make sound a larger priority in their courses. He has since moved to Canada and as a result the course is no longer taught in Bombay. sent the author a packet of material in early 1999 that outlined his course at the Rizvi College of Architecture.htm Detailed course information can be obtained at: http://www.sfu. cultural. receivers of sound (listeners).de/~msens 24
. United States Leighton Pierce: (lestones@soli.USA Certificate Program: http://www.Dip. Canada Robert MacNevin. social and sacred aspects of sound.Halle. Canada Dr. However. The course.205.uk/pgrad/music/it.uk) Academic Leader (Learning Development) London Guildhall University Sir John Cass Department of Design & Technology Room 324 .Upon completion of the program an assessment for certification by Pauline Oliveros.ca/cde/courses/cmns/cmns259. Ferrington is currently the secretary and web master for the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology. H. Instruction focuses on investigating the personal.org/ Gary Ferrington is a Senior Instructor Emeritus in the University of Oregon’s College of Education.uk Web: http://www. Contacts: Hochschule für Kunst und Design . He was the coordinator of graduate studies in Instructional Systems Technology before retiring.ca) Communication Studies Concordia University HB 404 7141 rue Sherbrooke O.Sc. It attempts to impart in the student-participants sensitivity and self-awareness of their roles as: emitters of sound (speakers). Masud Taj. Germany Dr. Masud Taj. focusing on acoustic ecology. There are also soundwalks and site visits. Bombay. and designers of sound (architects).
Rizvi College of Architecture.reg.ac. UK Contact: Administrator. Architect 129 Carter Road Bandra Bombay. One is the ability to organize an effective workshop curriculum based upon the training provided by the certificate program.] The course introduction notes that.htm.sfu. The second is to develop the facilitator skills that will help others develop their own listening skills whatever their focus in life might be. India Mr. The teacher becomes a facilitator and the students participants. Two.9/facstaff/m-o/mccartney/andra.ac. Peter Luckner Burg Giebichenstein. Iowa City. Hochschule für Kunst und Design Neuwerk 7. United Kingdom: PG. Inc. There are two central themes around which the course was designed. http://www.concordia.org/training Pauline Oliveros Foundation. Hence the objective of the course is to make the students of architecture aurally literate. slide talks and videos. to change the method of teaching by fostering team-learning and delegating more power to the students.ac. examines not only the technical aspects of acoustics but also the history of problems and dreams. India 400050 Phone: 6421816 Fax: 91-22-643704 Simon Fraser University./M.Iowa City. Having a year in between each retreat creates the opportunity to practice and experience development of listening skills.Montréal. He now teaches occasional courses on media literacy and education. Andra McCartney: (andra@vax2. Heloise Gold and Ione is also required. fax 514-848-4257 Web: http://132.htm Kendall Wrightson: (wrightso@lgu.
computer games. of course. and in the community) to realize some of their potential as composers and performers. This situation is. As an experimental music educator. and they start to imitate these strange sounds. mobile phones and hundreds of TV channels broadcasting around the clock. Autumn 2000
too long soundscape studies have been almost the sole province of academic research departments. By engaging in this work. I might add that although this project deals with some acoustic ecology issues. Research and Documentation—The assignments that the students were asked to complete were based around the concept of 25
. and for the most part they listen to music through means of electroacoustic reproduction. but also actively promoted imaginative problem-solving and creative responses to information received from the world outside. For
Sound Map 3: by Usha Jeswani. much of my work has involved encouraging groups (in schools. Basic acoustic and psycho-acoustic properties. which will be referred to throughout this document. They are as follows: Awareness—The general aim was to raise the students’ awareness of their sound environment. or at best a pious hope. When birds hear these sounds they can’t tell whether they are coming from nature or from IT.Stockholm Soundscape Project New Directions in Music Education
By Robin McGinley
Introduction – Tales from an Accelerated Culture
“The modern environment today produces many new sounds. the quality and diversity of the work produced for this project showed me that the students involved saw the value of the assignments and enjoyed doing them. sixty 15 year-old students at Engelska Skolan Söder (The English School) in Stockholm over a period of about six weeks in autumn 2000. with the principal intention of finding ways of extending and developing new approaches to creativity within the framework of a secondary music curriculum. together with elementary sound recording techniques were also discussed.
The Stockholm Soundscape Project at Engelska Skolan Söder
The project was conceived for. it is not intended as a meditation on the aims of acoustic ecology. September 2000. laying the foundation for a multi-disciplinary approach to the work. The aims that were central to the creation of the project can be grouped under four premises. a mixed blessing—the fact that access to more information seldom equals better quality information (improved signal-to-noise ratio) needs no qualification. Many students today are computer-literate and able to handle more information at a higher rate. It is my opinion that without direct intervention (within areas such as education) Acoustic Ecology becomes some kind of social science concept. What follows are notes towards the documentation of a practical project. The concept was to take techniques and methodologies developed by the acoustic ecology community and use them directly (in the first instance) with secondary school students. Why do we have to manufacture such sound. For example.
he challenges facing today’s experimental music educator are increasingly different from those of any other period. Furthermore. younger students take these issues away from the classroom and out into life. which is really a ‘noise’ in nature? This is what I think about whenever I sit with my mobile telephone!!” – Extract from a student Sound Journal. and executed by. the outlook of the student body in any hyper-developed Western country is changing radically. colleges. while discussing related factors such as noise pollution legislation (and those responsible for making such laws). With the proliferation of information technology and mass communications media and the ease of access to the Internet. the mobile phone I just bought gives off a lot of sound/sound effects. This project not only raised students’ awareness regarding the operation of (and problems facing) their acoustic environment. It encompassed a number of strategies and techniques broadly addressing key areas and concerns of acoustic ecology.
31). The train’s brakes screeched. but also offered a gateway into the sometimes ‘difficult’ soundworlds of contemporary and experimental music. The tracks whined. After every stop the bell rings again. The idea was for each student to find his/her own style for the somewhat difficult task of describing his/her experiences of sound. All the assignments were devised to provoke a creative response in the participants. Noise fills the subway. Every now and then the bus driver picks up the mike and says. a sound growing louder and shriller every second. If you listen carefully you can distinguish one voice from the others and make out words. When I heard it I interpreted it as a blur of different frequencies from the different voices made by the different people.
ment was written entirely outside of the classroom. Whenever we go out it’s not unlikely that we will hear the sound of people talking to one another. In a way. People are almost shouting. some of which are outlined below. like many other days. but the bus is a really noisy place. and through engagement with creative issues it was hoped that students would learn something about themselves and the world around them. thus giving a representation of sound descriptions and reflections throughout an average school week. The work was to be carried out in any location of the student’s choice. Each student in the project was asked to keep a sound journal for five days. Thursday. but not strong enough to do damage. Listening Skills—Most of the students in the group would traditionally probably be described as non-musicians. but if you’re listening to twenty or so it can become very difficult. I never really thought about it. It screeched. There were no detailed directives or illustrated stylistic examples. When you’re standing in a public area what do you hear? The sound of chatter. as homework. The sudden quiet was soon broken by the “ppshshhhh” of the opening doors. experiences that cannot always be easily expressed in words. The instructions given to the students beforehand were puposely slight and lacking in detail. This brought the focus of the students’ work very much into the present tense. “Next stop. whose listening habits mostly involve popular music of US/UK/Swedish origin. on the bus or train. detail and style of the document. She was talking into her mobile phone. It is so loud. and it is a definition such as this that should be kept in mind when considering this project. From the speakers someone tried to say something in a shy. Discovery is of key importance in the creative process. thus introducing direct. or historical facts to remember. On the seat next to me is a young boy listening to his CD player. The old metal track whined. I heard this noise of several groups of people carrying out conversations. and several examples of sound journals from the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology website exemplifying different styles and approaches were presented. A group of teenagers were toying around near the edge. but the words were drowned in the sound of an incoming train. Finally my stop. like a store. the train came to a screeching halt. I couldn’t believe that I had been on this bus every morning for 2 years and never noticed all of the sounds. a restaurant etc. in which they were to identify and react to the sounds they heard around them.research and documentation of the soundscape of Stockholm throughout the duration of the project. The situation was analogous to a piece of experimental or indeterminate music where much creative autonomy and choice is given to the performer. When I was sitting on the bus today. It was easily drowned by the other sounds. in the street. Tuesday. experiential learning. They were babbling loudly and laughing even louder. and started thinking about what I can hear I was shocked. pushing at people. Stockholm. By engaging in this work. Finally. The most obvious sound is that of the engine. Of course. a school. There were no books to consult. and the wind blew. Sound Journal
In a primarily visual culture it is clear that many students do not fully take into consideration the amount or significance of the information they receive aurally. ideas. Creativity—The British composer and community arts activist Trevor Wishart recently described creativity as ‘transcending your limitations in some way by the use of your imagination. Following preliminary discussions about some of the basic concerns of acoustic ecology (the current state of the sound environment. Outside the window cars are roaring by. Coming to a screeching halt—Veronica Atterham (9A) I was waiting for my train. If there are few people then of course you can tell their voices apart. Then the people started moving again. Someone was yelling at the other end of the platform. thereby giving each individual considerable freedom in terms of the form.. When I first got on. The wind caused from the train blew around. her free fingers snapping impatiently. “the sounds of conversation and traffic”—Christoffer Brenning (9C) Being able to communicate and to carry out a conversation is an important part in our everyday lives. People stepped up and moved towards the white line. The basic concepts of the assignment were outlined (as above). Furthermore. at home etc. Another person with hard soles was making a clip-clop. but that down where we were the situation was quite different. almost “horse-walking” noise as she hurried towards the escalators. the work was contingent on the actions of the students themselves. The train blew into the platform area. this depends on the quantity of people that are talking. Huddinge”. listening to
To begin with the students were shown a large satellite photograph of Stockholm and they agreed that from a distance of several hundred miles the city would seem rather silent.’ (Stollery. un-hearable mumble. their aural perception not only began to include the sounds around them (for the first time in the case of some students). The following examples are a selection of excerpts from the sound journals that the students kept over the course of one week during August 2000. it was really nice to get off that noisy bus. August 29th “On the bus”—Linda (9A) Wow. and the results were as diversified and unique as the personalities that had created them. August 31st . the increased noise levels of the modern world and so on). this particular noise can be heard in almost any public area. the project was delivered through the following four assignments:
1. ripping at clothes and paper. solutions and discoveries. The instructions and guidelines were formulated in such a way as to give the students considerable autonomy and allow them to explore their own thoughts. Many techniques were attempted. even I can hear it. trying to be heard over all the noise. which is the approach best suited to an artistic subject like music. and the assign26
. its brakes screaming shrilly. The sound journal was therefore an exercise designed to introduce the concepts of appraisal and documentation of the sonic environment. p. The motor roared tiredly. And from further down the tunnel came the unmistakable sound of an approaching train. Naturally. because somebody wants to get off. half-listening to the multitudes of conversation around me.
Of primary importance. . bzzzbzzz . this assignment challenged the students emotional levels. Some even found it necessary to devise simple pictorial systems to portray parameters such as dynamic level. tick. timbral quality or spatial orientation. however. I shrank. My cat Nadia is coming into my room. Alone in my house (or I heard the tripping sound of cat’s claws on the floor. The skeletal instructions Another notable occurrence was the number of different accompanying the sound map examples are included below in full. so the cats were home). was the original educational aim to encourage students to engage on a very direct level with the sounds around them. others were more inclined to longer sections of descriptive prose. . boom. Murray Schafer’s landmark text on soundscape studies The Tuning of the World (1977) there are a number of examples of what are described as sound maps (Schafer. These were quality of the work Sound Map 1: by Veronique Flis (9B). From my window I saw more lightning. emotion and context. and even which demonstrated a depth of engagement with the soundscape though many of them are based on precise sound-level measurethat I had perhaps not expected to find in the first attempts at such ments and complex scientific processes (which was not necessarily an exercise. Some chose straightforward lists of sounds with very little contextual information. I couldn’t help it.Tick. . delineating very little apart from the basic concepts of the activity. August 29th. boom. and then from nowhere the vigorous sound of thunder . I just dislike the thought of being alone. Many of the students wrote about the sonic contexts that the point of this exercise).the traffic in the street is a lot like listening to a conversation. 264267) under the heading “sample I was very impressed sound notation sysby the scope and tems”. It seemed. many had event of their choice. it sounded like someone beating on a big drum. I heard the creaking sound from a door pushed open. Tuesday. it sounds like the whole world is falling into a black hole. a rustle of leaves.to investigate and then document a sound environment. But now we’re two. and these documents could equally be read and analysed from the point of view of social studies. though I’ve heard the sound so many times before. distilling an experience or an emotion. effectively delineating sound. I could take the batteries out. I can never sleep. and documenting in words something as ever-changing. no. and then we’re okay. August 31st —Mona (9C) Boom. Boom. Now it was close. Boom. Autumn 2000 shown to the stuproduced.
2. but sounds like a boom. She is probably a little bit nervous as well. I turned on the radio . I heard the powerful sound of thunder. Once again. The results of studies such as this would appear to have a number of possible applications beyond the discipline of music. . In an appendix to R. because it’s so loud). the cracking sound of raindrops as they hit the ground .
literary styles and techniques the students utilized when discussing sonic situations (often within the same document). . I hear my own feet walking across the floor and it feels as if the thunder and I are in competition. tick. Every time the clock ticks. just another guy playing guitar on some miserable tape recording (switched off). pp. Sound Map
The instructions for this activity were designed to be as simple as possible. this one their lives. had developed over years of interacting with sound at a number of Like the sound journal. Lightning and Thunder!—Mikaela Navotny (9B) Lightning . Once again. or sound rectly asked to think and write about such experiences. much of dents. the reasoning behind this was to provoke a creative response in the student and get him/her to engage with the exercise on a deeper level rather than simply following instructions. . boom. or communications and information science. Still others broke into poetry or verse. . thus attempting the challenging task of effectively freezing a moment in time. they gave a number of effective examples constituted their daily existence with a fluency and competence that of how the assignment could be tackled. tock. that until they had been di. I can never think and I can never concentrate. but then I won’t come to school on time). . . That sound keeps on booming (actually it ticks. restless and dynamic as a soundscape. The booming sound keeps on going on and on for 24 hours and seven days a week. however. one trying to make itself heard above the other. There are different frequencies from different cars making different noises at the same time. . (Well. the difference being that whereas the first not realized the extent to which sound was a significant factor in assignment had involved documentation through prose. perhaps right above me. and several of the entries included involved the presentation of a three-dimensional sonic space through references to such a realization. But I’m not scared of thunder. Thursday. without any rest. boom. and it can never stop falling. 27
. and there were a number of examples of detailed time measurements relating to the duration over which an entry had been written. Can’t this noise ever stop? Tick. the two-dimensional space of the page.
It is certainly something one might recount to colleagues: being accosted in the street during one’s coffee break by a group of 28
Sound Map 2: by Fanny Magnusson. Autumn 2000
fifteen-year-olds armed with microphones and recording equipment. I explained to the students that both the questions and the responses were to be recorded in much the same way as a location interview conducted by a radio journalist. • There is no wrong way to make a SOUND MAP. There are a few different examples included here. both at primary and secondary levels. As stated earlier. and the second was to approach members of the public on the street and ask a number of prepared questions about their listening experiences that day (up to and including the time of the interview). b) The sounds that have been heard in that location. You may want to use one of these methods or invent a method of your own. In a similar fashion to the previous assignments. and tell others about the experience they had had. a large public square with fountains. which is proof that such an exercise concentrates the listening abilities of those approached. I explained that the point of the exercise was to raise awareness. to present approaches towards the exploration of the sound environment by music educators.while another group chose Hötorget. There is a great need for more soundscape-oriented activity and awareness within the music education sector. Conclusion: Where Next?
The preceding sections detailed some experimental work regarding the use of acoustic ecology strategies in a classroom setting. The sound recordists were asked to find sounds which they felt were in some way representative of that location. The first was to make recordings of various sounds in that location. many of the questions asked focussed on what the interviewees were listening to while the interview was being conducted. In this final section I shall briefly discuss these initiatives and how they might facilitate the progress of the concerns of the present document. and also within higher education (including student music teachers) and extra-mural community contexts. The term ‘workshop’ in this context is defined as the devising of situations where anyone may participate in acts of creativity regardless of his/her ability or experience. and assist with the future propagation of acoustic ecology issues. Make a SOUND MAP of an area or location of your choice. The last group chose to record in the precincts of Farsta Centrum. and that the people they approached might go back to work. A third group chose to exploit the fact that central Stockholm is built on an archipelago of fourteen islands and voted to carry out the assignment on the Slussen-Djugården ferry. A way of beginning to address this need is the setting up of a greater number of workshops (covering all the levels indicated above).and were again designed as a kind of text-score. allowing maximum opportunity for creativity and the use of sonic imagination. or wherever they had come from. benches and cafés near the Royal Palace. with each location offering its own unique sonic characteristics .
. each group being responsible for one task. a market square in the centre of the city. on one recording a helicopter can be heard passing overhead as a passerby is asked if he/she is listening to any particular sounds at that point. These experiences suggest a number of educational initiatives that could further develop the work presented here. Acknowledging the fact that these project assignments were to be carried out in the ‘present tense’. • There are many different ways of creating a SOUND MAP. with assignments intended not only to raise awareness of important socio-acoustic matters. and took them out of the classroom in the form of field trips. The resulting recorded documents thus consist of two people discussing a soundscape that can be heard around them. and make close-miked digital recordings of them lasting several seconds. Many of the students seemed slightly disappointed that the questions they asked received only the briefest of answers. For example. and asking strange questions about the sound environment!
4. this time through the medium of sound itself. a large. Field Recordings and Interviews
The third phase of the project brought together the themes of research and documentation common to the other two phases. • Your SOUND MAP should be on one side of A4 or A3 paper. but also to foster creative interaction with the local soundscape. they were making a document of their experiences of the soundscape. Each class was split into two groups. He/she of course answered that he/she was listening to the helicopter. The students’ choices of location turned out to be very different from one another. One group chose Kungsträdgården.
