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Allegory as a Form of Wit Author(s): Judith Dundas Source: Studies in the Renaissance, Vol. 11 (1964), pp. 223-233 Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2857041 Accessed: 17/09/2010 12:20
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'wit' that would not propose to summarize to be mondTuve'sElizabethanandMetaphysicalImagery. forthemoment prefer emphasize and but I to what theyhavein common. deed.S /S<. and mostexquisit was unrivaled. 1 sHE lineof wit.Itis curious the it to as that metaphysical eveninferior such Cleveland Cowley. allegory. I wouldcontend. 8 March I963. significanceapplyattachednowthe Rosetil some sort of I do it make iS to poets to felt word Allegory as a Form of Witl 2S<. the critical carries of theconnotations term some derived fromthistechni1 Read at the PacificNorthwestRenaissance Conference Bellingham. thatstatement meaningless But is un- repeat briefher in attempt showthat Elizabethan metaphysito the and calpoets wereoperating under same the poetic theory. but we haveaccepted seventeenth-century ButSpenser its use. I believe it istimeto seetherelationship that between conceit.not in Elizabethan is literary criticism in treatises themind. Rather. 'wit'originally a place faculty Since had in psychology.. wit' Although is a commonplace it of literary history theword'wit'hasundergone that various changes of meaning throughout usein criticism. There bea difference may between a riddle a mystery. My starting-pointthe useof the word'wit'. includes Spenser as XI wellasDonne. ones as and maystillbedescribedwitty. poets. at Wash. attention been to its little has paid aspects wordthat ofthe would make appropriateSpenser's it to writing. [ 223 ] . wordof explanation but on A is necessary.should I liketo takea littlesemantic excursion findwhatusesof theword to 'wit'make asapplicable Spenser to Donne. the the on onehand. theother and on hand: thebringing that together of unlike things be contained oneof Donne's may in figures thefleaor thecanonization-ormayfurnish figural it the structure amore for ambitious effort TheFaerie like Queene.or g very different. witty? inNo. inhisowndayhisreputation 'fine Yet for Poeticall inuention.To theextent weapply wordto as that this poetswho maybe singularly unamusing who areingenious.
with the of mind. gower wouldbe. cal A parallel be drawn or obwith criticism a more less literary entered and 'wit' 'imagination' functions identifiable certain in meaning. vegand the the souls These were: vegetable.andwill 'Wit delighted: woulde centuries andseventeenth with themselves depicting contented writers Other be would wanton. theirusein literary theynot only that meanings with so became overlaid subjective terms judgaesthetic to began connote butalso faculty to the referred creative was faculty to interest meiswhatsortof creative Of ments.But gradually. the the processes.butbe to longeth be best. approveth good. Passions the 4 Thomas . distinguish of of part thesoulas the to word'wit'wasoftenused denote rational Thisdistinction the parts. selfe. sensible.4 3 2 P. fromtheanimal him sets apart to to in beplaced opposition will. not Thesensewould be only. 5v(wrongly p. thethree concerning only ble in thelightof thedoctrine The rational. whichof it the the . numbered The Breton. thevitalorganic to was etable thought maintain offaculties by and world theinner means the between outer mediate to Now manfromanimals. thewittebeing guide. eiethestirrer that followeth the wit representeth. andso would Thequickning well.in order emwit Moreover.2 in Forit desires of theaspect manthat of the Here word'wit'hastheprestige denoting kingdom. . in the envisioned sixteenth andDonne's Faerie to be may in a position seewhatSpenser's Queene have Flea in common. fol. to and perception. . so farastheydenoted jective these criticism. 57. Butwits ambition blisse endlesse to dwell. knowledge. Nicholas Mindein Generall(I604). may use. of The Wright. sensible. and vegetable thesensible from distinguished the Nosce teipsum fromSirJohnDavies' stansa madein the following is (I599): 224 AS ALLEGORY A FORM OF WIT rest. are psychology intelligiof of Most theuses theword'wit'in faculty of souls man. 3). immediate we hasbeenestablished. Whenthis century. between the phasize difference the in of ofthekind antithesis which sixteenth the be could made subject beewise. andwithout blinde. therational.beeing as and propoundeth. Wil of Wit (I599).s3.'3 willasblind: of anddirecter theWil. might Thesetwo words and reason passion.Both withtheword'imagination'.
