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VORBEMERKUNG
Simon Wellington Dzablu-Kumah (den jeder nur als Herrn Kumah kannte) war viele Jahre lang Lektor für Ewe am Institut für Afrikanistik der Universität zu Köln. Das von ihm verfaßte Lehrwerk "Basic Ewe for foreign students" diente Generationen von Afrikanistik-Studierenden als Grundlage für das Erlernen der Sprache. Dieses Lehrbuch existierte nie in gedruckter Form, sondern wurde als Graue Literatur wieder und wieder fotokopiert. Es bestand aus zwei Teilen (mit jeweils eigenem Wörterverzeichnis), von denen nach Herrn Kumahs Tod nur noch wenige zerfledderte, mit Anmerkungen versehene Exemplare existierten. Da es sich um ein gut durchdachtes, didaktisch aufgebautes und mit vielen praktischen Übungen versehenes Lehrwerk handelt, entstand am Institut der Plan, unter Einsatz moderner Technik eine neue Fassung in einem Band herzustellen, die online zugänglich, als pdf-Dokument ausdruckbar und für weitere (notwendige) Verbesserungen offen sein soll. Monika Feinen kommt das Verdienst zu, aus den unansehnlichen Kopien eine mit einem zusammengefügten Wörterverzeichnis versehene bearbeitbare WORD-Version hergestellt zu haben. Diese habe ich mit technischer Unterstützung von Monika Feinen redaktionell, typographisch und auch inhaltlich bearbeitet bzw. ergänzt. Die Bearbeitung schließt eine teilweise Veränderung der Beschreibung grammatischer Phänomene ein, die – so hoffe ich zumindest – das Verständnis erleichtert. Ergänzt habe ich das Lehrwerk durch ein Inhaltsverzeichnis sowie eine Bibliographie zum Ewe, auf deren Vollständigkeit ich keinen Anspruch erhebe. Das Ergebnis der Überarbeitung ist ein vorläufiges; eine weitere Überarbeitung, vorrangig durch einen Muttersprachler, wäre wünschenswert. Das Lehrwerk ist zugänglich unter der Web-Adresse www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/afrikanistik/down/publikationen/basic_ewe.pdf. Fehlermeldungen, Ergänzungen, Anregungen etc. bitte ich zu richten an: ulrike.claudi@uni-koeln.de.

Köln, im Oktober 2006

Ulrike Claudi

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CONTENTS
LESSON I 1. The Definite article 2. The predication of qualities: Static verbs 3. How to ask questions 4. How to express Negation 7 7 10 11

LESSON II 1. The adverb 2. Another way of asking questions 3. Adverbs in Negations 14 16 18

LESSON III 1. The formation of Plurals 2. Qualifying nouns with adjectives derived from Static verbs 3. Ways of deriving attributive adjectives from Static verbs 4. The Comparison of qualities 5. The Nominalization of adjectives 6. Drill in questions and answers 20 23 25 27 28 30

LESSON IV 1. The Indefinite article 2. Demonstrative adjectives 3. Two ways of 'being': nyé and le 4. The Negation of nyé and le 32 33 34 38

–4– LESSON V 1. The Subject pronouns 2. The Object pronouns 3. Postpositions 4. Drill in questions, answers, and negations 41 44 47 51

LESSON VI 1. The Present/Past Tense (Aorist) 2. Transitive and intransitive verbs 3. The Progressive Aspect 4. Drill in questions, answers, and Negations 53 54 58 61

LESSON VII 1. Pronominal Objects with the Progressive Aspect 2. Expressions with kpɔ́ 'once' and kpɔ́ ... o 'never' 64 67

LESSON VIII 1. The Ingressive Aspect 2. Questions and answers in the Ingressive 3. Negation of the Ingressive Aspect 70 73 76

LESSON IX 1. More about adjectives 2. More about the verb nɔ́ 3. Simple questions with ɖé or ɖě 80 83 86

Attributive Possession: The "Genitive" 2. The Relative pronouns 131 135 . Double questions 89 91 93 LESSON XI 1. Possessive pronouns following the Possessed 2. The Habitual Aspect 2. Some notes on ná 'to give' 123 127 LESSON XV 1. Emphazising nouns 3. Possessive pronouns preceding the Possessed 97 101 LESSON XII 1. The Imperative 2. The Nominalization of Possessive pronouns 3. Questions with něni ̍e̍ 'how much/many' 106 110 113 LESSON XIII Predicative Possession: 'to have' 115 LESSON XIV 1. The Absolute form of the Personal pronouns 2.–5– LESSON X 1.

The unknown or uncertain Subject: The "Passive" 140 145 LESSON XVII 1. The Reciprocal pronouns 3. The derivation of nouns from verbs 148 151 155 VOCABULARY EƲE – ENGLISH VOCABULARY ENGLISH – EƲE 160 195 BIBLIOGRAPHY ON EƲE 235 .–6– LESSON XVI 1. The Future Tense 2. The Reflexive pronouns 2.

The Definite article There are two forms of the definite article in Eʋe: lá and -á. see Lesson IX) but by verbs expressing a quality or state. in most cases. The form lá stands always as a separate word. Verbs of this kind are called Stative verbs. The predication of qualities: Stative verbs The predication of qualities in Eʋe is. Both forms are placed in the sentence after the noun being determined. the article is always lá: ga lá *gaá 'the metal/money' 2. not performed by adjectives (for these. If the stem ends in –a.–7– LESSON I 1. static verbs follow their Subject: atí lá kɔ́ mɔ́ lá didi atíá kɔ́ mɔ́á didi 'the tree is tall' 'the way is long' . Like all verbs in Eʋe. but the -á form is suffixed to the noun it determines: atí lá xɔ̍ lá atíá xɔ̍á 'the tree' 'the house/building' Both forms may be used freely with nouns in the Singular.

low (height. money window person way. easy to be cold. small. stick firewood farm water metal. high to be big. white clay banana stone. wrong. wood. building board chalk. large. or time) to be strong. wide to be good. cool to be thick to be hot. road house. rock baobab táflɔ̍ ɣé akɔ̍ɖú kpé adidó . to be many ("to receive fire") to be enough to be broad. few to be narrow to be bad. fat to be short.–8– Vocabulary didi lolo kpu̍i ̍ ẽ́ bɔɔ fá tri xɔ dzo sogbo keke nyó xáxá/xáxɛ́ gblẽ́ atí tsi náke̍ agble ga fésre̍ mɔ́ xɔ ame sɔ̍e ̍ kɔ́ to be long to be tall. hard to be soft. length. difficult. beautiful to be little. spoiled tree.

2. Kpé lá sẽ. ́ 14. 21. ́ 20. Náke̍a̍ sɔgbɔ. Adidóá tri. ̍ ́ 6. Táflɔ̍a̍ keke. Xɔ lá kɔ́. 18. Xe̍vílá nyó. 19. 10. Mɔ́á didi. 17. ̍ 11. Ame̍ lá kpu̍i ̍. Atí lá kɔ́. 4. Fésre̍a̍ keke. Tsi ̍ lá fá. Ablegɔ́ lá gblẽ. Ame̍a̍ sẽ. 16. 8.–9– ʋɔtrú kplɔ̃́ agbalẽ̌ zikpuǐ E̍̃ O̍ xe̍ví ablegɔ́ door table chair stool No bird Yes book Exercise I-1: Read 1. 12. Akɔ̍ɖúá bɔbɔ. Ʋɔtrúá keke. 5. 7. Mɔ́ lá xáxɛ́. 15. 3. ̍ . Xé lá bɔbɔ. Agbleá lolo. Zikpuǐ lá sɔ̍e. Ga lá xɔ dzo. Kplɔ̃̍ lá kpu̍i ̍. 9. 13.

The person is short. The way is long. The firewood is enough. The board is broad. 5. 19. 20. The person is strong. . 9. How to ask questions e. The tree is tall. The metal is hot. 13. 18.: Atí lá kɔ́a? Mɔ́á didia? 'Is the tree tall?' 'Is the way long?' A simple way of asking questions in Eʋe is by ending your sentence with a low tone à : Note that vowels without tone marking bear a low tone. 6. The stone is hard. The door is broad. The chair is spoiled.g. 4. The banana is soft. The stool is small. 21. The chalk is soft. 3. The farm is big. 15. 12. The baobab is thick. 11. The way is narrow. 14. The house is high. 8. The table is low.– 10 – Exercise I-2: Translate into Eʋe 1. The bird is beautiful. 7. 10. 17. The window is broad. 2. 16. The water is cold. 3.

Is the water cold? Yes the water is cold. and try to give answers in Eʋe as follows: E̍̃. 4.. 12. The first part mé. 9. 'Yes. sentence... Is the way long? 3.' . Is the person short? Yes the person is short. and so on. 8. and the particle o comes at the end of the .. Is the banana soft? Yes the banana is soft. Exercise I-4: Translate into Eʋe 1.is prefixed to the verb. Is the stone hard? Yes the stone is hard. Is the person short? Yes the person is short. Is the tree tall? 2. change all the sentences in Exercise I-1 into questions. 7.' Ẽ̍. atí lá kɔ́. Is the stool small? Yes the stool is small. 13. the farm is big. Atí lá kɔ́a? 'Is the tree tall?' Agbleá loloa? 'Is the farm big?' 'Yes.. 11. Is the metal hot? 6.. Is the table low? Yes the table is low. o 'not'. the tree is tall. 5.. Is the farm big? Yes the farm is big.. 10. How to express Negation Negation is expressed in Eʋe by the phrase mé.– 11 – Exercise I-3: Questions and Answers Using the above pattern. agbleá lolo. Is the window wide? Yes the window is wide.. Is the baobab thick? 4.

18. 3. 7. Agble lá mélolo o.' Vocabulary gasɔ́ ɖeví avɔ̌ agbǎ bicycle ("metal horse") child plate cloth. Glia̍ métri o. Zea̍ mélolo o. ̍ 8. 4. 15. Agbalẽ̍ lá ményó o. 14. Avɔa̍ métri o. 5. Agbǎ lá ményó o. 2. Ʋɔtrúá mékɔ́ o. 11. 17.– 12 – Example: Adidóá métri o. 10. 12. Kplɔ̃̍ lá mékeke o.' 'The book is not good. Abatíá mékeke o. Avɔa̍ mékeke o. Akɔ̍ɖú lá mébɔbɔ o. Exercise I-5: Read 1. Ablegɔ́ lá mégblẽ́ o. Ɖevi ́ lá mésẽ́ o. Náke̍ lá mésɔgbɔ o. 6. 16. Gasɔ́ lá mésẽ́ o. Xɔ̍ lá mékɔ́ o. 'The baobab is not thick. material . 13. Kpé lá mésẽ́ o. Kétéke lá médidi o. 9. Ame̍ lá mékpu̍i ̍ o.

The cloth is not thick. 5. The child is not strong. The bicycle is not strong. 11. The table is not broad. 7. 14. 6. The train is not long. 4. The house is not high. The door is not high. 18. The farm is not big. 17. The person is not thick. 2. 15. The stone is not hard. . 16.– 13 – tri kétéke abatí zě gazě gli thick train pot metal pot wall bed Exercise I-6: Translate into Eʋe 1. 19. The chair is not spoiled. The firewood is not enough. 10. The pot is not big. 9. 3. 13. The plate is not good. 12. The banana is not soft. The person is not short. 8. The bed is not broad. The wall is not thick. The cloth is not wide.

adverbs in Eʋe also follow the verbs they modify.' Vocabulary ŋútɔ́ ákpá kóŋ́ kéŋ́kéŋ́/ pétéé ázɔ̃́ tútúútú vávã̌ nyúíé haɖe … o kúráá very too extremely. definitely . correctly. Like articles and other determinatives follow the noun. really. quite truly. e. In this course. indeed now completely. honestly nicely. rightly not yet exactly. altogether. 'The farm is very big.g. really. The adverb There are two types of adverbs in Eʋe – the ordinary Adverb one finds in all other languages. fairly.' 'The way is too long.: Agbleá lo̍lo̍ ŋútɔ́. well. entirely rather.– 14 – LESSON II 1. we shall only concern ourselves with the ordinary simple adverbs we need in everyday speech. Mɔá didi akpa. and what is known as Picture Adverbs or Onomatopes.

The way is narrow indeed. Mɔ́ lá xáxɛ́ tútúútú. 13. 3. The person is really strong. Atí lá kɔ́ ŋútɔ́. 5. ́ 18. Adidóá tri tútúútú. . Akɔ̍ɖúá bɔ̍bɔ̍ kéŋ́kéŋ́. 5. The tree is very tall. ́ 4. ̌ 6. Mɔ́á didi ákpá. 20. 19. Fésre̍a̍ keke nyúíé. Ablegɔ́ lá gblẽ́ pétée. A̍ me̍ lá kpu̍i ̍ kóŋ́. The metal is quite hot. Xé lá bɔ̍bɔ̍ nyúi ́é. Táflo̍a̍ ke̍ke̍ nyúi ́é.– 15 – Exercise II-1: Read 1. A̍ me̍a̍ sẽ́ vávã. 10. 3. Ga lá xɔ dzo kúráá. 8. The bird is very beautiful. The window is wide enough. The money is enough. 14. 7. The banana is nicely soft. 4. The farm is really big. 2. 15. 6. 12. Agblea̍ lolo kóŋ́. Kplɔ̃́ lá kpu̍i ̍ kóŋ́. 17. Tsi ̍ lá fá ázɔ̃. 8. ́ 21. 7. 9. Xe̍vi ́ lá nyó ŋútɔ́. 2. Náke̍a̍ sɔgbɔ ákpá. 9. Kpé lá sẽ́ vávǎ. The way is too long. Zikpuǐ lá sɔ̍e ̍ kúráa. 10. 16. Exercise II-2: Translate into Eʋe 1. Ʋɔtrúá keke ákpá. 11. The water is now cold. Xɔ̍ lá kɔ́ ŋútɔ́.

17.– 16 – 11. 16. The building is very high.' Xɔ̍ lá kɔ́ ŋútɔ́. The door is too wide. 2. 14. The bed is nicely soft. The chair is completely spoiled. Another way of asking questions Another way of asking questions in Eʋe is by using the phrase áléké … le? 'how is …?' E. 19. 18. The chalk is quite soft. The stool is rather small.g. The baobab is very thick. 13. Áléké atí lá le? 2. Á léké agblea̍ le? 4. Áléké tsia̍ le? Now frame such questions and answers using the following nouns: .: Áléké xɔ̍ lá le? 'How is the building?' 'The building is very high. Exercise II-3: Answer the following questions in the Affirmative 1. 12. The table is extremely low. The firewood is too much. The person is extremely short. 15. The stone is indeed hard. Áléké mɔ́ lá le? 3.

The water is now cold. thick. The bird is beautiful but the cloth is too wide. fésre̍ 7. How is the firewood? Is the firewood too much? Yes the firewood is too much. How is the wall? Is the wall too . ga 6. The door is too wide. but the window is narrow. ablegɔ́ 15. but the metal is rather hot. adido 9.– 17 – 5. akɔ̍ɖú Vocabulary éye̍ gaké and but Exercise II-4: Translate into Eʋe 1. How is the tree? Is the tree very tall? Yes the tree is very tall. náke̍ 13. How is the person and how is the baobab? The person is rather short. ʋɔtrú 12. ame 8. How is the metal? The metal is quite hot. kétéke 11. 2. and the baobab is extremely thick? Yes the wall is too thick. xe̍vi ́ 10. kplɔ̃̍ 14. zikpuǐ 16.

8. e. Atí lá mékɔ́ tútúútú o. NEGATIVE Adidóá métri ̍ tútúútú o. gaké ʋɔtrúá kɔ́ ŋútɔ́. . ̍ 4. 2. 10. 6. 3.– 18 – 3. The chair is not altogether spoiled. The stone is too hard. 4. éye̍ ablegɔ́ lá mégbẽ́ pétéé o. care must be taken to use substitutes nearest to their negative sense. the book is small. Is the book really thick? No. ̌ Adidóá tri vávã. and the door is not high.g. and ázɔ̃́ cannot be negated. The window is not wide enough. and the water is too cold. 7. but the wood is very soft. and the house is not too small. The farm is not really big. Ame̍a̍ mésẽ́ tútúútú o. A̍ me̍a̍ mésẽ́ kóŋ́ o. 6.: AFFIRMATIVE Atí lá kɔ́ ŋútɔ́. Mɔ́á médi ̍di ̍ ákpá o. Kplɔ̃́ lá mékpu̍i ̍ kúráá o. 7. The firewood is not enough. Kpé lá mésẽ́ tútúútú o. Fésre̍a̍ méke̍ke̍ myúíé o. Agblea̍ mélo̍lo̍ kóŋ́ o. vávã. Exercise II-6: Translate into Eʋe 1. 8. When one has to give the negative form of sentences containing such adverbs. Náke̍a̍ mésɔgbɔ ákpá o. The metal is very hot. éye̍ ɣé lá mébɔ̍bɔ̍nyúíé o. Tsi ̍ lá méfá haɖé o. 9. 5. but the way is rather long. Exercise II-5: Read the following 1. but the table is completely destroyed. Adverbs in Negations ̌ The adverbs ŋútɔ́. The tree is not tall. Tsi ̍ lá méfá haɖé o gaké ga lá fá kúráá. 2. Ati lá mékɔ́ nyúíé o. ́ Tsi ̍ lá fá ázɔ̃. 3. 5.

