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Dr. Ramadan El-Shatshat

Induction Machines

5/2/2007

Elec A6 Induction Motors

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INDUCTION MOTORS

General

• The induction machine is used as a motor and as a generator. However, it is most frequently used as a motor. It is the Workhorse of industry. Majority of the motors used by industry are squirrel cage induction motors. Both three-phase and single-phase motors are widely used. The induction generators are seldom used. Their typical application is the wind power plant.

End bell Bearing housing Shaft

Single phase induction motor

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Name plate

Terminal box

5/2/2007

Elec A6 Induction Motors

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INDUCTION MOTORS

Basic principles: • An emf is induced in the conducting bars as they are “cut” by the flux while the magnet is being moved. • E = BVL (Faraday’s Law) • The emf induces or produces a current I, which in term produces a force, F. • F = BIL Lorentz Force

5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors

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INDUCTION MOTORS • Stator construction – The stator of an induction motor is similar to a stator of any synchronous motor. – Laminated iron core with slots – Coils are placed in the slots to form a three or single phase winding • Squirrel-cage rotor construction – – – – Laminated Iron core with slots Metal bars are molded in the slots Two rings short circuits the bars The bars are slanted to reduce noise Elec A6 Induction Motors 5/2/2007 • 4 .

Rotor construction • • 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 5 .INDUCTION MOTORS Wound-rotor • The picture shows the rotor of a large woundrotor motor The ends of each phase is connected to a slip ring. Three brushes contact the three slip-rings to three wye connected resistances.

each of equal magnitude. produce a magnetic field of constant magnitude that rotates in space. but differing in phase by 120°. Such a magnetic field produced by balanced three phase currents flowing in thee-phase windings is called a rotating magnetic field (RMF).INDUCTION MOTORS Rotating Magnetic Field • In ac machines. ib and ic. Existence of a RFM is an essential condition for the operation of a ac rotating machine. 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 6 . the three-phase currents ia.

Consider a set of balanced three-phase currents ia. ib and ic. bb’ and cc’ (for simplicity. The following figure shows the resultant flux φr that results from these three fluxes at any given instant in time. flowing through the three-phase windings aa’. φr is however. 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • • • 7 . only one coil per phase is considered). The currents in each coil are responsible for producing their own magnetic flux. φb and φc respectively. by 120°. bb’ and cc’ are displaced in space.INDUCTION MOTORS Production of RMF: • The concept of RMF can be illustrated using the following graphical representation. (i) constant in magnitude but (ii) rotates in space with time. φa. The coils aa’.

2) Currents in the stator winding produce a rotating magnetic field. Operation principles. 5) The torque developed due to interaction of the stator and rotor magnetic fields pushes the rotor into rotation. This field revolves in the air gap. 4) Currents in the rotor conductors will produce their own magnetic field which opposes the stator magnetic field. 1) Energize the stator with three-phase voltage. 6) The direction of the rotation of the rotor is the same as the direction of the rotation of the revolving magnetic field in the air gap. 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 8 .INDUCTION MOTORS Three-phase motors. 3) The stator magnetic field links the rotor conductors through the air gap and voltage will be induced in the rotor conductors.

the rotor rotates in the same direction as that of the RMF. 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 9 .INDUCTION MOTORS Assume that the RMF produced by the stator currents rotates in the clockwise direction. Hence the direction of the magnetic field (flux lines) produced by the rotor currents is counterclockwise. The rotor conductors are therefore pushed from left (strong field region) to the right (weak field region). Hence.

the “slip” s for an induction motor is defined. n s − nm s= × 100% ns 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 10 . ns. nm = speed of the rotor. • If. the synchronous speed.INDUCTION MOTORS Synchronous Speed and Slip • The stator magnetic field (rotating magnetic field) rotates at a speed.

At synchronous speed. in terms of slip and synchronous speed: nm = (1 − s)n s ω m = (1 − s)ω s 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 11 . nm = ns. that is nm = 0. s = 1. s = 0.INDUCTION MOTORS Synchronous Speed and Slip • At stand still. • The mechanical speed of the rotor.

nm = ns(1 . fe. thus the frequency of the induced voltages fr = sfe.s).ns(1 .INDUCTION MOTORS Frequency of Rotor Currents and Voltages: With the rotor at stand-still. then the relative speed is the slip speed n slip = n s − nm nslip is the speed responsible for the induction. But Hence. the frequency of the induced voltages and currents is the same as that of the stator (supply) frequency. nslip = ns . If the rotor rotates at speed of nm. 5/2/2007 • 12 .s) by definition of slip. Elec A6 Induction Motors and currents is.

wye connected induction motor delivers 15 kW at a slip of 5%. six pole. Calculate: a) Synchronous speed b) Rotor speed c) Frequency of rotor current Solution .INDUCTION MOTORS Example no.Frequency of rotor current: fr = s f = (0.Synchronous speed: ns = 120 f / p = (120) / 6 = 1200 rpm .05) (60) = 3 Hz 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 13 . 20 hp.0.Rotor speed: nr = (1-s) ns =(1. 1: A three-phase.05) (1200) = 1140 rpm . 60 Hz. 208 V.