whenwit represents reason.whenhe dothinvent himself of without teacher.5 . Even when fancy notdescribed false. . is. or its were: or wit reason. .a it faculty capable judging selecting thecontents thefancy. Buttherational hadother soul faculties besides again havea wit. I think every inthesixteenth that one andseventeenth centuries would have agreed it wasthefunction that of thefancy imagination supply rawmaterials whichwit or to the from wouldselect whatwasappropriate theembodiment a particular for of 5 6 7 Sir johnDavies. Part Sect.7 this In activity bothwit andfancywouldbe involved. From multiple the worldof fancy. Whenthewordis taken intoliterary over criticism. Although exact the relationship witandfancy of became blurred whenthewords weretaken from psychology literary into criticism.to stand thehighest for function of themind. Subs. sharpness invenof tion. part and The called orreason thetask mainwit had of taining order thefancy: in Wit is thenainds chief Iudge. using word'wit'asit hadbeenused atleast is still the for thetwohundred before years him. learns a or anew. between the functions wit andfancy almost of was inevitable whenever subject the of discussion invention. I. p. II. Nosceteipsum (I599). TheAnatomy Melancholy of (I62I). x. p.JUDITH D UNDAS 225 Clearly. Mem. A Reading George of Herbert (Chicago. memory. simplybecause the Elizabethans not conceive thesefaculties operating could of as independently anykindof artistic in endeavor. is considered be theapexof it to thesoul. I 88. avoid equally was To the intricate history the of word'invention'. verynature is as its makes aninit ferior faculty. must wit abstract the Platonic universals: Theagentis that which called wit of man. of and from of Unfortunately those uswhowould to beable record for of like to the history theword'wit'inunequivocal a confusion of terms.6 acumen. transfers to thepassive and them understanding . we subdivision three into parts.shallborrowMissTuve's I definition: modeof 'a bodying forththeunbodied conceptions [thepoet's] of mind'. . whichdothComptroule OffanciesCourt iudgements and the false vaine . 52. I952). That Burton. I. three The ventricles 'wherein reasonthe able soule dothexercise faculties' fancy imagination. in short. . is the orsubtlety.whichabstracts intelligible those species fromthephantasy. carries it withit connotations reason intellectual of or acuity.
conception. I. theorigiYet nalsuperiority witin thehierarchy themind of of wasnever quite forgotten. as of the spindle. . . A4V. outof no of the he 'did great quantity Matter. I. areextant their which in Bookes'. representing doesa radical in taste.12is certainly of the It one ambiguities word'wit'thatit coulddenote of the faculties in function reason imagination.. Davies Hereford the of John of inonecontext saythat will fromfancy 'proceedes maruellous all Inuentions. to is principally matter Invention. I8. Onlywhen taste to turnagainst began 'strong lines' favorof clearer in expression did seem thewit of theElizabethan it that andmetaphysical had poets so become far confused fancythatit really lacking judgwith was in ment.3 .l° in all and another context refer thedifficulty hasin framing will to wit onenewinvention. spinne untous thoselaborious out webbes of Learning. WittesPilgrimage (I605?). alltheinvented like works man. notnecessarily it is because critics wereforgetting either judgment imagination their or in viewof thecreative process. schoolmen. Treatise thePassions Faculties the Soule A of and of of Man (I640). withthe asit shift but period fromabout 8 p. Sig. in of readily supply withvarietie to it of objects whereon worke'. Whichdoeproduce ArtesandSciences'. notconcerned themoment thislater I am at with attitude. Sig. Another example thisconfusion in Wats'translation of is of Bacon's De augmentis.8 thiscustom referring to But of invention bothto wit andto fancy naturally resulted a progressive of disin loss tinction between operations the denoted these by words. is therelationship Edward This that Reynolds in mind has whenhe says theimagination's that 'assistancetheVnderstanding.iV.andaslateas I650 we findHobbes insisting wit implies that judgment notmerely and uncontrolled fancy. infinite of but agitation their andPhancy of Wit .9 wasconcerned He about thelossof distinction between twowords. general in usage seemed make it to littledifference whether wit orfancy represented source invention. Viii. of Still. 12 Of theAdvancement andProficience Learning of (I640). the because hisopinion in it represented a decline therational in ordering poetry. in timethe distinction If between two faculties the became blurred. ( Mirumin Modum(I602). where usesthe phrase he 'WitandPhancy' referto to scholastic inventivenessmind. thought result of was to from the cooperation thejudging close of intellect thebounteous and imagination. thisonceagain so different as and but is a signthat poetry. says. 226 ALLEGORY AS A FORM OF WIT Edward Reynolds. 9 The Leviathan I 65 I ). YIV.