3. modern suburban shopping mall. and are more interesting because they are self-referential. The interviews with members of the public passing through the chosen location were of a slightly unusual type. Each of the four classes chose a location in the Greater Stockholm area and carried out two activities in it.
• A SOUND MAP shows two things:
a) A geographical location or place.
acousticians. and make a greater contribution than they would at ‘ordinary ‘ experimental music workshops. An extension of another point made previously is that interaction with the sound environment offers a way into the study of contemporary.) to collaborate for pedagogically valid purposes. at present. pp. works at the Institute for Electro-Acoustic Music in Sweden (EMS). Stockholm. strident and cacophonous than the works of many contemporary composers! Simply put. It is just a question of how uni-dimensional a definition of music we want to contend ourselves with. whether traditionally considered musical or not. pp. because what was being evoked were natural responses—innate responses which we all share regardless of any over-simplified notions of musicality. and sensitivity towards sounds. Since most practitioners and researchers regard soundscape studies as multi-disciplinary. our young people will not only have the opportunity to become soundscape researchers. sound engineers. and is Head of Music at The English School. (ed. and therefore may not possess. but also soundscape designers. architects. Alfred A. experimental and electroacoustic music. experimental and electroacoustic musics. but what I am dealing with is “attitudes towards music-making”. “An Interview with Trevor Wishart” in Stollery. Robin McGinley is a British composer. However. which are often considered ‘difficult’ to approach in an educational setting. Of course.
soundscape studies offer the ideal opportunity for so-called ‘nonmusicians’ to explore sonic concepts. Attributes such as these could be seen to be highly important for the developing contemporary musician. R. graphic notations. 264-267. this does not mean that it has nothing to do with musicmaking. Sweden. 13’ (2000) Sonic Arts Network. I might add that just because the students did not compose and present their own sound pieces in the original project. they can listen to anything. and once both the technology and pedagogical strategies become more widespread. educational soundscape workshops would create the possibility for experts from many fields (eg. This inclusive approach actively informs his work as an educator that encourages schools and community groups to realize some of their potential as composers and performers. but also as a way of approaching the expansion of possible sound sources encountered within contemporary. and the sound structures of natural (and man-made) environments are often more chaotic. social scientists etc. our creative responses to the soundscape almost come full circle. it depends on one’s definition of music. and introduces new ways of thinking about the music of sounds.encourage people to listen to everything. and sound and video installations. P. mail to: robinmcginley@hotmail. The original project was devised not only as a means of presenting soundscape ideas to the students. He is a member of Fylkingen—New Music and Intermedia Art. and although the focus was shifted slightly. not just to listen and appraise the sounds around us. Many of my students may not consider themselves musicians. At some point in the future I am planning a version of the project that will possibly take place in England and culminate in the participants creating compositions or virtual sound environment models with the sounds they have recorded. Using computers and recording technology we are able. J. the necessary skills to analyse (according to traditional western harmonic/melodic procedures) pieces of (traditional western) music. It is my intention that in the future such a project will also include students creating compositions or acoustic environmental models with the sounds they have recorded and the data they have assembled. Knopf. if you can
Note: The project itself was presented at ten schools across Sweden this autumn by a group called AMMOT (Artists and Musicians Against Tinnitus). but also to sculpt with this sonic material.) SAN Journal of Electro-Acoustic Music No. The Tuning of the World (1977). and his compositions include aspects of electroacoustics. text-sound poetry. We are planning a publication (in Swedish) which will be part project documentation. The practice of soundscape studies encourages people to listen to all sounds. their work on their Sound Journals convinced me that they were indeed capable of interfacing with the analysis of sound and its attributes (often at a quite complex and advanced level). Appendix 1 Sample Sound Notation Systems. 31-35. Murray. He has undertaken a number of collaborations involving dance and theatre.com References Martin. part handbook. 29
. performer and music educator currently living and working in Stockholm. With electroacoustic means at our disposal. Electroacoustic music at the turn of the 21st century (in an age where electronic music is almost as commonplace as concrete or plastic) is a useful approach to the soundscape. He specializes in new and experimental approaches to sound and performance. live electronics. Schafer. the original exercises were used.
I will relate some of the exercises involving a class of primary school children from Cross in Ness. most importantly. birds. a car. “People on a bus or people trying to sell something. [My text here is intended to be purely descriptive and not analytical].
. sheep. who taught a class of thirteen 8-12 year olds. My ideas were met enthusiastically by Mrs. In the centre of the circle was a dot. draw or notate in whatever way they wanted all the sounds they heard and the direction from which they were coming. I heard of only two cases on the islands where you might still hear this). the children were asked to imagine that they were at the centre of the circle and that the circle represented the soundscape around them. the arrow widely encircled the listener. I was introduced to Mrs. Following this. As they sat and listened. one boy used strings of words from different directions in which one could observe a simple temporal sequence and repetitions of the sounds occurring—‘sheep.” / “Metal scratching against metal. “A workshop. (I should also note that the class had previously been asked to orientate their maps in the same direction by aligning them with a familiar landmark. The wind blowing against the trees. Sounds could be heard relative to any point inside of the circle. Spring 2000. At that time.“With the Calm. including one I had recorded locally. I wrote from the Isles of Harris and Lewis in Scotland’s remote Outer Hebrides. in this case the Butt of Lewis lighthouse. Each had been given a sheet of paper with a large circle on it.4 Small and loud.” The point of this exercise was not to ‘test’ the children but to open and focus their ears and their imagination. In another example. comes silence. the Touring Exhibition of Sound Environments (TESE) was in its early stages. Children used a variety of notation methods. Stopping you hard. lamb. (In fact. Some drew their soundscape using little pictograms. Spring 2002—and many months later the project in the islands is now coming towards an end. It also helped to ‘break the ice’. a recording of the slow melodic song of the Australian Pied Butcherbird was played. Gordon. The wind pushing the sea . Makes me feel calm. It makes me feel happy. to involve the local people in the process. For example. and the soundscape work I was embarking on there. In a wood with birds singing. arrows were also used to show where the sound moved from and to (like a car).3 Although this process was common on the Isles of Harris and Lewis 40 years ago. closer sounds toward the middle. It makes me feel as though there are lots of people around me. cultural and natural make up of the islands through their soundscape” and. and give voice to some of the sound poetry and sound journals that they produced. p.” / “Somebody playing a whistle. In this article. Of those that wrote down the sounds. In the first of these exercises (May 3rd. Sound is heard. Number1. sounds in the distance would go to the outside of the circle (acoustic horizon).2 Responses were. With the calm.19).” 30
There was one girl in the class who guessed all the five sounds I played correctly. It makes me feel dark and gloomy. “describe and document the social. bird. Alasdair Smith (aged 10) n the Soundscape Journal (Volume1. Comes Silence”
By Gregg Wagstaff
The whistle of the wind by my ear. They were asked to write down. “A bird tweeting in a wood. 1 Various parts to the project have evolved during this time. I think it looks like a rainforest. bird’. Moving clouds. Forcing us back. They were asked to listen carefully to each one and write down their responses to the following questions: What is it I am hearing? Where do I think this is? How does it make me feel? What do I think this place looks like? For example. In this way it is possible to see any correlation of sound events between the maps). Many commented that it sounded like a sawing sound.CRASH! against the rocks. Each pupil was asked to find a place to sit apart from one another. the class went outside into the playground and surrounding fields for a listening and sound mapping exercise. in the air. 2001). it is not a sound familiar to the young ears of the class. We further discussed ways in which we could involve the children in listening oriented exercises. I had proposed to take a couple of classes which would engage the children in listening to and thinking about their soundscape. Our guiding aims were to. I think it is a town in India. A Blackhouse. with final preparations being made for exhibition in April and May. I can hear tools. I think the place looks bright. allowing them to tell me things and me to understand something of their individual sound experiences. the Headteacher of Cross Primary School. Her response to a recording of a market in Delhi5 was very perceptive. Gibson. In the case of ‘wind’. on the Isle of Lewis. describing something of its people and places. Trees “swish”.” I played an older recording (from Finland) of a cow being milked by hand into a metal pale. the class were played different soundscape recordings from around the world.
from waking to sleeping. Gibson and myself. a cold breeze passes by. This was connected to the central circle. The first day consisted of a series of activities which both engaged the children’s’ attention and illustrated to them that there is more to listening than meets the ear! On the second day (some weeks later) Mr. their class. e. Choir sings high then low. resulting in a final a conceptual map. makes me sleepy. The children have also agreed to perform their works at the opening of the exhibition in Ness. the exercise became self-sufficient and the children started adding their own circles and lists. The process was collective. was given a different coloured pen to use. ‘sounds I like’. My class recently had the opportunity to put their aural skills to the test in an informal two-day sound workshop by Gregg Wagstaff. words coming to life in tune. Plover shrieks to its mate.V.g. this wouldn’t have been possible without the enthusiasm and creativity of the class – thank you all. into which we wrote our name. At the end of the first productive day I asked the class to keep their own sound diary and to each write a piece of sound poetry for my return. Whilst I was off of the island this brief was continued by Mrs. mindless. Next. Radio sings over the whirring car engine. ‘Crack’—the ball hits the bat. I feel frustrated hearing it. performed indoors on a large square of paper. Heather crunches underfoot. with just a buzz left in my ear. where they were and the date. Gibson who led her class on a little listening walk and kept their ears ‘open’. a visual artwork that explores various individual sound worlds. one pupil was asked to draw a circle in the middle of the square into which they wrote their school. making it easier to distinguish later who had written what. Children laugh harshly in croaking cruel voices. which is a document of that process and at the same time. Everyone was recorded and their work now forms part of the CD publication accompanying the TESE exhibition. desperate to remove a stain. To begin. which follows here. Butterflies flapping their wings. Mhari Gibson. Each person. 2001). especially in the production of the poems and diaries. Man chats to shop girl. ‘sounds I heard on holiday’. participatory and creative. ‘sounds I don’t hear anymore’ —the only rules being that they grew from your own circle and were in your own colour. a rubber taps in a beat. the strong voice drones in my ear. Finally. ‘Whirr’—the ball swings round. I am grateful to Mhari Gibson for the opportunity to work with the class and for her support. each member of the group then wrote a list of the sounds that they heard during a normal day. letting out a long breath at every step. Pencil squeaks over paper. Ina Fergusson (aged 10)
“…Bus grunts and snorts starting on our run home. T. I am pleased that she also agreed to write something about her experience of this process. including Mrs. Wagstaff recorded poems the class had written 31
Photography by Gregg Wagstaff
. From our own circles. “intruders about!” Psalms are sung like a quiet choir singing slightly out of tune…” Excerpt from Lily Greenall’s Sound Diary (aged 10) I was delighted by their efforts. Happy. Other circles were added from which more lists grew. voices desperate to drown out the ‘vroom’. On my return visit (June 6th. age and where we lived. each pupil came to their library to read me their sound poem and diary. These lists radiated outwards like a sound journey and also grew to include pictures.The final exercise was a group ‘mind mapping’ exercise. each of us drew our own circle. ‘sounds I dislike’. Birds in the sky –“tweet-tweet”. blasts endless voices.V. blasts putting me into a heavy daze. After the basic principle had been established. T. Grass blows gently whispering in the wind.
D.. What I have concluded since working with Gregg is that I should not take any of these things in isolation. which of course make their own impact if you simply take the time to enjoy them. Through these activities. The landscape is simply so powerful here on the island that it seems to take over all else. Gregg set up the Touring Exhibition of Sound Environments (TESE) which he continues to direct. I felt the end result was also gratifying for each individual as they were able to create a unique personal sound pathway in their own colour amidst all the others. but they have managed to produce some thought-provoking material using their ideas and feelings recorded in their sound diaries. he co-founded the UK and Ireland Soundscape Community (UKISC) and is a director on the board of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE). The sound mapping activity was perhaps a more conventional task as it called on visual skills.net
as a result of the first day’s activities and personal diaries they kept. to watch the sea. It is so called because of it’s smokey and dim interior. Music From Nature. In 1998. A Blackhouse is the name given to a thatched dwelling once common to the islands in the 19th century. He works as a freelance Sound Artist / Designer. It has been an enlightening and rewarding process.
Gregg Wagstaff lives in Fife. For further details. contact information and prices please see page 51 of the Journal. comprising of a house in one end and a byre at the other. During the guessing game. The booklet will describe and document various aspects of the project and include colour photos showing the species of flowers described on the walks. a whole variety of incorrect responses from most people (myself included!) demonstrated for the class how carefully you really have to listen in order to identify different sounds. and Soundscapes of Harris and Lewis. around 32
. The CDs will contain all the Cross School Sound Poems (spoken by the children). While the mapping was a massive interactive group activity. a small village near Helsinki.these subjects.
Footnotes: 1. Social Ecology and Community Art. A 3CD and booklet accompanies the exhibition and will be available from April 2002. Along with similarly ear-minded individuals. I think they have gained an awareness of how we can be affected by sound and how sounds shape our everyday lives.Box 35. P. The structure of a Haiku was new for the entire class. Some of the sounds featured in this activity were also a listening ‘window on the world’. Provided by Petri Kuljuntausta. Recordist unknown. my class have once again proved that for young minds such as these. 3. 1997. The two activities which I felt particularly captured their imaginations were firstly a guessing of pre-recorded sounds from around the world and secondly a more interactive sound mapping activity. the Ness Sound Portrait (produced by a local group). rough or calm. and he is undertaking a part-time Musicological Ph. many of whom have limited experience of travel. Scotland. Recorded in 1957 in Vihti. Terra Nova compilation (TN9701). 5.. I was truly amazed at some of the poetry produced by the class after the initial input.. earminded@ecosse. Fin-00131 Helsinki Finland. Charm of Sound. The visual aspects of the landscape have accompanying sounds and even smells. Recorded by Hildegard Westerkamp. Personally. a valuable activity in itself for my class. Produced by David Rothenberg. Machair Soundwalks. His research is largely involved in the field of Soundscape Studies. 4. He is currently co-editing a book on Soundscape and Methods with Dr. is wonderful but it has added pleasure when you are able to savour the sound of the waves and the heady smell of the sea air. Track 1. the concept of a soundscape in its own right was something new for me.O. Helmi Järviluoma from the University of Turku in Finland to be published in 2002. the sky is the limit creativity-wise. 2. They have been introduced to the notion of a soundscape and have embraced the challenge of formulating it into the most speculative poetry. Recorded by David Lumsdaine. which are used more in the class as well as in day to day life.
1987: p. essentially in the context of Western music. improvisatory-like piece that I had composed for the workshop. (This was the model utilized in the Tokyo Technology Hall. That is to say.” (Reader. In this article. which most recently also includes music education. I collaged audio sources in order to teach the participants how they could easily compose by themselves. each with an adult guide. It was held in August and September 1989. Murray Schafer in the early seventies at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby. for them individually. The Workshop “Sound Orientation”
The original “Exploratorium” is a science museum in San Francisco that offers visitors “participatory style”. It was a comparison of just how “music” and “noise” differ from one another. and that he soon may die. was to study “sound” from a variety of aspects. b) anti-Euro-centrism. utilizing a twelve note scale. to develop a new definition of art. music education. The following article focuses mostly on the latter. The initial idea was carried out during a workshop in the “Exploratorium Exhibition. synthesizer and sounds. with my accompaniment from a synthesizer.” at the Science and Technology Hall in Tokyo. 5) I composed some works using a soprano. Fantasie for Horns is constructed from a variety of foghorns found in Vancouver. that were previously taped by the participants. and anti-logo-centrism. “Sound Orientation” is as follows: 1) The participants listened to a recording of Fantasie for Horns. all visitors are allowed to interact with the exhibits.] ichel Foucault (1966) says. and so on. I wanted the participants to experience a work in which there was a mixture of music and environmental sound (noise). They then left the workshop and searched the entire Exploratorium for the most interesting sound. in which I worked as an instructor. as follows: a) anti-human-centrism. of a small. and then answered questions about the kinds of sounds they heard. it is my view that we should pay more attention to listening activities rather than performing activities. I believe that we cannot perform any music without first paying attention and carefully listening to the various sounds. and then they recorded that sound on tape. Traditional Western music education based on Platonic ethos and Aristotelian mimesis has also exerted great influence on Japanese music education. social education. Then.D. It is a work in which environmental sounds and a soprano were collaged. The workshop was based on the concept of soundscape as evolved by the Canadian composer R. sponsored by Science and Technology Hall. Foucault clarifies that the Western people in the twentieth century are still “the prisoner of a determined system” (Ardagh. For a long time. Sony Education Encouragement Foundation and Asahi Newspaper Publishing Co. 7). However. That is to say.) The purpose of one workshop. 1980: p.
of re-discovering daily sounds that are heard in city spaces.The Concept of Soundscape and Music Education in Japan
Re-examining the Imposition of European Musical Epistemology
By Tadahiko Imada. “if we study thought as an archaeologist studies buried cities. music education has emphasized playing musical instruments and singing songs. bourgeois-humanist. The workshop was also designed to encourage participants to examine traditional Japanese aural sensibilities through the activities
. Such a workshop could lead to more detailed plans and further an educational movement based on the concepts of soundscape. 2) The participants listened to all the sounds in the room for one minute. we can see that Man was born yesterday. Ph. Postmodernism in art was begun as an antithesis to a preconceived idea of Western art including its aesthetics in the twentieth century. composed by the Canadian composer Hildegard Westerkamp. Canada. to be compared later with what others had heard. The outline of the workshop. 4) The participants also listened to a live performance of the voice of soprano Kano Shibata. I describe new types of music education in Japan to contribute to that discourse. “Sound Orientation”. 538) of the nineteenth century. b) anti-ethno-centrism.