Development of equivalent circuit • • • The induction motor consists of a two magnetically connected systems: Stator and rotor. The stator is supplied by a balanced three-phase voltage that drives a three-phase current through the winding. The applied voltage (V1) across phase A is equal to the sum of the – induced voltage (E1). – voltage drop across the stator resistance (I1 R1).INDUCTION MOTORS Three phase motors. This is similar to a transformer that also has two magnetically connected systems: primary and secondary windings. Elec A6 Induction Motors • 5/2/2007 • 14 . This current induces a voltage in the rotor. – voltage drop across the stator leakage reactance (I1 j X1).

IC = core-loss component of current) ωr 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 15 .INDUCTION MOTORS I1 = stator current/phase R1 = stator winding resistance/phase X1 = stator winding reactance/phase RR and XR are the rotor winding resistance and reactance per phase. respectively IR = rotor current V1 = applied voltage to the stator/phase I0 = Ic + Im (Im = magnetizing current.

fr = fe.INDUCTION MOTORS Induced voltages: Let ER0 be the induced voltage in the rotor at stand-still ER0 = 4. (s ≠ 1) then.44 N Rφm f r E R = 4. ER0 = 4.44NRφm fr since. E R = 4.44NRφmfe If ER is the induced voltage in the rotor winding with fr = sfe.44 N Rφm sf e E R = sE Ro 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 16 . at stand-still.

INDUCTION MOTORS Rotor Circuit alone: s ⋅ ER ER IR = = RR + jX R RR + s ⋅ jX R 0 0 IR = ER 0 RR + jX R s 0 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 17 .

INDUCTION MOTORS The rotor circuit can be represented as: 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 18 .

the Induction Motor circuit can be represented as: 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 19 .INDUCTION MOTORS So.

IR I2 = a eff Impedance transfer is made using the ration aeff2. where R2 and X2 are transferred values. aeff for currents. R2 = aeff2 RR X2 = aeff2 XR 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 20 .INDUCTION MOTORS Transformation is done using the effective turns ratio.

Pout PRCL = rotor copper losses PFW = friction and windage losses 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 21 .INDUCTION MOTORS Equivalent Circuit and Power Flow Pin = input power to the motor (3 phase) 3V L I L cos θ = 3Vφ I φ cos θ Pin = R1 = accounts for the stator copper losses (PSCL) RC = accounts for the core losses R2/s = accounts for the losses PFW. PRCL and the output power.

INDUCTION MOTORS Equivalent Circuit and Power Flow 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 22 .

INDUCTION MOTORS • Approximate Equivalent Circuit: 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 23 .

INDUCTION MOTORS • Approximate Equivalent Circuit: 3I 2 2 R2 PAG = Pin − PSCL = s ⎛ ⎛ 1− s⎞ ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎟ = PAG − PRCL Pconv = 3I 2 ⎜ R2 ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠⎠ ⎝ Pout = Pconv − ( Pcore + PFW ) PAG (1 − s) PAG = Tdev = = ωm ωS (1 − s) ω s Pconv 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 24 .

the torque is directly proportional to s.INDUCTION MOTORS Torque-Speed Characteristic: • For small values of s. the torque is inversely proportional to s. 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • • 25 . For large values of s.

the core losses are 1800 W and the stray losses are negligible. The friction and windage losses are 600 W. The output power. 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 26 . 50 hp. The converted power.85 pf lagging. 2: A 480 V. three phase induction motor is drawing 60 A at 0. The stator copper losses are 2 kW and the rotor copper losses are 700 W.INDUCTION MOTORS Example no. find: • • • • The air gap power. The efficiency of the motor.

4 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 27 .3 d) η = = = 88% Pin 42.INDUCTION MOTORS Example no.4 − 2 − 1.6 − 0.8 = 38.7 = 37.4 kW PAG = Pin − PSCL − Pcore = 42.6 kW b) Pconv = PAG − PRCL = 38.3 kW Pout 37.9 − 0.6 = 37. 2 solution: a) Pin = 3VT I L cos(θ ) Pin = 3 (480)(60)(0.9 kW c) Pout = Pconv − PF &W = 37.85) = 42.