its of 15 'OnElizabethan Wit'. Ingeneral. thereis not phansie left Enoughto weepe thee . of yet whenwe read Carew's in elegythatDonne's strictlaweswill be Too hardfor Libertines Poetrie in it isclear themonarch witwasheldto possess not onlyin the that of wit sense inventive of fancy alsoin thesense formal but of excellence. . 13 14 . isvirtually 'wit' synonymous 'fancy' without imwith but any plication Donnehadnot usedjudgment hispoetic that in invention: The Epitaphsthou writst. 377. theelegies in appended theI63 3 edition Donne's to of poems. thepoethad either or that exercised judgment selecting his in fromthefancyappropriate matter forthepurpose hispoem. I:I (I96I).14 suchcontexts. Stein noted. . contrasts between or fancy artorjudgment The made wit and in thecommendatory written Shakespeare BenJonson verses for and already pointto theseparation wit from of judgment wasto leadto that thelegislative definitions of'wit'bytheneoclassical Butthecomcritics. When. Thesubjoining judgment wit occurs thesame of to for reason judgment subthat is joinedto invention Cox'sArteor CraJte Rhethoryke 529?) .haveso bereft Our tongueof wit. judgment Elizabethan wit. plexity therelations of among fancy.13 Inthis instance tribute being to Donne's is paid power invention. of Forexample. in Studiesin EnglishLiterature 1500-1900. 'wit' with of and justasnarrowly stand thefaculty invention may for of without benefit of the 'art. theother on hand.it must imply judgment. of In judgment tendsto become narrowly identified the discipline learning.imitation.mayindeed it become equivalent fancy perhaps to and require separate mention judgment. 75-9I. whenever word'wit'stands thetotalideal literthe for of aryart.15 of thefreedom has part enjoyed the by Elizabethan thinker. exercise' and whichSidney Jonson and recommend. accordance with ethical in both psychology rhetorical and principles. p. whenpoetrycouldbe referred indiSerently wit or to fancy withsomeassurance. followedthat of with it judgment wouldbe introducedas a separate operation one moresignthatthe imagination not thoughtto was possess own principle order. Edward Hyde. and in usage asArnold is. explicit implicit. Whentheoriginal in o: (I rhetorical meaning 'invention' thefinding materials anoration beinglostin of as of for was theassociation invention imagination.appended Donne's to Poems(I633). is used it in a morerestricted to indicate sense innate capacity (oftenreferred as to 'nature').JUDITH D UNDAS I578 227 to I650.
Puttenham as saysl7).Naturebe.Leonard Digges.EvenShakespeare. archetypal the natural genius. of In Hobbes theElizabeand thans agree therelationship fancy judgment. it is clearhow useful then allegory would asensuring dominance reason theimagibe the of over nation. p... Artwithout of as of Artunparaleld yet'.themerging is the On of'wit' and 'fancy' notimply greater did a respect untutored for genius forthe than poetwith'aDedalssto guidehim'. terms their in of the become assimilated judgment and appears longer essence wit butthe no the of antithesis-the Elizabethan of therequirements literary view for excellence substantially same.ed. I936). I9. slightly in is tangential mypresent to purpose using ethical of the psychology theElizabethansillustrate of to onesense whichallegory in couldbe consideredformof wit. deriving fromtheir cooperation invention. .WillcockandA. secondly. But thiswholesemantic assimilation of'wit' and'fancy'. *3r:he speaks Shakespeare 'thepatterne all wit. the recognition imagination that is essential thepoet's to invention.228 ALLEGORY AS A FORM OF WIT At thesame time. narrow identification withfancy. only and 17 ArteofEnglishPoesie s8g]. prefixed Shakespeare's to sig. Jonson Ben paystribute including by reference to both Shakespeare's andhisart: nature Yet mustI not giue Natureall: Thy Art. to saythatwhatever safe meaning theparticular context givesto theword'wit' whether andfancy wit maintain relationship downin faculty the laid psychology whether. principle..D.imitation. on of and Their pointof disagreement bethenotionof literary would excellence associated with theword'wit'initsbroadest notinitsmore sense. G. Forthoughthe Poetsmatter. Poems(I640). My gentleShakespeare. mustenioy a part.16 Perhaps sumupwhatthelossof distinction I can between andfancy wit means: it reveals Elizabethan first. His Art doth giue the fashion. thewhole. If we a keepin mindthe Elizabethan distrust uncontrolled of imagination (breeding chimeras. me The FaerieQueene a good example the licensed To is of 16Cf.Walker [I (Cambridge.whichevidently as means Shakespeare nature that by possessed that judgment usually acquired by 'art. I believe.'UponMaster William Shakespeare'. exercise'. or through cooperation theprocess invention.it is. not allowed suggest literal was to a interpretation of poetanascitur. subjoining the ofjudgment to witwhen'wit'means fancy simply reaff1rms Elizabethan on the stress therational ordering poetry.