[Ed Note: In Japan a large variety of soundscape activities have been developed within many fields such as environmental education. they listened to my own tape music work: Spirit Sings. I wanted the participants to understand music composed without using any conventional musical instrumentation. One such way was to examine the kinds of sounds existing around participants and how they are interrelated. This movement proposes several goals. A receptiveness to music as sound should become a principle aspect of music education. Today there is an urgent need to bring contemporary discourses to the clinic of Japanese music education. 3) Participants were divided into a couple of groups. 33
I. or to become aware of how similar they can be.
However. Animals cry to tell their companions of danger.” “I don’t like it. For example. classical music). The origin of this word is uttaeru or uchiau. interacted with each other. This is a very important aspect for the concept of soundscape.” “It was a signal of evening in my childhood. from people in the town of Kanda.” “It is not noisy. folk music). p. when we did our interview. When we say “you. Normally. and then they said. I really believed I was still hearing them twice per day. daily life activities (e. Murray Schafer and I published a book titled A Little Sound Education (Tokyo: Shunjusha. this project is closely related to my concepts of music education.” Answers: “I wish you every happiness. Musicological distinction is not always clear. In the case of the horn. the sound of bells at Nicoli Temple cannot be heard every morning and evening because of several exterior (political) reasons (e. This is an example of one such listening activity. whenever you hear your heart beating strongly. we have partially used sounds like animals. intensity and rhythm of sound) are a baby’s first signals. it became known as the “Minuet. There are a multitude of sounds in nature. Currently. We can sense the state of human minds and feelings by intonations and rhythms.. we attempted to decode the Tokyo soundscape using an “Interview Survey” (interviewing people in the surveying areas about their values). because we always have sounds. This is a daily sound that people hear in Kanda. Humans often use sound to give someone a message. Since the history of the human race began. utau for “sing” in Japanese. cracking of bones and ringing in the ears) whereas you are usually unaware of the existence of these sounds.g. 30). I did co-operative research of the Tokyo soundscape from 1986 to 1988. because it reminds me of when I was poor.” With regard to Schafer’s concept of soundscape . folk music and classical music. Now this thing that I mean when I say not anything is happening is what I call silence. I have very fond memories of it. 1974). love or anger) through intonation and rhythm. as I outlined above from the workshops at the Exploratorium. but people are often unaware of the existence of sound when it is so deeply integrated into that life. I didn’t remember that. Question: “Explain in words your impressions of the sound of the bells. for instance. sound pollution).” part of the classical symphony. the loudness and high frequency characteristics of the cry ensure that the message gets through. These two kinds of music. A baby can express many feelings using only voice sound. One example are the values concerning the sound of the bells at Nicoli Temple. You hear sounds from inside your body. With a Toyota Foundation Research Grant. That is to say. We say. but later changed to a more sophisticated musical style.” we can express many messages. as a particular Western academic field. its intonation. Now I want the things that happen to not erase the spirit that is already there without anything happening. Soundscape is an idea of perceiving various sounds—from the sounds of nature on Earth to the artificial sounds found in cities. Sound evolved as a means 34
of human communication. One way might be to make it possible to understand such an interview as art. as a result. sounds play an important part in our lives like a kind of radar. the minuet originated as a functional musical form to accompany a particular dance ritual. That is to say. (e. “I am experiencing listening to the bells every morning and evening. stomach sounds.” Soundscape is a method of research that not only conceives of sounds as physical vibration. has advanced music as a fine art (i.II.. In fact. The American composer John Cage (1972) suggested a similar comment as Schafer’s concept: “What interests me far more than anything that happens is the fact of how it would be if nothing were happening..” This experience is a kind of “communal auditory hallucination. We believe that the concept of soundscape has a possibility of being a natural cultural exchange not only between the East and West. Daily life is filled with many sounds.” I believe that the Japanese people still listen to environmental sounds as a total soundscape rather than as each single sound. the grammar is applied to phrases and sentences rather than single words to form meaning. and musicologists discriminated against certain musical forms that were more based upon mundane. we can use vocal sounds without understanding the grammar. Specifically. However. 1984. That is to say. As applies to a single word. As fine art. you will probably want to go where such sounds are balanced more within typical daily settings. 1996). several local senior citizens said.” In other words. a Russian Orthodox Church Temple.” Afterwards we let them know about the current situation. heart beating. and uchiau means close to the audience. performing art in the twentieth century should allow for discovering other means of evaluating the art experience in everyday life. Thereafter. but is concerned with the defined quality of sounds people are hearing.g.e. metaphysics and rationalism to those of a chaotic physical acoustic space. The Tokyo Soundscape Project
We listen in different ways to different things. swallowing. it means just the horn of an animal. voice sounds can potentially convey more information than the written word. People can listen to them once a week for a Sunday service only. you will be attacked by an inexplicable disquiet. Such an exchange of verbal or aural messages is an important aspect in the concept of soundscape.” (Truax. People sang to explain or to communicate with a god in ancient Japan. uttaeru means performers. and what their intrinsic values are in relation to such particular qualities. We tried to release music from the Western modern thought patterns such as logo-centrism.” “I wish to marry as soon as possible. Abnormalities in the cry have been shown to reveal internal problems that may not have been diagnosed by other means (Oswald & Peltzman. modern musical instruments originate from our earthly materials. “The cry of the baby is an unmistakable acoustical signal to the mother about its current needs. Such ingredients have developed as essential components of music. (e. The origin of the violin is a bow. If you are in a soundproof chamber where you can hear nothing. intensity and rhythm. I’ve learned that musicology.” and uchiau is “interaction. your health condition is probably not so good. These elements (intonation. We collected a variety of expressed values concerning Nicoli Temple from informants. We use instruments as tools to make sounds.
. However.g.” (Imada.g. that is to say a state of affairs free of intention.. “Oh my goodness. There are no answers that music teachers can give academic marks for to the questions raised in A Little Sound Education. we need to understand grammar to enable us to properly use it. Moreover. or “music”—as total “scenery. 1991: pp. The origin of “trombone” is the Greek trombos which means a conch shell. We can often guess meanings through vocal sounds. in Tokyo. I believe that “silence” is also the most important word. a variety of musical cultures were created in each era. The origins of the oboe and clarinet are in the reed pipe. 214-215) This survey represents a basic stage in soundscape research and it is presumably hard to understand the relationship between this interview and art. Uttaeru is equivalent to the English “complain” or “explain.
In the twentieth century. (1996). which take into consideration a) cultural studies. Imada is a member of the Board of Directors of the Soundscape Association of Japan. M. The imposition of European musical epistemology on Japan has continued for over one hundred years. Truax. However. Tadahiko Imada is an associate professor in the Faculty of Education at the University of Hirosaki in Hirosaki. when the concept of soundscape was first introduced in Japanese classrooms. United Kingdom. 207-219.P. and it is one which has never been made in Japanese music education. Barthes in the twentieth century. if they were to maintain the practice of soundscape as a substitution for the teaching of European harmony and solfege. a critical analysis of the concept of soundscape . E. Reader. Japanese music teachers should probably start creating their own methodology (rather than acoustic ecology) as another exteriority. We Japanese music teachers need an exteriority. (1991). Otherwise I think that the concept of soundscape will become absorbed by the established educational system as a safe and a manageable tool in the long run. in Japanese music education. Imada.F. The principle thought of Japanese music education is still deeply involved with superficial Western music practices. B. “The Cry of the Human Infant. he was a research fellow at the Centre for Advanced Studies in Music Education. The concept of metaphysics.D. Dr.
. the University of Surrey Roehampton in London. pp. From that I am simply taking “soundscape” as my working concept. How can we possibly differentiate method and practice clearly. T.Final Thought
European music is autonomous. Derrida. Cage. A. “Creative” music education has not yet been assimilated into Japanese music education. a kind of nostalgic and ecological precept derived from European and North American perspectives. and Peltzman. What I believe is important for today’s music education is to discover how one can reach the stage in which critical listening can be taught. (1991). I presume parallels can be observed be-
tween “structuralist/poststructuralist” theories and the concept of soundscape. foods. sooner or later a severe problem would make itself apparent: namely. (1974). Nishida.2. In order to clarify the issues outlined here. Japan.A. O. to avoid being utilized by any invisible political power. (acoustic ecology and soundscape)? Therefore.K. Intellectuals and The Left in France Since 1968. J. My attention is more focused on philosophical changes rather than on aural consciousness.W. A Little Sound Education. This is my point. 90) on this subject writes: In the 1980s. as well as a M.. teaching music education based on cultural studies and poststructuralism. (2000). material objects. “Soundscape as Performance. xvi). has been de-constructed by structuralist and post-structuralist theories proposed by such thinkers as J.” Scientific America. Many music teachers in Japan have focused on interpreting such musical value of what some call the “aesthetic experience” and have complete blind faith in the “power and glory” of Western music. Upon the integration. many music teachers misunderstood what Hoshino really intended to do. based on post-structuralism. It is my opinion that the concept of soundscape should be more deeply involved in both structuralism and poststructuralism. (1980). Korea and Japan. of this “sound revealing process” through the concepts of soundscape and post-structuralism. T. France in the 1980s. Ostwald. Western classical music simultaneously entered a period where familiar sonic practices like melody and harmony have been abandoned. “The Concept of Soundscape as an Exteriority”. historical and contextual. in that it can show us how to simply listen to sounds critically and socio-culturally. Nagoya: Nagoya City Cultural Foundation. Foucault.” In Anthology of the Seventh Nagoya Cultural Encouragement Prize. The concept of soundscape is certainly one example. advertising. one can find similar post-structuralist views on music and music education. New York: Columbia University Press. Semiotics assumes that language is not merely a tool for communication but also for creating any other communicative apparatus including music.D. (1987). A philosophical intensity in the concept of soundscape is required to make it useful as an exterior tool for the analysis of what is actually happening in a contemporary social context. and Imada. Osamu Nishida (2001. “Of the Concept of Soundscape: The Use of Environmental Sounds in Classrooms. and research for a re-examination of the historical influence from the West upon Japanese music education has just recently started. Musical Elaborations. pp. That would go beyond only a simple adaptation of Derrida’s or Schafer’s concepts. He holds his Ph. Regarding acoustic ecology: as Schafer says. The concept of soundscape is definitely playing an important role in this regard. I think that any external perspective is neither universal nor neutral but very much cultural. Acoustic Communication. Baudrillard and R. and c) gender studies for music education. However. John Cage Talks to Roger Smalley and David Sylverster. based on metaphysics from the nineteenth century that has been believed and taken for granted for at least a century (Said. T. b) post-colonial studies. with reference to structuralism and post-structuralism is urgently needed to make a space in music education that incorporates the notion of sound as a cultural phenomenon. (1972). this concept should also be re-examined by postcolonial theory. Yoshio Hoshino (1993) was one of the most important figures in terms of creative music education in Japan. however. environmental sounds had already been used for music classrooms in Japan. (2001). from the University of British Columbia. 230 (3). clothes and so on. London: Penguin Books. Schafer.
Ardagh.” In The 3rd Asian-Pacific Symposium on Music Education Research & International Symposium on “Uragoe” and “Gender” Proceedings Vol.M.89-90. Tokyo: Shunjusha. Norwood: Ablex. Parallels can be observed between modern language theory and some twentieth century musical practices. Teachers were surely sceptical of their achievements with one or two hours of work a week. the home territory of soundscape studies will be the middle ground between science. Prior to joining the faculty at Hirosaki University. 1991. particularly those who had problems relating to literacy and technique. In the 1980s. (1984). it probably made an impact on music teachers as an external perspective.18-30. pp. London: The Macmillan Press. something not reliant upon European logo-centrism. Said. London: BBC Broadcast. from Simon Fraser University both in Vancouver. 84-89. Semiotics by Barthes extends Saussurian linguistic theory to analyze socio-cultural phenomena as the structure of meaning. Canada. In Music Education Research I. Tokyo: Japan Academic Society for Music Education. J. as the West views sounds and cultures. Simultaneously. P. Nagoya: Aichi University of Education. R. p. J. Soundscape is useful as a concept in Japanese music education. Sweden. Aomori. society and the arts. Imada. pp. His publications have appeared in many academic journals in North America. Australia.
They also looked at choreographic notes and illustrations from Pamela Harding-Challis. but [also] soundscape designers” (McGinley 2001. the occupation of this environment by humankind. drawing from it a range of emotional.
of the sea.
Project Descriptions • Dunwich Revisited
Dunwich’s eventful and fantastic history has been a rich source of inspiration for composers. the ambience 36
Figure 1: All Saints Church.Sound Reflections: The influence of acoustic ecology on classroom composition
By Jonathan Savage and Mike Challis
In the United Kingdom soundscape and acoustic ecology approaches to composition are under-researched and utilised by classroom practitioners. Pupils reflected on the music in a number of ways. Pupils drew on a number of these materials as they began to express their feelings about Dunwich in musical ideas. Its prosperity declined and the city itself eroded. Furthermore. Other resources included the pupils’ own experiences of walking along the Suffolk coast. 73). Early last century. wind and reed beds and. photographs and other resources were assembled on a large wall display. including the sound of the sea and the wind whistling in the reed beds. Fiqure 3: Prison corridor through bars.”
. aesthetic and intellectual experiences relating to their view of Dunwich. It was against this backdrop that two innovative projects were completed at Debenham High School. This piece charts the changing landscape of Dunwich through its ternary structure. In the first lesson. Yet these approaches bridge the gap between the demands of the formal curriculum and the personal values and experiences that pupils bring with them to the classroom. enjoying considerable wealth and prosperity. All Saints Church gradually fell from the top of the cliffs into the sea (see Figure 1). These notes showed the direct influence of the environment on her work : “It is about time. Pictures. for whose dance State of the Sea the music was written. Dunwich Heath and the photographic remains of All Saints Church are all sources of inspiration. During the early part of the second millennium it was a major port on the east coast of Suffolk. But due to a number of environmental changes. The projects outlined in this paper show that such a creative approach to curriculum planning gives students the opportunity to reflect sonically on physical places. The project involved the whole of the lower school (approximately 280 pupils) and the Year 10 music group (a group of 15 pupils). pupils were played Mike Challis’ piece Dunwich. providing a range of environmental stimuli centred on the theme of Dunwich. are combined with medieval instruments and dance tunes and paint an evocative picture of the town’s gradual evolution and dissolution. while the innovative use of technologies in the classroom gives all students a voice for these expressions. artists and choreographers. The purpose of this short article is not to revisit these ideas but rather to investigate and comment on the positive influence of acoustic ecology within classroom composition. Dunwich © Dunwich Museum. The sea. these projects implement technological and pedagogical strategies that enable “our young people not only to have the opportunity to become soundscape researchers. their own and others’ environments in powerful and authentic ways.Dunwich Revisited and Reflecting Others – have both been described elsewhere (Savage and Challis 2001a & b). a rural Suffolk comprehensive school of 450 pupils aged between 11 and 16. Its environmental sounds. firstly. writings. Over the next few hundred years most of the city was subsumed beneath the sea. These environmental stimuli reflected the two states of Dunwich. secondly. change and the relentless pressure of the elements. which has a distinct raw beauty of its own. regardless of ‘traditional’ musical ability or skill. The pedagogical and compositional dimensions of these projects . Dunwich lost its place as a premier port. poets. A number of pupils had visited Dunwich itself and recounted to the various classes their recollections of it as a place.
and especially after listening to the audio recordings of girls and their lives and environment. trapped between walls. picking up on the large number of churches in the town of Dunwich. based on some of the most popular musical ideas drawn from the work done by individual classes. Using a sound processor with a small amount of reverberation. The material content of some of the words and phrases was commented on. Young people’s ability to reflect on their own lives and the lives of others inspired creative responses. their likes. Say your prayers and say good-bye. 2 illustrates the project’s main stages. Early project work included getting pupils and young offenders to consider and interpret each of these words in light of their personal experiences. It was performed in the concert hall at Snape Maltings. The constant noise of the air conditioning was a feature. One Year 10 girl commented that the range of material “gave you a picture in your mind of what Dunwich would have looked like. who felt they best represented the place and history of Dunwich as they perceived it. Say your prayers and say good-bye. A new world is coming and we don’t know Just where we’re going next. commenting on how plump they sounded in comparison to their own. It used sonic and visual material taken from the pupils’ and young offenders’ actual environments. a group of five Year 8 girls composed the following words.” (Year 9 boy) In some areas there were similar responses from the two groups. organising and layering of ideas from a wide variety of experiences and domains. Other pupils explored the sound of Gregorian chant. including a number of comments related to how they used various effect parameters to recreate appropriate atmospheres: “It makes things less plain. At first the images of girls from the school were treated as sexual objects in much the same way as the young offenders would regard their posters in their cells. which represented the occupation of the natural environment by humankind: “A new world is coming and we don’t know Just where we’re going next. Composition functioned as a metaphor for the putting together. These narratives and poems were stored on hard disks and then swapped. hopes and dreams.” (Year 8 girl) The musical responses were tremendously varied. gates slamming and keys jangling. The principal technologies used in the project were digital video and audio software on iMac computers. like the variety of young offenders’ accents. With time. The Year 10 group were very interested in the sonic material. When you have the echoes it makes it sound eerie and it adds a kind of feeling and a depth to it. A number of these ideas clearly made an impact on the pupils. The audio material collected by the young offenders showed the more resonant acoustics of the prison environment. Many began to empathise with them: “By the looks of things it looks worse than I thought ‘cos I expected they would be able to go outside and do more normal activities like we do. were picked out as being of significant interest. apart from family visits. Sound processors provided a way for pupils to develop. The young offenders viewed the pupils as “little rich kids. many of these not directly from the musical field. Another factor was that the only contact that young offenders have with the opposite sex. such as the audio and visual references to bars. the young offenders began to refer to the girls more as people. gates and doors. badminton and squash. just a few miles away from Dunwich. • sounds of the cafeteria or lunch hall. trapped in Hollesley Bay for so many years and never going outside. • weight and fitness rooms. • recorded CD extracts of popular dance music. The past is in the past. community and environment. dislikes. an arts agency and a high
. Say good-bye. Year 10 pupils received this with quiet and sombre appreciation. But they’re trapped in there never seeing proper sunlight. Many of them used a variety of environmental sounds. or peals of church bells faded with sounds of the sea. including basketball. a piece of narrative prose that he had written. Prisons are seldom quiet during the day but the young offenders commented how eerily quiet the prison is at night. This digital arts project was a collaboration between the school. recorded on a portable minidisc. pupils were clearly shocked by some of the sounds and images from inside a real prison. They’re looking at the same things day in. One prisoner read. And one boy’s poem about the prison backed this up. is with female professionals. however. When you just sung it all alone it sounded really weird and plain. Pupils’ attitudes towards the young offenders also changed during the project. day out for years. As a result pupils began to identify with the place very strongly.” A final concert hall piece was then created. A number of things became particularly interesting at this point. The old world is gone.Using vocal sounds. with obvious difficulty. the pupils designed 108 musical responses to the environmental stimuli. such as the sound of a local stream. I think this is wrong. No crime deserves to do this to a child. The past is in the past.” They also found their accents interesting. For many pupils this was the highlight of the project. Fig. inspired by reflections on three starting points: self-identity. Subsequent work included a range of creative writing tasks designed to get pupils and young offenders to think about each other. together with a melody and a basic accompaniment. Pupils and young offenders watched and listened to the material collected by the other group. Small things. At the heart of the Reflecting Others project was a process of reflection with digital media.”
security unit of young offenders at a local prison. And never to be found. but they were able to perform ‘their piece’ to the assembled audience: “I enjoyed the scale of the place and atmosphere. The piece linked the separate musical ideas produced by various groups of pupils together within the overarching ternary structure provided by Mike Challis’ original piece. due more respect. Not only were they able to perform in a professional concert venue. bars. Examples of sonic and visual themes explored by both groups included • sports hall games. lifeless really. Pupils made significant references to the impact of these processors. instruments and sound processors. extend and refine a range of sounds throughout the project. It was as if the sound made them into real people.” The wide variety of inspirational material enabled pupils to draw together and cross-reference ideas from diverse sources. rather than visual objects to be lusted after. Firstly. It was nice to see people enjoying your creation and it made you feel you had achieved something that was worthwhile. 37
Reflecting Others used the actual sounds (and images) of two contrasting environments as raw material. digital video cameras and minidisc recorders.