O. atí lá mékɔ́ tútúútú o. Atí lá mékɔ́ ŋútɔ́ oa? Mɔ́á médi ̍di ̍ ákpá oa? … and so on. mɔ́á médi ̍di ̍ ákpá o. atí lá kɔ́ ŋútɔ́.– 19 – Exercise II-7: Questions and answers Change the sentences in Exercise II-1 into negative questions as shown below giving your answers both in the Affirmative and in the Negative. Ẽ̍. O. . Example: E̍̃. mɔ́á di ̍di ̍ ákpá.

e.g: atí eve xe̍vi ́ e̍wó nyɔ́nu̍ etɔ̃ 'two trees' 'ten birds' 'three women' .g.– 20 – LESSON III 1. e. maize' 'flour' 'water' 'salt' … etc. e. When quantity is expressed by means of numerals.g : The plural of the noun is formed in Eʋe by simply suffixing the morpheme -wó atí xɔ ŋútsu atíwó xɔwó ŋútsu̍wó 'trees' 'houses' 'men' Nouns considered as collective usually do not take the Plural -wó. The formation of Plurals (originally being a Subject pronoun of the Third Person Plural) to the noun. If collective nouns take the Plural morpheme the pluralized noun may refer to different kinds of the respective substance. a̍yi ̍wó means 'different kinds of beans'. plurality is understood and the Plural -wó is dropped from the noun. The following are same typical examples of such nouns : a̍yi ̍ azǐ mɔ́li ̍ bli ̍ wɔ́ tsi dze 'beans' 'nuts' 'rice' 'corn.

however. only the -á form of the Definite article is used in determining Plural nouns. to slaughter dzrá dzi ha fíá nú tso nya . e. to fell a tree. student yams egg (of a fowl) to cook to buy to sell to buy (liquids measured out to customers) to wash (cloth) to sing to teach. Vocabulary abólo̍ núfíálá su̍kûví ko̍kló azi ƒle ko̍klózi ɖa nú dze te bread teacher fowl egg pupil.g : atí evea̍wó xe̍vi ́ e̍wóáwó nyɔ́nu̍ etɔ̃áwó 'the two trees' 'the ten birds' 'the three women' Note that – – the determinative is suffixed to the numeral relating to the noun being determined. the noun is determined by an article. to show.– 21 – If. the Plural -wó is retained and is suffixed to the article.

Five men fell ten trees.– 22 – kákɛ́ Kɔ̍si ́ Akɔsúá piece. 13. éyè Akɔ̀osúá dze ami. Ŋútsu̍wó tso atíwó. Nyɔ́nùwó ɖa te. Ame enea̍wó ƒle zeàwó. 12. ́ ́ 3. Ŋútsu atɔ̃́ tso atí èwó. ̍ 6. 11. ́ ̍ 8. 5. 7. Akɔ́súá ƒle ko̍klóziwó. éyè Kɔ̀sí dzrá azǐwó. Men fell trees. ̍ 10. Nyɔ́nu̍awó nya avɔ̌ àdré. Núfíálá lá fíá ha adréáwó. 14. 9. Kɔ̍si ́ ƒle wɔ́. Exercise III-2: Translate into Eʋe 1. Nyɔ́nu eve̍awó ɖa mɔ́li ̀ lá. Akɔ̍súá dzrá náke̍wó éyè Kɔ̀si ́ ƒle gasɔ́. 2. . 4. 2. Kɔ̍sí ƒle te atɔ̃awó éyè Akɔ̍súá ƒle kòklówó. Súkûvi ́ asi ́éke̍ dzi ha etɔ̃. Ŋútsu atɔ̃awó tso atí èwóáwó. Súkûvíáwó dzi hawó. bit name for a female born on Sunday name for a male born on Sunday How to count from 1 to 10 in Eʋe: 2 eve 4 ene 5 atɔ̃́ 3 etɔ̃ 1 ɖeká 7 a̍dré 8 e̍nyi ́ 10 e̍wó 9 asi ́éke̍ 6 a̍dé Exercise III-1: Read the following 1.

all follow the noun: xɔ̍ lo̍lo̍ di ̍di ̍ lá atí kÕkÕ lo̍lo̍ lá . Qualifying nouns with adjectives derived from Static verbs As we have seen in Lesson I. In order to derive adjectives from verbs. An adjective qualifying a noun is placed just after the noun. the predication of qualities is usually done by Static verbs.2. 14.g. The women wash the cloths. adjectives can be derived for attributive use. The two women cook the rice. the verb is reduplicated (for exceptions. 9. 4. 10. The man sells firewoods. 11. 2. 13.: atí lá kÕ atí kÕkÕ lá tsi lá fá tsi fáfá lá 'the tree is tall' 'the tall tree' 'the water is cold' 'the cold water' If there are more than one qualifying word. From these Static verbs (and also from a few Dynamic ones). 12.– 23 – 3. 8. The pupils sing songs. The nine pupils sing three songs. 6. 5. The five men fell the ten trees. e. see next chapter). Akɔsua buys eggs and Kɔsi sells groundnuts. The teacher teaches seven songs. Kɔsi buys flour and Akɔsua buys oil. Kɔsi buys five yams and Akɔsua buys fowls. 7. Women cook yams. The four persons buy the pots.

' Ŋútsu̍wó tso atí kÕkÕ lòlòàwó.g: ŋútsu̍wó tso atí kÕkÕ lo̍lo̍wó But where quantity is expressed by using a numeral.– 24 – In translating English sentences into Eʋe. the Plural is formed by suffixing -wó to the adjective as shown in the following examples : atí kÕkÕwó nyɔ́nu̍ lo̍lo̍wó 'tall trees' 'fat women' Where there are more than one qualifying word. such series of qualifying words are taken in reverse order starting with the one nearest to the noun : 'Men fell the big tall trees. When a noun is qualified by an adjective. the Plural -wó is suffixed to the last of them. e.g: atí kÕkÕ àdé but nyɔ́nu̍ lo̍lo̍ èwó atí kÕkÕ a̍déáwó nyɔ́nu̍ lo̍lo̍ èwóáwó 'six tall trees' 'ten fat women' 'the six tall trees' 'the ten fat women' . e. the plural -wó is dropped from the adjective unless the noun is also determined by an article.

fat' 'long' 'broad. beautiful' kpu̍i ̍ nyúí (from nyóé) In groups (1) and (2). large. Note also that the attributive adjectives are pronounced with a lenghtened final vowel. winding' 'thick' 'big. . hard. little' 'short. wide' 'narrow' 'soft' 'hot' sɔ̍e ̍ 'small. low' 'nice. all the adjectives are derived from one-syllabled Stative verbs by means of reduplication. Study carefully the following table. bad. cool' 'spoiled. wrong' 'crooked. tall' 'strong. Ways of deriving attributive adjectives from Static verbs Although most attributive adjectives are derived by means of reduplication. there are some exceptions.– 25 – 3. The tones remain the same except in the case of tri. difficult' 'cold. VERB (1) kɔ́ sẽ́ fá (2) gblẽ́ glɔ̃́ tri (3) lolo didi keke xáxá/xáxɛ́ bɔbɔ (4) xɔ dzo sɔ̍e ̍ kpu̍i ̍ (5) nyó Note: – ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE kɔ́kɔ́ sésẽ́ fáfá/fáfɛ́ gbégblẽ́ gɔ̃glɔ̃́ ti ̍tri ̍ lo̍lo̍ di ̍di ̍ xáxá/xáxɛ́ bɔ̍bɔ̍e/bɔ̍bɔ̍ ̍ xɔ dzǒ/dzódzǒ ke̍ke̍ 'high.

When in their attributive forms. gl. Ŋútsu̍ sésẽáwó tso adidó ti ̍tri ̍ etɔ̃. Atí kɔ́kɔ́ lá mu. to bite to open to receive to break to close Exercise III-3: Read 1. Xɔ̍ kɔ́kɔ́ a̍déáwó mu. This is the result of the combination of oe in many Eʋe words. And in (5) note the change of the o in nyó into ui. and these remain the same in their predicative and attributive forms. The difference however is in the tone except for xáxá/xaxɛ́. – – In group (4) note the change in tone of the adjective derived from xɔ dzo. 3. adjectives containing the conconant clusters gbl. Xe̍ví ene ɖu abólo̍ kákɛ́ eve. 6. Xe̍vi ́wó ɖu abólo̍ kákɛ́áwó kéŋ́kéŋ́. or tr are duplicated Vocabulary mu no ɖu ʋu tú xɔ ŋé to fall down (standing object) to drink to eat. Xɔ̍ kɔ́kɔ́ a̍dé mu. Atí kɔ́kɔ́wó mu.– 26 – – There is also a special point worthy of attention in group (2). – In group (3). . the consonants l and r are dropped in the first syllable. 7. 5. ́ 8. Xe̍vi ́ nyúi ́ lá ɖu abólo̍ kákɛ́ lá. all the verbs are two-syllabled words. 2. 4.

7. Kɔdzo buys three small yams. 5. 13. Agble lo̍lo̍awó nyó kóŋ́. 4. and Adzoa buys oil. Fésre̍ sɔ̍e ̍ eve ʋu. ̍ 13. 9. Six high buildings fall. Tall trees fall. to the static verb expressing the quality. wú 'to surpass'.– 27 – 9. gaké ablegɔ́ lo̍lo̍ a̍dréáwó gblẽ́ pétéé. but the small seven chairs are completely broken. The small long road is very crooked. The strong men fell three thick baobabs. Birds eat the maize. is expressed by adding a second verb. The tall tree falls. The big farms are extremely good. The large stools are good. 12. 14. ̍ 11. Mɔ́ di ̍di ̍ lá xáxá ŋútɔ́. 2. The six high buildings fall. 6. Zikpuǐ sɔ̍eawó nyó. 3. in Eʋe. The Comparison of qualities Since qualities in predication are. 10. 4. Ablegɔ́áwó ŋé. Comparison of qualities. ̍ ̍ Exercise III-4: Translate into Eʋe 1. in most cases not expressed by adjectives but by verbs it should be clear that Comparison of qualities cannot be structurally similar to what is known as Comparison of adjectives in other languages. 11. Kɔ̍sí ƒle te lo̍lo̍ e̍nyí. Four birds eat the soft bananas. The wide doors are opened. but the two narrow windows are closed. The beautiful bird eats the piece of bread. éye̍ Akɔ̍súá dze ami. 8. 10. in Eʋe. 12. Ʋɔtrú ke̍ke̍awó ʋu. Consider the following example: .

' 5. for instance. to the Comparative : Ati ́gli ́nyi ̍ lo̍lo̍ wú wó ́ kátã.' (lit. Vietnamese. The Nominalization of adjectives The particle tɔ̍ may be used to nominalize an adjective: lo̍lo̍ ti ̍tri ̍ kɔ́kɔ́ → lo̍lo̍tɔ̍ → ti ̍tri ̍tɔ̍ → kɔ́kɔ́tɔ̍ 'the big one' 'the thick one' 'the tall/high one' . and the verbs involved are called "Serial verbs". "Elephant is big surpasses buffalo. while unknown in European languages.2. 'The elephant is bigger than all of them/ is the biggest. Serial verbs.' The Superlative degree is expressed by the addition of the phrase wó kátã́ 'all. 'The elephant is big' 'The elephant is bigger than the buffalo. The comparative wú can also be used without a following object: Ati ́gli ́nyi ̍ tri ̍ wú. and others. More about Serial verbs is said in Lesson XIV. Ati ́gli ́nyi ̍ lo̍lo̍ wú to. 'The elephant is thicker. ́ Ŋútsu̍ lá kpúí wó kátã. Ŋútsu̍ lá kpúí wú.' 'The man is shorter. Chinese.' (lit. surpasses them all.– 28 – Atíglínyi ̍ lolo. all of them'. other Kwa languages.") 'The man is shorter than all of them/is the shortest.") This phenomenon of employing more than one verb within one simple sentence is called "Verb Serialization". are a characteristic feature of Eʋe and other so-called "isolating" languages like. "Elephant is big.

́ 3. Kɔ̍dzo nyé sésẽtɔ̍. Ʋɔtrú ke̍ke̍tɔ̍ mésẽ́ kúráá o. Ga lá xɔ dzo wú kpé eveáwó. 5. Atí lá kɔ́ wú xɔ̍a? Atí lá kɔ́wú. Nyɔ́nu̍awó dzi ha wú ŋútsu̍awó. éye̍ nyɔ́nu̍ kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍ ɖu abólo̍. 6. they may as well be used in Comparison: to̍ lo̍lo̍tɔ̍ to̍ lo̍lo̍tɔ̍ wú to̍ lo̍lo̍tɔ̍ wú wó kákã́ 'the big buffalo' 'the bigger buffalo' 'the biggest of all the buffalos' Vocabulary wú ati ́gli ́nyi ̍ to nyé le kpuǐtɔ̍ lolǒtɔ̍ kekětɔ̍ Exercise III-5: Read 1. Kɔ̍dzó sẽ́ wú Kɔ̍sí. 10. 4. ̍ 7. ́ 9. Adzóá ɖu abólo̍ lá wú Akɔ́súá. To̍ tri ̍ ŋútɔ̍. Ga lá xɔ dzo wú wó kátã. Akɔ́súá kplé Adzóá. Kɔ̍si kɔ́kɔ́tɔ̍ sẽ́ ŋútɔ́. ̍ 2. 8. gaké atíglínyi ̍ tri ̍ wú. ̍ ̍ to surpass elephant buffalo to be something to be somewhere the short/low one the big one the broad/wide one .– 29 – Nominalized adjectives can also be employed attributively. Ŋútsu̍ kɔ́kɔ́tɔ̍ ɖu bli ̍. sɔ̍etɔ̍ sẽ́ wú.

The wide door is not at all strong. 7. The elephant is too thick. the small one is stronger. 4. and Kpáli ́me̍ are important inland Eʋe towns. 2. depart to have been to. 6. The metal is the hottest. from (preposition) to leave. The women sing better than the ten men. 6. Kɔdzo is the strongest. to arrive home already to return. Pe̍kí. The tree is taller. The tall and big Kɔdzo is stronger than Kɔsi. The elephant is the thickest. Akɔsua and Adzoa. 5. The tall Kɔsi is very strong. 9. Lome and Kéta̍ are important Eʋe towns along the Atlantic coast of West Africa. . and the short woman eats bread. The tree is taller than the building. Drill in questions and answers Vocabulary yi tsó dzó gbo de aƒé xoxo vǎ to come to go to come from. The metal is hotter than the two stones. but the elephant is thicker. come back Kpándo̍. The buffalo is very thick.– 30 – Exercise III-6: Translate into Eʋe 1. 10. Adzoa eats the bread more than Akɔsua. 3. 8. The tall man eats maize.

6. Kɔdzo has not yet come. Kɔdzo comes from Kpalime. Kɔ̍dzó kplé Adzóá de Kpálíme̍ xóxóâ? 7. 7. Adzóá yi Kpándo̍ xóxóâ? 3. 4. Áléké Lome le? 4.– 31 – Exercise III-7: Read the following questions. Adzóá ɖu akɔ̍ɖú bɔ̍bɔ̍e ̍ a̍dréáwó pétééâ? 8. and give your answers both in the Affirmative and in the Negative 1. Has Kɔdzo come now? No. Akɔ́súá gbɔ̍ tsó aƒéâ? 9. Has the strong man left for Peki? No the strong man has not yet left. but the elephant is bigger. 2. Nyɔ́nu̍ lo̍lo̍ átɔ̃áwó de Kpa̍li ̍mea? Exercise III-8: Translate into Eʋe 1. and Akɔsua comes from Peki. How is Keta? Is Keta very big? Is Keta bigger than Lome? Keta is big. . The buffalo is big. éye̍ asíéke̍ tsó Kpándo̍. Kɔ̍dzó dzóâ? 2. Have the six women been to Kpando? Yes the six women have been to Kpando. but Lome is bigger. The elephant is too big. Has Kɔsi returned? Yes Kɔsi has returned already. Kéta̍ mélo̍lo̍ wú Lome oa? ́ 5. Su̍ku̍ví a̍dé tsó Pe̍kí. vávẫ? ́ 10. 5. 3. Ŋútsu̍ sésẽ́ lá dzó ázɔ̃â? 6.

– 32 – LESSON IV 1. In such cases. This is a chair. when one points to an object and asks the question What is this? the object is nearly always introduced by the Indefinite article : What is this? What is this? What is this? This is a table. a certain person' 'the tree' 'a tree. For instance. the Indefinite article is very frequently used. Núka̍ nyé ési ̍a̍? 'What is this?' Núka̍ nyé ési ̍a̍? Núka̍ nyé ési ̍a̍? 'This is (a) house. . in English. This is an elephant. The determines: element ɖé is written as a separate word and must be placed next to the noun it a̍me̍a̍ a̍me̍a̍ ɖé atíá atíá ɖé 'the person' 'a person. the Indefinite article is not used in Eʋe: ́ Esi ̍a̍ nyé xɔ.' ́ ́ Esi ̍a̍ nyé kplɔ̃. a certain tree' In English or German and other European languages. ́ Esi ̍a̍ nyé ablegɔ́. The Indefinite article Indefiniteness is expressed by combining the bound form of the definite article (-á) with the independent morpheme ɖé (being a shortened form of the numeral 'one').

' 'Kɔdzo saw some men. Adzóá ƒle aziá ɖé. Kɔ̍dzo kpɔ́ ŋútsu̍a̍ ɖé. the Eʋe Indefinite article -á … ɖé is used: Atíá ɖé mu. 'A certain tree has fallen.' The plural -wó of the noun determined is suffixed to the ɖé of the Indefinite article: Atíá ɖéwó mu. Kɔ̍dzó kpɔ́ ŋútsu̍a̍ ɖéwó.' 2.' 'Adzóá bought a certain egg.– 33 – But where the English a or an conveys the idea of 'a certain/some'. Adzóá ƒle aziá ɖéwó. 'Some trees have fallen.' 'Kɔdzo saw a certain man. Demonstrative adjectives The Demonstrative adjectives are: SINGULAR si ̍a̍ má kemɛ PLURAL 'this' 'that' 'that over there' si ̍a̍wó máwó kemɛwó 'these' 'those' 'those over there' The Demonstrative adjective follows the noun to which it relates: ɖeví si ̍a̍ ɖevi ́ si ̍a̍wó xe̍vi ́ má xe̍vi ́ máwó to kemɛ to kemɛwó 'this child' 'these children' 'that bird' 'those birds' 'that buffalo (over there)' 'those buffalos (over there)' .' 'Adzóá bought some eggs.

