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1. a. Define O.R and discuss its characteristics. [5 marks] b. Explain the nature of Operations Research and its limitations. [5 marks]
Ans. a. Definition of Operation Research Churchman, Aackoff and Aruoff defined Operations Research as: the application of scientific methods, techniques and tools to operation of a system with optimum solutions to the problems, where 'optimum' refers to the best possible alternative. Operations Research can also be defined as The use of scientific methods to provide criteria for decisions regarding man, machine, and systems involving repetitive operations. Some key features of OR are as follows: OR is system oriented. A problem can be scrutinized from an organizations perspective by OR. The results can be optimal for one part of the system, while the same can be unfavorable for another part of the system. OR imbibes an interdisciplinary team approach. Since no single individual can have a thorough knowledge of all fast developing scientific know-how, personalities from different scientific and managerial cadre form a team to solve the problem. OR makes use of scientific methods to solve problems. OR increases effectiveness of the managements decision-making ability. OR makes use of computers to solve large and complex problems. OR offers a quantitative solution. OR also takes into account the human factors. b. Nature of Operation Research The scientific method in OR study generally involves the following three phases.



Phases of Operation Research 1. Judgment Phase: This phase includes the following activities: a) Determination of the operations b) Establishment of the objectives and values related to the operations c) Determination of the suitable measures of effectiveness d) Formulation of the problems relative to the objectives 2. Research Phase: This phase utilizes the following methodologies: a) Operations and data collection for a better understanding of the problems b) Formulation of hypothesis and model c) Observation and experimentation to test the hypothesis on the basis of additional data d) Analysis of the available information and verification of the hypothesis using pre-established measure of effectiveness e) Prediction of various results and consideration of alternative methods 3. Action Phase: The action phase involves making recommendations for the decision process. The recommendations can be made by those who identified and presented the problem or anyone who influences the operation in which the problem has occurred.

Limitations of Operation Research The limitations are more related to the problems of model building, time and money factors. Magnitude of computation Modern problems involve a large number of variables. The magnitude of computation makes it difficult to find the interrelationship. Intangible factors Non quantitative factors and human emotional factor cannot be taken into account. Communication gap There is a wide gap between the expectations of managers and the aim of research professionals. Time and Money factors When you subject the basic data to frequent changes then incorporation of them into OR models becomes a costly affair. Human Factor Implementation of decisions involves human relations and behavior.

2. a. What are the essential characteristics of a linear programming model? [5 marks] b. Explain the graphical method of solving a LPP involving two variables. [5 Marks]
Ans. a. Essential Characteristics of a Linear Programming Model Linearity You need to express both the objective function and constraints as linear inequalities. Deterministic All co-efficient of decision variables in the objective and constraints expressions are known and finite. Additivity The value of the objective function and the total sum of resources used must be equal to the sum of the contributions earned from each decision variable and the sum of resources used by decision variables respectively. Divisibility The solution of decision variables and resources can be non-negative values including fractions. b. Graphical method of solving a LPP involving two variables The method of solving a LPP on the basis of the above analysis is known as the graphical method. The working rule for the method is as follows. Step 1 Write down the equations by replacing the inequality symbols by the equality symbols in the given constraints. Step 2 Plot the straight lines represented by the equations obtained in step I. Step 3 Identify the convex polygon region relevant to the problem. Decide on which side of the line, the half-plane is located. Step 4 Determine the vertices of the polygon and find the values of the given objective function Z at each of these vertices. Identify the greatest and least of these values. These are respectively the maximum and minimum value of Z. Step 5 Identify the values of (x1, x2) which correspond to the desired extreme value of Z. This is an optimal solution of the problem.

3. a. Explain the simplex procedure to solve a linear programming problem. [5 marks] b. Explain the use of artificial variables in L.P [5 marks].
Ans. a. Simplex Method To solve a problem by the simplex method, follow the steps below. 1. Introduce slack variables (Sis) for < type of constraint. 2. Introduce surplus variables (Sis) and artificial variables (Ai) for > type of constraint. 3. Introduce only Artificial variable for = type of constraint. 4. Cost (Cj) of slack and surplus variables will be zero and that of artificial variable will be M 5. Find Zj - Cj for each variable.