But there is another equally vital reason for using these approaches. (1999). The National Curriculum for England: Music London. there is a need to redefine models of classroom composition for the 21st century and transform them within the digital age. Pupils generally enjoyed the project. McGinley. to be considered and reflected on and used as a source of musical expression. (2000). creating a multi-faceted experience. and Challis. The Great Rain (Laban Guild) and Arboretum. 1999). “Stockholm Soundscape Project: New directions in music education” in UKISC Sound Practice: the 1st UKISC conference on sound culture and environment. the first one to happen at the prison. E-mail: j. (2000). Inside it. R. S. pupils and young offenders were clearly moved in their understanding of the other group as they worked throughout the project. it can be used to build a model of classroom composition that engages our pupils in a richer and more meaningful way with life itself. J. Jonathan Savage is a Senior Lecturer in Music Education at the Institute of Education. The installation made quite an impression on all who visited it during its time in school. As we have noticed in our work. 1(2). The pupils collected a much broader range of environmental material. In these projects we explored a range of technologies that allow environments to be ‘brought inside’ the classroom. “Music is the pretext – life is the text” (Kushner. Mirrors were placed within the structure so that the installation could be viewed and heard from many angles. Until July 2001 he was Head of Music at Debenham Church of England Voluntary Controlled High School. He has also developed new strategies to evaluate the uses of these new technologies effectively within the classroom environment. J. In other words. Manchester Metropolitan University. there was a video screen and stereo speakers playing a synchronised 24 minute sound and video piece. the installation was run on an “open day” .savage@mmu. 139-149. M.” Music Education Research. the technologies on which they draw can democratise musical practice when used in an appropriate way. 38
DfEE. with each group creatively editing and manipulating the material of the other environment. Whether this is a geographical or social environment. particularly in promoting new approaches to composition. While there was no actual discussion (verbal or written) between the two groups. There was a definite sense of ownership of the material and a sense that the whole was better than the sum of its parts. His works have been performed at the Norwich Festival. M. (2001b). most importantly. These projects clearly show that acoustic ecology provides one such approach. In Reflecting Others. The main sound and video track was made up of several sonic pieces created by the pupils and young offenders and edited together by pupils in the school. The evaluation that we carried out showed that much of the work with the various technologies was significantly different from anything that they had done before. “Dunwich Revisited: Collaborative composition and performance with new technologies” British Journal of Music Education 18:2. at the prison and whilst on public display at Snape Maltings Concert Hall during the Aldeburgh Festival and Snape Proms. “Fringe benefits: music education out of the National Curriculum. In the case of the young offenders.challis@macunlimited. Inmates and visitors were free to view the work at any time and for as long as they wished. Composing in the Classroom: The creative dream High Wycombe. Creative approaches to composition are vital. It was challenging in a technical sense but allowed them enough personal freedom to make important creative choices about the audio and video material. 209-218. “A Digital Arts Curriculum? Practical ways forward” (to be published shortly in Music Education Research). E-mail: mike.ac. This came about through their sharing of each other’s environments and communities and their respective views of each other’s identities. Savage. the Gowanas Arts Centre and St Marks in the Bowery (New York City). an 11-16 comprehensive school in rural Suffolk. National Association of Music Educators. Savage. (2001). just the sharing of carefully chosen sound and images was enough for each group to comprehend and appreciate the other in a deeper and more meaningful way. M. His main research interests lie in the field of developing innovative and creative uses of new technologies within the music curriculum. His compositions for dance and video include Sharp Intake of Breath (ID Dance Company). for which he received an Honourable Mention in the 1997 Stockholm Electroacoustic Music Competition. 69-73. To sum up. and Challis.net
Figure 2: Exchange of Material and Information
However there were stark differences in their respective environments. And. The installation consisted of a black box that people could freely walk into. individual or collaborative reflections can lead to an increasing sense of environmental awareness. with hardly any view of the outside world in which they are seldom allowed to spend time. These materials were then built up into an installation. New technologies will not do this on their own. The video was then laid onto the sound by a video artist using video clips made by the pupils and young offenders. Snape Maltings and the Royal Albert Hall. Kushner. NAME. Two additional speakers played a third and fourth sound track from random CDs consisting of additional recorded material interspersed with long silences. (2001a). DfEE. The young offenders inhabit an internal space.uk Mike Challis graduated from the University of East Anglia with a MMus in Electroacousic Composition in 1997. The young offenders repeatedly dragged visitors into the installation to show them what they had created and to try to spot themselves in the video or hear themselves in the sound track.Conclusion
Soundscape and acoustic ecology approaches are important to us pedagogically.
For many years the study of acoustic ecology has been the domain of music education. It would engage students in devising policies and behaviors that address soundscape problems within the context of environmental and ecological research. Music educators have been especially effective in developing pedagogical techniques for improving the listening skills of students. an industrial setting requiring the design of a safety signal that could be heard over the ambient sound field and yet not add to fatigue or distraction would require a scientific knowledge of human hearing and listening in such a soundscape. social. and cultural implications of soundscape studies and placing such effort within the interdisciplinary field of environmental studies. Schafer was one of the first to give form and definition to the field of acoustic ecology in his book. But there is much that can be learned from related fields that would enhance a student’s knowledge about hearing and critical listening. Murray Schafer of particular interest. The Tuning of the World. Acoustic ecology focuses on the complexity of the natural world and sees humans as one element in the mix. The adding of ecoacoustics to the environmental studies curriculum would enrich both fields and may promote a rethinking of basic cultural premises. 39
. For example. urban designers. The field of environmental studies provides an established and interdisciplinary base upon which to facilitate a broadened approach to the study of acoustic ecology. Subsequent publications by Schafer provided examples of pedagogic techniques for the integration of soundscape studies into the music education curriculum. Such study is important in understanding how sounds are perceived and is important in addressing issues related to noise. Even a single course on acoustic ecology placed within the context of an environmental studies program would encourage students to develop a greater understanding of the natural world from an ecoacoustic perspective. research and practice that focuses on the scientific. To begin that discussion I suggest that it is time to broaden the pedagogy of our field to include the social. economic. sociologists. geographers. professionals outside of music have found Schafer’s ideas of in-
terest. This requires skills in attentive listening. It is a field just as interested in the relationship between dolphins and whales. This includes monitoring and evaluating actions affecting and altering the quality of the sonic world and working for change where needed. Psychoacoustics and bioacoustics are two areas of study that would contribute to such an understanding. health educators. and methods and strategies for responding to ecological issues of which sound is an important aspect. and cultural aspects of natural and human made sound environments. It challenges students to look at the relationship between humans and their environment from a new interdisciplinary perspective. Psychoacoustics is the study of human hearing. and ways of structuring knowledge related to both. It was Schafer who envisioned the need for an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the soundscape. specialized evaluation techniques. and law. Since the publication of The Tuning of the World in 1977. political. social sciences. management. and others have begun to think about the application of his principles to their own work.
Environmental Studies and Acoustic Ecology
The field of acoustic ecology has been defined by the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE) as an area of education. or insects and birds as it is in the relationship between humans and other living organisms.
An Ecoacoustic Curriculum
Central to the curriculum of acoustic ecology is auditory scene analysis. I suggest that the field of environmental studies may provide a welcoming home for acoustic ecology education. design. The study of acoustic ecology has yet to find a solid academic base that fully investigates the interdisciplinary importance of soundscape research. Environmental studies is an academic area that crosses the boundaries of traditional disciplines including the sciences. humanities. Architects.Acoustic Ecology and Environmental Studies:
A new academic home for the teaching of ecoacoustics
By Gary Ferrington
t is my intention to initiate an on-going dialogue about acoustic ecology education. Such a refocusing of the academic mission of acoustic ecology will bring more attention to the concerns of acoustic ecologists and the growing body of research often overlooked by the scientific community. policy. The need for the development of attentive listening is well articulated in the literature of acoustic ecology. Research in this field strives to learn how hearing works and how the brain processes sounds entering the ear. It is those who study and make music that found the early work of Canadian composer and educator R. Of particular concern to many in acoustic ecology is the relationship between human-made noise and animal communication.
Such study includes animal sound production. It would facilitate the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology’s stated mission to focus education and research on the scientific. public planning and development. and the methods and approaches possible to solve them. international environmental issues. the materials presented throughout this compendium of so-called “Sound Sculpture” are rich. and cultural aspects of natural and human made sound environments. informs us that unlike other western cultures. Such an approach provides an opportunity to examine comparative philosophies and methodologies from a diversity of fields. well-laid out form that anyone would be proud to mount on the coffee table. Fine Art Publishing has produced a gorgeous 160 page. auditory anatomy and function. watermarks. and social factors all play a part in solving these sound-related issues. As a practitioner a student might focus on one or more related areas such as. The academic author. ‘Australian’ appears often to remind us of the context in which this collection is to be viewed. and extensive documentation of (primarily) Australian sound art. or social theory and the environment. with cultural and geographic divisions that cut out and define distinctly separate contexts in which space. Being able to look at soundscape issues from a variety of viewpoints may lead to the posing of alternative and innovative solutions. Archeologists and others can help students understand the cultural soundscapes of the past. diverse.
Sound Sculpture Intersections in Sound and Sculpture in Australian Artworks Author: Ros Bandt Publisher: Fine Art Publishing. He now teaches occasional courses on media literacy and education. hosted by Monash University’s music department (really thinking outside of the box). Sydney. Environmental studies provide an interdisciplinary set of strategies for problem solving. Australia Price: US$ 44. and respond to critical social. cultural and scientific issues involving sound in natural and human made acoustic environments. Supported by an Australian Research Council grant. The field of environmental studies provides an inclusive curriculum in which the emerging area of acoustic ecology can be taught. as an example. understand. Ferrington is currently the secretary and web master for the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology. Dr. environmental law and justice. and the effects of human-made and environmental sound on animals. 40
raftsman House.Bioacoustics offers insight into acoustic communication within a species and between acoustic niches of other species. coastal city-dweller perceptual modalities share a context with European literate culture and more limited geographical clusters of habitation. one-of-a-kind. Aboriginal acoustical space is defined by millennia of oral traditions coupled with vast geography. And determining how to preserve cultural soundscapes and the rehabilitation of those suffering from sound pollution or other issues is of important social value. Ros Bandt. At the very least the integration of acoustic ecology into an environmental study program will provide many liberal arts students with an introduction to the importance of sound as an integral part of ecology and the habitat of life. Visual Arts Board and New Media Arts Board of the Australian Council. sound and musical art co-exist. Australia is isolated. and strap-in (author Bandt’s) audio CD inside of the back cover. the various approaches used to bring such environmental issues to the public’s attention. political. Noise pollution. Comparative studies of contemporary soundscapes add to the understanding of how societies value and make use of sound as part of the social fabric today. tasteful use of graphics.
Gary Ferrington is a Senior Instructor Emeritus in the University of Oregon’s College of Education. politics. to develop a working knowledge of the nature and scope of the forces underlying soundscape issues. is clearly artwork in itself.00 Reviewed by Harold Clark
I have attempted in this short paper to suggest that acoustic ecologists might find an academic home in the field of environmental studies. using the interdisciplinary approach pursued in environmental studies. ethics or philosophy. the construction of freeways and other sound producing projects takes time and money that add to overall costs. Such action-oriented research requires individuals with knowledge of how to research issues from multiple perspectives and disciplines. By contrast. Students would be encouraged. This home would provide a broad interdisciplinary approach to the study of soundscape issues. The litigation arising from the expansion of airports.
. He was the coordinator of graduate studies in Instructional Systems Technology before retiring. Cultural values are also central to ecoacoustics. The study of acoustic ecology requires the ability to articulate. Science. is both a social and economic concern related to health and safety. social. studied and practised. The book’s sleek marine green glow.
I thought it important to see the ‘context’ of the institutions from which the writing and many of the works have also been shaped. When I imagine sculpture. shaping. Dr.While Bandt outlines the unique nature of Australian soundspace. full page and double page photography). their creators uniquely conscious of them. hi-fi enthusiast Joyce Hinterding’s “Electrical Storm” (in which her work. New Zealand and South Africa and he has lectured widely at various institutions. this book and CD are filled with variety and substance. Each of these art pieces are object installations. art collector. Most sound artists’ works are captured in small (almost thumbnail-like) images with references made to CD tracks. could the entire effect of Ros Bandt’s work have become much more engaging than written text and stingy photos. and former co-founder of the NSEM studio in Oslo. all coupled with designed spaces. constructed of 1950’s oscillators and punched paper rolls to guide its electromechanical resonating heart. Indeed. a reduction of meaning in the term. great humanized shapes of physical forms imbued with inspiration. TV monitors.. molding into forms. The late Australian composer Percy Grainger was managed into this book with his large “Free Music Machine”. or “The Harmony Garden” by Stephanie Outridge-Field. it makes a significant and comprehensive contribution towards our understanding of the Australian sound art genre. Norway. and certainly stimulate the imagination. This is exemplified by Garry Greenwood’s “Suspended Harmonic” (looking like something you’d play from Africa). In reviewing the works and writings of this book. fabricating specialized electrostatic speakers. having elevations in the surface. Nigel Helyer’s “Siren Song”. whereby a more interactive oral transmission of the works could have been mixed between narration and audible examples of the works. there are many excellent representations of “sound sculpture” covered throughout this book. the U. generates large lightning-like electrical arc discharges). in their construction. Bandt sets the scene for how we may view and hear them. The act of physically carving. On the other hand. In conclusion. I do not find at all relevant in most of the works presented. Implying Australian sound works presented are thus transecting many boundaries. Paging through the sections of the book—I Place As Acoustic Space. interactive and movable structures with elaborate sensing electronics contained inside. Pieces that are playable or
that one interacts with which have the archetypal form of a musical instrument rather than the form of a sounding art object. shaping in relief. molding of the earth’s surface.” Then there are pieces that could be called “new musical instruments” rather than sound sculpture. namely “sound design. something any percussion section would envy having.” Ros Bandt often refers to the importance of how a work is perceived within a particular space and time. such is the complexity of description that one wonders why this entire work was not rather published on CD-ROM. (Intersections in sound and sculpture in Australian artworks). V Installations. To know these works aware of such a context is to exercise a tool by which to perceive an extension of this language and artistic mannerism. sea shells. Hanging hammocks. circuit boards. the UK. While this work qualifies as an experiment. Tim Woodcock. installation art. Even if only for increasing the image size. III Time and Motion. pulse-pattern sound. is that a majority of the works shown are not “sculptural” or have such an artisticallyminimized sculptural quality as to be highly questionable. it precedes many of the other experimental works found in this book which utilize raw speaker components. II Sonic Objects. physical. He is currently editing his new book Steps to an Ecology of Contemporary Music. The issue I have with Sound Sculpture. Central Europe. which is what I think the point of this book truly is all about. are stunning examples of “sound sculpture. found object art. It is environmental. installed in South Korea. figures or designs in relief or in the round.Sound Design and Spatial Music—there is an overwhelming feeling of literary dominance through the descriptive documentation of the works. this is an excellent reference book for any student. rather the craft of one who has released a physical form into our perception. Jonathan Laurence’s “Carillion”. (Some of the major works do have good quality. Producing an acoustical gesture with sound-generating devices in a space and time is the form of sound design. sound designer. There is a crisis of definition in this vocabulary. Although the title should be appended to reflect the nature of what lies within. Many of the works are simply “found or adapted objects” sharing about as much sculptural value as an iMac. Bandt defines sculpture as: “the execution of forms. have evolved particular modal styles from within art school institutions throughout Australia. etc. namely “art school”. is an array of custom mounted electrostatic speakers carefully placed within an acoustical context that defines the ultimate room-acoustic subtlety. Her other work presented. Most of the examples represented are from the early 1990’s with a few pages featuring Ros Bandt’s own works. archetypes in physical form is what I see. Judy Lorraine’s “Sounding Apertures” with tuned thongaphon drums in amphitheatre walls one can play on the way to the Bard. VI Spatial . Performance art. “Cloud”. and a host of “found objects” such as car parts.