' 'Akɔsua is here. nyé and le. ́̃ Ga lá le̍ tsyɔ̍e.' 'The person is black. Two ways of 'being': nyé and le For the English copulative verb 'to be' Eʋe has two verbs. It therefore answers the questions 'Where?'. 'Kɔsi is a boy. or 'to happen at a certain time'. Akɔ́súá le afî.' . the demonstrative adjective is placed after the last qualifying word: ŋútsu̍ví nyúí si ̍a̍ ŋútsu̍ sésẽ́ kÕkÕ má 'this good boy' 'that tall strong man' 'those strong broad windows' fésre̍ ke̍ke̍ sésẽ́ máwó 3.' 'Those farms are large farms. ́ Agble máwó nyé agble gãwó. or 'to be in a certain condition'. 'Kodzo is in Lome. Akɔ́súá nyé nyɔnu̍ví. 'How?'. it is worth remembering that nyé answers to the questions 'Who is X?' or 'What is X?' The verb le on the other hand means 'to be present/somewhere/at a place'. and is followed by an object. and 'When?' Study the following examples: Kɔ̍dzó le Lome.' 'The metal is pointed. To know when to use nyé correctly.' 'Akɔsua is a girl.– 34 – Where the noun being qualified by the demonstrative adjective is also qualified by other adjectives.' It is important to note that nyé is generally transitive in its use. ̍ Ame̍ lá le yibɔɔ. The verb nyé means 'to be something': Kɔ̍sí nyé ŋútsu̍ví.

village animal. flesh those a.' (lit. Vocabulary á … ɖé si ̍a̍ si ̍a̍wó má máwó kemɛ kemɛwó ŋútsu̍vi ́ nyɔ́nu̍ví ya̍me̍ʋú tɔ̍dzíʋú ŋ̍di ́ ŋ̍dɔ̍ fi ̍ẽ̍ zã̌ ƒu á … ɖéwó some this these that that yonder those yonder boy girl aeroplane ship. sun evening night air sea hunter lion forest gun to shoot a gun to be cheap to die to be expensive town.: "Rain falls it is in the evening. an. boat morning mid-day.– 35 – 'Rain falls in the evening. a certain ya̍ adelá lã dzatá avě tú da tú xɔ asi ɖi kú du . meat." Tsi dza le fi ̍ẽ́ me.

̍ 7. . 15. Afi ́ka̍ Kpálíme le? Kpálíme le Tógó. Ya̍me̍ʋú eveawó le ya̍ me. Dzatá ma̍ kú ŋdí si ̍a̍. ̍ 4. Akɔ́súá nyé nyɔ́nu̍ví nyúíá ɖé. Adeláá ɖé wu dzatá lá. Tsia̍ ɖé dza le zã̌ me. 14. 6. Adzóá ƒle avɔ̌ xɔ asi ̍á ɖé tsó Lome. 3. Lã lá le atí lá gbɔ́. large to be at a place here who there what to be black to be pointed under on in by. Ŋútsu̍ví má nyé Kɔ̍sí. Dzatá nyé lã̍ sésẽáɖé. Kɔ̍dzó kpɔ́ lãá ɖé le afî. éye̍ tɔ̍dzíʋú máwó le ƒu̍ lá dzí. 11. 5. Núka̍ Kɔ̍sí kpɔ́ le xɔ lá me? Kɔ̍sí kpɔ́ ga tsyɔẽá ɖé le xɔ̍a̍ me. A̍ me̍ka̍ nyé ési ̍a̍? A̍ me̍ si ̍a̍ nyé Akɔ́súa. Lo̍me̍ nyé du gãá ɖé le Tógó. Ŋútsu̍ sia̍wó kplé nyɔ́nu̍ máwó ɖu mɔ́li ̍ le ŋ̍dɔ̍ me. 9. Adelá si ̍a̍ ƒle tú nyúíá ɖé tsó Kpándo̍.– 36 – wu gã́ nyé afi ́ka̍ afî a̍me̍ka̍ núka̍ yibɔɔ tsyɔ̍e ́̃ té dzí me gbɔ́ hã́ afímá le to kill big. 2. 12. éye̍ ékemɛ nyé Kɔ̍dzó. ́ 8. 10. ́ 13. the side of also where to be something Exercise IV-1: Read ́ 1. Tú lá ɖi ̍ ŋútɔ́.

O. 2. These men come from Peki. The lion is very big. Kɔdzo buys a black cloth and a beautiful bicycle from Lome. Those boats are big. the three elephants are dead. Exercise IV-3: Read the following sentences and then frame adequate questions which you think will bring out the particular sentence as an answer 1. A hunter kills a lion in the forest. Peki is bigger than Kpalime. Are the elephants dead? Yes. Kpalime is very far from Peki. 8. Kɔ̍sí nyé ŋútsu̍vi ́. and those boys sing two songs. but Kpalime is in Togo. 4. 5. Kɔdzo kills three elephants in that forest. The hunter kills the lion with a gun. .– 37 – Exercise IV-2: Translate into Eʋe 1. Lome le Tógó. 6. Adzóá le Kéta̍. The hunter is near the lion. Atíglínyi ̍ lá kú. avɔ̌ lá nyó ŋútɔ́. 3. The girls have already left for Kpando in Ghana. Kɔsi sees three boats on the sea and five aeroplanes in the air. Where is Lome? Lome is in Togo. 4. Who is this? This person is Kɔdzo. 2. Peki is in Ghana. Kɔ̍si ́ le afî. Kɔ̍dzó mégbɔ haɖé o. ́ 3. and those women come from Kpalime. Ẽ̍. Adzóá nyé nyɔ́nu̍vi ́. 7. 9. Lome is a very big town. Kɔdzo is a hunter. The girls sing better than the boys. A̍ me̍ má nyé Adzóa. A̍ me̍ si ̍a̍ nyé Kɔ̍si ́. Kɔdzo has been to Lome. These girls sing ten songs. The cloth is very cheap but the bicycle is very expensive. 5. 6. 10. but the aeroplanes over there are very small.

Are the stones many? Yes the stones are too many.' 'Akɔsua is not under the tree. Are the stones hard? Yes. 'It is not this man. The two songs are beautiful. Adzoa is taller than Kɔsi also. Akɔ́súá méle atíá té o. How is the chair? The chair is broken. the stones are very hard. it is equivalent to the English Ményé ŋútsu̍ si ̍a̍ o. 4. Kɔdzo is a short person. but Akosua sings better than Kɔdzo. Where is the broken chair? The broken chair is near Kɔdzo under the big tree.to nyé and ending the sentence with the negative particle o : Kɔ̍sí ményé ɖe̍vi ́ o. What are those? Those are stones. What is this? This is a chair.' . 3. Akɔ́súá ményé su̍ku̍vi ́ o.' 'Akɔsua is not a pupil. 'Kɔdzo is not in Kpalime. The Negation of nyé and le The Negative of the verb nyé is expressed by prefixing the negative mé.' expression 'It is not': When ményé … o is used without a noun as subject. Are those stones small? Yes. the negation of the verb le is expressed by prefixing mé.to it and ending the sentence with o : Kɔ̍dzó méle Kpálíme o. 4. 'Kɔsi is not a child. Kɔsi is taller than Kɔdzo. Ményé to adelá lá wu o. Kɔdzo also sings a song.– 38 – Exercise IV-4: Translate into Eʋe 1. those stones are small. Is Kɔdzo tall? No Kɔdzo is not tall. The tall boy is Kɔsi. 2. Who is Kɔdzo? Kɔdzo is that boy.' Similarly.' 'It is not a buffalo that the hunter killed. Adzoa is the tallest. Akosua sings a song.

Akɔ́súá méle afî o. 5. 10. This usage will be treated later in the course. Kɔdzo is under that tree. 4. 9. 3. Ako Akɔ́súá ményé su̍ku̍ví o. Adzóá méle Kpándo̍ o. Ŋútsu̍ kɔ́kɔ́ lá ményé adelá o. 2. Kpáli ́me̍ méle Ghána o. 4. Avɔ̌ si ̍a̍ ményé avɔ̌ nyu̍i ̍ o. 11. Kpálíme̍ ményé du gã́ o. Ŋútsu̍a̍ lia? but Ŋútsu̍a̍ le afímâ? 'Adzoa is not present.– 39 – When méle is used without a following Object or other Complement.' 'Is the man present?' 'Is the man there?' Note: The form li is also used in other contexts. Adzóá ményé ɖeví o. Ményé Pe̍ki Akɔ́súá yi o. Kpalime is not a town in Ghana. Adelá má méle ati ́á t ́ o. Akɔsua is not present. meaning 'to exist'. Exercise IV-6: Translate into Eʋe 1. . 7. 2. Akɔ́súá méli o. 8. 6. 3. The hunter is not here. Adzoa is not a boy. 12. 5. Ményé dzatá Kɔ̍dzó kpɔ́ le ave̍ lá me o. It is not a tree. Exercise IV-5: Read 1. le becomes li meaning 'to be present': Adzóá méli o.

7. The water is not enough. Is the woman there? No. The firewoods are very many.– 40 – 6. 10. The hunter is not a tall person. . 8. the fat woman is not under the thick baobab. It is not a lion that Kɔdzo has seen in the forest. but the yams are very few. 9.

míemie- The original Eʋe word for 'we' is mi-.(nye-) e. In the pronoun mí.are not only used in negative sentences.)'. that the forms in brackets are used only under certain circumstances: nye- When referring to oneself and in a negative sentence. but .is used.is placed between combination mímé.or mi and the verb to which it is connected – e.(míe-) mi. Instead. míé.– 41 – LESSON V 1. me. the became the second words for 'we' and 'you (pl. It will be seen later that nyeis also used for the Absolute and Possessive pronouns in the First Person Singular.(mie-) wó- Note.and mie-. And as written Eʋe is almost completely based on the Aŋlɔ dialect. the Negation prefix mé. The forms míé.g.and mie.is not used. mímévá o mimévá o 'we do not come' 'you (pl. which constitutes the leading costal dialect.(ne-) é.were shortened into míé.(wo-) PLURAL mí.and mie- Among the coastal dialect speakers of the Eʋe language. and for 'you (plural)' mi-. The Subject pronouns Study the following table carefully: SINGULAR FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON me.or mime̍. respectively.) do not come' a negative sentence. the form nye.

referring to the same person: Éɖu nú éye̍ wono nú. mí-. that the forms mí. As a rule. for Possessive Pronouns. míe-. wò-. the Subject pronouns are always connected to the verb: meyi eyi éyi 'I go' 'you (sg.' However.and mímé.are the only forms used in Imperative Sentences. wo'You come and (you) eat the bread.are Similarly. this form is used when the Third Person Singular is mentioned a second time within the same sentence.and mime̍.– 42 – also in a positive sense: míévá mi ̍e̍vá 'we come' 'you come' míévá o mievá o 'we do not come' 'you do not come' still used largely among the northern Eʋe dialect speakers. nè-. the pronoun became reinterpreted as a Plural suffix belonging to the preceding sentence.) go' 'he/she/it goes' míéyi mieyi wóyi 'we go' 'you (pl. the forms mí. The pronoun wó. and as Object pronouns. neThis form is used when the Second Person Singular is mentioned a second time within the same sentence.is the same as the Plural suffix wó-.as well as mi. referring to the same person: Evá éye̍ neɖu abólo̍ lá.' Note also that the following pronouns are always written with their tone marks even for Eʋe Speakers: è-.) go' 'they go' . You will also see later in this course. Historically.and mi. 'He/she/it eats and (he/she/it) drinks.

Míédó ɣlí ŋ̍dí si ̍a̍ le su̍kǔ. Éɖu bli ̍a̍ kéŋ́kéŋ́ éye̍ wosí. 12. Kɔ̍mla̍ kpɔ́ dzatá. 8. Have you seen the 2. Kɔ̍mla̍. They are big yams. Abra sells yams. He sees a big lion. lion? . ́ 4. Wóle adidó lo̍lo̍ si ̍a̍ té. It is under the tall tree. Miewɔ dɔ̌ ŋútɔ́ gaké miexɔ ga sɔe̍á ɖé. Abrã́ dzrá ko̍klóziawó. for (preposition) Exercise V-1: Read ́ 1. Kɔmla sees a lion.– 43 – Vocabulary ná wɔ wɔ dɔ̌ sí dó ɣlí Kɔ̍mla̍ Abrã́ yɔ́ to call to do to work to run away to shout name for a male born on Tuesday name for a female born on Tuesday to give. She sells eight yams. The students call the teacher. Su̍ku̍víáwó yɔ́ núfíálá má. Ékpɔ́ dzatá gãá ɖé. 10. Exercise V-2: Translate into Eʋe 1. You eat the bread and drink the water also. Édzrá ko̍klózi e̍nyí. The teacher comes and opens the large door. Ená agbalẽ̌ Abrã́ gaké ne̍dzrá ɣé lá ná. 11. 9. 3. 3. Wóyɔ́ núfíálá lá. Eɖu nú éye̍ neno nú hã. 7. 6. To a̍de le afí. 2. Míénya avɔ̌ ti ̍tri ̍ eveawó nyúíé. 4. Eɖu núa? Núka̍ neɖu? 5. Ŋútsu̍ kpu̍i ̍ si ̍a̍ tútúútú me̍kpɔ́ le Lome wodze aha lá. Me̍ná bli ̍ ko̍kló si ̍a̍wó wóɖu.

Ékpɔ́ wo.' The combination of the Third Person Object pronoun –é with a preceding vowel leads to morphophonological change nyɛ s. and sell the board to the teacher. 8. 2.' 'They see us. 'I see you (pl. but Me̍kpɔ́e. Where is 7. the table? It is by the small window. 10. but where the pronoun is a single phoneme – e.). Wókpɔ́ mí. g: m and é.). They are not many. E̍kpɔ́ wó. This is not a long road. it is suffixed to the verb which governs it: Me̍kpɔ́ mi.' 'You see me. You give a chair to Akɔsua. Where are they? They are here on the table.– 44 – 5. Mi ̍e̍kpɔ́m. 6. He eats all the maize and runs away. The Object pronouns The table below gives you all the Pronouns of the preceding chapter in their objective forms: SINGULAR FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON -m (ye) wo -e (ye) PLURAL mí (míá) mi (mia) wó (yewó) The general rule is that Object pronouns are separated from the verbs which govern them. 9. Kɔsi works for this man but he receives a little money. Note the following points: . Give corn to the fowls now.' 'I see him/her/it.' 'You see them. We wash all the thick cloths. It is a short road but it is narrow and crooked.' 'He sees you (sg.

the spelling is also changed (please note that this change also affects the Object pronoun of the First Person Singular): kplé + é → → kplíi 'with him/her/it' 'with me' kplé + m kplim – where the verb ends in -o .' 'Kill it!' 'Swallow it!' 'They steal it. and'.' – where the verb ends in -e the double ee so produced is pronounced as [ii] : ŋée gblée 'break it' 'spoil it' is pronounced " [ŋíi] [gblii] ̃́ but with kplé 'with.– 45 – – when suffixed to a verb ending in -a . the -é is replaced by -i : Éɖu + e Wu + e Mi + e Wófi + e → → → → Éɖui Wui Mii Wófii 'He/she/it eats it. the Object pronoun -é is pronounced [i ]: ƒoe tóe 'to beat it' 'pound it' is pronounced " [ƒoi] [toi] . the combination ae is pronounced ɛ and is also spelt with ɛ instead of ae : ɖa + e gba + e nya + e → → → ɖɛ gbɛ nyɛ 'cook it' 'break it' 'wash it' – when suffixed to a verb ending in -u or -i.

to make snake to meet (a person) Exercise V-3: Read 1. Éyɔ́ wo éye̍ ne̍vá. . pick to see to cry. 7. 6. Éŋlɔ kplíi. ̍ 4. weep to laugh cow milk milk (of a cow) to beat. Núfíálá ŋlɔ nú kplé ɣé lá. Wéƒo mí. Me̍yɔ́ Kɔ̍mla̍. the pronoun -é is pronounced [ɛ]: kpɔ́e wɔe yɔ́e 'see it' 'do it' 'call him' is pronounced " " [kpɔ́ɛ] [wɔɛ] [yɔɛ] Vocabulary fɔ kpɔ́ fa aví ko nú nyi nótsi ̍ nyi ̍nótsi ̍ ƒo núɖu̍ɖu̍ agbeli ŋlɔ nú wɔ da kpé (ame) to collect. éye̍ míéfa aví. strike food cassava to write something to do. Meƒle akɔ̍ɖú lá éye̍ meɖui Meƒlee éye̍ meɖui. Wóɖa agbeli lá. Wóɖɛ.– 46 – – and with the verb ending in -ɔ . E̍kpɔ́ wɔ́. 5. Me̍yɔ́e. 2. E̍kpo nyi ̍ e̍ne̍awó. 3.