. of and. 822. WhenSpenser describes teaching his as'clowdily enwrapped allegoricall in devices'. is definitive. couer them thevaile with offables verse'. as it were. is conforming the he to wholeideaof fiction 'theveryfittest as conduit pipes' theconveyfor anceof truth. JohnHarington For Sir pointsout that'the menof greatest learning highest in theauncient and wit timesdidof purpose conceale thesedeepemysteries learning.alearned of expression.19 thefrequent and But linking of thewords 'allegory' 'mystery' remind thatthemenof and does us deepest understanding precisely were thoseto whomit was givento reveal meaning dark their in ways. and Both above addressing mind. shepleased selfe her withno disguise more. their Dante. think. 200. lay beginningmystery anallegory'21thefables theancient a and in of poets. 20 'A Freeand Offenceles Iustification . always but under the supervision thepoet's Butif youprefer of wit. I904). example. allegorical that is as the reading of theancient myths thecreation new allegories anasand of was surance withinthe rindwassomefruitof knowledge. Bartlett (New York. .hathdelighted to 'As from Cradle. form In agenotyetsure fiction justifiable learning. Learning. J. p. ed. Gregory Smith.' in ThePoems George . p. 21 Preface De sapientia to veterum (I609). exemplicative. I94I ). Dante. p. It maybe unfortunate Elizabethan that commentaries thenature on of allegory oftenemphasize ideaof concealing so the meaning rather thanrevealing.'18 poetsare. in DantisAlagherii Epistolae. Robertson (New York. probative. of Chapman. further. Sohath the and . their all. in misteries allethen and goricall fictions of ForBacon. the and concern theintelligibility with of their works evident every of their is in line prefatory letters. and and it analytical. an is. B. digressive. refutative. Paget Toynbee tr.'20 18 Epistleto Can Grandedella Scala. 327.According Chapman.JUDITH DUNDAS 229 imagination. I905). the that That darkness in thenature thesubject notin thepoet's lay of and deliberate obscuring meaning evident of is fromthealmost desperate attempts of thesesame poetsto elucidate allegories. II. givenfreedom create to fictions. Elizabethan Critical Essays (Oxford. figurative. listen hisdeto scription hiswork:'Theformormanner treatmentpoetic. hideherselfe her to from base profane. Phyllis ed. M. Allegory fromthispointof view. 19 'Brief Apology' in G. of of is fictive. (Oxford. in ThePhilosophical Works Francis of Bacon. 'there fromthevery too. his I puts finger theparadox dark on of revelation hesays: weperceive when 'For many things theintellect whichlanguage no terms-afact by for has Poesie. .descriptive. I920). 203.