6. Slack and artificial variables will form basic variable for the first simplex table. Surplus variable will never become basic variable for the first simplex table. 7. Zj = sum of [cost of variable x its coefficients in the constraints Profit or cost coefficient of the variable]. 8. Select the most negative value of Zj - Cj. That column is called key column. The variable corresponding to the column will become basic variable for the next table. 9. Divide the quantities by the corresponding values of the key column to get ratios; select the minimum ratio. This becomes the key row. The basic variable corresponding to this row will be replaced by the variable found in step 6. 10. The element that lies both on key column and key row is called Pivotal element. 11. 12. Once an artificial variable is removed as basic variable, its column will be deleted from next iteration. 13. For maximization problems, decision variables coefficient will be same as in the objective function. For minimization problems, decision variables coefficients will have opposite signs as compared to objective function. 14. Values of artificial variables will always is M for both maximization and minimization problems. 15. The process is continued till all Zj - Cj >= 0 b. Use of artificial variables in L.P Consider a LPP given in the standard form To optimize z = c1 x1 + c2 x2 + ---+ cn xn Subject to a11 x1 + a12 x2 + -- + an x n S1 = b1 a21 x1 + a22 x2 + ----+ a2n xn S2 = b2 . am1 x1 + am2 x2 + -- + amn xn Sm = bm x1, x2, --- xn, S1, S2 ---, Sm 0. To each of the constraint equations, add a new variable called an artificial variable on the left hand side of every equation which does not contain a slack variable. Subsequently every constraint equation will contain either a slack variable or an artificial variable. The introduction of slack and surplus variables does not alter either the constraints or the objective function. Therefore, you can incorporate such variables in the objective function with zero coefficients. However, the artificial variables do change the constraints as these are added only to the left hand side of the equations. The newly derived constraint equation is equivalent to the original equation, only if all the artificial variables have value zero. Artificial variables are incorporated into the objective function with very large positive coefficient M in the minimization program and very large negative coefficientM in the maximization program guaranteeing optimal solutions. The large positive and negative coefficients represent the penalty incurred for making a unit assignment to the artificial variable. Thus the standard form of LPP can be given as follows: Optimize Z = CT X Subject to AX = B, And X 0 Where X is a column vector with decision, slack, surplus and artificial variables, C is the vector corresponding to the costs; A is the coefficient matrix of the constraint equations and B is the column vector of the right hand side of the constraint equations.

4. a. Explain the economic interpretation of dual variables. [5 marks] b. Define: Primal Problem and Dual Problem. [5 Marks]
Ans. a. Economic interpretation of dual variables For any pair of feasible primal and dual solutions, (Objective value in the maximization problem) (Objective value in the minimization problem). At the optimum, the relationship holds as a strict equation. Hence, for any two primal and dual feasible solutions, the values of the objective functions, when finite, must satisfy the following inequality. n m z = cj xj <= bi yi = w j=1 i=1 The strict equality, z = w, holds true when both the primal and dual solutions are optimal. Consider the optimal condition z = w. Given that the primal problem represents a resource allocation model, you can think of z as representing the profit in rupees. bi represents the number of units available of the resource i. Therefore, we can express the equation z = w as profit (Rs) = (units of resource i) x (profit per unit of resource i)

This means that the dual variables yi, represent the worth per unit of resource i. Variables yi are also called as dual prices, shadow prices and simplex multipliers. With the same logic, the inequality z < w associated with any two feasible primal and dual solutions is interpreted as (profit) < (worth of resources). This relationship implies that as long as the total return from all the activities is less than the worth of the resources, the corresponding primal and dual solutions are not optimal. Optimality is achieved only when the resources have been exploited to their fullest extent, which can happen only when the input equals the output (profit). Economically, the system is said to be unstable (non optimal) when the input (worth of the resources) exceeds the output (return). Stability occurs only when the two quantities are equal. b. Primal Problem and Dual Problem To every L.P.P there corresponds another L.P.P. if the first L.P.P is called the Primal Problem then the later is called the Dual Problem and vice-versa. Every primal problem has a unique dual problem and while solving an L.P.P by simplex method, we are at the same time solving its dual problem as well. Let us consider the following problem: Let x1 gms of the food X and x2 gms of food Y be purchased and the problem is to minimize the cost. To minimize z = 20x1+30x2 Subject to 5x1+8x2>=80 6x1+10x2>=100 And x1, x2>=0 This is a primal problem. Now we may consider the problem from a different angle. Let a dealer of Vitamins A and B required for two types of foods X and Y which is required to be produced by the customer and the dealer knows the units of Vitamins A and B to be present in each gram of the foods. Let v1 and v2 be the sale price of each unit of vitamins A and B respectively. Then this same problem to the dealer becomes to maximize the sale price of the Vitamins so that the cost prices of X and Y do not exceed the given cost values. Thus in L.P.P we may express the problem as To maximize w=80v1+100v2 Subject to 5v1+6v2<=20 8v1+10v2<=30 v1, v2>=0 This problem is called the dual problem of the previous L.P.P and vice versa.