Harold Clark is a composer. headphones. Harold’s music has been performed throughout Scandinavia. educator. an auto zither that would captivate any schoolroom class and one of the most wonderful sounding tracks on the CD! Perhaps one of the more eloquent works of sound sculpture is Nigel Helyer’s Ding-Dong-Dang. consists of beautifully framed gigantic bells that. and to some extent. she goes on to point out how “connected” Australia is to the rest of the world through technology. This work. and lives with his wife in Vancouver. detail and complexity of these sound objects on one’s computer screen from a CD-ROM. detract and/or collide with the given social. may augment. standing out. Works such as Laurence & Foley “Edge of the Trees” nature/history sound sculpture in an urban setting of the Museum of Sydney.K. and political surroundings. a beautifully conceived resonating musical playground. Impressively complete (with excellent reference appendices). and Michael Whelan. The bells are morphed between Asiatic sacred forms and the furnaces or Bessemer converters of early British factories. draw together the heavenly sacred bell tones and the anguish of the furnaces from the early industrial revolution. thus paving the way for this new art to belong to the ‘global village’ context. Canada. IV Human Engagement. are made interactive within a jail where remnants and memories of prisoner’s lives vocally-surround the participant— a reminder of the former colony’s founding fathers’ lives. broadcaster. or resource centre with an interest in late 20th Century conceptual sound art. Western Europe for nearly 50 years. One very striking example of this is Paul Carter’s “Named in the Margin” and takes place in an Australian prisoner museum. This is more than just found objects. in which prisoners from the motherland were exiled to sleep. 41
. It is a must to follow the reading and viewing with the attached CD! In fact.” That is like saying all music is sound. interesting works in sound design. minimalism. or Rodney Berry’s “Rotary Zithers”. creating an environment charged with fear and frenzy.
sic. but also for environmental acousticians. environmental acoustics. An example of the sophistication of our relationship with sound appears in Chapter 2 (entitled The Listener). environmental acousticians will point to the various sound intensity/pressure scales that attempt to factor in location—or type—of sound. second edition of Acoustic Communication. the major changes occurring between editions are firstly a massive leap in technology and secondly. a page maintained by Professor Barry Truax. . sound tends to be treated as an isolated object in the environment and the individual—the listener—becomes a human sound level meter whose sole relationship to sound is a function of its intensity. consumed and used”—to quote SFU’s School of Communication web site6 . distributed. music and the soundscape]” he notes. just as there is far more to our relationships with ourselves and with each other than could ever be described in a library full of novels. science and psychology text books. It is. sound signals. ISBN: 1-56750-537-6 http://www. music and the soundscape. there is more—much more—to our relationship with sound and the environment through sound. its meaning for the listener and the interlocking behaviour of sound as a system of relationships. type in “Acoustic Ecology” and press return. when working on a play that required the sound of a WW2 air raid siren. These two volumes—and R. the techniques of acoustic persuasion and the concept that the human voice reflects the whole person. this journal3 and to the The Sonic Research Studio. The CD represents an incredible resource with many entries containing detailed graphics. linguistics. I can vouch for this. form a continuum and he makes a case for the significance of ordering them as listed above before developing a model that relates sound and meaning via structure. Truax takes the philosophy—and the soundscape descriptions—introduced in Schafer’s inspirational The Tuning of the World framing these within a coherent. The CD also includes over 150 sound clips and relevant examples are listed at the end of each chapter. The relatively new academic discipline of Communication focuses upon information. reviewed here. School of Communication. The first chapter contrasts the energy exchange/ signal processing model used in acoustics with the communicational approach.com Reviewed by Kendall Wrightson
Launch your web browser.). electroacoustics. Connecticut. The organisational
Acoustic Communication [2nd Edition] (2001) Author: Barry Truax Ablex Publishing. a BBC recording of the real thing was rejected by the author (who lived through the event) in favour of a synthesised version that had her trembling as soon as she heard it. and soundscape studies. In this chapter. In Chapter 4 Truax develops a more theoretical survey of what he describes as the three major systems of acoustic communication—speech. a large number of relevant publications many of which are mentioned in the updated text. “we find that sound is in some way ‘organised’ and that through the structure of this organisation. Here Truax notes how an accurate recording of a sound event is often less successful in evoking a sound memory than a “skilful simulation that simplifies and idealises it” (p30). Chapter 3 concentrates on the human voice and on human soundmaking covering language. shared. audiology. meaning can be inferred. Truax has also taken the opportunity to include a CD ROM with the second edition. human physiology (our sensitivity to the certain parts of the frequency spectrum) and psychology (scales that take into account subjective reactions such as “annoyance”). The top three hits will point you to the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology2 . Murray Schafer at Simon Fraser University (SFU) during the late 1960s and early 1970s—Barry Truax has been working in and around the interdiscipline of acoustic ecology for over thirty years. These. communicational model in which to analyse soundscape phenomena. therefore. take a trip to the “Google”1 search engine. The contrast between the “energy transfer” and the communication approaches highlights the major change of mindset required not only of educationalists like myself (whose knowledge of sound has been learned via a signal processing model). Truax makes extensive reference to the literature that informs his research. Murray Schafer’s The Tuning of the World (1977)5 —constitute the entire library of published books relating directly to acoustic ecology. The latter places the emphasis upon the information in sound. legislators and even the general public. Chapter 2 also examines modes of listening—background listening. how it is created.7 While these scales have their uses. as this year sees the publication of an updated. For Truax. This disc contains all the descriptions from the Handbook of Acoustic Ecology in html (web page) format—over 500 terms from the fields of acoustics. As with his 1984 original. Westport.
s a member of the original World Soundscape Project (WSP)—an educational and research group established by R. For all of these groups. “. etc. mu42
. In reaction to this statement. Simon Fraser University 4 . welcome news that the most recent textbook relating to ecoacoustics is no longer seventeen years old. he suggests. “At the most basic level of each system [speech. psychoacoustics. .ablexbooks.” (p55). the acoustic structure of dialogue. His two most significant contributions to the subject are the Handbook of Acoustic Ecology (1978) and Acoustic Communication (1984). as in all chapters. listening “in search” and “in readiness”—and the soundscape terminology that first saw publication in The Tuning of the World (keynotes.
Noting that the majority of the literature discussing noise pollution deals with symptoms (i. which focuses upon the way in which listening processes.
An electroacoustic signal may be generated electronically (such as a mobile phone ring tone) or it may have been originally acoustic (a variation in the pressure of a medium. Unfortunately. Here Truax describes the implications of the increasingly ubiquitous “moozak”— the acoustic perfume from which many of us believe we may never escape. radio). the main focus here is electroacoustic composition (including composition using pre-recorded soundscapes). society and the soundscape when we choose to replace the natural sonic environment with a virtual or “schizophonic” soundscape? This question is addressed in Chapter 10. Live or recorded sound can be broadcast—as electromagnetic radio signals—over a far wider area than is possible even with electroacoustic amplification. “hi-fi” environments of pre-industrial times have. The chapter closes with a brief discussion of the impact of electroacoustic technology on community design. The level of manipulation through sound in radio broadcasts. has been profound. particularly in commercial radio. the effects of noise). Where some pre-industrial communities could be characterised by their unique soundscapes. been replaced by loud. An analysis of this impact is the subject of the second part of Acoustic Communication. Such “acoustic design” puts into practice Schafer’s philosophy that we are responsible for the world soundscape. .e. . just as others have described linguistic and musical competence. double glazing. it is no great surprise that the solutions offered to combat the problem are effectively acoustic sticking plasters—limits to sound levels and exposure times. Soundscape pollution erodes soundscape competence which in turn creates soundscape pollution. Chapter 10 makes this point in describing how high quality recordings make possible an incredibly focussed form of analytical listening. contemporary city soundscapes the world over feature the same “keynote” sound—traffic. for example: What are the effects upon individuals. . Electroacoustic recordings make sound into an object which can be bought. communication. compositional rules (in music) and elements of the sound environment and their context (in soundscapes)—require a level of competence from the listener. air for example) transformed into an electrical representation via a microphone. and with two interdisciplines to deal with the range of available threads and themes is vast. is likely to surprise you. In order to better describe these ideas. programming. however. ear defenders. bass-heavy sound-walls in many of the environments we experience day-to-day. Truax notes two main technologies contributing to the changing patterns of acoustic communication— electroacoustics and electromagnetic broadcasting (e. The information-rich. sold and copied. This lack of awareness breeds generations of product designers who have little or no awareness of the potential of sound in product design. Chapters 5 & 6 (the Acoustic Community and Noise & the Urban Soundscape respectively) also offer the evidence that soundscape competence has been significantly eroded. styles of vocal presentation and so forth). Chapter 8 explores this “objectification” and commoditisation of sound and broaches the psychological effects of the virtual soundscapes created by electroacoustic and broadcast technologies. thanks to its many sound examples. we are its composers. the “lo-fi” soundscape engenders is discussed in Chapters 5 and 6. With electromagnetic propagation of electroacoustic signals. the soundscape of a living room can be almost identical across a continent. For this reader. particularly since the industrial revolution. a spiral of dysfunction. these chapters do not provide a satisfying conclusion to the issues raised previously. Truax describes the techniques used to maintain audience attention and that promote distracted listening. Truax argues that if designers had a better knowledge of soundscape issues. Truax—a notable practitioner—has a lot to offer including a vastly expanded and updated discography. like acoustic ecology. etc. sound is a non-issue unless its level is likely to breach legally enforced limits. baffles. Truax is more concerned with the causes of noise pollution—for example the lack of awareness of how sound functions within the community and a diminishing soundscape competence. It is therefore appropriate that the final chapters reflect their author’s particular interests—Truax describes himself as an Electroacoustic 43
. The former refers to any sound that exists as an electrical signal. The current state of many acoustic communities and the isolation and alienation that. “Don’t touch that dial . Truax uses Chapter 9 to explain electroacoustic concepts and processes such as signal dynamics. for many of us. There are some big questions to be considered here. On the other hand. oscillators. This leads Truax to postulate a “soundscape competence”.g. To be fair to Professor Truax. Truax suggests. and “acoustic perfume” (using one sound to cover up another). It is to solutions that Truax turns in Chapter 7 to close Part I of the book. frequency response. i. Truax devotes Chapter 11 to a detailed case study of audio media—radio.structures—such as syntax and paralinguistic structures (in language). electroacoustic and radio technologies offer incredible benefits but also raise significant issues about the way in which we choose to use them. Describing the relationships between the form and content of radio broadcasting (its limited dynamic range.” The commoditisation of sound receives further attention in Charter 12—The Acoustic Community as a Market. our ability to decode the structures of—and infer meaning from—the soundscape is a skill that can be taught and developed. is an interdiscipline. The effect of technology on the world soundscape. the same technology can be utilised to create a “sound drug” and develop distracted listening habits that erode our ability to be psychologically present. listening habits and our new level of control over the soundscape have changed thanks to technology. . The accompanying CD ROM will prove useful for readers approaching these concepts for the first time. For those interested or involved in the genre. These draw upon the work of the World Soundscape Project (WSP). The final two chapters describe positive uses of electroacoustic technology such as sound documentation and soundscape archives. As with most technological innovation. Here. the first group to analyse acoustic communities and the first to define environmental characteristics that promote effective communication. As with speech and music. For many designers. However. the balance of the acoustic ecosystem has been upset. The spiral has led to what Truax describes as an “ideology of noise”— an ingrained way of thinking about noise problems that is so entrenched it prevents a solution from ever being found. the listener faces a significant challenge in what should be a natural evolution of soundscape competence as s/he grows up in today’s (acoustic) communities: the relationship between the individual and the soundscape is damaged.e. they might consider the sound of their device in the context of its contribution to—and place within—the soundscape. low-information. to frame the issue positively (How can we improve communication?) rather than negatively (How can we reduce noise pollution?). One might have expected chapters subtitled “regaining control” to consider methods of tackling the causes of unbalanced soundscapes.
the message of this work—and of the acoustic ecology movement—needs far greater exposure if our relationship with the world and with each other—through sound—is to improve. .) My sincere hope is that this book might find its way into a large number of libraries and institutions of learning.lgu. by Hildegard Westerkamp (Composer. under the auspices of the Frost Centre for Canadian Studies and Native Studies at Trent University. how do we design our soundscapes on a functional.Trent University 1600 West Bank Drive.sfu.html http://interact.ca/~truax/
8. “How do we reinvigorate the listener’s interaction with the environment through listening. http://www. or in book orders can contact: Dr. continue to ignore perceptually based approaches”. by Keiko Torigoe (Sound Designer. Sonic Geography. Noise Crite rion. anytime. Destiny Books. .ca/sonic-studio/ republished in 1994 as The Soundscape. Vermont. http://www.ac. “. 6. and is organized in five sections.S. “. Rochester.edu/MediaLit/WFAE/journal http://www. the listener and the environment. The last question is harder to tackle. Section Three: Radiomakers Location Location Location: a Scrap of a Map of Mannlicher Carcano. .Technology and Tradition. Japan).htm Endnotes: 1. 7. Poland). by Bart Plantenga (Pirate Radio DJ. http://interact. Going Upcountry: Electroacoustic Composition between Documentary and Abstraction.
Sonic Geography Imagined and Remembered is a collection of ten essays on the relationship between acoustic ecology and culture inspired by the international conference Sound Escape.ca/communication/about/history/index. the individual will be able to listen to any sound—any recording. The book reflects the productive tension currently charging the interdisciplinary field of acoustic ecology. including Composite Noise Rating. Perceived Noise Level. and an emerging cultural critique. Introduction: Mapping Sonic Geographies by Ellen Waterman Section One: Empirical and Cultural Ethnographies Memory and Acoustic Environments: Five European Villages Revisited. Anyone interested in more information.A. Section Five: The Ethics of Acoustic Ecology and Art Engagement with Sound. who is Assistant Professor in the Cultural Studies Program at Trent University. Truax is aware that since the first edition. any radio station—anywhere. Acoustic Communication is an invaluable text book for those involved in social science in general and communication studies in particular. by Helmi Järviluoma (Ethnomusicologist. What Difference Does Difference Make? Sonic Cleansing and the Search for the Uncontaminated Other in Toronto’s Cuban Music Scene.sfu.. The collection is edited and introduced by Ellen Waterman.uoregon. by Nigel Frayne (Sound Designer. they are all overwhelmed by the information society (p xii). writer. .Composer first and Acoustic Communication Researcher second8 .). Noise Exposure Forecast. A Reclamation of Sonic Geography of Mount Tateyama. by Brigido Galvan (Ethnomusicologist. The Local and Global “Language” of Environmental Sound. between the ethnographic and empirical work first initiated by the World Soundscape Project (in 1970). U. Peterborough. K9J 7B8
Kendall Wrightson (wrightso@lgu. Canada).sfu. Preferred Noise Criterion and Traffic Noise index. . by John Wynne (Composer/Ethnographer. His essay “An introduction to Acoustic Ecology” published in Volume 1 of this journal. Australia).edu/MediaLit/WFAE/home/index. by Lidia Zielinska (Composer.uk) is a lecturer in music technology at London Guildhall University.ca Cultural Studies Program . by Doug Harvey (Art Critic/ Audio Artist. and “the theme of technology’s impact on communication is seldom informed by any sense of how communication functioned aurally prior to that impact. but the potential for increased and sustained isolation not only from the sonic environment.ac. communication professionals . http://www.uoregon. (These disciplines will also find the accompanying CD ROM extremely useful as a reference and teaching resource. There will of course be real benefits afforded by these devices. However. The issues Truax raised in the 1984 remain substantially the same. includes essays by both scholars and artists from 8 countries. 4. is available online at: http://www. Truax wonders. Ellen Waterman Email: ewaterman@trentu. the impact of electroacoustic and electromagnetic technology is set to change the soundscape—and our relationships with it—still further as the two technologies collide courtesy of a new generation of mobile.html The CD ROM offers descriptions of several of these. England). Radio & Aural Destabilization #6: Memories of Physical Locations and Ethereal Dislocations. Ontario Canada. Canada). by Gayle Young (Composer.com/
2. Finland).uk/mit/aecology. Instrument Inventor. With these new gizmos (and the new audio/video distribution paradigms they utilise). Noise Rat ing.
. wireless audio/visual devices. 3. Canada). Noise Exposure Forecast. Netherlands).” Perhaps.google. Section Two: Sound Design and the Museum Electroacoustic Soundscapes: Aesthetic and Functional Design. 5. Section Four: Composing the Soundscape Sonic Spaces of Poland: the Atlas of Symbols. human scale and how do we distinguish the net gain offered by technology from its hype and oppressive aspects?”(p xii).. Sonic Geography Imagined and Remembered will be published this spring by Penumbra Press. but also from the visual environment—in effect reality itself—could impact society in ways we can only begin to imagine. held at Trent University in 2000. But that’s the subject of another book yet to be written. . Acoustic Communication offers a radical way to approach sound that will promote a broader and deeper understanding of sound and the relationships between sound. Noise and Number Index. For those involved in one of the audio-related disciplines.