by whichis made. no wizard with frenzy. I922).230 ALLEGORY AS A FORM OF WIT which Plato indicates plainly enough hisbooks hisemployment in by of metaphors. .in TheCutting anAgate of (New York. WhenCleanth Brooks refers allegory to as 'thefirst attempt whichmanmakes unitetheintellect theemoto and tionswhentheybeginto fallapart'.as Blakesays. to theElizabethans is theveryreason allegory but this that could beascribed wit andnotto unrestricted to imagination. theschematic imposed theimaginative form on materials hasalienthat ated modern poets critics? found and Yeats himself'bored allegory.onemaysafely assume allegory a modeof expression that is for what cannot otherwise expressed that be and therefore darkness the and thelightaretogether theheart thepoet's at of conception." of and coldly. Modern Poetry theTradition and (ChapelHill. Spenser indicates particular which the appeal suchpoemwithitstwofold a meaning would haveto hisownday. 22 23 24 Epistleto Can Grande. appears be related everything a and it to to comprehended the nameof device. someof themodern attitudes allegory no morehelpful to are than older thatthefiction simply sugar-coating the the idea was a for bitter of moral pill teaching. Far fromsuggesting spontaneous creation. it therationalistic Is structure. Elizabethan rhetorical de. Neither Dante nor Spenser anything says about uniting intellect theemotions.23 I cannot therelevance the see to medieval Renaissance of allegorical or view poetry. find. ethical the value allegory itsrhetoriof and calvalueareclosely related: is stillthe appeal the intellect it to that causes allegory be regarded a wittyconveyance. P * . I939). 253.pp. 'EdmundSpenser'. 209-2I0.howto as We ever.'24 course subjection theimagiOf the of native faculty the rational not appeal romantic to does to poetsor critics. referring ThelEaerie under In to Queene'adarke as conceit'.'22 was to Remembering thetraditional definition allegory a longor continued of as metaphor. p. the and both saya gooddealabout reaching intellect the through imaginationv the Ethical psychology exalted or reason fancyor imaginahad wit over tion. studying handbooks rhetoric allegory treated in the of that is more as riddle lessasa mystery. p."by the daughters memory.allegory conforms principle thisbackground beliefby in to of making fiction vehicle moral a of truth.For the of allegory not onlyin itsdidactic wit lay value alsoin theinbut genulty requlrec 1tS >tor constructlon. . . If so. he perceived for manythings thelightof theintellect by which everyday his language inadequate express. I8I. Forthesixteenth century.
aware. riddle. p. mustbeaware therelation of we of betweenallegory devices emblems allkinds. I54-I55305.areso pleasant goes and eff1cacious 'they notin truth be accompted butforverthat are to vices tues thepoetical in science commendable'. wants poet's the invention havein it aliquid 'Bythis to salis: aliquid I meane salis somegood andfine deuise. 2nded. thefavorable very From attentiongivento allegory rhetorical in handbooks. Thomas Blount. in as withthe same alsoend:andthenit is called Allegorie Inuersion. whereby talke the our is moreguilefull abusing.DefenceoJHomer. metaphor for a 'enriches knowledge two things once. which on of allegory one. and of to the and the drawing it fromplainnesse simplicitie a certain and to doublenesse.28 the critics' All adviceconcerning the writing poetry of suggeststaste subtlety conception. betheyalsoin a sorte so abuses rather or trespassesspeach. either when manie fitlie be included in oneword. These abuses speech.pp.in this is fashion: Theexcellencie tropes then of is most apparant.I656.in Smith.27 . .JUDITH DUNDAS 231 scriptions allegory of seemto emphasize deliberate contrivance. may assume we Spenser's knowledge he wasnot merely that sugar-coating moral his precepts presenting in them'thusclowdilyenwrapped allegorical in devices' wasgiving discerning but a audience kindof artit admired. Z. George Chapman.25 it an or Evidently appeals Elizabethan is theideaof saying what to taste much in a fewwords. example. Arte. ed. getting double meaning. time a for of some before metaphysical arose gratify taste. that literary the audience Spenser's hadnoliking a 'discourse of time for thatfalsnaked beforethem'. beoccupied purpose deceiue eare also minde. I950).the Truth a Similiour with at and tude. As Puttenham praises figurative all speech: Asfigures theinstrumentsornament euery be of in language. the poets to this Gascoigne. Thus Abraham Fraunce comments tropes. for example. Academie Eloquence The of (I654)..'26 part thepleasure reading allegory thought Hence of in in was to liein thedifficulty deciphering meaning a longandperpetual of the of metaphor. shewing quicke the 25 26 27 28 TheArcadian Rhetorike (I588). allegorie a duplicitie meaning dissimulation couert your by of or vnder and darke intendments . of Puttenham on to say.Ethel Seaton (Oxford. in because passe ordinary of common they the limits vtterance. A II.or oneso colltinued manie. pp. and and of and too. 3-4. thatwithwhatthingit begin.. whatelsis yourMetaphor aninuersion sence & for but of by transport. the Inorder seewhatsortof considerations allegory be reto caused to garded a formal as virtue style.