Éwɔe kplím. Postpositions Unlike prepositions which precede the nouns to which they relate. Compare the following sentences: ENGLISH The bird is on the tree. me̍wɔ̍e ̍ kplíi. 12. ̍ 11. 14. Wófɔ̍ wó. The hunter is near the animal. Éle xɔ̍ lá me. Mewui. Míékpɔ́e le afímá. 10. They see the hunter. Kɔdzo is near the cow. 3. The elephant is really big. they have seen the animal near the tall hunter. Those girls are under the thick baobab. The cassava is very good. éye̍ me̍vá wu da lá. Akɔ́súá ɖa te̍ lá. éye̍ ne̍wɔe̍ kplé wó. It is bigger than a buffalo. Adzóá kpé ɖe̍ví lá le xɔ̍ má gbɔ́. It is a good food. Abrã cooks cassava. We eat it with Kɔmla. It is the biggest animal in the forest. You eat the cassava and (you) drink the milk too. Nyɔ́nu̍víáwó fɔ náke̍awó. . An animal is here. 2. postpositions follow the nouns. It is in the room. She cooks it and we eat it. It is under this big tree. EƲE Xe̍ví lá le atí lá dzí. Wóko̍e ̍ ákpá. The hunter sees it and shoots it. We eat it with him. Have they seen the animal also? Yes. 3. There is an elephant near the tree. Éɖɛ. ̍ 13. Kɔsi too eats the cassava with me and (he) drinks the milk with you. 9. Ékpée le xɔ̍ lá gbɔ́ tútúútú. Exercise V-4: Translate into Eʋe 1. Mi ̍e̍yɔ́m. Kɔdzo le nyi ̍ lá gbɔ́. Nyɔ́nu̍awó ko ŋútsu̍ lá. He kills it. Míékpɔ́ dzatá lá le avě lá me.– 47 – 8.

surface (n. . tree trunk).) underneath.) All postpositions were originally nouns. where one Postposition is enough in Eʋe to express the same sense: 'It is in front. head (n.) títína ta̍ ŋkume in the middle of on top of. surface (n. side (n. near to at. within near.) on. Éle tɔ̍a̍ dzí. front.) dzí me̍gbé xa̍ nu̍ ɖome. gɔme. at.. surface (of mirror. inside. Éle ŋgɔ. after. ahead of. cloth. water) (n. before. beside. edge (n. té on. or Éle tɔƒo. edge (eg. Points to note: – Sometimes two prepositions are used in English. side (of objects) (n. ŋútí to̍ on. surface (of wall. face.) in front of. see also Lesson XI.) on.– 48 – The most common and important postpositions are listed here below for frequent and easy reference :1 me gbɔ́ ŋgɔ ƒo in.) at the edge of. surface (of liquids) (n.) by the side of. For more details on this. entrance. on. most of them still occur. rear. of a bank of a river) (n. see Heine & Reh 1984:256ff. among. back (n. as nouns.) behind. amidst ŋú.' 'It is on the surface of the water. over. under dome between. in other contexts. above.

The postposition me may be suffixed to names of languages to indicate a particular language area: le Eʋeme le Dza̍mame le Blu̍me le Éŋle̍sime 'in the Eʋe-speaking area' 'in the German-speaking area' 'in the Twi-speaking area' 'in the English-speaking area' These nouns as well as the following which are also a combination of noun and postposition do not as a rule require a further postposition: abɔ́ta̍ dziƒó xɔxɔ́nu̍ 'shoulder' ("top of arm") 'courtyard' 'heaven' ("surface above") However. Eʋe postpositions differ semantically from prepositions in English: 'He came out of the wood.' Kɔ̍si ́ le Lome. countries and continents do not take postpositions: 'Kɔsi is in Lome. – Names of towns. a lot of nouns suffixed with me 'in'.' 'The boy is in America.' This comes from God Étsó ave lá me.– 49 – – Quite often. fall outside this rule: nɔnɔme ƒome dzidzime 'form' 'family' 'generation' : : : Me̍kpɔ́e le nɔnɔme má me Le dzidzime sia̍ me Wóle ƒome ɖeká me . Ŋútsu̍ví lá le Améri ̍ka. ́ Esi ̍a̍ tsó Máwú gbɔ́.

i. ̍ . lake. (xéxéme means 'the world') (afe me means 'house') Vocabulary fufu Máwú tó Aƒétɔ́ Ablotsí Aƒéno̍ hédziƒó tɔ tɔƒo da anyígbá a West African dish God mountain Mr. : Míéle su̍kú. Kplɔ̃̍ lá le atí gã́ má té. ̍ ́ 2. Kɔ̍mla̍ ɖu fufu lá ŋútɔ́. Kɔ̍mla̍ vá afi ́.– 50 – – The following nouns also do not take postpositions. Master Europe Mrs. éye̍ wono aha hẫ ákpá. homeland' 'school' : Wóyi wó de̍. Abrã́ ɖa fufu éye̍ woɖui kplé Kɔ̍mlá le kplɔ̃̍ sɔ̍eá ɖé dzí.. Lady and (like éye̍) but always prefixed to the verb it precedes river. homeland' 'outside. sea. they behave like names of towns or countries: de̍ xéxé aƒé su̍kú 'nativeland. Éle Abrã́ gbɔ́ le xɔ si ̍a̍ me. lake (any large collection of water) snake surface of water (river. : Woyi aƒe. Wókpɔ́ to eve le a̍fímá le atí gãá ɖé xa̍. Wóda tú to̍awó héwu̍ wó. : Éle xéxé. Lord. sea) heaven earth Exercise V-5: Read 1. Adelá evea̍ ɖéwó yi avěa̍ ɖé me le tó kemɛ me̍gbé.e.. outdoors' 'hometown.

éye̍ ŋútsu̍ lá le xɔ̍á ŋgɔ. He is very tall. Abrã is not near the tree. He is the tallest boy in the house. It is on the table near the thick wall. éye̍ a̍me̍wó le a̍nyi ́gbá dzí. Nyi ̍ lá le xɔ̍ lá me̍gbé. ̍ 11. le xéxé. Miele su̍ku̍víáwó dome.– 51 – 3. A̍ me̍awó yi tɔƒo. Wóméle xɔme o. Da lá le adidóá ŋú. much. Adzóá kplé Akɔ́súá le aƒé si ̍a̍ me. 9. She is absent. Drill in Questions. What do you see in front of that house? I see three cows there. a lot of market today . She is not here. Are you a boy? No. Wóle aƒéá títína. 5. He is taller than Kɔsi and Kɔdzo. 4. The teacher calls him and gives him a nice book. ́ 12. Kɔmla is a teacher. Exercise V-6: Translate into Eʋe 1. 8. gaké Aƒénɔ̍ Adzóá Káta̍ le ʋɔtrúá me̍gbé. Wóle kplɔ̃́ ŋútí 4. 7. Glia ŋú ményó o. Kɔmla is a boy. Kɔsi is near the table behind the tree. Máwú le dziƒó. 10. Aƒétɔ́ Káta̍ le fésre̍a̍ nu̍. The book is here in this room. and Kɔsi is a student. 2. I am under the tree. Da gãá ɖé le kpéá té. I am not a boy. 6. Answers and Negations Vocabulary geɖee asi égbe many. Adzóá le Kpándo̍ gaké Kɔ̍si ́ le Améri ̍ka.

A̍ fi ́ka̍ Aƒétɔ́ Káta̍ tsó? Étsó Lome. Where are you? 2. Ame̍ká gbɔ́ neɖu fu̍fu̍ lá le? Me̍ɖui le Abrã́ gbɔ́. nyemékpɔ́e ̍ o. ̍ 2. E̍kpɔ́ Akɔ́súá hã́ le a̍me̍ máwó domea? O. What has Kɔmla eaten today? 3. … 4. wɔ́ kplé mɔ́li ̍ éye̍ wodze a̍mi ̍ hã. … 10. Afi ́ka̍ Lome le? Lome le Tógó. Is it not you the teacher called? No. Adzóá méli o. Has the hunter killed the snake? 15.– 52 – Exercise V-7: Read 1. Have you opened that small window? 14. 3. Akɔ́súá kplé Kɔ̍sí ɖu fu̍fu̍ lá kplím. Have you sold the two cows? No. and supply adequate answers to each of' them 1. How is Kpalime? 6. Has she paid you already? Yes. Is this table high? 11. Where is it? 7. … 9. Exercise V-8: Translate the following questions into Eʋe. Have you been to Keta? No. Has Kɔmla closed the broad door? 13. What do you see on the table? 12. Núka̍ Adzóá ƒle le asi ́ lá me? Ƀle te. Afíká woyi? Éyi asi* me. Have you worked for that fat woman? Yes. Is Adzoa in Lome? No. What have you done with the money? 16. … 8. … . Áléké Lome le? Lome nyé du nyúía ɖé. lã dze. A̍ me̍ka̍ nyé ŋútsu̍ si ̍á? Ŋútsu̍ si ̍a̍ nyé Aƒétɔ́ Káta̍. Adzóá le aƒéá mea? O. … 5. ̍ Ame̍a̍ ɖé ɖu fu̍fu̍a̍ kplé woa? Ẽ̍. Núka̍ ne̍ɖu̍ égbe? Meɖu fu̍fu̍ ŋ̍dí si ̍a̍.

the question as to whether a verb refers to an event in the present or in the past is determined. Sometimes. in most descriptions of Eʋe. The Present/Past Tense (Aorist) In Eʋe. a verb without tense marking may refer to a present as well as to a past event. sentences: This tense is. not by change in form of the verb. but by the context in which it is used. came/have come/had come' In Eʋe. Consider the following meyi me̍vá 'I go/went/have gone/had gone' 'I come. once upon a time' 'last year' 'last month' 'last week' etc. kwásíɖá si ̍ vá yi . olden times' 'in ancient times' 'one day.– 53 – LESSON VI 1. called "Aorist". a word or a phrase may be added to make clear that the action being referred to can only be a past one. Some common examples of such words and phrases are: etsɔ si vá yi xóxó tsã́ lá le blema lá gbe ɖeká ƒe̍svá yi ̍ ɣle̍tí si ̍ vá yi 'the day that has passed' ("tommorrow/yesterday which came and passed") 'already' 'in the days gone by.

the Object position has to filled either by the noun ná 'thing.' 'We bought it last month. Abrã́ ɖa te. 'Abrã cooks (something). The verb remains the same regardless of Person and Number (see Lesson IV. in Eʋe.1).' . always take an Object. respectively: ɖa nú ɖu nú dí ame ƒle nú dzrá nú 'to cook (something)' 'to eat (something)' 'to look for (someone)' 'to buy (something)' 'to sell (something)' The "dummy pronouns" nú/ame are just provisional objects which disappear when a specific object is given. 'They have come. intransitive verbs never do.' But in the absence of any such words or phrases.– 54 – Consider the following sentences: Wóyi etsɔ si ̍ vá yi (or: Wóyi etsɔ).' Abrã cooks yam. If a transitive verb is used without a specific Object. matter' or ame 'person' which serve as impersonal pronouns 'something' or 'someone'. 2. Study these examples : Abrã́ ɖa̍ nú. Míéƒlee ɣle̍tí si ̍ vá yi. Transitive verbs. Transitive and intransitive verbs Eʋe verbs are either transitive or transitive. Wóvá xo (or: Wóvá xóxó).' 'They went yesterday. the context in which the verb is used should be taken into consideration.

e.' 'I buy cloth.– 55 – Meƒle nú. 'I buy (something).' 'They have/had been there. their meaning is a result of the combination of a verb with a particular noun.' . 'They have/had been to Lome. i. Ézɔ mɔ́ di ̍di ̍. Study the following examples: INTRANSITIVE VERBS WHICH MAY TAKE COMPLEMENTS Míeyi. Wóde afímá. Wóde Lome. Ézɔ.' 'He/she/it walks/walked. Meƒle avɔ̌. Study the following examples: fa avǐ wɔ dɔ̌ dó awu dze ami dɔ́ alɔ̃ 'to weep' 'to work' 'to dress up' 'to buy oil' 'to sleep' Verb – Object combinations of this kind have to be learnt as inseparable units. Intransitive verbs may be divided into those which take Complements and those which may not tale complements.' There exist several combinations of verb and Object that always occur together.' Míé`yi aƒé.' 'We go/went home.' 'He/she/it walks/walked a long way. 'We go/went.

store a little to enter goods.: Ŋútsu̍ lá sí yi Kéta̍. goes to Keta.' 'He dies/died. Wófé le Kpándo̍.– 56 – INTRANSITIVE VERBS WHICH MAY NOT TAKE COMPLEMENTS Ŋútsu̍ lá sí. another verb is needed to follow them in order to introduce a complement.' ("He died.") 'They played at Kpando. Ékú. Wófé le afî. ships. e.g. Égé.' 'It has fallen/falls/fell. Míédzó.' ("They played.' ("The man runs away. Xe̍vi ́ lá dzo.' 'The bird flies/flew. 'The man runs away to Keta.") 'He died at Lome. 'The man runs/ran away. is at Lome.' 'They play(ed) here. Ékú le Lome.") Vocabulary gbe gbe ɖeká fíásé víé gé ɖé adzɔnú ʋǔ ablɔ̌ etsɔ day tomorrow/yesterday one day. once upon a time shop.' 'We have/had left. planes) street . wares vehicle (cars. is at Kpándó.' With such verbs.

Kɔ̍dzó kpɔ́ ame ̍ geɖewó. éye̍ wogé ɖé fíásé lo̍lo̍á ɖé me. Ablɔa̍wó keke éye̍ wódi ̍di ̍ ŋ́útɔ́. when used the Subject is not arm. Asi ̍si ̍ geɖewó hẫ ́ Gbe ɖeká Kɔ̍dzó yi Lome. ʋuwó kplé gasɔ́wɔ́ le ablɔawó dzí. Adzɔnú geɖewó le fíáséá me. also measure for yard or meter atákpu̍i ̍ Exercise VI-1: Read fíásé sɔ̍ewó hẫ le ablɔ̌ geɖewó tó. rise from bed early morning breakfast to come back to to go back to to take car/ train/ boat as a passenger hotel.– 57 – tsa asisi ̍ kúkú ɖaabɔ́ to wander about. dining hall to dance to get up (from a lying position). do sightseeing customer hat repeated (as with éye̍). place of lodging any alcoholic drink midnight a conjunction like éye̍ 'and'. vá fíásé lá me. gomelã̌ mlɔ́ mlɔ́ a̍nyí le tsi dó awu núɖu̍ƒé ɖú ɣe fɔ́ ŋ̍dí kányá ŋ̍dinúɖu̍ɖu̍ trɔ́ vá trɔ́ yi ɖó ʋǔ àmèdzro̍dzèƒe̍ aha zãtítína. Kɔ̍dzó tsa le fíásé lá me tsó afî yi afímɛ̌. Ékpɔ́ xɔ̍ nyúé lo̍lo̍ geɖewó le dua̍ me. zãtíƒe̍ Always prefixed to the verb which follows it (see hé-) tinned meat/fish pair of shorts to lay. Ézɔ ablɔ̌ gã́ ɖeká dzí víé. Fíásé lá le xɔ̍ kɔ́kɔ́á ɖé té. used for things happening away. lie to lie down or in bed to take a bath to dress up restaurant. Ékpɔ́ fíásé gãwó kplé .

In the Present Progressive. gomelã̌ sɔ̍e ̍ ene. German: sie ist am AORIST yi vǎ sí dzo dzó le yiyiḿ le sisíḿ le dzodzoḿ le dzodzóḿ le vaváḿ PRESENT PROGRESSIVE . He got up early in the morning. the verb is nominalized through reduplication. The construction is easy to understand if one considers that the suffix –ḿ is a remnant of the former postposition me 'in'. He slept well. 188ff. kúkú yi ̍bɔ̍á ɖé kplé atákpu̍i ̍ eve. The Progressive Aspect The Progressive Aspect expresses that an action is just happening or going on – at the moment of speech or at some other time.. 3. goes back to a construction that literally meant "s/he is in going" (cf. They drank a lot and (they) danced with two tall girls. With intransitive verbs.. A sentence like éle yiyiḿ 's/he is going' Gehen).– 58 – Kɔ̍dzó ƒle avɔ̌ ti ̍tri ̍á ɖé abɔ́ etɔ̃. the auxiliary verb is le while in the Past Progressive. he took a train and returned to Kpalime. He went and ate that evening in a restaurant near the big shop. The Progressive Aspect in Eʋe is formed by means of an auxiliary verb plus a suffix –ḿ on the main verb. Kɔdzo took a bath and dressed up nicely. He saw Kɔsi among the people in the restaurant. Note that nominalization involves a "Floating High tone" which is realized as a High tone on the suffix –ḿ. Ési ̍a̍ me̍gbé wotrɔ́ yi a̍me̍dzródze̍ƒé ɖa̍ɖu̍ nú le afímá. the auxiliary verb is nɔ. Exercise VI-2: Translate into Eʋe In the evening. Kɔdzo went to bed at midnight. He called him and (he) ate with him. 122f. For details see Heine & Reh 1984: 103f. After breakfast.

the Pronoun is prefixed to le: ins AORIST meyi wódzó éwɔ dɔ̌ mele yiyiḿ wóle dzodzóḿ éle dɔ̌ wɔ̍ḿ PRESENT PROGRESSIVE As noted above. the auxiliary verb still functions as the verb within the construction. Look at the following sentences: Éɖum. AORIST ɖu nú wɔdɔ̌ ƒle nú fa avǐ PRESENT PROGRESSIVE le nú ɖu̍ḿ le dɔ́ wɔ̍ḿ le nú ƒle̍ḿ le avi ̌ fa̍ḿ If a connected pronoun is the Subject of the sentence.' 'He is eating (something). the originally nominalized verb becomes reduced to its "normal" form. This position of the Object is due to the original Possessor position of the logical Object ("s/he is in eating of something"). the Object follows the auxiliary verb but precedes the main verb. Nevertheless.– 59 – Care must be taken not to confuse the Personal Pronoun object -m with the Progressive -ḿ . With transitive verbs. In the Progressive Aspect. Consider the following sentences: . 'He bites me.' Note that it is the auxiliary verb that functions as the verb within the Progressive construction. Éle nú ɖu̍ḿ. the Past Progressive is formed with the auxiliary nɔ.