Nobody talked. The lecture had started but some people were still talking in the back as always. of weekend plans. the students can flee the room quickly. there was never a complete silence. Since we were all very young. available through Distance Education.uoregon. lifeless speech. Please. Perhaps there was a little bit of fear in the experience. I could almost hear the loud inner voices saying. They finally stopped talking. This way. by Shiho Serizawa There is an interesting way silence is used in classrooms by the lecturers. Yet you could feel the excitement. It was quiet. I used to walk to school through the woods. the sounds from the students flood into my ears. like me. I do not remember what the game was called but the rules were pretty simple—be quiet and still. the sounds of note taking gradually filled the classroom again. The teacher would pick the first student who was doing the best job at being quiet. And in the afternoons after it had rained. The air was moist and sometimes even foggy. exgirlfriends and “what was that he said?” Almost in unison there is a flutter of page turns and then the harsh unexpected bark of someone coughing nearby. The lecturer said thank you. I would wait until all the other students had left the area and then I would walk home slowly.. above which the professor gives his monotone. Note: The sounds of the classroom are for many readers a distant memory. There is impatience in the air with knuckles cracking and feet shuffling and it builds up as the clock nears twenty past the hour—the end of class—so much so that the professor’s last few statements are rendered unimportant as pens are recapped and papers shoved into bags.C. Canada: http://interact. These excerpts from student journals were originally written as part of an assignment for Acoustic Dimensions of Communication. Simon Fraser University. “pick me!”
Reaching the Back Row through Silence. Burnaby. the teacher suggested an interesting game for us to play when we gathered on the floor and waited for some event to start. It seemed as if I would emerge from the woods and arrive in a totally different place. Indistinguishable whispers of real things float from everywhere and nowhere at the same time. The following excerpts from two student sound journals may stimulate our own memories of classroom soundscapes which we experienced during our early formative years. CMNS 259. The whole classroom became very quiet as the sound of pens and pencils stopped. She was just standing in the front staring at the back of the classroom.
The Classroom Soundscape Ed. It was not a silence with inner calmness. and then resumed the lecture. and they were annoying.edu/medialit/wfae/ curriculum/acdcom_3.
A Lecture Hall by Angela Walstedt Sitting in the packed lecture hall. After all the noise at school it was a mysterious feeling to be in silence. listening to the silence. B.Sound Journals
larly liked to return home the same way. I would stop and stand still. After a while the group in the back noticed that their voices were really standing out in the silent classroom.
On Walking Home from School.html
Quiet Children. Everybody enjoyed the game and was trying hard to be the one to be picked. all stopped writing and looked up. It was very quiet. Then this student would stand in front and choose the next student to come forward as he or she went back to sit. The room feels stale with sound—with the hum from the air vents and the constant hushed scratching of pens on paper. It was a very simple attempt by the teacher to keep the students quiet. People who had been listening to the lecture noticed the sudden silence and. I particu-
. was ready to begin. by Shiho Serizawa When I was in grade eight or nine. once the okay has been given. Everybody first looked at the lecturer and then in the direction in which she was staring. But still—it felt good and I enjoyed it. As she started talking. Suddenly the lecturer stopped talking. But it was as silent as children can be. I looked up from my note taking. This would go on until whatever it was for which we were waiting. I was sitting in a lecture with about a hundred other students. by Shiho Serizawa When I was a child in grade one or two. as everyone tries to capture the professor’s words frantically.
IV. and less vulnerable to misunderstandings than the eye (“The ear measures. Complaints about lack of attention and respect towards each other are multiplying in schools. Every conversation. Aulis Verlag Deubner. Afterwards there are games. Schulreferat Postfach 91 01 52 51071 Köln.de/DE/Plugs/ Hoertest-CD. It was initiated by the author—a parent—in response to the recognition that there is an urgent need for such an experience.hr.sonicshop. Lehren und Lernen in der Grundschule. Contact: Ulrike Heuer Hagenberg 30 49186 Bad Iburg Germany Fax: +49 (0)5403 780318 Ulrike Heuer was born in Germany in 1960. Visual and acoustic overload dominate every day life not only for children. a project for the encouragement of hearing and listening in schools. up-to-date information and further links. To cover expenses (for books and materials) each child pays 1 DM or 50 EURO per gathering. Through listening and soundmaking avenues open themselves to the children. Note: the following is a proposal that was written as a way to initiate a programme of listening in an Elementary School in Bad Iburg. In her publications and exhibits she has focused on cultural history themes. Today’s sound environment for children is inflationary: overloaded senses have been closed down. Bestell-Nr: 20 390 000 Bundeszentrale für Gesundheitliche Aufklärung. as pressure. Children sign up each time for a 6-8 week course. more exact. Heft Nr. • http://www. 43. people’s ability to learn and to be open to information is affected negatively. many children know listening only as a duty. • Lärm und Gesundheit—Materialien für Grundschulen. aged 5 and 8. HW]
Background Observations of daily life—in Germany at least—show that the ability and willingness to listen is generally disappearing in today’s society. and in the work place. the ear. hearing is the last sense that closes down. The ear is faster. Germany • “Hören—Zuhören. when one understands the ear’s capacities. puzzles. the eye estimates”—ed.” (Research Hearing and Listening) in Grundschulverband Aktuell. Every gathering is a unified whole not connected to the regular school curriculum. poems or more.online.bzga. Since the birth of her children her involvement has shifted towards the areas of listening. 1. but developed activities with the children entirely in its spirit. but I want to encourage in them a desire to listen. Project Listening Hour emerged out of daily life observations in schools and is a voluntary parent contribution for children in Grade 2. Children’s requests or wishes are taken into account and fun to participate is a priority.htm • http://www. Klasse (Noise and Health—Materials for Elementary Schools. At the time she was not familiar with existing educational soundscape work. In addition. A space will be created in which much time and attention is given to our thoughts and our listening experiences. She studied European Ethnology. conscious listening is important for one’s own consciousness: How am I listened to. Quartal. so that they learn to perceive themselves and others more clearly. songs. Generally. Heft Nr. Januar 2002. crafts. how am I being perceived? What is important. Hören und Zuhören. Many children find it hard to draw or paint from their own imagination or simply to be in silence. Too many stimuli affect children’s ears. is more sensitive. Additional educational resources (in German) • http://www.de • “Forschung. what is unimportant for me? The general neglect of our sense of hear46
Pedagogical Thoughts: In the Listening Hours I want to awaken children’s curiosity towards more subtle listening experiences.ganzohrsein. I am not asking of the children that they must or should listen. simply because she herself listened in depth to the situation as it is. body sounds. Children will be encouraged to find their place inside a story. 76.de GanzOhrSein (ToBeAllEar). Grades 1-4). an event or to imagine themselves to be somenone else.de Here you can find teaching materials and sound examples. Gatherings happen in small groups of circa 12 children. increase our sense of wellbeing and strengthen our emotional balance. 144 Pages and CD ROM.Perspectives
Projekt Hörstunde/Project Listening Hour
by Ulrike Heuer ing is even more puzzling. One of the most important premisses for human communication is listening. signal sounds and so on. Group work stimulates their fantasie and imagination and strengthens social togetherness. The aim is that the acoustic environment is perceived more consciously. story-telling and reading. 2001. as well as educational commentary. mas. Language-based communication makes social discourse as well as conflict resolution possible. To order a hearing test CD go to: http://www. The theme is experienced and discussed through short radio dra-
. the programme is in its second year and is very successful. every idea exchange assumes that people are willing and able to listen. Archeology and Pedagogy. note: so goes a German saying). All this makes it worthwhile to practise concentrated listening and to learn hearing with new ears. etc. cause inner imbalances and restlessness. At the beginning of every gathering. a factual context. stories. at home.” Theme of Hearing and Listening in Sache—Wort—Zahl. With a variety of listening exercises it is hoped that the ear will open up towards more subtle sounds. But afterall. that the children’s ability to differentiate is heightened and an inner sound memory is developed. Nov. Intensive listening to sounds and music can delight. As I write. And with most dying people. They hardly ever experience listening without simultaneous visual input or to listen in more subtle ways. for example. More and more children want to participate in the weekly Hörstunde. a small town in North Germany and that I thought worthwhile translating for our readers.de/zuhoeren/ This website contains materials for Hörclubs an Grundschulen (Listening Clubs in Elementary Schools) a programme initiated by the Hessischer Rundfunk (Hessian Radio) after the 1997 Symposium Ganz Ohr (All Ear). bis 4. We posess only one sense organ which reaches its full size long before we are born: the inner ear. Every class has a theme. Depending on school schedules Listening Hour is conducted either before or after regular classes. E-Mail: zeitschriften@aulis. How It Works: Participation is voluntary! The Listening Hours are geared towards Grade 2 students. is married and has two children. children are presented with a sound from their daily life and are asked to identify it.
AMMOT has already produced a 15 minute video on loud music. inspired by the French award L’oreille d’or (The Golden Ear).
tracts. but increasingly also for music students and musicians of all genres. like “music that you love will never hurt your ears”. musicians. It inspired her to form a working group and later to curate the first Swedish (Scandinavian. musik och hörselskador (Sweet Music and Ear Plugs—About Hearing.
. He was the research secretary at the Royal Swedish Academy of Music until 2001 and founded the Sound Council as a network for Swedish soundscape interests. published in July 2001 by Prevent in Stockholm. ending with a checklist or good advice for everybody involved in musical performances. The text was produced by the Royal Academy of Music with the help of a medical doctor (Åke Ytterlind) and two audiologists (Stig Arlinger and Björn Hagerman). or “harmful sounds are forbidden by the law”. it can serve as a small handbook on acoustics and psychoacoustics. The exhibition was a great success and made Svensk Form very happy—a new audience of young. and was re-opened in Gothenburg in March last year.
Henrik Karlsson is assistant professor in musicology at the University of Gothenburg. The book is in English.Sound Pedagogy in Sweden
A Report by Henrik Karlsson
Design Sometimes chance creates miracles… Two years ago. and noted in particular my statement that we actually do not have any sound designers in Sweden. The authors are also unmasking some of the myths circulating about loud music. It opened in Stockholm in March 2001. A special issue of the periodical “Form” in Swedish and English covered most of the themes of the exhibition. toured to Copenhagen and other cities during the summer. Svensk Form inaugurated a new award. Listen!) and will engage music teacher Robin McGinley and his school class at The English School in Stockholm as an experiment in practical pedagogy for teenagers. Interviews with a pop singer. As a follow-up. A book of this kind is much needed not only for music audiences in general. a disc jockey. The Netherlands) as one of the keynote speakers also attracted a new audience. called DesignSounds. a violinist and an audiologist present personal case studies. Since the members are experienced singers and musicians they are very familiar with the practical situations at dance clubs. Levels of 120 dB have been measured in symphony orchestras and we are now facing the absurd situation where both musicians and listeners will appear in concerts with yellow ear plugs.
The book covers basic facts about the ear and hearing damage. Sweden. Christina Nilsson-Dag at Svensk Form (The Swedish Society for Craft and Design) heard me talk on the radio. called “Hördudu?!” (Hey. music loving designers emerged.
Network for Sound Education A new organisation called Artists and Musicians Against Tinnitus (AMMOT) has started a 2-year educational project for disc jockeys. and technical staff. A seminar on sound and design with Heleen Engelen (Philips. The result is that Sound Design programmes will now be available at a few Swedish universities as an experiment. to increase awareness about loud music and hearing damage. especially tinnitus and hyperacusis. music teachers. presenting biographies of 17 composers and their music on 2 CDs and can be ordered from STIM/Svensk Musik. The first prize was awarded to Ulrika Mårtensson for her sound insulating textiles. Music and Hearing Damage) is an elementary textbook in Swedish on hearing and music. her graduation project from the Design College (Konstfack). even European for that matter) exhibition on sound design. restaurants and other venues. as well as sound technology and performance con-
Sound Art The Swedish copyright society STIM has published the first comprehensive book on contemporary Swedish sound art (author: Teddy Hultberg). which is owned by the Swedish Employers Association and the big labour unions. Box 27327. the Golden Cricket. SE102 54 Stockholm. Loud Music Ljuv musik och öronproppar—om hörsel.
Neill Johanson. more stringent noise standard that would have to be met by the end of 2002. the city set a new maximum noise standard of 65 decibels. Sonic Womb An ultrasound scan relies on sound frequencies too high to be heard. and learning to live with the status quo. and fish—all part of the marine soundscape. far from being unique. Fair Crack of the Whip Wins “It is a moment etched in the Australian psyche. The current maximum is 77 decibels. March 19.Sound Bites
Scientists Hear Sound of Creation in Big-Bang Echo According to the authors of this article. They have picked up echoes of the “big bang”.500 lbs telescope suspended from a balloon to measure fluctuations in the microwave radiation left behind by the acoustic waves. and it was the audio master that provided cues for action in the stadium. “Call centres looking to reduce costs associated with high staff turnover should start by examining their work environment from the inside out. An international team of scientists surveyed the sky over Antarctica using a 3. The finding may explain why babies
. the astronomer royal. Rees said: “The research also adds weight to the strangest idea of all: that our universe. sometimes thousands of miles away on the other side of the Pacific Ocean basin.injured cats— wild and domestic—purr because it helps their bones and organs to heal and grow stronger. Scientists Tune In To Sounds of the Sea CNN reports that scientists have placed a hydrophone array system off the coast of California to listen to ocean sounds. Steve Logan. and face and neck pain—has come to notice after successful litigation in the United States and Britain.” The article notes that exposure to similar sound frequencies is known to improve bone density in humans. It’s the blowers’ “whiny” tone.” A sound specialist. Canada. The city of Vancouver is cracking down on “acoustic public enemy number one—gaspowered leaf blowers. generated it high in the stands.S.” Source: The Age. “We’re particularly interested in blue whales. This reinforces studies confirming that exposure to frequencies of 20-50 Hertz strengthens human bones and helps them to grow. costing the industry up to $500 million a day. Quoting Steve Bosak.000 Australians employed in call centres. The echoes are the remnants of huge acoustic waves that surged through the whitehot plasma gases generated in the big bang.” Source: The Age. and human elements such as the style of management and training in order to provide a better acoustic environment. the fetal ear. points out. USA. the largest animals ever. He has suggested that the city ban the use of these tools on Sundays and holidays. pp 21/22. B. US Natural Parks and Over Flight Sound Legislation In an issue of National Parks Magazine attention was paid to the need to protect natural soundscapes. Australia. US. Concluding. The balloon circumnavigated the Antarctic for 10 days at a height of nearly 37 kilometres. 2001.” he said. September 7. which are highly endangered. Craig Thomas (R-Wyo) that would preempt over flights at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. Oceans can be quite loud with earthquakes. but a new study finds that it can raise a racket in the womb by vibrating internal organs—in particular. Australia.C. CNN quotes National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration oceanographer Chris Fox as saying. Wants to Crack Down on Noisy Leaf Blowers. Monday. quieter models—register in the high 70s. Physicists have suggested that such waves shaped the modern universe by concentrating matter in some areas and removing it from others—creating the structure we see today in which stars are concentrated into galaxies separated by huge voids. April 29. Losito says complaints have been rising steadily about leaf blowers and he recommends a compromise between banning leaf blowers altogether. “The Thomas bill will protect the natural soundscapes of these crown-jewel parks.” he said. however.” Source: UK Sunday Times. “The scientists. 2001. said unresolved acoustic problems at call centres had increased staff turnover by 50 per cent. said the research proved that sound waves had shaped the universe. is one of an infinite number of universes. Fall 2001. Businesses need to look at the synergy between physical elements like ceilings and work stations. found that between 27 and 44 Hertz was the dominant frequency for a house cat.C. landslides. The Times article notes that Sir Martin Rees. Volumes can reach up to 100 decibels in utero. September 10. president of the 600-member B. September 10. Leaf blowers now being used by commercial landscapers and the Vancouver Park board—with the exception of newer. Source: The Age. A lone rider gallops to the centre of the Olympic stadium and cracks a bullwhip to herald the opening ceremony of the Sydney 2000 Games. Call Centres Face Test Case Over ‘Shock’ Injuries With more than 200. Halldorson and park board representatives say the city’s proposal is a good compromise with which they can live. NPCA’s over flights program manager. “Fairlight also did the sound for the closing ceremony. Until now there had been no real evidence. Fred Halldorson. July/ August 2001. as loud as a subway train. ringing in the ear. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit for an emergency order to stop the flights. from the Fauna Communications Research Institute in North Carolina. Fairlight. ocelot.” Source: National Parks Magazine. An unborn baby would perceive this sound as a high pitched tone or chord. The article notes that marine biologists expect to hear other sounds bouncing around the watery depths. Monday. like landslides and earthquakes. Vancouver. and whales. Losito recommends that by the end of 2002. “If they had not been there the universe would have been filled with nothing more than an evenly distributed diluted gas. that it is not so much the decibel noise that makes people angry. the explosive event thought to have signaled the birth of the universe 12-14 billion years ago. Source: CNN Science and Technology.. he said. Now the US network NBC has contracted Fairlight to provide audio services for the next three Olympic events. An article titled “Scenic Air Tours Threaten Tetons” summarizes legislation sponsored by Sen. working for a Sydney-based digital and audio company. We’ve determined that they have a migratory path up and down the Pacific Coast. What is not so widely known is that the almighty crack did not come from the whip. Nick Losito also wants a new. dolphins. Australia.. Monday. saying they would cause irreparable harm to the park’s natural quiet and wildlife. Purr-fect Way to Bolster Bones This article suggests that “. Landscape and Nursery Association. piercing noise that may cause nausea. The data will help scientists follow the migration of blue whales off the West Coast”. dizziness.” Vancouver’s chief environmental health officer is recommending immediate restrictions on the hours when leaf blowers can be used. The union movement has commissioned a labor law firm to prepare a test case aimed at exposing a debilitating new workplace condition known as “acoustic shock”. Melbourne. scientists have detected the sound of creation. say researchers who have analysed the purring of different feline species. Vancouver. Source: The Vancouver Sun.” The article concludes “groups have asked the U. 2001. Melbourne. executive director of architects Reid Campbell. cheetah and caracal. 2001. 2001. Acoustic shock—described as a sudden loud. It had taken technicians several months of pre-recording sound for the event.” Other scientific teams are researching whether “sound treatment” could be used to halt osteoporosis and even renew bone growth in post-menopausal women. occupational health and safety experts say acoustics could well be the new industrial compensation battle ground of the future. and 20-50 Hertz for the puma. and to restrict leaf blowing to match business hours on weekdays and Saturdays within 50 meters of residential homes. although the noise would be more akin to a finger tap near the ear than a shriek cutting the air. Melbourne.