5. Describe the North-West Corner rule for finding the initial basic feasible solution in the transportation problem? [10 marks]
Ans. North West Corner rule Step1 The first assignment is made in the cell occupying the upper left hand (north-west) corner of the transportation table. The maximum feasible amount is allocated here is x11 = min (a1, b1) Either the capacity of origin O1 is used up or the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied or both. This value of x11 is entered in the upper left hand corner (small square) of cell (1, 1) in the transportation table. Step 2 If b1 > a1, the capacity of origin O is exhausted and the requirement at destination D1 is still not satisfied. Then at least one variable in the first column will have to take on a positive value. Move down vertically to the second row and make the second allocation of magnitude: x21 = min (a2, b1 x21) in the cell (2, 1) This either exhausts the capacity of origin O2 or satisfies the remaining demand at destination D1. If a1 > b1, the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied, but the capacity of origin O1 is not completely exhausted. Move to the right in a horizontal position to the second column to make the second allocation of magnitude: x12 = min (a1 x11, b2) in the cell (1, 2) This either exhausts the remaining capacity of origin O1 or satisfies the demand at destination D2. If b1 = a1, the origin capacity of O1 is completely exhausted as well as the requirement at destination is completely satisfied, then there is a tie at the second allocation. An arbitrary tie breaking choice is made. Make the second allocation of magnitude x12 = min (a1 a1, b2) = 0 in the cell (1, 2) OR x21 = min (a2, b1 b2) = 0 in the cell (2, 1) Step 3

Start from the new north-west corner of the transportation table satisfying the destination requirements and exhausting the origin capacities one at a time, moving down towards the lower right corner of the transportation table until all the rim requirements are satisfied. When all the rim requirements are satisfied, an initial feasible solution to the TP is obtained.

6. Use the simplex method to solve the following problem. [10 Marks] Maximise z = 3x1 x2 Subject to the constraints 2x1 + x2 2 x1 + 3x2 3 x2 4, x1, x2 0
Ans. Maximise Z = 3x1 x2 Subject to the constraints 2x1 + x2 2 x1 + 3x2 3 x2 4, x1, x2 0 Using surplus variable x3 and slack variables x4, x5 and the artificial variable x6 the standard form of the given problem is: Maximize Z = 3x1-x2+0.x3+0.x4+0.x5-M.x6 Subject to 2x1+x2-x3+0.x4+0.x5+x6 = 2 x1+3x2+0.x3+x4+0.x5+0.x6 = 3 0.x1+x2+0.x3+0.x4+x5+0.x6 = 4 and x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6 0 where M is a very big positive quantity. cj B 2 3 4 1 2 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 1 0 -2M-3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 -1 2 1 3 1 -M+1 1/2 5/2 1 1/2 3 5 1 10 0 3 -1 0 0 M -1/2 1/2 0 -3/2 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 -M 6 1 0 0 0 1/2 0 0

CB -M 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0

B 6 4 5 zj-cj 1 4 5 zj-cj 1 3 5 zj-cj

xB x6 x4 x5 x1 x4 x5 x1 x3 x5

2/2 = 1 3/1 = 3

Since all zj-cj 0 and artificial variable is not in the solution so the solution is: x1 = 3, x2 = 0. Therefore Z max = 9-0 = 0

