0
C=k
1
bx
T
k
2
x
0.45 f
cu
0.95 f
y
Neutral Axis
(c)
Stressstrain curve for concrete Stressstrain curve for reinforcement
(b)
(d)
(a)
(a) Section; (b) Strain; (c) rectangular parabolic strain diagram; (d) simplified stress diagram
Moment of Resistance Simplified stress block
According to the beam section and the strain and stress diagrams,
The concrete stress is,
0.67 f
cu
/
m
= 0.67 f
cu
/ 1.5 = 0.45 f
cu
The concrete strain is 0.0035.
The steel stress is
f
y
/ 1.05 = 0.95f
y
According to the simplified stress diagram the internal forces are,
C = force in the concrete in compression
= 0.45 f
cu
x 0.9b x 0.5d
= 0.201 f
cu
bd
For the internal forced to be in equilibrium C = T ;
M
R
= Moment of Resistance
= Cz
= 0.201 f
cu
bd x 0.775d
= 0.156 f
cu
bd
2
Where the constant K=0.156, M
R
= Kf
cu
bd
2
T = force in the steel in tension
= 0.95 f
y
A
s
z = lever arm
= d 0.5 x 0.9 x 0.5d
= 0.775d
START
Carry out analysis of beam to determine
design moments(M)
Determine k from K = M/(bd
2
f
cu
)
Is K< K ?
YES
NO
No compression reinforcement required
Compression reinforcement
required
d
K
d z 95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
(
+ =
45 . 0 ) ( z d x =
z f M A
y s
95 . 0 =
Use following equations to calculate r/f area
Use following equations to calculate r/f area
(
+ =
9 . 0
'
25 . 0 5 . 0
K
d z
45 . 0 ) ( z d x =
) ' ( 95 . 0 ) ' ( '
2
d d f bd f K K A
y cu s
=
' 95 . 0 '
2
s y cu s
A z f bd f K A + =
Check for maximum and minimum reinforcement requirements for tension and compression
reinforcement
Procedure for
determining
flexural
reinforcement
Design of flanged beams
Flanged beams occur where beams are cast integral with and support a continuous floor
slab. Part of the slab adjacent to the beam is counted as acting in compression to form T
and L shape beams
The effective breadth b of flanged beams is given by
1. Tbeams web width b
w
+l
z
/10 or the actual flanged width if less
2. Lbeams web width b
w
+l
z
/5 or the actual flanged width if less
l
z
is the distance between points of zero moment (which for a continuous beam, may be
taken as o.7 times the effective span)
The design procedure depends on where the neutral axis lies. The neutral axis may lie
in the flange or in the web. If it is in web it needs to check whether the section needs
compression reinforcement.
Neutral Axis is in flange
To satisfy the criteria the actual neutral axis depth (0.9X) should not exceed flange depth h
f
.
The moment of resistance of the section for the case when 0.9X = h
f
,
M
R
= 0.45 f
cu
b h
f
(d h
f
/2)
If the applied moment M is lesser than the moment of resistance of the flange M
R
neutral axis
lies within the flange.
Neutral Axis is in web
Equation in the code is derived using the simplified stress block with X=o.5d;
depth of stress block = 0.9X = 0.45d
This applies only when X is less than 0.5d.
If otherwise the section should design for the compression reinforcement also.
) 5 . 0 ( 87 . 0
) 45 . 0 ( 1 . 0
f y
f w cu
s
h d f
h d d b f M
A
+
=
START
Carry out analysis of beam to determine
design moments(M)
Find the Moment of Resistance of the
flange section(M
RF
)
Is M > M
RF
?
YES
NO
Design is same as for a
rectangular beam
Find the Moment of Resistance of the
section when neutral axis depth is d/2 (M
R
)
Is M > M
R
?
YES
NO
Neutral axis is in flange
Neutral axis is in web
Compression reinforcement required
No compression reinforcement
required
) 5 . 0 ( 87 . 0
) 45 . 0 ( 1 . 0
f y
f w cu
s
h d f
h d d b f M
A
+
=
Use following equations to
calculate r/f area
Designing of
beams with
flanged
sections
Shear reinforcement in beams
Action of shear reinforcement
Concrete is weak in tension, and so shear failure is caused by a failure in diagonal
tension with cracks running
at 45
o
to the beam axis.
Shear reinforcement is provided
by bars which cross the cracks, and theoretically either vertical links of inclined bars
will serve this purpose.
Design shear stress in any cross section;
The design concrete shear stress is given in Table 3.8.
After compare the values it can find the form and area of shear reinforcement using Table 3.7
(b)
(a)
(a) Inclined bars and links ; (b) vertical links
d b
V
v
= v
START
Find the design shear stress 
Find the design concrete shear stress 
Minimum links should
be provided in all
beams of structural
importance
Minimum links for
whole length of beam
Provide links or links
combined with bentup
bars, not more than
50% of the shear
resistance provided by
the steel may be in the
form of bentup bars
Design shear resistance of beams
START
Basic span/eff. depth ratio(s/d)  TABLE 3.9
If span >10m ; (Table 3.9)x(10/span)
Modification factor for tension
reinforcement(MF
T
)  TABLE 3.10
Modification factor for compression
reinforcement(MF
C
)  TABLE 3.11
Actual span/effective depth ratio
(Act. s/d)
Allowable span/effective depth ratio
(All. s/d = (s/d) x MF
T
x MF
C
)
YES NO
Design is OK Design is NOT OK
Act. s/d < All. s/d
Check for
deflection
of beams
Support conditions Rectangular section Flanged beam with
(b
w
/b < 0.3)
Cantilever 7 5.6
Simply supported 20 16.0
Continuous 26 20.8
For values greater than 0.3, linear interpolation between the values given in Table 3.9
for rectangular sections and for flanged beams with b
w
/b of 0.3 may be used
Table 3.9 Basic span/effective depth ratio for rectangular or flanged beams
Modification factors for tension reinforcement is given in Table 3.10 of the
code. These values were derived from the equation;
0 . 2
9 . 0 120
) 477 (
55 . 0 _
2
s

.

\

+
+ =
bd
M
f
Factor on Modificati
s
b prov s
req s y
s
A
A f
f

1
3
2
,
,
=
Where
M is the design ultimate moment at the center of the span or, at the support.
The design service stress(f
s
) in the tension r/f in a member is found by following
equation,
Modification factors for tension reinforcement
Basic span/effective depth ratio
Modification factor for compression reinforcement
is given in Table 3.11
Factor
0.00 1.00
0.15 1.05
0.25 1.08
0.35 1.10
0.50 1.14
0.75 1.20
1.0 1.25
1.5 1.33
2.0 1.40
2.5 1.45
>3.0 1.50
bd A
prov s,
' 100
These values were derived from the equation;
5 . 1
'
3
'
100 1
, ,
s


.

\

+ +
bd
A
bd
A
prov s prov s
Modification factor for compression reinforcement
Check for the deflection
Allowable span/eff. depth can be calculated by multiplying basic span/eff. depth
from Table 3.9 by the modification factors for tension and compression
reinforcement.
Then it is compared with the actual spantoeffective depth ratio.
If allowable s/d is greater than actual s/d, beam is satisfies the deflection criteria.
If otherwise not
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