” Pressure is now on the state to build a 4-foot-tall concrete “tire barrier” or guardrail along the freeway shoulder that could help reduce the noise further. An attorney for the academy indicates that the noise generated should be weighed in the context of other normal city noises that occur throughout the day. New York. and students chanting cadence has disturbed many neighbors during the 25 minute drills. The survey is to be completed by the summer of 2004. The sound of blowing whistles.” The attorney suggests that the sound of the drills is part of the normal mix of city sound. The outer pillars. we’ve got people who can finally talk in their back yard—but now can’t talk in their front yard.
Musical Pillars. For a wide-ranging catalog of books and CDs by many people on sound and soundscapes.independent. In fact.. the incredible sculptural work is of the highest standard and is the pinnacle of Vijayanagar art. “. The city ordinance prohibits only noise that “annoys or disturbs a reasonable person of normal sensibilities. a fetus should be able to twist out of earshot. the once quiet site has become the center of traffic sound where guides often have to shout in order to be heard.edu) has the largest collection of natural sounds in the world. Silencing Stonehenge Stonehenge has been an international archaeological attraction that today no longer sits remotely on a vast open plain. with more than 150. Source: New York Times. because the clatter is sharply confined to a pencilpoint swath.wiggle more during ultrasound scans than when resting undisturbed. 2002. The researchers. A ruling will be made in the near future. however. According to Pat Sullivan. The Nature Sounds Society’s site (naturesounds.000 recordings. Additional input from local authorities will facilitate a calculation of noise in most every location. Residents claim that at its peak.000 foot-long wall for $1. industrial and other noises blocking out the natural world. Sound Wall Not Effective The Oregon Department of Transportation built a 5. 2002. much of the noise carries over the wall. a field guide intended to train the ear to identify birds by their calls. USA. doors. from the Mayo Foundation in Rochester. Frustrated by the sluggish economy. is widely available for $21. the disc had originated as a banquet favor for a meeting of ornithologists.000 recordings. although this practice is being actively discouraged as the pillars are somewhat the worse for wear. Source: Eugene Register Guard. 2002. 1996. and turn up music to mask the sound. The Macaulay Library of Natural Sounds at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology (birds. From news source. noted that a number of new resources make exploring the jungles of Africa or the bird song of morning possible for many who otherwise live in urban environments filled with radio. chairwoman of a local neighborhood group. Neighbors indicate they have had to close windows. Supporters of the President answer by turning their TV sets at full volume and set off firecrackers. The authors noted.uk/uk/environment/ story. A new CD. some of which can last up to five hours in length.uk.
Photograph by Hildegard Westerkamp
school change its outdoor drills for its 130 students. Birding by Ear (Houghton Mifflin). Noise meters will be located throughout the country and mapping done by computer using the Ordnance Survey. Work will begin in 2002 to tunnel road traffic under the monument. noise mitigation measures may eventually be the result. as shown here. Source: Scientific American. Two CD compilations have come out from the radio show The Pulse of the Planet. With a major highway passing within feet of the northern stones and another to the south. the opponents and supporters of Venezuela’s president Hugo Chavez are conducting an “earsplitting” duel in which the sound of banging pots and pans is played against firecrackers and the sound of blaring TV sets. Although the wall reduces traffic noise by 9 to 12 decibels. called The Diversity of Animal Sounds. the protesters make noise during the President’s televised speeches. that their study does not suggest a risk to the child. The Judge will need to decide the case on his assessment of what is offensive to a person of “normal sensibilities.jsp?story=251159) March 4. Although it was never finished or consecrated. Another vast collection is the wildlife section of the British Library’s national sound archive (bl. presented their findings to the Acoustical Society of America. January 25. Source:Independent. The British Government. Oregon know if he will have the
Developing an Ear for Nature’s Untuned Orchestra (excerpts) James Gorman. as well as audio samples.. The Vittala Temple in Hampi.co. And for some people.co. car. Independent. The show can be heard on more than 300 radio stations in the US and the CDs can be ordered on the Web site. shouted commands. has found the money to restore silence to Stonehenge.pulseplanet.87 million along a stretch of Interstate 105 to separate nearby residents from freeway traffic. are known as the musical pillars as they reverberate when tapped. Mapping UK Noise Levels Michael McCarthy Environmental Editor. Source: Eugene Register Guard. the sound of the drills overpowers all traffic noise. February. Minn. Venezuela Noise War According to the Associated Press.363 square miles of England is to be mapped in one of the biggest exercises of its kind.org) has a variety of sounds and links to a number of other sites.co. So far there are no winners in the noise competition although some believe that the sound of fireworks overwhelms the banging of kitchen utensils. Source: AP Military Drills Bother Neighbors A Municipal Court judge will soon let neighbors of a military-style charter school in Eugene. reports that noise levels over all 50. is one of three World Heritage Monuments in South India.com. This has generated numerous complaints to city officials.” As enrollment has increased so has the noise at the school.uk..com). One thing both sides agree on is that there are few restful nights when the President speaks to the nation. with more than 130. It was so well received that the lab decided to work on it and sell it to the public. the head of the Cornell Lab. in a recent New York Times article. after decades of criticism.html). try earthear. Source: Lonely Planet.uk/ collections/sound-archive/wild.
. Karnataka. produced by Jim Metzner (www. According to John Fitzpatrick.cornell.(http:// news. is a compilation from the Macaulay Library of Natural Sounds at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in Ithaca. People lean out of windows banging on pots and pans.
is in the process of developing a CD-ROM for children on attentive listening.proscenia. The first person to identify all the animals is the winner.learn. state and local government workers. 59 illus. The accompanying audio cassette includes an excerpt from Jim Metzner’s radio Program “Sound Memories”. Animal Soundtracks by Living and Learning is one game parents can find that has special appeal for kids ages 4-8. ISBN 0-262-73130-4 Price $19. 2. understanding that everyone is at risk for NIHL. parents. Germany. It includes activities to sharpen their listening skills and help develop an understanding of sounds and their meanings. people. a division of Guardian Educational Interactive. a small town in Bavaria. trains and a breakfast (among other memories). The site also provides activities that will help children to “fine tune” their listening skills as well as explore the world soundscapes of animals.html CD-ROM: OpenEar Proscenia Interactive. and the general public. There is even the suggestion that students exchange recordings with schools located in another country. featuring apples.htm Curriculum Guide: Sound Adventures The thirty-six page Sound Adventures curriculum guide with accompanying audio cassette was written to provide teachers of German with a series of learning activities based upon the development of listening skills and the principles of acoustic ecology. e. workers. Weiss MIT PRESS. that there are many ways of describing sounds.nidcd.co.gov/health/wise/index. contains a variety of games. explore sounds using their sense of hearing.co. developing hearing loss prevention programs.edu/medialit/wfae/curriculum/kid/menu. in partnership with other organizations are engaged in this educational effort.edu Order by mail: The MIT Press
. Sound Adventures was written and prepared by Gudrun Hommel-Ingram.nih. This web site has a lot of educational material for children and adult learners related to hearing. Educators should contact: Teachers of German (AATG). hearing loss. enhancing imagination.Resources
Board Game with Cassette: Animal Soundtracks Children’s learning-to-listentype educational products are not easily found on today’s toy store shelf. and the environment beyond. There is also a clip in which the listener is invited to a Mexican wedding. LTD. Its emphasis is on developing products that stress educational value and enjoyment. Educators will find the Sounds All Around Us web site at: http:// www.g.. The tape can be started at any point on either side.nidcd. employees. The activities are of value in helping children build an awareness of the importance of hearing and the problems of noise-induced hearing loss.gov/health/ kids/teachers/index. The web site is located at: http://www. Other sound adventures explore the Oktoberfest in Munich and a subtropical night in the swamps of South Florida. and student-produced materials such as a listening experience in Eggenfelden. children. Animal Soundtracks includes 4 lotto boards. becoming aware of and communicating about the sound environment. unions. e. The instructional objectives. and Ulrike Tietze. entertainment industry. Living and Learning is a UK-based company that has been producing educational materials for use in schools and homes for many years.org Webpage: www.aatg. expected for release in late 2002. All of these can easily be integrated into other subject areas. . The site comprises six lessons on the topic of sound and hearing designed for Year 1 students. There are four specific learning objectives: children will • identify a range of familiar sounds • match sounds to their sources • describe sounds using a range of appropriate vocabulary • group sounds according to whether they are loud or quiet In the process of mastering these objectives students should learn that there are many different sound sources. The cassette tape is recorded on both sides. make observations about sounds by listening carefully. Increase awareness about noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among all audiences. As each sound is identified the child places a colored token on the picture. industry. The cassette also includes a soundwalk with Hildegard Westerkamp and Susie Kozawa through downtown Seattle in 1996. expanding the availability of hearing protection devices. It is suggested that the activities could be adapted for younger or older children as well.uk/primarylessons/ks1/ sounds1/intro. NJ 08034-3668 Phone: 856-795-5553 Email: headquarters@aatg. include: enhancing listening skills. They also explore the science of sound and the value of attentive listening. Student activities include listening exercises. A small six-page guide provides descriptive information about each of the 30 animals represented in the game. soundwalks. health professionals. For more information see: http://www. It can be found in toy stores that sell imported products or on the Internet at a retail price of about $15.org Web Site: Kid’s Ear Page This section of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology’s web site aims to encourage children to listen to all the sounds around them. Motivate all audiences to take action against NIHL by understanding the problem and its solutions. Although the guide outlines a curriculum with lesson plans and classroom projects related to German language instruction. and that sound can be loud and quiet.National Institutes of Health outreach program. 30 coloured tokens. in addition to the development of language skills.g. 112 Haddontowne Court #104 Cherry Hill.net
Experimental Sound and Radio Edited by Allen S. Four children can play at one time. or they can be divided into two separate lessons. The objectives of the coalition are to: 1. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). Completing all the activities can take nearly an hour and a half. teachers. community. November 2000 160 pp. The Sound Adventures curriculum guide contains plenty of material to get new teachers started in acoustic ecology. and noise in our environment.nih. an association of prosocial independent media producers.Gretchen LaTurner. becoming aware of acoustic ecology. Animal Soundtracks is a fun product. which children can use at home or in the car. Each side contains the same 60 animal sound sequences in a different order. The site includes instructions on how to conduct a listening walk and other activities that encourage examining issues related to noise pollution. Robert Mann.uk.95/£13. and other interactive adventures that facilitate learning about human made and natural soundscapes. Web Site: Sounds All Around Us Elementary teachers looking for learning activities related to soundscape education will find the Sounds All Around Us web site a useful resource. Children listen to animal sounds and then match each to the picture of an animal on a lotto board. It is provided by Learn. regardless of their main subject. and an audio cassette.htm Web Site: Wise Ears! Wise Ears! is a national campaign in the US to prevent noise-induced hearing loss. and nature. teachers in other curricular areas will find many of the activities useful..95 (PAPER) Order by e-mail: mitpress-orders@mit. getting to know and to appreciate other cultures via sound.htm Web Site: I Love What I Hear! This teachers guide for grades three through six is part of the US Department of Health and Human Services . advocating changes in the workplace. and enhancing creativity and self-expression. readings.. The web site is located at: http:// www.. However.00. USA. and the keeping of sound journals. Each board has nine images from which to choose the appropriate one.Students also document soundscapes using field tape recorders. The Kid’s Ear Page is located at: http:/ /interact. cities. The disc. It includes articles about listening to sounds in a child’s home.uoregon.
The book includes a new piece by Allen Weiss on the origins of sound recording. many of them from third world or southern nations themselves. 2001 Tucson. practice. colonialist conceit that has no place in the environmental plans of newly developing nations. and the resulting recordings are wonderfully rich raw material for her studio-based compositions. Source: promotional flyer Touring Exhibition of Sound Environments (TESE) A 48 page colour booklet including 3 CDs is available. Smith University of North Carolina Press. This book. Terri Kapsalis. Source: promotional flyer Additional Titles Received Listening to Nineteenth Century America Author: Mark M. Mary Louise Hill. she avoids newage clichés. Nature Author: David Rothenberg The University of Georgia Press. Dwight Frizzell. This includes:
which have been previously released on CD. Christof Migone. Linking in original ways the improvised in nature. Lou Mallozzi. Contributors : John Corbett.edu ISBN 0-8165-2063-1 $19. Rothenberg touches on a wide range of music traditions. India. Sudden Music will help all readers experience the world as a musical place. from Reb Nachman’s stories to John Cage’s aleatory. and radio as an electronic memento mori.uapress. Richard Foreman. Georgia 30602 USA ISBN 0-8203-2318-7 $29. has an important place in any society’s environmental thought and policy. as well as the United States. to include the perspectives and problems of developing nations. and philosophical reflection. and while the overall tone is embracingly atmospheric. surprising power. The CD begins with a morning chorus of bird song along a small creek. full of wonderful events that come out of nowhere to create a strange and rhythmic harmony. South Africa. 30 of this journal: an article by Gregg Wagstaff where he writes about his soundscape work with a class of children on the island of Lewis—the same children that can be heard on the CDs. cultural.” It takes us home to a natural world that functions outside of logic where harmony and dissonance. Brazil. Allen S. political. and writer and is an associate professor of philosophy at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. co-produced by Conservation International and EarthEar. this collection breaks new ground in global environmentalism. Our contributors. 2002 Athens. Improvisation is everywhere. But the idea of wilderness must evolve. and utopias. capuchin monkeys. Half the revenue received from sales of this disc will be sent directly to the Caratinga Biological station. Gregory Whitehead. Classic debates in global conservation policy are introduced and contrasted: Can nature be honestly restored to a pristine state by human action? Does the preservation of wilderness always put people second behind animals and plants? Can local and indigenous people be trusted to watch over their own wild homes and resources? Or is policing by internationally sanctioned authorities required? With contributions both evocative and pragmatic. Keller. Sudden Music presents a musical way of knowing that can closely engage us with the world and open us to its spontaneity. Kaye Mortley.” said Zen patriarch Hui Neng. X. musician. An afternoon storm gives way to an especially engaging evening frog chorus to end the disc. and feminist. Susan Stone. issue. focusing on the endangered muriqui (or woolly spider monkey). AlexandraL. including intimate portraits of the daily lives of primates. 520 621 1441 USA www. The accompanying audio disc features eleven original compositions by Rothenberg. “is a means of rapid transformation. Sound. argue the opposite: that wilderness. to support the important work being done there to study and protect this endangered habitat and soundscape. the disembodiment of the radiophonic voice. For more details contact: tese@earminded. Jay Mandeville.Kenya. which originally appeared as a special issue of TDR/The Drama Review. and instrumentation. Douglas Kahn. AZ. none of
Grooved Whale by Lisa Walker EarthEar www. neotropical soundscapes from the Caratinga Biological Station in Brazil’s disappearing Atlantic Rainforest.95 paperback The editors of the award-winning environmental cultural journal Terra Nova have expanded a special issue of the magazine into the first anthology to consider wilderness as a global. David Rothenberg is a philosopher. then moves into the forest for visits with each of the three main species of primates. David Williams. An especially unique segment observes the mating activities of the White-bearded Manakin. composition. and is an excellent place to start a discussion on the topic in classroom or in the field. a small bird which engages in an extraordinary aerial display. and experimental possibilities of radiophony and sound art. Aquatic canyon walls and open spaces create a cathedral-like presence for her sound. USA Art making and criticism have focused mainly on the visual media. and Nepal to describe from close observation the improvisational traditions that inform and inspire his own art.earthear. Writing not as a critic but as a practicing musician.uarizona. marmosets. India. Taking the approach that there is no single entity that constitutes “radio. M. the essays explore various aspects of its apparatus. Rothenberg draws on his own extensive travels to Scandinavia.) Sudden Music: Improvisation.95 including audio CD “Music. René Farabet. Walker plays violin into underwater landscapes.com This CD. not just American. The World and the Wild is the first anthology to consider wilderness as a global concern.JupitterLarsen. the Phillipines. Our contributors and their stories come from all over the
planet: Nepal. Source: website
CD 1—Sounds of Harris & Lewis CD 2—Sound Poems and Portrait CD 3—Machair Soundwalks Price: £25 GBP + postage £20 GBP for WFAE members. says David Rothenberg. including several calls and popping and snapping sounds from its wings. She adds electronics ranging from spacy to funky. Weiss. Its nine extended tracks of natural soundscapes explore the rich acoustic ecology of the area. presents lush. Rev. albeit in often different forms. These essays show paths toward this evolution. and many birds. erotic fantasy. Tony Dove. Source: website The World and the Wild Edited by David Rothenberg and Marta Ulvaeus The University of Arizona Press. The approaches include historical. tension and release work in surprising ways. and she builds the pieces around especially interesting and well-recorded whale songs. popular cultural. Roberts. tree frogs. using her classical training to
.earthear. Topics include the formal properties of radiophony. explores the myriad aesthetic. It was produced to accompany the Touring Exhibition of Sound Environments (TESE). G.” but rather a multitude of radios. Chile. semiotic. travelogue.Joe Milutis. Weaving memoir.Five Cambridge Center Cambridge. aesthetic implications of psychopathology. Ellen Zweig.com Here’s a wholly new approach to making music for and from whale songs. 2001 Chapel Hill and London ISBN: 080782657X
Caratinga: Soundscapes from Brazil’s Atlantic Rainforest by Douglas Quin EarthEar www. This book aims to argue against a truism of environmentalism: that the idea of wilderness is a northern. Mexico. Mark S. forms. creating a sonic overview of the cycle of day and night in the forest. archeological. and his book is a testament to its creative. gender differences in broadcast musical voices and in narrative radio. and also featuring howler monkeys. MA 02142-1493.org (See also p.
