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Diffraction Gratingg

Diffraction Gratingg

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Published by Asif Khan Niazi

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Published by: Asif Khan Niazi on Dec 18, 2012
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While studying the dispersion of light around obstacles, this experiment is very important.

To study the dispersion of light let us perform a small experiment. Figure shows the same experimental arrangement, similar to that devised by Young. A screen having two narrow slits is illuminated by a beam of monochromatic light. The portion of the wavefront incident to the slit behaves as a source of secondary wavelets. The secondary wavelets leaving the slits are coherent. Superposition of these wavelets results in a series of bright and dark fringes (bands) which are observed on the second screen placed at some distance parallel to the first screen. Let us now consider the formation of bright and dark bands. As pointed earlier the two slits behaves as coherent sources of secondary wavelets. The wavelets arrive at the screen in such a way that at some points crests fall on crests and troughs on troughs resulting in constructive interference and bright fringes are formed. There are some points on the screen where crests meet troughs giving rise to destructive interference and dark fringes are formed. The bright fringes are termed as maxima and dark fringes as minima.

In order to derive equations for maxima and minima, an arbitrary point ‘P’ is taken on the screen on one side of central point ‘O’. and BP are the paths of the rays reaching P. The line AD is drawn such that AP = DP. The separation between the centers of the


2 …. leaving the slits and arriving at P. will obviously appear for m = 0 and second dark for m = 1. BD = mλ where m = 0. The angle between CP and CO is θ. If angle θ is very small. Since. BD = dsinθ Therefore. If a dark fringe appears at P. dsinθ = mλ It is observed that each bright fringe on one side of O has symmetrically located bright fringe on the other side of O. It is the number of wavelengths. y = m λL / d If P is to have a dark fringe. 1. the path difference BD must be integral multiple of wavelength.slits is AB = d. Thus. BD = (m+ ½) λ d sinθ = (m+ ½) λ The first dark fringe. The distance of the screen from the slits CO = L. the path difference BD must contain halfintegral number of wavelengths. The path difference between the wavelets. is BD. Above equations can be applied for determining the linear distance on the screen between adjacent bright or dark fringes. If bright fringe is observed at P then. then Sinθ tanθ tanθ = y / L where y is the distance of the point P from O. contained within BD that determines whether bright or dark fringe will appear at P. It can be proved that the angle BAD = θ by assuming that AD is nearly normal to BP. If the point P is to have bright fringe. The central bright fringe is obtained when m=0. in this case. it can be proved that y = (m + ½) λL / d .

8 cm L = 17. y = 1. Simply we have to do is to put the slab (having one side towards the laser beam).4 cm For Vertical grating.In this way.5 cm . One thing must have to be remembered that vertical grating will give horizontal pattern and horizontal grating will give vertical pattern. y = 3. Given slabs or blocks are designed in such a way that on one side horizontal grating is installed and on the other is vertical. The pattern will be obtained acordingly. By seeing the pattern. separation can be calculated. Our next task is to determine the distance between the slits of the grating for both horizontal and vertical as defined from above formulae. If grating is placed in such a way that side having horizontal grating is placed near end of laser then pattern the will obtain on the screen will be in the form of bright and dark spots arranged in the form of a square. two blocks with diffraction grating pattern. laser source and screen in a line and note the pattern that will be formed on the screen. PROCEDURE: Apparatus of this experiment includes laser source. we have to predict that which side having vertical grating or horizontal. By diffraction grating we mean that a glass plate having a large no of close parallel equidistant slits mechanically ruled on it. and screen. CALCULATIONS: For horizontal grating.

d = mλL / y where m = 1 λ = 632.47 x 10-6 m CONCLUSION: The fringe distance varies directly with distance L between the slits and screen and inversely with the separation d of the slits.4 cm As given by the formula. And for vertical grating. for horizontal grating.L = 22. .996 x 10-6 m d = 9.8nm So. d = 2.

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