1. a. Explain the terms: Pure strategy, Mixed Strategy, Saddle point, Competitive games, Payoff matrix, Rectangular games. [5 marks] b. Explain the Maximin and Minimax principle used in Game Theory. [5 marks]
Ans. a. Pure strategy During the game, if a players strategy is to adopt a specific course of action, irrespective of the opponents strategy, the players strategy is called pure strategy. Mixed strategy If a player chooses his course of action according to pre-assigned probabilities, then the players strategy is called mixed strategy. Thus, if player A decides to adopt courses of action A1 and A2with perspective probabilities 0.4 and 0.6, it is mixed strategy. Saddle Point In a two-person zero-sum game, if the maximin and the minimax are equal, the game has saddle point. Saddle point is the position where the maximin (maximum of the row minimums) and minimax (minimum of the column maximums) coincide. If the maximin occurs in the rth row and if the minimax occurs in the sth column, the position (r, s) is the saddle point. Competitive Game A game is called competitive if it has the following characteristics 1. The number of players or competitors is finite. 2. Each player has finite number of courses of action or moves. 3. A game is played when each player adopts any one course of action. 4. Every time a game is played, the corresponding combination of courses of action leads to a transaction or payment to each player. The payment is called pay-off or gain. The pay-off may be monetary (money) or some benefit, such as increased sales. 5. The players do not communicate with each other. 6. The players are aware of the rules before starting the game. Pay-Off Matrix Every time a game is played, the corresponding combination of courses of action leads to a transaction or payment to each player. The payment is called pay-off or gain. In a two-person zero-sum game with the players A and B. Let be the m courses of action for players A1, A2,.., Am. Let B1, B2,., Bn be the n courses of n action for player B. Let aij(i=1,2,m;j=1,,,n) be the pay-off (gain) of player A when he plays the course of action, Ai and player B plays the course of action Bj. Then, the following matrix is the pay-off (gain) matrix of player A :

To obtain the pay-off matrix of B, we have to write(-aij) in the place of aij in the above matrix and then write the transpose of the matrix. Rectangular Game If the sum of the gains (pay-off) of the players in a game is zero, the game is called zero-sum game. A zero-sum game with two players is called two-person zero-sum game. It is also called rectangular game. In a two-person zero-sum game, the gain of one player is the loss of the other. The two-person zero-sum game is a game where Two players participate The gain of one player is the loss of the other

Maximin Minimax Principle Solving a two-person zero-sum game Player A and player B are to play a game without knowing the other players strategy. However, player A would like to maximize his profit and player B would like to minimize his loss. Also each player would expect his opponent to be calculative. Suppose player A plays A1 .Then, his gain would be a11 ,a12 ,...a1n accordingly Bs choice would beB1 ,B2 ,...Bn .Let 1 = min{ a11 ,a12 ,...a1n } . Then, 1 is the minimum gain of A when he plays A1 (1is the minimum pay-off in the first row.) Similarly, if A plays A2 , his minimum gain is 2, the least pay-off in the second row. You will find corresponding to As play A1 ,A2 ,......Am , the minimum gains are the row minimums 1, 2,m. Suppose A chooses the course of action where i is maximum. Then the maximum of the row minimum in the pay-off matrix is called maximin. Max min The maximin is = i { j (aij) } Similarly, when B plays, he would minimize his maximum loss. The maximum loss to B is when Bj is max = j i (aij) This is the maximum pay-off in the jth column. The minimum of the column maximums in the pay-off matrix is called minimax. The minimax is Min max = j { I (aij) } If ==v (say), the maximin and the minimax are equal and the game is said to have saddle point. If < then the game does not have a saddle point.

2. a. Explain the steps involved in Monte-Carlo simulation. [ 5 marks] b. What are the advantages and limitations of using simulation? [5 marks]
Ans. a. Steps involved in Monte-Carlo Simulation In any simulation problem, the variables to be studied will be given with associated probabilities. The initial conditions will also be specified. Random numbers can be chosen from table. However, to get uniform results, the random numbers will be specified. The first step involves coding the data that is, assigning random numbers to the variable. Then identifying the relationship between the variables and run the simulation to get the results. Step 1 Convert the frequency distributions of time between arrivals and service time to cumulative probability distributions. Step 2 Allocate random numbers 00 to 99 for each of the values of time between arrivals and service time. The range allocated to each value corresponds to the value of cumulative probability. Step 3 Using the random numbers from table sample the random time of arrival and the service time for ten sets of random numbers. Step 4 Tabulate the waiting time of arrivals and idle time of servers. Step 5 Estimate the percentage waiting time of arrivals and percentage idle time of servers corresponding to the ten samples. b. Advantages of Simulation The main advantage of simulation is its range of application in business which is extremely wide. Unlike other mathematical models, simulation can be easily understood by the users and thereby facilitates their active involvement. This makes the results more reliable and also ensures easy acceptance for implementation. The degree to which a simulation model can be made close to reality is dependent upon the ingenuity of the OR team who identifies the relevant variables as well as their behavior. Simulation could be used in a queuing system. It can also be employed for a wide variety of problems encountered in production systems the policy for optimal maintenance in terms of frequency of replacement of spares or preventive maintenance, number of maintenance crews, number of equipment for handling materials, job shop scheduling, routing problems, stock control and so forth. The other areas of application include dock facilities, facilities at airports to minimize congestion, hospital appointment systems and even management games. In case of other OR models, simulation helps the manager to strike a balance between opposing costs of providing facilities (usually meaning long term commitment of funds) and the opportunity and costs of not providing them. Limitations of Simulation The simulation approach is recognized as a powerful tool for management decision-making. But One should not ignore the cost associated with a simulation study for data collection, formation of the model and the computer time as it is fairly significant. A simulation application is based on the premise that the behavior pattern of relevant variables