Kɔ̍dzó le Lome yi ̍ḿ . ɖe̍víáwó le fefé. 5. ̍ ̍ 11. Miefa aví le xɔ̍ si ̍a̍ me̍gbé. 8. ŋútsu̍awó le aha noḿ. Míéle Akɔ́súá kpɔ́ḿ wole wó ƒle̍ḿ . Vocabulary se nú kplɔ ƒú du to hear to lead/ to accompany to run Exercise VI-3: Read 1. 4. éye̍ Adzóá le a̍lɔ̃̍ dɔ́ḿ . 6. ́ 10. Enɔ du ƒúḿ. gaké menɔ zɔzɔḿ. le ha dziḿ éye̍ wóle ɣe̍ ɖúḿ hã. Éle kétéké ɖóḿ le Lome yi ̍ḿ 3. Ɖeví lá kpɔ́é wonɔ agbǎ eve ƒleḿ le asi me. ̍ . Kɔsí hã́ le yiyiḿ. Nyɔ́nu̍awó le tsi ̍ le̍ḿ . 9. Akɔ́súá ƒle agbǎ eve le asi me. Wóse mienɔ aví fa̍ḿ le xɔ̍ lá me̍gbé. Ŋútsu̍awó nɔ nyɔ́nu̍ví lá kpɔ́ḿ wonɔ avɔ̌ lá nya̍ḿ . 7. ́ 12.– 60 – mele yiyiḿ menɔ yiyiḿ éle dɔ̌ wɔ̍ḿ énɔ dɔ̌ wɔ̍ḿ 'I am going' 'I was going' 's/he is working (doing work)' 's/he was working (doing work)' The Progressive Aspect may also be put into the Future Tense (see Lesson XVI). Weóle ʋǔ ƒó´m. 2.

Remember that the pronoun me. with the Negative particle o at the end of the sentence. 9.in a Negative expression: mewɔ dɔ̌ nyeméwɔ dɔ̌ o nyeméle dǒ wɔ̍ḿ wóménɔ ha dziḿ o 'I work' 'I do not work' 'I am not working' 'they were not singing' For questions and answers in the Progressive. 13. We are buying the two black hats in the shop.– 61 – Exercise VI-4: Translate into Eʋe 1. place the Negation marker me. 7. She is going home. Kpeglo is leaving today. 2. 6. writing all together as one word. You called him. We bought two hats in that shop. (Insert 'she was' after … 'her') 4. Kpeglo were dancing under the big tree. She led the boy to school. Kpeglo and Mrs. She is going to Kpando. They saw her (she was) leading the fat boy to school. 11. We have bought them in the shop. The woman is leading the boy to school. Abrã is going to Kpando. 3.'I' becomes nye.between the pronoun and the verb. They saw us buying the hats (insert 'we were' after … 'us') 8. 5. Drill in questions. 12. I saw you going home. 10. I saw her going to Kpando. You were calling Kɔsi. She is taking the train from Kpalime to Lome. study the following questions and answers: . answers and Negations To put a sentence containing the connected form of the Personal pronoun into the Negative. Mrs. 14. Mr. 4.

none to learn to teach Exercise VI-5: Read 1. mese adelááwó le túáwó da̍ḿ le avě gã́ lá me. nyeméle nánéké ɖu̍ḿ o. Ele náné ɖu̍ḿ a? O. wóle dzodzóḿ.' 'Are they leaving?' 'Yes. 4. A̍ me̍awó le dɔ̌ wɔ̍ḿ agbleá mea? ̍ O. they are leaving. Adelá máwó le túáwó da̍ḿ a? E̍̃. want crowd no. I am not working. Nyeméle dɔ̌ wɔ̍ḿ o. Me̍kpɔ́ wó wónɔ aƒé yi ̍ḿ ŋ̍di ́ si ̍a̍. Afíka̍ wóle? . 2.– 62 – Ele dɔ̌ wɔ̍ḿ a? Wóle dzodzóḿa? Ẽ̍. wóméle dɔ̌ wo̍ḿ le afímá o. ɖevi ́ si ̍a̍wó le Kɔ̍si ́ di ́ḿ ŋútɔ́ le a̍me̍há lá dome. 'No. O. 3. Miele ha dzi ̍ḿ a? O.' 'Are you working?' Vocabulary náné nánéké … o dǐ a̍me̍há ɖéké … o srɔ̃ fíá something nothing to look for. míéle haá ɖéké dzi ̍ḿ o 5. Wóle Kɔ̍sí díḿ le a̍me̍awó domea? ̍ Ẽ̍.

3. I am not eating that bread.– 63 – ́ 6. Where is the shop? It is in this broad street. What is she doing? She is singing and dancing at the table. a lot of customers are buying in the shop. Are you taking a bath? Yes. nyemékpɔ́ wó o. Where is he? I saw him going to the tall woman. 7. she is not washing anything. 2. Su̍kúvi ́áwó le nú srɔ̃ḿ a? ́ O. Are you eating that bread? No. What is the tall woman doing? She is cooking fufu for me. What are the ten pupils doing at school? They are singing. I am taking a bath. 5. Is Abra sleeping? No. he has not yet dressed up. Kɔ̍mla̍ méle adidóá tso̍ḿ haɖé o. It is too hard. Exercise VI-6: Translate into Eʋe 1. she is not sleeping. Kɔ̍mla̍ le adidóá tso̍ḿ a? O. 6. ɖéké méle nú srɔ̃ḿ o. Are there many customers in the shop? Yes. 4. 8. gaké ŋútsu̍ si ̍a̍ nɔ wɔ́ kpɔ́ḿ . Has Kodzo finished dressing up? No. Is she washing the cloth? No. . Where is the teacher? The teacher is also singing with them. Ekpɔ wó wónɔ feféḿa? O. There are a lot of goods in that shop.

2 and XII. 'Kɔdzo sees/saw me. Me̍kpɔ́ê. 3rd Person Pl. Kɔ̍dzó le kpɔ́ye̍ḿ. Kɔ̍dzó kpɔ́m. Akɔ́súá le mia ƒo̍ḿ . 2nd Person Pl. Akɔ́súá le ƒowoḿ.' ''He is seeing us.).' 'I am seeing him/her/it.' 'Akɔsua is beating you (sg. Éle míá kpɔ́ḿ .).– 64 – LESSON VII 1.' 'I see/saw him/her/it.' 'Akɔsua beats/beat you (pl.' 2nd Person Sg. Ékpɔ́ mí. Me̍le ékpɔ́ḿ .1). followed by the Progressive suffix –ḿ. Me̍kpɔ́ wó. 'I am seeing them. 1st Person Pl. in accordance with the original construction of the Progressive Aspect ("Kɔdzo is in my seeing"). .' Note that. 3rd Person Sg. The pronoun ye is suffixed to the main verb. the pronoun changes its form in the First Person Singular and in the First and Second Person Plural: 1st Person Sg.' ''He sees/saw us. Akɔ́súá ƒo mi. Akɔ́súá ƒo wo.).).' 'Akɔsua is beating you (pl. Possessive pronouns are employed as the logical Object (see Lessons XI.' 'Kɔdzo is seeing me.' 'I see/saw them. Note the following changes: – 1st Person Singular: -m becomes -ye in the Progressive. Pronominal Objects with the Progressive Aspect When a verb in the Progressive Aspect takes a personal pronoun as Object.' 'Akɔsua beats/beat you (sg. Mele wó kpɔ́ḿ .

The pronoun mia precedes the main verb. to carry to read star to count to draw tsi ̍kɔ́. dɔ gbě tsi ̍kɔ́ wu̍ a̍me̍ dzo bi xlẽ agbalẽ̌ xlẽ nu tá nú ɣle̍tíví ƒú du tsɔ́ to be hungry dog hunger bush to be thirsty fire to burn to take. The pronoun míá precedes the main verb.– 65 – – – – – – 2nd Person Singular: wo remains unchanged. 3rd Person Plural: wó remains unchanged. Vocabulary dɔ wu amě avǔ dɔwuamě. but in the Progressive. but in the Progressive. tsi ̍kɔ́wu̍ame̍ thirst ̍ to run . it is prefixed to the main verb. 2nd Person Plural: mi becomes mia in the Progressive. 1st Person Plural: mí becomes míá in the Progressive. followed by the Progressive suffix -ḿ. but in the Progressive it is suffixed to the main verb. it precedes the main verb. 3rd Person Singular: é remains unchanged.

12. Éle agbalẽ̌ xlẽḿ . ́ 8. 9. You (pl. 5. Dzo gãá ɖé le gbě bi ̍ḿ le xɔ̍ si ̍a̍ me̍gbé. 11. Míéle ɣle̍tí kplé ɣle̍tívíwó kpɔ́ḿ le zã̌ me. Tsi ̍kɔ́ le wuyeḿ éye̍ dɔ le wuwoḿ. I am hungry and they are thirsty. A̍ me̍há lá nɔ míá kpɔ́ḿ míénɔ ha dziḿ. Exercise VII-2: Translate into Eʋe 1. The men were felling the trees and were carrying them into the town.– 66 – Exercise VII-1: Read 1. Ɖevíáwó le yɔ̌ye̍ḿ éye̍ nyɔ́nu̍ máwó le mia yɔ́ḿ . nɔ ɣe hã́ ɖúḿ. 7. 4. Wóle du ƒúḿ le su̍kú yíḿ. The dogs are running in front of the hunter. Tsi ̍kɔ́ kplé dɔ le éwu̍ḿ . Wóle díye̍ḿ gaké wóméle kpɔ́ye̍ḿ o. 15. 9. Énɔ kpɔ́woḿ nenɔ aha lá no̍ḿ le atíá té. playing and (we were) singing also. 4. 5. Wóle atíwó tsoḿ le wó tsɔ́ḿ le afé yi ̍ḿ . 14. Dɔ le míá wu̍ḿ ákpá. 6. 2. You are thirsty and hungry. 3. We were running. He was beating them with a stick. 7. Wóle kpɔ́ye̍ḿ éye̍ nye̍ hã́ mele wó kpɔ́ḿ . 6. éye̍ miele nú táḿ gaké mele nú xlẽḿ . . 10. We are reading it. 10. We are reading. The hunter is calling me. Dɔ le wó wu̍ḿ ŋútɔ́. They are looking for us in the forest. Wódím wómékpɔ́m o. 12. 8. Adelááwó le toa̍wó díḿ le ave gã́ má me kplé avǔwó. 2. Miele gegéḿ ɖé xɔ̍ lá me héle díye̍ḿ le afímá. 16. We were crying and shouting also. Mele édíḿ nyeméle ékpɔ́ḿ o. gaké núɖu̍ɖu̍á ɖéké méli o. Mele mia kpɔ́ḿ . 3.) are hungry and thirsty. gaké miéle kpɔ́ye̍ḿ o. ̍ ̍ 13. 11. The fire is burning them.

The Eʋe word for 'twenty'. the word wúí is employed. 2. Nyeméde Kpando̍ kpɔ́ o. Therefore wuiɖekɛ '11' actually means ewo-ɖeka "ten-one". I have been to Kpando before (or once). matter horse to be finished a town in Togo . means 'two bundles (of ten)'. It is interesting to note that wúí is a contraction of e̍wó 'ten'. It is bablá eve 'two bundles' which has been contracted into blaeve. The Eʋe people count in tens. 'To bind or tie together' in Eʋe is blá and 'bundle' is babla. Expressions with kpɔ́ 'once' and kpɔ́ … o 'never' Consider the following sentences: Mede Kpándo̍ kpɔ́. Vocabulary kpɔ vɔ Agu nya sɔ́ kpɔ … o zi once never times (like in zi blaeve 'twenty times') word.– 67 – How to count from 11 to 20 in Eʋe 11 12 13 14 15 wúíɖekɛ́ wúíeve wúíetɔ̃ wúíene wúíarɔ̃́ 16 17 18 19 20 wúi ́a̍dé wúi ́a̍dré wúíenyí wúíasíéke̍ blaeve (blaave) From eleven to nineteen. I have never been to Kpando. and so on. blaeve.

Mede aƒéá me kpɔ́. Ényé núfíálá. Ŋútsu̍ví lá le Kéta̍ yi ̍ḿ égbe. Asi ̍si ̍ geɖewó nɔ nú ƒle̍ḿ . Éde Kéta̍ hã́ kpɔ́ zi ɖeká. Míétsa le fíásé lá me víé. The boy is not going to Keta today. éye̍ woƒle sɔ́ ɖeká kplé tédzí eve le afímá. The woman has finished washing the cloth. Xɔ̍ lá le Agu le tó gãá ɖé gbɔ́: Xɔ̍ sɔ̍e ̍ si ̍a̍ ̍ nyó ŋútɔ́. Kɔ̍dzó mékpɔ́ dzatá kpɔ́ le gbě me o. Su̍kúví wúíetɔ̃ hã yi kplii. Adelá si ̍a̍ méwu zǐ kpɔ́ o. gaké su̍kúvíáwó méde afímá kpɔ́ o. Ŋútsu̍ lo̍lo̍ má méda tú kpɔ́ o. Abrã́ nɔ aƒéá me. éye̍ tédzíá ɖé mlɔ́ atíá té. I have been once bitten by a snake. 5. 4. 6. Exercise VII-4: Translate into Eʋe 1. 3. Da méɖu̍m̍ kpɔ́ o. Núfíálá lá de Kpándo̍ kpɔ́. Éɖa fufu nám meɖu. ́ 2. Núfíálá lá ménɔ aƒéá me o. Atíá ɖé nɔ aƒéá títína. . has once seen a lion in the bush.– 68 – tédzid zǐ gbedóxɔ̍ donkey/ass group chapel or cathedral a type of antelope in West Africa – the largest of the antelope Exercise VII-3: Read 1. Adzɔnú geɖee nɔ fíáséá me. Le fíẽ́ me Abrã́ kplɔm yi ablɔ̌ ke̍ke̍á ɖé me. Su̍kúvíáwó dzi ha le gbedóxɔ̍ lá me̍ kpɔ́. The hunter has once killed an elephant. Me̍kpɔ́e ́ kpɔ́ le Lome wonɔ agbalẽ̌ ƒle̍ḿ ná su̍kúvi ́wó. Ményé adelá o. Édzrá sɔ́ lá. 4. Sɔ́ lá sẽ́ ŋútɔ́. Nyemése nya si ̍a̍ kpɔ́ o. Éyi Kpándo̍ le kwa̍síɖá má me. éye̍ wonyé sɔ́ nyúíá ɖé. The girls have never sung in that chapel. Kɔdzo. 3. éye̍ wotsɔ́ ga lá ƒle xɔ̍ sɔ̍eá ɖé. ́ Míégé ɖé fíásé gãá ɖé me. gaké míéƒle nánéké o. 2. Nyɔ́nu̍ lá ménya avɔlá vɔ̍ kpɔ́ o.

– 69 – 7. Avǔ lá le ɖuwoḿâ? 6. Has he never been bitten by a snake? 13. They were beating me with a big stick. Ame̍ka̍ kpɔ́ḿ nele? 7. Has Adzoa not yet finished cooking? 12. Is this boy going to Peki today? 11. The teacher is beating him. What is that? 14. and b) the negative. Miede Kéta̍ kpɔ́a? ́ 5. and I was crying. he is beating you and he is beating me also. 8. Adzóá méɖa mɔ́li ̍ kpɔ́ oa? 3. Who are those people? 15. They have never heard of this matter. Núka̍ wɔ̍ḿ Abrã́ le? 2. Awu̍ lá ɖi ̍ ákpâ? 9. Te̍ lá xɔ̍ a̍si ̍ ŋútɔ́a? ̂ ̍ 9. Gli gɔ́glɔ̃́ lá le mumuḿâ? . Have you ever seen me? Exercise VII-5: Answer the following questions in a) the affirmative. 10. 10. Da méɖu̍i ̍ kpɔ́ oa? 8. 1. Afíka̍ wóle yiyim̂ ? 4.

it is nɔ in the Past Ingressive. ̍ 'The people are coming. neighbourhood. the verb is nominalized through reduplication plus a "Floating High tone". The action maybe about to happen at the moment of speech or at some other time. to the noun/postposition gbé 'side. The Ingressive Aspect is structurally similar to the Progressive Aspect except that. i.e. While in the Present Ingressive.– 70 – LESSON VIII 1. The Ingressive Aspect The Ingressive Aspect expresses that an action is going to happen soon. at' which is still retained in the Ingressive forms of some Eʋe dialects. historically. the action maybe intended or there might be some indication that it will surely happen soon. the main verb is followed by gé: PROGRESSIVE ̍ Ame̍awó le vaváḿ.' The element gé goes back. With intransitive verbs. Study the following examples: míéle yiyi ́ gé míénɔ yiyi ́ gé Wóle dzodzo´ gé Wónɔ dzodzo´ gé Xɔ̍ lá le mumu´ gé Xɔ̍ lá nɔ mumu´ gé 'we are about to go' 'we were about to go' 'they are about to leave/depart' 'they were about to leave/depart' 'the house is about to fall' 'the house was about to fall' . ̍ 'The people are about to come/are going to come.' INGRESSIVE ̍ Ame̍awó le vavá gé. A sentence like éle yiyi´ gé 's/he is about to go' thus goes back to a construction that literally meant "s/he is at side of going" or "s/he is at going". the auxiliary verb is le. in the Ingressive.