This CD is being released as a partnership between EarthEar and the Bosavi People’s Fund. Papua New Guinea by Steven Feld EarthEar Website: www. Derived from field recordings with varying degrees of manipulation.
the unused sounds to composer/improvisor Slavek Kwi. at other times the roar of an airplane or the whistling of the wind. creating a rich sonic diary.com
splitting all revenues from sales of Rainforest Soundwalks equally. Yokohama. Walker has spent years pursuing three complementary paths: classical music training. Dallas Simpson. cutting edge media technology.com Sargasso CD distributed worldwide by <http://www. Past releases of his include Highway and Brooklyn Bridge. insects. sounds that are filtered out or considered non-musical. Source: website Sounding Soundscape Composition Curated by John Levack Drever Sonic Arts Network The Jerwood Space. and the lush vegetation.org/labels/m_prime. The Big Chill and others.Paccard Eric La Casa & Slavek Kwi Website: www. 171 Union Street London SE1 0LN. it is a sublime blend of pure natural voices. Source: website L-Fields Michael Prime http://www. when individual voices can be more easily heard. and field research in Alaska. His compositions include Les Pierres du Seuil. These sounds are recorded. amphibians. Scott Smallwood. Mike is a skilled jazz pianist himself who in the last few years has become a prominent producer and re-mixer of recording projects for Transglobal Underground.” Source: website The Big Picture. with contact microphones buried just below the surface of the soil.com American sound artist John Hudak crafts minimalist recordings based on the repetition of sounds below the usual threshold of hearing. to an evening ambience of ringing insects and frogs. L-Fields.org This compilation of soundscape compositions curated by John Levack Drever explores work that re-connects reproduced sound back to its autochthonous context. Temple of Sound and Rizwan-Muazzin Qawwali (Real World). Steven Feld returns with this long-awaited purely environmental sound follow-up. Drawing from a wide range of musical sources.Paccard is based on ten hours of recordings carried out in a bell foundry in Annecy. John Levack Drever. Discover Magazine. France. work that seeks to comprehend and explore further our everyday auditory experience. its nine tracks feature the very different compositional approaches of Thomas Gerwin.sonicartsnetwork. With stunning depth of field and gradually shifting sonic focus. A sound-collage journey from Japan to London Mike Willox Sargasso PO Box 10565 London N1 8SR UK Website: http://www. Back in London in his Loungescape studios he created a unique musical sound-collage.html Michael Prime is a French musician who has released his new album. subtle studio mixing.a loping. La Casa used some of these sounds to compose a piece. work that strives to establish a dialogue between the sounds and the sites from which they were extrapolated.org> Mike Willox’s debut solo album was sparked off by a tour in Japan where he collected local urban sounds and atmospheres from the streets of Tokyo. Once manufacturing costs are recouped. This CD consists entirely of “bioelectric recordings of living plants”. and from jazz musicians jamming to the heartbeat of his unborn daughter Sapphire. the BPF monies will go to Bosavi for the benefit of its people and land. Source: website La Fonderie.. La Casa and Kwi then collaborated on a third piece based on the remaining sounds. The son of world-class jazz wind-player Roy Willox. The bioelectric characteristics of each plant was directed to a battery powered oscillator and the sounds the oscillator made were recorded. sound and installation artist Eric La Casa has been investigating the field of sound for the past ten years. Two to four stereo recordings are layered in subtle ways to forge a slowly shifting panorama of sound. Willox seamlessly goes from electronica ambiences to sounds of pianos being tuned. Although made up of individual tracks. Feld offers four distinct audio immersions that explore the ways in which the voice of the forest changes during the course of a day. The result is a far-reaching and often humorous exploration of cultures and moods. notes: “Both have.fr. work that explores and underlines aspects of place. José Luis Carles. His latest CD Tall Grasses is a work based on recordings made in a field of grass in upstate New York on a windy day. Gabriele Proy and Werner Cee. established by Steve Feld to administer royalites from Voices of the Rainforest. November 1999). This CD offers a fascinating blend of documentary and sound art. which weave poetic tapestries of sound from traffic recordings. their rhythms and textures being the basis for aural manipulations. Prime first connected electrodes to three plants in the wild. UK Fax : 00 44 20 7928 7338 http://www.sonoris. which has reviewed the disc. continuously challenging the listener’s perceptions.cdemusic.fm French composer. EarthEar and the Bosavi People’s Fund are
Tall Grasses Composer : John Hudak Digital Narcis dnarcis@nifty. Extensive programme notes and a paper on the characteristics of soundscapes by Drever himself round off this adventurous sonic overview of current trends in soundscape composition. deconstructed and processed. ethereal quality quite unlike even the ambient electronic experiments or New Age nature sound tracks they may at first seem to resemble. through a mid-morning soundscape highlighted by the rhythmic maraca-like rattling of cicada. culture and identity in relation to sound. one of the five prize-winning works selected by an international jury for the Soundscapes be)for(e 2000 festival (Amsterdam. which the local people so poetically experience as the “lift-up-oversounding” of the forest itself. blending in other sounds from more personal sources. Prime then mixed the sounds of each plant with the ambient sounds of the environment in which the plant was growing. His new release La Fonderie. the sound worlds conjured up by Feld draw us into the acoustic ecology of the Bosavi forest with unprecedented depth and clarity.sargasso.. and rich spirit. There are three tracks each 15 to 20 minutes in length. She brings these diverse gifts together here in a way that will appeal to listeners across the soundscape spectrum. He then sent all
. as Feld shapes his academic studies of the anthropology of sound into a subtle composition that becomes an echo of the magic that’s kept him coming back to his Bosavi home for a quarter century.collectifetcie. Source: website Rainforest Soundwalks: Ambiences of Bosavi. also featured on the CD. Each is unique. The track ‘Buzz’ was selected in July 2000 by the BBC’s ‘Mixing It’ programme as part of their nationwide New Composers search. By centering the pieces on quieter times of day. The Big Picture is meant to be heard as a continuous sonic journey.earthear. From a pre-dawn butcherbird solo of extraordinary virtuosity (which the liner notes reveal was perhaps a message from a departed friend). Gregg Wagstaff. Osaka.forge a musical response to the whales that has a delightfully lyrical musical complexity. Sometimes the sounds are like the moaning of a theremin. Feld highlights the never-ceasing interplay between birds. The Big Picture reflects Willox’s insight in sound manipulation which never loses sight of the emotional content of the material. Source: Sargasso website
Ten years after his groundbreaking Voices of the Rainforest (Ryko/The World) became one of the best-selling CDs in the history of both environmental sound and traditional world music. who produced a very different piece. work with perhaps a Green agenda in the face of imminent ecological catastrophe.
Exhibition. St. Fees: Weekend Festival Ticket (with publication) £75. rap. cultural studies. Submissions must be received by June 17 to be considered for publication on July 15. the Middle East. communications. Organised by the Staffordshire University Department of Media. 2002 For more information please contact: P.org Call for Articles Reconstruction is currently soliciting articles. music. criminology. UK July 11-13. video. folklore. Academic Papers. including.muspe. communication experts. Institute of Communication Acoustics.ca
Musica urbana: il problema dell inquinamento musicale Music in Urban Spaces: The Problem of Musical Pollution An International Conference of Soundscape Studies. film. Carla Cuomo c/o Dipartimento di Musica e Spettacolo via Barberia 4. fax +39 . Process.UK> MAXIS Presents: A Festival of Sound and Experimental Music Sheffield Hallam University. public administrators and ecologists.loa. doctors. With the support of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology Bologna University. Alan Beck. Contact information: Dr.nf. Machinations.
Universität Bochum. politicians. Sheffield. Giuseppina La Face Bianconi. sociology. the city is charged with both noise and music. lawyers. or the hypnotic pulse of dance clubs. Product and Place.org. Asia. review essays. and develops the concept of “acoustic ecology” by examining the relationship between music. America and Europe.
International Symposium on Sound Design Groupe Audition de la Société Française d’Acoustique (SFA) Paris. Stephen McAdams (Senior Research Scientist. Canada May 10-12.sound. Early thoughts about the mission of such an association have focused on developing an educational and information effort in the United States. semiotics.uk Sound of the City International Association for the Study of Popular Music IASPM-Canada Conference McGill University.org.givingvoice. Box 23232. Workshops. Installation. psychology. Washington DC) will address the topic of sound identification. may be found at : http://www. France 20-21 March. Ircam-CNRS. 40123 Bologna. Contact: Jim Cummings: Tel: +1 888-356-4918 E-Mail: jim@acousticecology. Live Performance. but not limited to: geography.AC. Please see our website for details on how to join: http://www.ws. 2002 Keynote/Works By Invitation/Open Call—Innovative. Paris) will give a paper on sound quality.ca Sounding Out Staffordshire University. Montreal. Format: Lectures. Department of Music and Performing Arts May 17-19. E-mail: cuomo@mail. emerging from the convergence of radio. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Further information. affiliate of the WFAE. voice and society. Ballas (Engineering Research Psychologist.espci. the cacophony of car sound systems providing the soundtrack to street cruising. this conference is part of an interdisciplinary and long-term research project which was started in January 2001.unibo. The research project is based in the field of soundscape studies. It is also possible that such a professional organization might develop a panel of experts that could comment on public lands management plans. and this convention in May 2002. All submissions and submission queries should be directed to: submissions@reconstruction. political science. John’s. England. Prof. Certain sounds can play a defining part in city life. stirring up debate and discussion alongside an inspiring mix of poetry. 2002 This two-day event will include a variety of papers : composer and sound designer Murray Schafer will give a lecture on the perception of sound.00 (UK Pounds Sterling) Website: www. art history. culture. Submissions are encouraged from a variety of perspectives.muspe. includes a four-year seminar offered to students at Bologna University.O.051 2092001. or other sound environment issues.it www. urban planning. and environment. an escape into silent cafés. literature. Ute Jekosch (Assistant Professor at Ruhr-
.unibo. Download Brochure from our web site: www. Alternative and X-disciplinary approaches in Sound—People. Newfoundland A1B 5J9 Canada Website: http://www. Both theoretical and empirical approaches are welcomed. Here is an opportunity to investigate the new practices and understandings of sound. granting them all the opportunity and ability to share thoughts and opinions on the most important and influential work in contemporary interdisciplinary studies.Announcements
Formation of an American Society for Acoustic Ecology Jim Cummings would like to hear from individuals who are interested in the possible formation of an American Society for Acoustic Ecology—eventually a U. economists. world and traditional music and theatre. and new media. The project. Sound and the city are intimately linked. reviews. Project. queer theory. and multimedia/ hypertext projects for its Summer 2002 special issue.it/period/saggmus Sound Symposium 2002 International Festival of New Music & the Arts July 5-13. folk.uk Contact: Daniel Rebbeck <drr@ABER. All conference participants are required to be members of IASPM. Reports. architecture.confs.fr/ds2002 Giving Voice Wales’ International Festival of the Voice Aberystwyth and Cardiff April 1-11. etc. Journalism and Cultural Studies with Sound Journal and its editor. urban sound policies. Participants such as musicologists. UK April 12-14. James A.iaspm.051 2092038 / 051 6448695. theology. story-telling. +39 . “Auto/bio/geography: Considering Space and Identity. by the Cultural Association “Il Saggiatore musicale” and by the Music and Performing Arts Department of Bologna University.” The focus of this issue is the various overlaps between life and its locale. gender studies. including leading practitioners and academics. exploring the art and practices of SOUND. 2002 The first of its kind in Italy. Join us for an uplifting compendium of voice workshops. promoted by the chair of History of Music—Faculty of Literature and Philosophy. 2002 An international Symposium of invited speakers. Whether it is the cliched sound of a saxophone emanating from a fire escape. New Products. human being. television. performances and lecturedemonstrations reflecting voices from Africa. Reconstruction is an innovative culture studies journal dedicated to fostering an intellectual community composed of scholars and their audience.S. Film.maxis. Germany) will discuss the semiotics of sound. engineers. will gather to analyse the phenomenon of musical pollution and to discuss possibilities for change. history. 2002 The 2002 IASPM-Canada conference explores the complex relationship between the city and sounds of all kinds. Italy tel. 2002 Giving Voice is a ten-day exploration of ‘The Voice Politic’—politics. including the full programme.
http://www. in conjunction with the First International Congress on Music in Medicine.net/2002 and the IIAS home page at http://www.uk/sdfva/radio/index. Silence evokes an acoustic image of the natural environment. among other things. Ralph Spintge Executive Director.org or firstname.lastname@example.org/training/ registration. Therapy and Counseling November 21—24.com> Metzner notes that he will soon be able to archive many of his radio programs online in the MP3 audio format. it is refreshing to find someone studying radio potential as an acoustic art form.html. Brandon LaBelle and Steve Roden
Pulse of the Planet new website. emotional. the impact of a sound or image that can make notions shift. The study of systems within the scope of traditional artsrelated theory. dance. modal analysis and noise and vibration.edu) and Jane Lily. In an age when radio is primarily a medium for music and informational broadcasts. PO Box 1956 Kingston NY 12402. Radio Soundscapes. US August 7-13. please contact: Professor Christine Gledhill Tel: + 44 1782-294585 E-mail: C. effect a change in the mind. John Cage In many of the poems and texts of the era of romanticism (and even afterwards) the word silence is connected to the activity of listening.uk/sound/ conference.uk Website: http://mcs. teachers who want to encourage appreciation for listening in their students. small rivers.be VIII MusicMedicine Symposium 2002 of the International Society for Music in Medicine—ISMM. relaxation excitement and connection with others and the environment. University of Georgia. 240 papers were presented and full conference proceedings were published. Paul Panhuysen I prefer never knowing when you are gonna hear something. in the UK. 17 D-58515 Luedenscheid Germany Fax: +49 2351 363035
Wherever we are. or the application of general systems methodologies to the analysis of music. It partially defines our perceptual.isma-isaac. our environment. mental noise and noise of desire—we hold history’s record for all of them.U. Proposals for presentations/papers of approximately 200 words should be submitted by April 7. and contributes to our understanding of ourselves. He also announced that the CD portion of the now out-of-print Pulse of the Planet CD/book. for all the resources of our almost miraculous technology have been thrown into the current assault against silence. Pauline Oliveros Sound exists as a phenomenal presence involved in and determining the shape of the world. Jim Metzner has recently announced that his Pulse of the Planet website has a new address: <http://www. postilions’ horns echoing through the valley. When we listen to it. For more information concerning the Three Year Certificate Program or the Five Year Apprentice Program consult the Deep Listening web site or contact: Pauline Oliveros Foundation. please visit the Arts Symposium home page at http:// www. 2002 for evaluation. to use them not as sound effects. people interested in well being. The conference is organised by the division PMA of the K. Individuals interested in the creation of radio soundscapes will enjoy exploring Alan Beck’s Radio Hub website at http:// www. will soon be released and can be ordered on the new web site. Germany. those interested in enhancing the depth of their meditation practice through listening.htm Music.
.ukc. Alan Beck is a professor in the University of Kent’s Department Of Drama. interior design. and the visual arts are areas of particular interest. Morton Feldman The twentieth century is. We want to capture and control these sounds.staffs.ac. Static between the stations. state of the art research & applications of Music in Medicine. When we ignore it.edu). we find it fascinating. Christina Kubisch It’s the quality.pulseplanet. and Cybernetics. The sound of a truck at fifty miles per hour. reveal connections unnoticed before. Rain. spiritual and psychological spaces.uga. Please submit proposals electronically in Microsoft Word format to James Rhodes. flying beetles. the significance. Germany July 31-August 3 Proposals are invited for the 4th Symposium on Systems Research in the Arts. ISMM Sportskrankenhaus Hellersen Paulmannshoeherstr. Listening takes cultivation and evolves through one’s lifetime. USA (email@example.com http://www. Shorter College. Standards and definitions will also be discussed.Gledhill@staffs. Through the entrance door of silence we enter an acoustic paradise populated by humming bees. when you are gonna see something.Leuven. it disturbs us. Inc.html ISMA International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference Leuven.deeplistening. architecture. July 31-August 3 in Baden-Baden. This site collects together Beck’s academic work on radio.deeplistening.A. USA (firstname.lastname@example.org. whistling leaves and murmuring creeks. theatre. published by the Nature Company. Therapy and Counseling. And no wonder. ISMA 2002 is part of a sequence of annual courses and biennial international conferences on structural dynamics. and our relationship to each other. but as musical instruments. to be held in conjunction with the 14th International Conference on Systems Research. Physical noise. chirping crickets.jcrhodes. The last event was organised in September 2000 and was attended by more than 350 people. Informatics.org/ Register on line: http://www. For more complete contact information and details about the symposium.Announcements
For further information. For further information please write to: Dr. and the Choreography of Space” Baden-Baden. 2002. USA Tel: +1 845 338-5984 Fax: +1 845 338-5986 E-mail: email@example.com. 2002 The Deep Listening Retreat is for ear minded people: musicians and artists interested in expanding their understanding of sound and it’s effects on the body and mind. Everyone with healthy ears can hear. Aldous Huxley Hearing is an involuntary physical act that happens through our primary sense organ when sound waves impinge upon the ear.edu. what we hear is mostly noise. 2002 The Conference will present an overview of achievements in the field. Deep Listening Retreat with Pauline Oliveros—Composer Heloise Gold—T’ai Ch’i/Movement Ione—Author/psychotherapist at Rudi’s Big Indian Center Up State New York. Belgium September 16-18. Environmental Design. the Age of Noise.
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Ina Fergusson (aged 10)
.Birds in the sky –“tweet-tweet”. a cold breeze passes by. Butterflies flapping their wings.