641 Ω R2 = 0. 60 Hz. find: (a) The speed.106 Ω X2 = 0.3 Ω The total rotational losses (including core losses) are 1100 W for a slip = 2.332 Ω X1 = 1. (c) Power factor (d) The converted and output power (e) The induced and load torque (f) Efficiency 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 28 . 25 hp.464 Ω Xm = 26. 3: A 460 V. (b) The stator current.2%. Y-connected induction motor has the following impedances: R1 = 0.INDUCTION MOTORS Example no. four pole.

3 solution: a) ns 120 f (120)(60) = = 1800 rpm P 4 nm = (1 − s )ns = (1 − .845 kW 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 29 .88∠ − 33.6 Z total c) p.07∠33.022)(1800) = 1760 rpm ⎧ R ⎫ b) Z total = ⎨( 2 + jx2 ) ( jxm )⎬ + ( R1 + jx1 ) = 14.833 lagging d)Pin = 3 (480)(18.53 kW PSCL = 3I1 R1 = 3(18.6 ⎩ s ⎭ V phase I1 = = 18.641) = 685 W 2 PAG = Pin − PSCL = 12.530 − 685 = 11.INDUCTION MOTORS Example no.833) = 12.6) = 0. f .88)(0.88) 2 (0. = cos(33.

7% 12.4 10.845) = 11.845 = 62.858 − 1. 3 solution: Pconv = (1 − s ) PAG = (1 − 0.845 = = = 56.100 = 10.022)(11.485 kW e) τ ind = PAG = 11.5 ωs τ out 10.9 N.m ωm 184.858 kW Pout = Pconv − Prot = 11.845 = 83.m 188.8 N.INDUCTION MOTORS Example no.530 Elec A6 Induction Motors Pout f) η = 5/2/2007 • 30 .

Determines the stator resistance value ( R1).INDUCTION MOTORS Three-phase motors. • Stator DC resistance measurement. Determination of parameters from test • The motor parameters are determined from three tests: • No-load test. Provides ( R1 + R2 ) and ( X1 + X2 ). In this course we will only find Xm and ignore Rc • Blocked-Rotor Test (Short circuit test). 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 31 . Provides the magnetizing reactance and core resistance ( Rc and Xm ).

INDUCTION MOTORS Three-phase motors. – The dc voltage and current are measured. Determination of parameters from test • Stator DC resistance measurement – The motor is supplied by DC voltage between two terminals ( A and B at the figure). – The resistance is: Vdc A Idc jX1 R1 R1 B 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors R1 = Vdc 2 ⋅ I dc R1 • 32 .

Determination of parameters from test • No-load test – The motor is supplied by rated line -to -line voltage (Vml ) and the no-load current Inl and the no load input power Pnl are measured. Xm = 3I n.l . – The no-load input power includes magnetizing and rotational losses. Xm can be calculated as follows Vn.l .INDUCTION MOTORS Three-phase motors. 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 33 . – Using the measured values.

• Blocked-Rotor Test – The motor is supplied by reduced voltage Vbr (line-to-line) and lower frequency voltage.INDUCTION MOTORS Three-phase motors. 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 34 . – The rotor is blocked slip is s =1. – The voltage Vbr .258)(60) = 15 Hz. Magnetizing reactance and resistance are neglected because of reduced supply voltage. Determination of parameters from test. Approximate frequency value is: f test = (0. Reduced frequency simulates that rotor current frequency is small in normal operation. current Ibr. the input power Pb r are measured.

• Blocked-Rotor Test The approximate equivalent circuit is: Vbl jX1 Ibl R1 jX2 R2 • Blocked rotor resistance is: P R = br br 3 I 2 br • .Blocked rotor impedance is: V br Z = br 3I br 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 35 .INDUCTION MOTORS Three-phase motors. Determination of parameters from test.

5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 36 .INDUCTION MOTORS Three-phase motors. test (frated / ftest ) – The equivalent circuit parameters are calculated from: Rbr = R1 + R2 and Xbr = X1 + X2 – R1 is determined by stator resistance measurement. • Blocked-Rotor Test – Blocked rotor reactance at the test frequency ftest is: – Blocked rotor reactance at the rated frequencies: Xbrtest = Zbr2 − R br2 Xbr = Xbr. Determination of parameters from test.

INDUCTION MOTORS Q1: 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 37 .

INDUCTION MOTORS Q2: 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 38 .

INDUCTION MOTORS Q3: 5/2/2007 Elec A6 Induction Motors • 39 .

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