– 71 –

With transitive verbs, the nominalized main verb becomes reduced to its "normal" form and the Object precedes it in the same way as it does with the Progressive Aspect:

Ele nú ɖu̍ gé. Kɔ̍si ́ le xɔ̍ tu̍ gé. Nyɔ́nu̍vi ́awó nɔ ha dzi gé.

'You are about to eat.' 'Kɔsi is about to build a house.' 'The girls were about to sing.'

When the Ingressive takes a personal pronoun as Object, the forms of the pronouns used are the same as for the Progressive Aspect. Consider the following examples:

1st Person Sg.

Kɔ̍dzó le kpɔ́ye̍ḿ . Kɔ̍dzó le kpɔ́ ye̍ gé.

'Kɔ̍dzó is seeing me.' 'Kɔ̍dzó is about to see me.' 'Akɔ́súá is beating you (sg.).' 'Akɔ́súá is about to beat you (sg.).' 'The man is seeing him/her/it.' 'The man is about to see him/her/it.' 'Kɔ̍dzó is seeing us.' 'Kɔ̍dzó is about to see us.' 'Akɔ́súá is beating you (pl.).'

2nd Person Sg.

Akɔ́súá le ƒowoḿ. Akɔ́súá le ƒo wo gé.

3rd Person Sg.

Ŋútsu̍ lá le ékpɔ́ḿ . Ŋútsu̍ lá le ékpɔ́ gé.

1st Person Pl.

Kɔ̍dzó le míá kpɔ́ḿ . Kɔ̍dzó le míá kpɔ́ gé. Akɔ́súá le mi ̍a̍ ƒo̍ḿ .

2nd Person Pl.

Akɔ́súá le mi ̍a̍ ƒo gé. Ŋútsu̍ lá le wó kpɔ́ḿ . Ŋútsu̍ lá le wó kpɔ́ gé.

'Akɔ́súá is about to beat you (pl.).' 'The man is seeing them.' 'The man is about to see them.'

3rd Person Pl.

– 72 – Note that in the Ingressive, the Object pronouns ye and wo are selfstanding words while in the Progressive, they are inserted between the main verb and its suffix. This difference is due to the fact that the Ingressive gé is a word, too, while the Progressive –m is a suffix.

Vocabulary nú vovovowó núɖa̍ɖa̍ su̍ku̍xɔ̍ élabéná fífíá núɖa̍lá blíbo̍ tɔmelã akpa̍ Kúɖá A̍ ŋkú Á kúa̍ different kinds thing cooked food school building because now, at present cook whole fish (bigger type) fish (smaller type) Wednesday name for a male born on Wednesday name for a female born on Wednesday

Exercise VIII-1: Read ́ ́ 1. Su̍kúvîá ɖéwó le ha dzi gé le gbedóxɔ̍ gã`si ̍a̍ me. A̍ me̍há gãá ɖé le gbedóxɔ̍ lá me̍ váḿ, éye̍ geɖee le vavá gé le ŋ̍dɔ̍ me. Nye̍ hã́ mele gbedóxɔ̍ lá me yi ̍ gé. Akɔ́súá

kplé Adzóá le afî vá gé égbe. Wóle vavá gé kplé su̍kûvíáwó, éye̍ wóle ha dzi gé kplé ́ wó hã. núáẃó ɖa gé le Aƒenɔ̍ Kpégló gbɔ́, éye̍ wóle núɖa̍ɖa̍wó tsɔ́ gé ná su̍kúvíáwó le su̍kûxɔ̍ ma̍wó me.

2. Nyɔ́nu̍wó le núɖu̍ɖu̍ vovovowó ƒle̍ḿ , élabéná wóle nú ɖa̍ gé ná su̍kûvíáwó. Wóle

̍ 3. Aŋ̍kú le agble yi gé égbe. Dɔ le éwu̍ḿ ŋútɔ́ élabéná méɖu nánéké ŋ̍dí si ̍a̍ o. Dɔ le wo hã́ wu̍ḿ a? O, dɔ méle wuyem o. Meɖu fufu ŋ̍di ́ si ̍a̍ xóxó le Abrã́ gbɔ́. Núka̍ wɔ̍ḿ Ákúa̍ le? Éle mɔ́li ̍ ɖa̍ḿ . Éle mɔ́li ̍ lá ɖa̍ḿ ná A̍ ŋkú. A̍ ŋkú le mɔ́li ̍ lá ɖu̍ gé fífíá élabéná

– 73 – ́ éle agble yi gé. A̍ ŋkú le atí gãá ɖéwó tso̍ gé le agblea̍ me. Ati ́áwó lo̍lo̍ ŋútɔ́ gaké éle ̍ ́ wó kátã́ tso̍ gé égbe. Aŋ̍kú nyé ŋútsu̍ví sésẽá ɖé.

Exercise VIII-2: Translate into Eʋe Today is Sunday. The school children are about to go to Peki. They are about to sing five songs there. Many people are going to Peki already. Akua is also about to go to Peki today. She is buying a lot of yams and a lot of fish in the market because she is going to cook for the whole school at Peki. Akua is a very good cook. Eight teachers are also about to go to Peki now. They are accompanying the school children to Peki. I am about to go to Peki too. Peki is a very beautiful town. Have you ever been to Peki? There is a big Chapel in Peki. There is a market too, and there are eight shops. There is a big tree in the middle of the market. Today is market-day at Peki.

2. Questions and answers in the Ingressive
Questions as well as answers can also be framed in the Ingressive Aspect:

Tsi le dzadza géa? Ẽ̍, tsi le dzadza gé.

'Is it going to rain?' 'Yes, it is going to rain.'

Ákúá nɔ Kpándo̍ yi ̍ géa? 'Was Akua about to go to Kpando?' E̍̃, Ákúá nɔ Kpándo̍ yi 'Yes, Akua was about to go to Kpando.' gé.

Vocabulary dó go nya̍te̍ƒé búbǔ fact, truth other to meet

– 74 – dze sí/ nyá tsã́ wó dometɔ́ ɖeká gódóó dě děha̍ yo̍o̍ li akpé dá akpé dɔ́ (ame) dó gbe ná bíá ɣe̍trɔ́ sabala síkli núka̍ta̍ kátã́ hi ́ã́ tsi ́ me̍gbé gaasigbe ɖesíaɖe̍ ƒo̍me̍vi ́ mamlɛ́ to know, to recognise someone formerly, previously rest, remainder, residue palm palmwine every alright, good kind of, type of, sort of to exist (from le) thanks to thank to send (someone) to greet to ask, to request afternoon onion sugar why all to need getting late again, still (an adverb, which is prefixed to the verb) to be late market day by all means one of them

le me̍gbé tsim

Exercise VIII-3: Read A̍ Ŋ̍KÚ DÓ GO Á KÚ A̍ ̍ ̍ AŊKÚ : ́ ́ AKUA̍ : ̍ ̍ AŊKÚ : Á kúa! Afi ́ka̍ yi ̍ḿ nele? ̍ Mele fíásé gã́ má me yi ̍ḿ . Meyi nánéwó ƒle̍ gé le afímá. Me̍se̍ bé mie̍xɔ a̍me̍dzróá ɖéwó. Nya̍te̍ƒé wonyéa?

éye̍ asíawó nyó ŋútɔ́.” “We are going to need some drinks by all means.” “Do you know all of them previously?” “Are you going to buy some drinks too? I am selling some good cheap “Yes. mesee. ényé nya̍te̍ƒé. Děha̍ hã́ lia? Afíka̍ a̍me̍dzróawó tsô? Miedze sí wó tsẫ? ́ Exercise VIII-4: Translate into Eʋe One day. Aha búbǔ ƒo̍me̍vi ́ ɖesiaɖě li.” drinks. O. we know all of them well. Mi ́édó goe̍ le Kpáli ́me̍ kpɔ́. Eve tsó Agu. He greeted her and asked her: “Where are you going this hot afternoon?” AKUA: AŊKU: AKUA: AŊKU: AKUA: AŊKU: AKUA: AŊKU: AKUA: AŊKU: AKUA: “I am about to buy certain things in that big shop. onions. Eve búbǔ gale vavá gé tsó Kéta̍. Wóɖi ŋútɔ́. Akpé! Mele Kɔ̍sí dɔ́ gé woavá dze ahaá ɖéwó ná mí. Miele aha hã́ dze̍ géa? Mele aha nyúíéá ɖéwó dzráḿ. we have already received five guests this morning and two others are going come this evening.” “No.” too?” “Thank you. Míégale búbǔ eve xɔ gé fi ̍ẽ̍ si ̍a̍. sugar and meat. Yo̍o̍.” “But. Why are you buying all these things today? Are you going to receive some guests?” “Yes. děha̍ méli o. today is not a market day. They come from Agu near Kpalime. Míéxɔ a̍me̍dzró eve égbe̍ ŋ̍dí. éye̍ ̍ ̍ AŊKÚ : ́ ́ AKUA̍ : ̍ ̍ AŊKÚ : ́ ́ AKUA̍ : woxɔ mí nyúíé ŋútɔ́. I am not selling palmwine today.” “What exactly are you about to buy?” “I am about to buy rice. ɖeká tsó Kpálíme éye̍ ɖeká hã́ tsó Kpándo̍. Nyeméle děha̍ dzráḿ o.– 75 – ́ ́ AKUA̍ : ̍ ̍ AŊKÚ : ́ ́ AKUA̍ : Ẽ̍. I am getting late. Wó do̍me̍tɔ́ ɖeká ko míényá. Are you selling palmwine . some eggs. Míényá mamlɛ́áwó o. Aŋku met Akua in the street. Míéle aha dze gé gódóó.

to the auxiliary verb. e. Nyeméle dzodzó gé o.' 'We are not about to go today. Měle yiyi gé égbe o.– 76 – 3. Miěle yiyi gé égbe o. Míéle yiyi gé égbe o. Like in all Negations. in this case. 'Kɔsi is about to work.' 'You are not about to go today. Kɔ̍si ́ méle dɔ̌ wɔ̍ gé o. 'He is not about to go today.' The connected form of the Subject pronoun is prefixed to the negated auxiliary verb: Wóméle vavá gé o. and mie. the difference between an affirmative and a negated sentence lies only in the . the Negation marker mé. Negation of the Ingressive Aspect Negation of the Ingressive Aspect is expressed by prefixing the Negation marker me.' 'I am not about to leave. The result of this merging is as follows: 2nd Person Singular: 3rd Person Singular: 1st Person Plural: 2nd Person Plural: e + mé é + mé míé + mé mie + mé → → → → mě mé míé miě In the First Person Plural.' 'Kɔsi is not about to work.' In the above examples. the sentence ends with o: Kɔ̍si ́ le dǒ wo̍ gé.' 'You are not about to go today. 'they are not about to come. míé. the result of the merging is identical to the pronoun itself.has fully or partly merged with the personal pronouns é.' But the following examples require careful study: Méle yiyi gé égbe o.

to calculate other every day Exercise VIII-5: Read ́ 1.' 'You (pl.' The above forms are also accepted as good Eʋe.) are not going to sing.' 'Miméle ha dzi gé o. It should be noted. Vocabulary le tsi le tsi ̍ le̍ḿ le tsi ̍ le̍ gé súsú xɔ se Dzǒɖá ̌ Brãɖá akɔ́ŋ́ta̍ bu akɔ́ŋ́ta̍ gbesíágbe búbǔ to have a bath having a bath (Progressive) being about to have a bath (Ingressive) to think to believe Monday Tuesday mathematics account. that in many Eʋe dialects this merging is non-existent.)'. wóméle du ƒú gé haɖé o. Wóle du ƒú gé ázɔ̃a? O. These dialects still use mí for 'we' and mi for 'you (pl. .' 'We are about to eat. calculation (< Portug.) to work out a problem.' 'We are not going to eat.) are about to drink water. wóméle du ƒúḿ o.– 77 – sentence-final particle o. however. Wóméle du ƒú gé égbe o. Kɔ̍sí kplé Kɔ̍dzó le du ƒúḿa? O.' 'You (pl. One hears in such areas expressions such as : Míle nú ɖu̍ gé. 'Mile tsi no̍ gé.' 'Míméle nú ɖu̍ gé o.

Nyɔ́nu̍ asi ́ékea̍wó le te kplé mɔ́li ̍ ɖa̍ḿ nú ŋútsua̍wóa? O wóméle nánéké ɖa̍ḿ o. Núka̍ táḿ wole? Éle adeláá ɖé táḿ. The women over there are also looking at the man. méle su̍kû vá gé le kɔ̍si ́ɖá si ̍a̍ me o. He is well dressed and he wears a black hat. I think he is going to eat there. Núka̍ wɔ̍ḿ núfíálá má le? Éle nú táḿ ɖé táflo̍a̍ dzí. Éle tsi ̍ le̍ géa? Ẽ̍. Xɔ̍ lá loloa? O. He is a tall man. 6. They returned home after six days. He is talking to a man. ́ Adelá lá le adidó gãá ɖé té. They wandered in the forest for four days. In the evening. two hunters went into a big forest. 5. Where is he going? Is he going to the big shop? He is now in front of the shop. but they saw no animals. Su̍kúví búbǔawó le su̍kû lá vá gé gbesíágbe. The forest is near Agu at a huge mountain. Nyeméxɔ̍ se̍ bé éle tsi ̍ le̍ gé égbe aló etsɔ o. A̍ me̍dzróá le tsi ̍ xóxóa? O. Éle tsi ̍ le̍ḿ a? O. Afi ́ka̍ wole nú táḿ ɖé táfo̍a̍ dzí le? Éle nú táḿ ɖé táflo̍ lá dzi ́ le su̍kûxɔ̍ si ̍a̍ me. The man buys a bicycle and a pair of black shorts. éle tsi ̍ le̍gé le fi̍ ̍ẽ̍ me. The hunters took the guns and went behind a big tree. Méle tsi ̍ le̍ gé fi ́fi ́á o. the hunters cooked a little yam and ate it.– 78 – 2. Wóɖu̍ nú nyúíé ŋ̍dí si ̍a̍. Éyi Lome. me̍kpɔ́e ŋ̍di ́ káńyá le gbedóxɔ̍ lá gbɔ́. ̍ Exercise VIII-6: Translate into Eʋe I see a man running in the broad street. méle tsi ̍ le̍rn ́ o. Ga méli o. He is out of the restaurant and is now going to his house singing and dancing. . He enters the shop. He looks back. One afternoon. He looks at the beautiful bicycle and laughs a little. He is indeed eating in this restaurant. Núka̍ wɔ̍ḿ nele? Nyeméle nánéké wɔ̍ḿ o. E̍kpɔ́ Abrã́ égbea? E̍̃. Ele nú ɖa̍ gé ná wóa? Mele fufu ɖa̍ gé ná wó éye̍ mele aha hã́ dze̍ gé ná wó. The two hunters shot and killed the two lions. They drank some palm wine also after the meal. He is at the door. 4. a̍me̍dzróá méle tsi haɖé o. 3. The lions did not see the hunters. He enters a restaurant with the bicycle. There was no meat. Dɔ méle ŋútsua̍wó wu̍ḿ oa? Dɔ méle wó wu̍ḿ o. Once upon a time. Wóméle nánéké ɖa̍ gé fífíá o. éye̍ wóno aha hã́ ŋútɔ́. the hunters saw two lions near a big rock. Kɔdzo and I also enter the shop. xɔ̍ sɔ̍eá ɖé ko tuḿ mele. Éle su̍kûa̍ vá géa? O. He laughs again. Núka̍ wo̍ gé ŋútsu̍ si ̍a̍wó vá le afí? Wóvá xɔ̍ tu̍ gé nám.

They worked on that farm last week.– 79 – Have you ever seen a lion in the forest? No. Kpando? No. . Kata. I have eaten it once with Mr. Have you ever eaten fufu? Yes. The women and the girls are working now on the farm over there. Mr. Kata ever been to Are these strong men about to work on the farm? Yes. Kata has never been to Kpando but he has been to Keta yesterday. Has Mr. all these strong men are about to work on the farm today. I have never seen a lion in the forest.

functions as a copula: COLOUR ̍ Ame̍ lá le̍ ɣíé. form.' 'The medicine is tasteless.' ̍̃ Akplɔ̍ lá le̍ tsyɔ̍e.' 'The cloth is black.' 'The weather is misty. STATE 'The spear is pointed.– 80 – LESSON IX 1. In predicative use. Do lá le tegblee. Ati ́ke̍ lá le yaa. Xɔ̍ lá kɔ́.' There exists.' 'The stone/rock is round. Ya̍me le kplefuu. 'The water is muddy.' 'The wall is reddish.' 'The building is high. however. Avɔ lá le yibɔɔ.' 'The table is low. or state. More about adjectives verbs. 'The farm is good.: In Lesson I. Kplɔ̃̍ lá kpu̍i ̍. These adjectives refer to colour.' .' Tsi ̍ lá le kpɔtɔɔ. cf. also a limited number of adjectives. Gli lá le dzie. adjectives need the auxiliary verb le which.2. Mɔ́ lá le gbadzaa. Kpé lá le nogoo.' 'The road is wide. we learnt that the predication of qualities in Eʋe is usually done by static Agble lá nyó. FORM/SHAPE 'The person is white.' 'The hole/pit is circular. in this contexts.