is known, and this very premise sometimes becomes questionable. Not always can the probabilities be estimated with ease or desired reliability. The results of simulation should always be compared with solutions obtained by other methods wherever possible, and tempered with managerial judgment.

3. a. Distinguish between PERT and CPM. What is a critical path? [ 5 marks] b. Write a short note on PERT/CPM networks in Operations Research. [5 marks]
Ans. a. Distinguish between PERT and CPM Though there are no essential differences between PERT and CPM as both of them share in common the determination of a critical path. Both are based on the network representation of activities and their scheduling that determines the most critical activities to be controlled so as to meet the completion date of the project. PERT PERT was developed in connection with an R&D work. Therefore, it had to cope with the uncertainties that are associated with R&D activities. In PERT, the total project duration is regarded as a random variable. Therefore, associated probabilities are calculated so as to characterize it. CPM CPM was developed in connection with a construction project, which consisted of routine tasks whose resource requirements and duration were known with certainty. Therefore, it is basically deterministic.

It is an event-oriented network because in the analysis of a network, emphasis is given on the important stages of completion of a task rather than the activities required to be performed to reach a particular event or task. PERT is normally used for projects involving activities of non-repetitive nature in which time estimates are uncertain. It helps in pinpointing critical areas in a project so that necessary adjustment can be made to meet the scheduled completion date of the project.

CPM is suitable for establishing a trade-off for optimum balancing between schedule time and cost of the project.

CPM is used for projects involving activities of repetitive nature.

Critical Path The application of PERT/CPM should ultimately yield a schedule specifying the start and completion time of each activity. The arrow diagram is the first step towards achieving that goal. The start and completion timings are calculated directly on the arrow diagrams using simple arithmetic. The end result is to classify the activities as critical or non-critical. An activity is said to be critical if a delay in the start of the course makes a delay in the completion time of the entire project. A critical path defines a chain of critical activities that connects the start and end events of the arrow diagram. In other words, the critical path identifies all the critical activities of a project. b. PERT/CPM Networks in OR PERT/CPM networks consist of two major components as discussed below: a) Events An event represents a point in time that signifies the completion of some activities and the beginning of new ones. The beginning and end points of an activity are thus described by 2 events usually known as the tail and head events. Events are commonly represented by circles (nodes) in the network diagram. They do not consume time and resource. Events in the network diagram are identified by numbers. Numbers are given to events such that the arrow head number is greater than the arrow tail number. b) Activities: Activities of the network represent project operations or tasks to be conducted. An arrow is commonly used to represent an activity, with its head indicating the direction of progress in the project. Activities originating from a certain event cannot start until the activities terminating at the same event have been completed. They consume time and resource. Activities are identified by the numbers of their starting (tail) event and ending (head) event.

In figure 11.3 the arrow (P.Q) extended between two events represents the activity. The tail event P represents the start of the activity and the head event Q represents the completion of the activity.