to mark and heraldic alleto was the Originally word'device' used designate the emphasizes presPuttenham their stating purpose. whomhe wouldnotbe too playne may as is soskilfully it handled.232 AS ALLEGORY A FORM OF WIT here as The of capacitieawriter'. somewhat vttered matter is There alsomuch to it though be notapparent in withall: which.'30 sameemphasis with expressed wittiedeuise 'some of definition anemblem: Whitney's at to obscure be perceiued the somethinge woorkemanship. criticism. 264. to Epistle theReader. IO2.32 most to that of for noted thedepth device hewasable inwas Spenser indeed in him singles outforpreeminence this Nashe into troduce hispoetry. picke much at delight hyslearned much take of obscurest it. thisthereaof customes common the auoyde uncomely and figure' why as was why son. (I586). withthewords is criticism associated literary Elizabethan out of subtlety conception.he woulduse 'the Was writers'. should challenge deepe Spencer. anyman was. Certayne Arte.29 word'device' it isused andthrough'conceit'.maie withfurther when whereby. In tokens.the Master diuine I wouldpreferre of wits english to thetutchstone Arte. meaning yet hys one euery what speciall in goodsence the out and conueyance. of intricacy meanimplies too. . depth useful particularly in attaining figure for Calendar itsuseof allegory: The praises Shepheardes Webbe Thus of the especially abuses some couertly. first.in Smith. 47. sig.31 thegreater to with in theingenuity whichanideais united a visible viceconsists pattern. gorical but containe two or commonly [they] '.Gascoigne somekindof means by in device theinvention. Smith. whichhe apparently that by up He of doubleness meaning. theword'device' Inliterary of somedepth without a handling theme against warns ing. sums hisadvice saying if hewere that meane I couldto couertest writinga poem. kindof invention: to by be conceit intruded anforreiner bringour of the . cunning it it is consideration vnderstood. . 'wit' 'invention'. of ence a hidden or till conceit theybevnfolded or sentence secrete of words wittie three in appears The by explaned someinterpretation. allegory known the'courtly figof and called Puttenham it 'thechiefringleader captaine allother the made of andduplicitie' allegory that It ures'? appears the'darkenes of device. **4r. A Choiceof Emblemes I. of EnglishPoetrie. meaning: . A Discourse . Inother the delighte behoulder'. in Notes of Instruction. of virtue a dethe words. . 29 30 31 32 I.p.perhaps.
3I8. in art of matter meane or wit to containe one historicall The conceits. seems me thatmostliterature didactic onewayor anthat implying of that I other.33 Fra?lce. if these a asit does perfect and let significance. reflects breaking of one. discordia belongs theworld ironical not requires I world. 34BriefApology. to 33Preface Greene's II. the and of a system symbols accepts values understands not we this Because isnotthekindof world livein. of instead asof together unlikes. onlydoestheintellect of doubleness through subtlety provides but order. a momentary other willup the it order. many. allegory. 202. levels meaning anallegory significance. have terms or of collaborationwitandfancy. in Menaphon. diuerse. SirJohn narration.Allegory.Butweare a sertingworld or it because is an uncommitted the ing to accept wit of theconceit to concors the of seeing resemblances. Elizabethan losttheir StateUniversity Montana I. witty? present that of that I donotbelieve it is thedidacticism allegory offends in is to it taste. using modeof expression a coherent on The minds. of line of miracle wit. intricate as an thus artistic have in of The workof art. poem. ussayintellect imagination.JUDITH DUNDAS 233 Spaine. is not wit buta distortion reality.hiscontemset WhenSpenser outto writea longallegorical his he have must feltthat wasdisplaying artaswellashismoral poraries over preside theimaginanot In values. a suprasensible atthat.'34 and so so true either orfained. conceit. Harington 'Nowletanyman As meaning. wellasa didactic to why we question: are willing to like I should to return myoriginal that contemporaries he wasa witty of the accept judgment Donne's that contemporaries hetoowas of poetbutnotthejudgment Spenser's to the we Evidently prefer wit of paradox thewit of allegory. JUDITH DUNDAS . and of the beprimarily product thewaking active an in out in constructing. and theworlde. the too asserts muchfor ourdoubtful daring. amafraid.thefragmented that vision and onlya total comprehensive in thepoetbutalsoa society in implied them. lifehassome As of this century. we know. a thetwentieth is allegory too of system symbols.we need necessarily great I seeit asa potentially artform.tobandie forlineformylifeinthehonor England. dothink it is thecontinuance a metaphor For offends.gainst all Italie.in Smith. Smith. of the materials the imagination. so deepe to was that as serve a reminder allegory thought keyword'wit'should engaged intelligence. which order and order. bringing is hand. it also tionto ensure if iudge it bea says.requiring of bescornful allegory.
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