– 81 – Adjectives used attributively differ formally from adjectives used predicatively. vowel lengthening occurs in the predicative form.) shoe hill reddish brown (attr.' do nogo lá Do lá le nogoo. pred. Quite often. cf.) red (pred.) round (pred. Vocabulary dzi ̍̃ dzi ̍̃e̍ red (attr.) hole. 'the round hole' 'The hole is round. There are also some adjectives that do not differ in attributive and predicative use.) to dig a hole/pit black (attr.: avɔ yibɔ̌ lá Avɔ lá le yibɔɔ. 'the black cloth' 'The cloth is black.) worker round (attr.) black (pred. arrangement to ride a horse dó sɔ́ afɔ̍kpa̍ hẽ tógbɛ̍ ɖoɖo ɣí ɣíé dǒ ɖe dǒ yibɔ̌ yibɔɔ dɔ̌wɔ̍lá nogo nogoo white (attr..) order.) .' Attributive adjectives ending on –i usually take an additional –e in their predicative form. pit white (pred.

Dɔ̍wɔ̍láwó ɖe do gãá ɖé.) to become to be smooth smooth (pred. Meƒlee etsɔ le ŋútsu̍ dzi ̃̍ má gbɔ́. Afɔ̍kpa̍ yi̍bɔ̍ lá nyó ŋútɔ́.– 82 – tá agbledelá globo globoo ́ ahɔhɔ̃e ́ ye̍vú akplɔ̍ ƒla̍tsa̍ ha vá ɖó gbadzaa gba̍dzɛ̍ tegblẽ tegblẽe zu zrɔ̃ zɔ̍zrɔ̍e ̍ yaa ƒlatsaa pond. éye̍ wole tegblẽe héle globoo. Sɔ́ si ̍a̍ ŋútí le hẽ. Atíáwó ŋútí le ɣíé héle ƒlatsaa.) round. Kpé lá le nogoo. A̍ me̍awó ŋúti ́ le̍ yi ́é. ́ ̍ ̍ 5. ́ 4.) Exercise IX-1: Read 1. Nyɔ́nu̍ si̍a̍ ƒle avɔ̌ dzĩ̍ kplé afɔ̍kpa̍. Do lá le atí eve si ̍a̍wó dome. coarse (attr. 6. Me̍se̍ bé wótsó Ablotsí vá le kwa̍si ́ɖá si ̍ vá yi ̍ me. reach large and flat (pred. Éle tógbɛ̍ kemɛ xǎ. circular (pred. Míéɖu̍ mɔ́li ̍ le agbǎ gba̍dzɛ́wó dzi ́ le núɖu̍ƒé nyúí ma̍. 3.) round. . gaké ahɔhɔ̃e ́ lá ŋkúme le zɔ̍zrɔ̃e. Do lá lo̍lo̍ ŋútɔ́.) pig come to. Avɔ̌ lá le̍ dzĩ̍e̍ gaké afɔ̍kpa̍ lá le yibɔɔ. lake farmer wide and deep (attr.) tasteless (pred.) wide and deep (pred. Wónyé ye̍vúwó. 2.) small and flat (pred.) rough. Wóle aƒé ɣi ́ si ̍a̍ me. circular (attr.) mirror European spear rough (pred.

broad and the walls are reddish.' 'The bird is on the tree. ̍ Lãwó le tsi le éme éye̍ wozu kpɔtɔɔ.' . Adzoa bought ten plates in the market. 4. Ményó kúrá o. 3. Xe̍vi ́ lá le atíá dzí. Xe̍vi ́ lá nɔ atíá dzí. 5. The surface of the wall is brownish and rough. Exercise IX-2: Translate into Eʋe 1. Míénɔ afímá. The building is high. 'We are there. 6. it is also the Past form of le 'to be somwhere': Míéle afímá.3. four are large and round. Two are small and flat.' 'We were there. Agbledelá eveáwó vá ɖó táá ɖé tó. He was riding a tall horse and held a long pointed spear on the shoulder. 8. and the others are deep and reddish. we learnt about the verb nɔ as the Past form of le in forming the Progressive Aspect. The rock is round and black. A certain man came into the house. When nɔ is used as such. More about the verb nɔ In Lesson VI. The hole is in the middle of the road and is round and deep. long and 2. Tsi lá le kpɔtɔɔ vavã. Pigs bathed in the pond and made the water muddy.' 'The bird was on the tree. Gaké tsi ̍a̍ ményó o. The six farmers are near a huge rock in the forest. Tsíkɔ́ nɔ wó wu̍ḿ ŋútɔ́. 2. 7. The hunter killed a lion with it yesterday. There is a big building in the center of the town. The spear is very strong and pointed.– 83 – 7.

existed to save (someone) to remain seated to love. once upon a time end in the end friend time. Ŋútsu̍á ɖé nɔ Agu. and 'existed'.' 'A man lived at Agu. 'Formerly the snake did not exist in the world.' 'The woman stayed with us. agree to stand up peace ("coolness of body") farm product mongoose to live in brotherhood to be afraid fear to come upon something to fight (with blows) farmer gbǎɖégbe núwúwú le núwúwú lá xɔ́lɔ̃ ɣe̍yíɣi ̍ long ago. 'lived'. Vocabulary agbledelá ɖu nɔ xɔ ná (ame) nɔ a̍nyi ́ lɔ̃ tsí tre agblemenú príkú wɔ nɔ̍vi ́ ke ɖé (nú) ŋú vɔ̃́ wɔ vu vɔvɔ̃́ ŋútífáfá gun powder lived.– 84 – However. stayed. Tsã́ lá da ménɔ xéxéme o.' In the above examples. Study the meaning of nɔ in the following sentences: Nyɔ́nu̍ lá nɔ̍ míá gbɔ́. nɔ has other meanings. too. it will be noted that nɔ also means 'stayed'. period ɖeɖi té (a̍me̍) ŋú to be tired .

Ményé adelá wonyé o. Le fi ̍ẽ̍ me̍ lá évá ke̍ ɖé wó ŋú. . ̍ ́ Éda tú wó héwú wó. Édi ́ dzatáawó ŋ̍ke̍ke̍ ́ blíbo̍ ɖeká. Dzatá eveawó hẫ mélɔ̃̍ ɖé nya̍ nyúi ́ si ̍a̍ dzí o. Lãaẃ ó kpɔ́ dzidzɔ̌ ŋútɔ́. Gaké da mélɔ̃ ɖé ɖoɖó nyúí si ̍a̍ dzí o. Wógblɔ̍* nɛ̂ bé*: “Míéle dzatá eveáwó vɔ̃ḿ . that which pawpaw pawpaw tree joy hand to befriend (someone) so. ̍ ̍ ́ Agbledelá lá méwu lãá ɖéké kpɔ́ o. Vǎ xɔ̍ ná mi. Álé agbledelá lá nɔ da ́ ́ vɔ̃ḿ ŋútɔ́ éye̍ lã̍ búbuǎwó hẫ nɔ dzatááwó vɔ̃ḿ .” Agbledelá lá lɔ̃. Méwɔ nɔ̍vi ́ kplé lãá ɖéké o. Édze xɔ́lɔ̃̍ lãawó kátã́ álé bé wó ka´tã́ ̍ ̍ nɔ̍ a̍nyi ́ le ŋútífáfá me. le ave gãá ɖé me. lãawó kátã́ vá agbledelá gbɔ́. Énɔ du sɔeá ɖé me. Éyi ave lá me. Dzatá eve hẫ nɔ lãwó dome. Lã geɖewó nɔ ave lá ̍ me. éye̍ méwɔ nɔ̍vi ́ kplé agbledelá lá hẫ o. ̍ ̍ ́ Gbe ɖeká. éye̍ lãawó hã̂ mégblẽ́ agblemenúá ɖéké ná agbledelá lá kpɔ́ o. and so to say to look round night falls eye Exercise IX-3: Read ́ Ŋútsu̍á ɖé nɔ a̍nyi ́ gbǎɖégbe. to pound leg fruit to go towards suddenly quickly what. Ŋútsú si ̍a̍ nyé agbledelá. éye̍ wódá akpé ná agbledelá lá. éye̍ wo̍yi ɖaƒle túkplé ɖu.– 85 – ɖeɖǐ tó ŋkú kútsétsé zã dó ɖó ta̍ kásíá kábá núsi aɖubá aɖubátí dzidzɔ̌ así dze xɔlɔ̃ álé gblɔ tsa ŋ́kú afɔ tedium ear. mountain. Wónɔ kpé yi ̍bɔ̍ no̍go̍á ɖé dzí le tógbɛ̍á ɖé gbɔ́.

Le ŋ̍ke̍ke̍ eve búbǔ me̍gbé lá. Ear heard something.” Suddenly. Mr. Da lá lo̍lo̍ ŋútɔ́ hédi ̍di ̍ hẫ.” Mr. Príkú kplé da wɔ vu ɣe̍yi ́ɣi ́ di ̍di ̍á ɖé. Mr. Álé príkú sɔ̍e ̍ lá wui vávã. Night was falling so they turned towards home. Príkú yi ave lá mé. Ear. The first form ɖé is placed at the end of the question. Mr. Hand took the pawpaw and they all went home with great joy. He said: “I am near the big soft pawpaw. Eye looked round quickly and said: “I see the thing.“ ̍ ̍ ́ Lãawó kátã́ lɔ̃. The four friends were Mr. but they did not get any fruit. Gaké ŋútífáfá ́ méli ̍ nám o. príkú vá ke̍ ɖé da ŋútí.– 86 – ́ Gaké da ganɔ avea me. He shouted and said: “Friends! I heard something!” Mr. One day the four friends went into a forest to look for some fruits. Gaké ɖesíáɖe̍ nɔ da vɔ̃ḿ . Mikpé ɖé ŋúnye. Simple Questions with ɖě or ɖé Another way of framing questions in Eʋe is by using the question particles ɖé or ɖě. Éyɔ́ lãáwó kátã́ éye̍ wogblɔ ná wó bé : “Fífíá miele ŋútífáfá me. In this case it means 'where'. Mele da vɔ̃ḿ ŋútɔ́. Miwu da nám. Leg and Mr. It is a big fruit. They stayed in the forest for the whole day. Hand. Ati ́gli ́nyi ̍ bíá bé: “A̍ me̍ka̍ le da wu gé ná mî?“ Lã̍ sɔ̍eá ɖé tsí tre gblɔ̍ bé : “Mele sɔ̍e ̍ ŋútɔ́ gaké mele da wu gé égbe gódóó ná ̍ agbledelá. ̌ Gaké le nu̍wúwú lá ɖeɖi té da ŋútí. Leg ran quickly to the pawpaw tree and stood by the pawpaw. On the way. Exercise IX-4: Translate into Eʋe There lived four friends in a certain village. I see a large soft pawpaw under a tall pawpaw tree.” Lã̍ sɔ̍e ̍ si ̍a̍ nyé Príkú. Me̍wu̍ wó ná mi. Mr. Eye. Édí da ŋ̍ke̍ke̍ ene mékpɔ́e o. Study the following examples: . Dzatááwó mégali o. It fell from that big tree near the hill. Méle nɔ̍vi ́ wɔ̍ḿ kpli ́m o. 3. Agbledelá hẫ nɔ da vɔ̃ḿ ŋútɔ́ ŋútɔ́. Da sẽ́ ŋútɔ́.

mâ or máhã is used : Ɖě neƒle agble mâ? Ɖě wóƒo mi máhã? 'Is it a fact that you bought that farm?' 'Is it true that they have beaten you?' Vocabulary ké fia ŋlɔ agbalẽ̌ sand to write a letter king. ɖě maybe placed at the beginning of a question ending with the Question marker with -a : Ɖě Akɔ́súá ɖa te̍ lá xóxóa? Ɖě miede Pe̍ki ́ etsɔa? 'Is it true that Akɔsua has already cooked the yam?' 'Is it a fact that you had been to Peki yesterday?' Sometimes. chief . instead of ending such questions with -a as shown above.– 87 – ̍ Ame̍awó ɖé? ̍ Wo ɖé? Atíá ɖé? 'Where are the people?' 'Where are you?' 'Where is the tree/stick/wood?' Ɖe can also mean 'what' or 'what about' or 'how about' as shown in the following examples: Ŋ́kɔ́wo ɖé? Nyɔ́nu̍a̍ ɖé. has she come now?' On the other hand. évá ázɔ́a? ̂ 'What is your name?' 'What about the woman.

Tédzí ɣíá ɖê? Éle gbě ɖu̍ḿ le afî. méƒlee o. A̍ me̍dzróawó ɖê? Afi ̍ka̍ wóyi? Wóyi fia gbɔ́ ŋ̍di ́ si ̍a̍. What about the woman and the children? I did not see them. I saw him taking the money. Asitsa̍lá eveawó tsɔ́e ̍ nɛ̂. 3. Ɖě mie̍yɔ́ núfi ́álá lá mǎ? Ẽ̍. Ɖě Kɔ̍dzó ƒle tédzí lá máhã? O. míéŋlɔ agbalẽ ná Osɔ́fo̍ lá hẫ tútútú. Is it a fact that he took all the money from the pot? Yes. Is it true that the man killed them? I do not know. wó kátã́ ɖu nu ɖíƒo. míéyɔ́e vávã. Ɖě Kɔ̍dzó le tédzíá díḿ mâ? Nyeményá o.– 88 – Osɔfo asi ̍tsa̍lá ɖí ƒo pastor. I saw him. Ɖě wóná ŋ̍di ́núɖu̍ɖu̍ wó xóxóa? E̍̃. ́ ɖevíáwó méyi o. Ɖě wókplɔ ɖevíáwó hẫ yi ̍a? O. Exercise IX-6: Translate into Eʋe Did you see the trader? Yes. Ɖevíáwó ɖe? Wóle feféḿ le ké me le su̍kûxɔ̍ lá me̍gbé. . Ɖě mieŋlɔ agbalẽ ná Osɔ́fo̍a̍ hẫ? Ẽ̍. ̌ 2. Agbalẽa ɖé? Míétsɔ́e ̍ nɛ̂ xóxó ɣe̍trɔ́ si ̍a̍. father trader to eat to one’s satisfaction Exercise IX-5: Read 1.

' 'It was me he/she/it saw.' 'It was you (pl.' OBJECT .' 'It was he/she/it they called. 'It was I who killed the snake.' 'It was you (sg.– 89 – LESSON X 1.) we saw. The Absolute forms of the Personal pronouns The Absolute pronouns are: FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON SINGULAR nye wo éya̍ míáwó mi ̍a̍wó wóáwó PLURAL The Absolute Personal pronouns are emphasized by suffixing the Emphasizer -é to the above forms as shown in the table below : Singular nye̍é wo̍é éya̍é 'it is I/I am the one who …' 'it is you/you are the one who …' 'It is he (/she/it) / he (she/it) is the one who …' 'it is we/we are the ones who …' Plural míáwóé mi ̍a̍wóé wóáwóé 'it is you/you are the ones who …' 'it is they/they are the ones who …' Note that the Absolute pronouns are only used if the pronoun is to be emphasized: SUBJECT Nye̍e ́ wu da lá. Nye̍e ́ wo̍kpɔ́ Wo̍e ́ mi ́ékpɔ́ ́ Eya̍e ́ wóyɔ́. Wo̍e ́ kpɔ́ wó.' 'It was he/she/it who beat me.) who saw them. ́ Eya̍e ́ ƒom.

mi ̍a̍wóe ́ mékpɔ́ le tó lá dzí etsɔ. Míáwóé wóƒo le su̍kû Dzǒɖá. éye̍ wóawóe ́ nɔ ʋuawó ƒo̍m. to give trouble (to someone) to argue. Nye̍e ́ woke ɖi kplé le Lome. to doubt trɔ́ mo̍ ɖé. answer carpenter carver permission to receive power. Vávã̌ éya̍e ́ ne̍wɔ̍e ̍ ná. 2. Wóáwóé ƒo̍ mí. 5.– 90 – Vocabulary ke ɖi ƒo ʋǔ wɔ fu (ame) dɔ́ ɖé ɖe mɔ́ ná ŋúsẽ́ xɔ ŋúsẽ́ ko tɔ́gbi ́ ́ ʋɔnudrɔ̃lá zi ̍ kpi ́ zi ɖoɖǒé tsa ŋ̍kú trɔ́ ɖé aɖabaƒǒ mo/ ŋ̍kúme gblɔ ɖó (nya̍) ŋú mɔ́ɖe̍ɖe̍ ati ́kpa̍lá núkpa̍lá to beat a drum. Éya̍e ́ ke ɖi kplím le du ƒúƒú me. trɔ́ ŋ̍kúme̍ ɖé to face Exercise X-1: Read 1. Ményé nye̍e ́ newɔ dɔ̌ si ̍a̍ ná o. to be empowered to maltreat someone. 3. Nye̍e ́ kpɔ́ mi le tó lá dzí. authority only grandfather judge to remain silent (not speaking) to keep silent. ́ . 4. Woe̍ wɔ dɔa nɛ̂. to compete. to drum to send (someone to) to allow/permit power. mi ̍a̍wóe ́ nɔ ɣe̍ ɖúḿ. stop talking to look round to turn to/towards second (in calculating time) face to say/tell to reply. Ẽ̍. Míáwóé nɔ ha dziḿ.