4. a. State the general form of an integer programming problem. [ 5 marks] b. Describe the branch and bound method for the solution of integer programming problem?[5marks]
Ans. a. Integer Programming Problem An integer programming problem can be described as follows: Determine the value of unknowns x1, x2, , xn So as to optimize z = c1x1 +c2x2 + . . .+ cnxn Subject to the constraints ai1 x1 + ai2 x2 + . . . + ain xn =bi , i = 1,2,,m and xj 0 , j = 1, 2, ,n Where xj being an integral value for j = 1, 2, , k n. If all the variables are forced to take only integral value that is k = n, it is called an all (or pure) integer programming problem. If some of the variables are restricted to take integral value and the remaining (n k) variables take any nonnegative value, then the problem is known as a mixed integer programming problem. b. Branch and Bound Method Let the IPP be n Maximize z = cjxj (1) j=i Subject to the constraints n aijxj<=bi i=1,2,.,m -------(2) j=1 xj is integer valued , j = 1, 2, .., r (<= n) - (3) xj >= 0 . j = r + 1, .., n (4) Further let us suppose that for each integer valued xj, we can assign lower and upper bounds for the optimum values of the variable by Lj xj Uj , j = 1, 2, . r (5) Let us consider any variable xj, and let I be some integer value satisfying Lj <= I <= Uj 1. Then clearly an optimum solution (1) through (5) also satisfies either linear constraint. Xj>= I + 1 (6) Or the linear constraint xj I (7) To explain how this partitioning helps, lets assume that there were no integer restrictions (3), and it yields an optimal solution to LPP (1), (2), (4) and (5). This indicates x1 = 1.66 (for example). Then we can formulate and solve two LPPs each containing (1), (2) and (4). But (5) for j = 1 is modified to be 2 x1 U1 in one problem and L1 x1 1 in the other. Further to each of these problems, process an optimal solution satisfying integer constraint (3). Then the solution having the larger value for z is clearly the optimum for the given IPP. However, it usually happens that one (or both) of these problems have no optimal solution satisfying (3), and thus some more computations are required. Now let us discuss, step wise, the algorithm that specifies how to apply the partitioning (6) and (7) in a systematic manner to finally arrive at an optimum solution. Lets start with an initial lower bound for z, say z(0) at the first iteration, which is less than or equal to the optimal value z*. This lower bound may be taken as the starting Lj for some xj. In addition to the lower bound z(0), you also have a list of LPPs (to be called master list) differing only in the bounds (5). To start with (the 0th iteration) the master list contains a single LPP consisting of (1), (2), (4) and (5). Let us now discuss the procedure that specifies how the partitioning (6) and (7) can be applied systematically to eventually get an optimum integer-valued solution.

5. How can you use the Matrix Minimum method to find the initial basic feasible solution in the transportation problem. [10 marks] Matrix minimum method Step 1 Determine the smallest cost in the cost matrix of the transportation table. Let it be cij. Allocate xij = min (ai, bj) in the cell (I, j ) Step 2 If xij = ai cross the ith row of the transportation table, decrease bj by ai and proceed to step 3. If xij = bj cross the ith column of the transportation table, decrease ai by bj and proceed to step 3. If xij = ai= bj cross either the ith row or the ith column, but not both. Step 3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to reduce transportation table until all the rim requirements are satisfied. Whenever the minimum cost is not unique, make an arbitrary choice among the minima. When all the rim requirements have been satisfied, an initial feasible solution has been determined.

6. Solve the following transportation problem. [10 marks]

9 7 6 6 4

12 3 5 8 4

9 7 9 11 6

6 7 11 2 2

9 5 3 2 4

10 5 11 10 2

5 6 2 9 22

Ans. 9 12 7 3 6 5 6 8 4 4

9 7 9 11 6

6 7 11 2 2

9 5 3 2 4

10 5 11 10 2

5 6 2 9 22

Since ai=bj=22. So its a balanced transportation problem. Allocation at (1,1) cell X11=min(a1, b1)=min(5,4)=4 Since (a1>b1), we move horizontally to (1,2) cell. Allocation at (1,2) cell X12=min(a1-x11,b2)=min(5-4,4)=min(1,4)=1 X22=min(a2,b2-x12)=min(6,4-1)=min(6,3)=3 X23=min(a2-x22,b3)=min(6-3,6)=min(3,6)=3 X33=min(a3,b3-x23)=min(2,6-3)=min(2,3)=2 X43=min(a4,b3-x23-x33)=min(9,6-3-2)=min(9,1)=1 X44=min(a4-x43,b4)=min(9-1,2)=min(8,2)=2 X45=min(a4-x43-x44,b5)=min(9-1-2,4)=min(6,4)=4 X46=min(a4-x43-x44-x45,b6)=min(9-1-2-4,2)=min(2,2)=2 Now all the capacities are exhausted and all the demand are satisfied. The final allocation is as follows:

9 3

12 3


3 2

5 1

9 2

11 4

3 2





Thus the basic solution is: X11=3, x12=1, x22=3, x23=3, x33=2, x43=1, x44=2, x45=4, x46=2 Therefore cost = 4x9+1x12+3x3+3x7+2x9+1x11+2x2+4x2+2x10 = 36+12+9+21+18+11+4+8+20 =139