EƲE Atíé. He looked round the room. 7. Kɔ̍mla̍ ménɔ̍ a̍fímá o.” 2.” The judge asked: “Who gave you the permission?” They replied: “Nobody gave us permission. We bought it last week from this carpenter. He said nothing. Wóáwóé dzi ha lá hẫ. emphasis on nouns is achieved by suffixing the marker –é (which is originally the Third Person Singular pronoun). Ŋútsu̍vi ́é me̍kpɔ́. Xɔe̍ míéƒle.– 91 – 6. we felled it. The judge asked him again if it was he who did it. Éya̍e ́ míédɔ́ ɖé tɔ́gbi ́ gbɔ́ le agble. The judge turned to me and asked if it was I who did it. He was silent for some seconds. and told the judge that it was me who fell the baobab. . The judge turned to the five men and asked them if they felled the baobab. by means of adverbs. It was a house we bought. When the noun is determined or Study these examples : qualified. turned his face towards me. A̍ me̍dzró máwóé dó ɣlíá. or by intonation. the emphatic suffix -é is taken by the determinative or the qualifying word. in Eʋe. It was a boy I saw. They all replied: “Yes. I answered that it was not I but I saw those five men felling the tree. A̍ me̍ka̍wóe ́ dó ɣlí le asi ̍ lá me? Ményé míáwóé o. While in English empasis is eypressed syntactically. Emphasizing nouns Compare the following English sentences with their Eʋe equivalents : ENGLISH It is definitely a tree. A̍ me̍gã́ Kpégló dó ɣlí gblɔ̍ bé : “Nye̍e ́ miele ƒoƒoḿ áléâ? Nye̍e miele fu̍ wɔ̍ḿ áléa? ̂ Núka̍ mewɔ? Fi ̍a̍ gbɔ́ mi ̍e̍xɔ̍ ŋúsẽ́ si ̍a̍ tsóa? Éya̍e ́ ɖe̍ mɔ́ ná mia? Alo̍ fu ko miele wɔyeḿâ? Exercise X-2: Translate into Eʋe The judge asks him if it was he who fell the baobab.

to a position a people. 'It is definitely a high mountain. 'It was the two hunters who killed the buffalo.' Vocabulary agblenú ŋlɔ nú ŋlɔ agble yí/kra̍n̍té bali gbe dó vɔvɔ̃́ na ɖó (ame) fia dukɔ́ xóxo̍ teƒé si ̍ká kpé ɖé (ame) kpɔ́ (a̍me̍) ɖá srã́ (a̍me̍) kpɔ́ fi ̍a̍sã́ si ̍kágbá dzodóƒé tu zu to weed.o.' Adelá eveawóé wu to̍ lá. Bali gogloa ɖé me̍e ́ du ̍ lá le. Tó dzíé agble lá le.– 92 – Tó kɔ́kɔ́é. a nation old. to appoint s. 3. Agblenúé míétsɔ́ ŋlɔ agble lá. former one place gold to help (someone) to visit (someone) palace golden plate kitchen to visit (someone) to build hoe Exercise X-3: Read 1. village or town’s folk. Du láé mi ̍e̍kpɔ́ le bali gã́ lá me.' 'It is a big house you bought. Agble má tútútúe ́ mi ́édzrá ná ye̍vú asi ̍tsa̍lá lá. to write to weed a farm cutlass. Ményé yíé míetsɔ́ ŋlɔe̍ o. . éye̍ tó e̍tɔ̃e ́ le du sɔe̍ lá xa̍. machet valley voice to become to frighten to enstool/crown a chief/king. Xɔ̍ bláve koe̍ le du sɔe̍ lá me. ́ Xɔ̍ gãé neƒle. 2.

Wo hẫ nesea? Gbe lá dó vɔvɔ̃́ ná wó. It is a big house. Dukɔ́ láe ́ ɖóe fia. was it built with stones or was it built with bricks?' It is obvious that the above questions cannot be answered with just a simple 'yes' or 'no'. Examine the following possible answers to the above questions : 1. 3. Were you the one who saw her breaking the pot? It was not Kɔdzo who saw her. Double questions Study the following questions : 1. Ɖě neƒle avɔ lá lóó aló ɖě wótsɔ́e ̍ ná woa? 'Did you buy the cloth or was it given to you?' ́ 2. fi ̍a̍e ́ tsɔ́e ̍ nám. It was they who worked for me.– 93 – ́ 4. It was she and not me who broke the pot. It was only one house that I built. Ményé kpé aló a̍nyi ̍kpé wótsɔ́ tui o. Nyeméƒlee o. Ŋútsu̍ si ̍a̍ zu fia. Abra broke something. It was for the king that I built it. Only twenty workers worked for me. 2. it was you who saw her. It was not three houses that I built. Fi ̍a̍ xóxóá te̍ƒéé wóɖóe fi ̍a̍ ɖó. Was it you who visited the king? It was the king you visited this afternoon. kpéé wótsɔ́ tu̍i ̍ lóó aló a̍nyíkpéé wótsɔ́ tuia? 'That house. and it was he who gave it to you. 5. Gbe gãe ́ wóse. It was in the palace that you met the king. Fi ̍a̍e ́ wóɖóe vávã̌ Fi ̍a̍ xóxóá kú le ɣle̍ti ́ si ̍ vá yi ̍ me. Was it the king who gave you the golden plate? It is a real golden plate. Atíé wótsɔ́ tui. It was a pot she broke in the kitchen. Wóse gbeá ɖé tsó atíáwó dome. Exercise X-4: Translate into Eʋe It was me who built the house. Xɔ̍ má ɖẽ. .

– 94 – a̍nyi ́kpé sáma̍ sámá Vocabulary brick summons court to summons ʋɔnudrɔ̃́ ʋli fɔ wɔ nú ɖé (ame) ŋú to wrong someone to struggle for to find. discover path leading to a farm east south eastern one north west the name of an Eʋe division in Ghana witness western one to be present agblemɔ́ ɣe̍dze̍ƒé dzíehě ɣe̍dze̍ƒétɔ́ a̍nyi ́éhě ɣe̍tóɖóƒé Á la̍ványó ɣe̍tóɖóƒétɔ̍ ɖasefó něni ̍e̍ nɔ (nú) te̍ƒé fe̍dzi ́gba̍lẽ̍ fiasemenɔla xɔ fe̍dzi ́gbále/ dzra nú ɖó aɖáka̍ tsɔ́ vɛ̂ lé ŋ̍kú ɖé nú ŋú háfí xɔ agbalẽ ɖe fe̍ dzi ́ how much receipt storekeeper/shopkeeper to take a receipt to keep/to repair box to examine/watch/observe something before to bring .

Exercise X-6: Translate into Eʋe Alavanyo. ́ ́ Ame eve siawó nɔ túá ɖé ʋli ̍ḿ . Afíka̍ nefɔe le? Dua̍ me̍e ́ ne̍fɔ̍e ̍ le lóó. neyi le agblemɔ́ má dzi ̂? Ɖě nenɔ agble yiḿ lóó aló tsa̍ ko̍ ɖi ̍ḿ nenɔɔ mâ? Nyeménɔ agble yiḿ o. Katapu. Túá hẫ nɔ ʋɔnudrɔ̃ƒéá le kplɔ̃̍ gãá ɖé dzí le fi ̍a̍ lá xa̍.– 95 – Exercise X-5: Read ́ ́ Kɔ̍dzó sámá Kɔ̍si ́ ná fia Agɔkɔ́li ́. tsa̍ Ko̍ ɖi ̍ḿ menɔ háfí fɔe. Kɔ̍dzó ƒo̍ nu̍ gbã. Ménɔ gbě me hã o. aló gbě me̍e nefɔe lea?´ Ményé duá me̍e ́ mefɔe le o. Énɔ atíá ɖé ŋú le̍ mɔ́á tó. Mefɔe le ɣe̍toɖóƒétɔ̍ dzi ́. Did you take a receipt from Mr. I bought it for twenty five pounds. The chief went on and asked: Agɔkɔli: Kɔsi: Agɔkɔli: Kɔsi: Agɔkɔli: Kɔsi: Agɔkɔli: I bought it from Mr. Katapu? How much did you buy it? Who was the witness? Who sold the gun to you? Chief Agɔkɔli asked Kɔsi also to speak. Kɔmla. Mefɔe le agblemɔ́ dzi ́. Fi ̍a̍ lá yɔ́ wó yi ʋɔnudrɔ̃ƒé. Ménɔ̍ mɔ́á ti ́ti ́na̍ o. Núka̍ wɔ̍ gé. the farmer was present. Égblɔ núsi Kɔ̍si ́ w̍ ɔ ɖé éŋ́ú lá ná fia Agɔkɔ́li ́. Kɔsi told the court that he bought the gun from . Ɖě túá nɔ mɔ́á me̍ lóó aló gbě me̍e ́ ne̍kpɔ́e lea? Túá ménɔ̍ mɔ́á me o. Éme̍gbé fi ̍a̍ lá ná Kɔ̍si ́ hẫ ƒo̍ nu̍. Agblemɔ́á ka̍ dzi ́é nefɔ tú lá le? Xe̍dze̍ƒétɔ dzíé lóó aló ɣe̍tóɖóƒétɔ̍ dzi ́éa? Dzíehěmɔ́ dzié lóó aló a̍nyi ́e̍hěmɔ́ dzíé nefɔ tú nyúí si ̍a̍ lea? Ményé ɣe̍dze̍ƒémɔ́ aló dzíehěmɔ́ aló a̍nyi ́ehěmɔ́ dzi ́é mefɔ tú lá le o. ɖě me̍fɔe. tú si ̍a̍ ɖě neƒléé lóó aló ɖě a̍me̍á ɖé tsɔ́e ̍ ná woa? Nyeméƒlee o. Nya̍ lá yi ̍ álé: Fia: Kɔ̍dzó: Fia: Kɔ̍dzó: Fia: Kɔ̍dzó: Fia: Kɔ̍dzó: Fia: Kɔ̍dzó: Kɔ̍dzó.

Where is the receipt? the receipt well. It is here in this small black box. Mr.– 96 – Kɔsi: Agɔkɔli: Kɔsi: Yes. Katapu gave me a receipt. Kɔsi gave the receipt to the chief and the chief told him to sit down. Agɔkɔli examined .

the Possessor precedes the marker ƒé.– 97 – LESSON XI 1.' 'The walls of the house are thick. Attributive Possession: The "Genitive" In expressing the relation between the Possessor and the Possessed. the term "Genitive" is sometimes found in order to refer to the Possession marker ƒé. without a linking marker: Adzóá fo̍fó vá. With family relationships. In the literature on Eʋe. Note that Case depends on the verb (cf. Xɔ̍ lá ƒé gliwó tri. and the Possessed comes after it. 'Aŋku’s house has fallen. In languages where such a differentiation is found.' 'The child’s mother is absent. there exists no Genitive Case. the nouns in a Possessive relation are simply juxtaposed. Consider the following sentences: ̍ Aŋ̍kú ƒé xɔ mu.' Note that in each of the above examples. With inalienable relations there is typically no Possession marker involved. This is due to the fact that in Indo-European languages the Genitive Case is often used to indicate Possession. Ɖevíá da̍dá méli o.' 'The man’s wife has left. ́ Akúa̍ ƒé áfɔ̍kpa̍ bú. Ŋútsu̍a̍ srɔ̃̍ dzó. In Eʋe. the category of . like in most languages of the world. Alienable relations can usually be changed while inalienable ones normally cannot. 'Adzoa’s father has come. German: Sie beschuldigen ihn eines Verbrechens).' The reason for this difference is usually described in terms of "Alienability" versus "Inalienability".' 'Akua’s shoe is lost. the Possession marker ƒé is placed between the Possessor and the Possessed.

without ƒé. the body part noun functions as a postposition. study the following examples: Adzóá ƒé ta̍ Adzóá ta̍ 'Adzóá's head' 'above Adzóá' ŋ̍útsu̍a̍ ƒé ŋ̍kúme ŋ̍útsu̍a̍ ŋ̍kúme 'the man's face' 'in front of the man' With body part nouns. in this respect. Vocabulary gbã fo̍fó/tɔ́ tási ̍ tɔ́ɖi nɔ̍ɖi srɔ̃ ̍ srɔ̃nyɔ́nu̍/asi ̍ srɔ̃ŋútsu̍/atsú asi ́wu̍i ̍ afɔ̍wu̍i ̍ a̍wu̍téwí ŋútsu̍wu̍wó nyɔ́nu̍wu̍ tsi ̍wu̍ atáwu̍/atádi ̍di ̍ ɖe̍vi ́wu̍ to break father uncle (father side) wife/husband wife husband socks/hose underwear clothes dress children’s wear raincoat trousers glove aunt (mother side) aunt (father side) . Eʋe differs. however.– 98 – inalienable nouns typically includes nouns indicating familiy relations as well as body part nouns. the Possession marker cannot be dropped because.

– 99 – núdódó clothing ŋútsu̍wó ƒé a̍wu̍wó men’s clothings nyɔ́nu̍wó ƒé a̍wu̍wó ladies’ dresses agba agbatsɔ́lá Eʋegbě núɖusí mia núɖusíbɔ́ta miabɔ́ta tú agba dze (a̍me) gbɔ́ kpekpeme kpe̍kpe̍ ta̍kúvi ́ xe̍xi ́/sowiɛ hɛ̌ gagbá núto̍me ŋ̍u̍fɔ́ke̍ dó a̍me̍á ɖéké núno̍no̍ gazé agblexɔ̌ carrier the Eʋe language right hand left hand right shoulder left shoulder to untie a load to lodge someone weight heavy handkerchief umbrella knife metal plate/pan district next morning/day to put on nobody metal pot cottage. Xɔ si ̍a̍ ƒé ɣe̍dze̍ƒé góme le gbagbãḿ. ményé Kɔ̍mla̍ ƒé a̍wu̍e ́ o. 3. gaké mékpɔ́ agbatsɔ́láwó o. Míákpɔ́ Eʋea̍wó le Á fri ̍ka̍ ƒé . A̍ me̍dzró ma̍ ƒé a̍wu̍e. Asi ̍tsa̍lá lá ƒé ágbawó sɔgbɔ ŋútɔ́. farm hut load a drink/drinkable Exercise XI-1: Read 1. 2. A̍ me̍ka̍ ƒé a̍wu̍e ́ nyé ési ̍a̍? Ményé Kɔ̍mla̍ ƒé a̍wu̍e ̍ oa? O. ́ 4. éya̍ta̍ dɔ̌wɔ̍láwó vá gli lá mu̍ gé. A̍ me̍ka̍wó ƒé gbeé nyé Eʋegbe? Eʋea̍wó ƒé gbeé.

a farmer lodged a tall trader. éye̍ dadáá kplé fofóá kú. Me̍kpɔ́ dzatá hẫ kpɔ́. The next day. tɔ́ɖi ̍a̍ yi Índia etsɔ. raincoats. socks. A lot of the customers bought only clothings. Ŋútsu̍ lá vi ́é nyé Á kúa.– 100 – ɣe̍tóɖóƒé. Ékpɔ́ ati ́kpa̍lá ma̍ ƒé núɖusí bɔ́ta̍ kplé mi ̍a̍ bɔ́ta̍ ɖá? Núka̍wó wotsɔ̂? Étsɔ́ tú ɖé mi ̍a̍ bɔ́ta̍ éye̍ náke̍ di ̍di ̍a̍ ɖé le núɖusí bɔ́ta̍ nɛ̂. Aƒéá ƒé gliwó tri ̍ ŋútɔ́. Me̍se̍ bé éyi fofóá ƒé ágble me. Adzóá tási ̍ vá ékpɔ́ gé ɖá. and different kinds of foods and drinks. 10. knives. Ten strong men carried the heavy loads for the trader. handkerchiefs. gaké sɔe̍tɔ̍ ta̍me le tsyɔ̍e. metal pots and metal plates. Míéde tó gã́ lá dzi ́ ƒe si vá yi me. 5. The farmer lived in a small farm house. Exercise XI-2: Translate into Eʋe Once upon a time. ladies’ dresses shorts. children’s wears. The farmer's wife cooked fufu for them and they ate it. The trader brought a lot of heavy loads. men’s clothes. 9. Tó gã́ lá ta̍me le gbadza. Adzóá srɔ̃ wu dzatá kpɔ́. E̍kpɔ́ sɔ́ kpɔ́a? Áléké sɔ́ ƒé ŋ̍kúme le? Sɔ́ ƒé ŋ̍kúme le lɔbɔɔ. The ten carriers returned home in the afternoon. underwears. . ́ Dzatá ƒé mo le nogoo. but some also bought drinks. many farmers came from other farms in that district and bought all the trader's goods. umbrellas. 8. hoes. trousers. What did he bring? He brought shoes. Ményé túé wotsɔ́ wu dzatá lá o. cutlasses. Á kúa̍ da̍dá le aƒé nyúi ́ si ̍a̍ me. gaké a̍me̍á ɖéké méde tó sɔ̍e ̍ lá ta̍me̍ kpɔ́ o. Agblexɔ̌ sɔ̍eá ɖé le fofóá ƒé ágblea̍ me. The farmer’s aunt (father side) also came. Adzóá da̍da̍ méli o. In the evening. Éwu̍i ̍ kplé akpeɔ̍ sésẽá ɖé. ̍ ̍̃ 7. ̍ 6. Éya̍ta̍ wodzó yi nɔ́ɖi ̍a̍ gbɔ́ le Agu. The farmer's wife also lived in the farm. gloves. the trader untied the loads. hats. Ɖevi ́á tási ̍ le Améri ̍ka.

however. 'My house has fallen.' The Possession marker ƒé is. Wó ŋútí ko.– 101 – 2. míá. Wóƒé xɔ̍wó ményó o. and with all the Plural forms. Míáƒé átiẃó sɔgbɔ. míá ŋ̍kúme éme̍gbé 'your (pl. Ƀé ábɔ́ ŋé. The Possessive Pronouns are: FIRST PERSON SINGULAR nyě wǒ éƒé PLURAL míáƒé wóƒé miaƒé SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON Note that with the Third Person Singular. to form the Possessive pronouns. and wó). the Possessive marker ƒé is suffixed to the personal pronouns (é. mia.) mother' 'their aunt' 'His/her/its uncle left.' 'Your cows are these. The First Person Singular and the Second Person Singular take rising tones. Wǒ a̍gbalẽ bú. Possessive pronouns preceding the Possessed The Possessive Pronouns dealt with in this section are those which precede the noun.' 'Our trees are many. dropped in the following cases: – Family relations: míá fo̍fó wó tási ̍ – Body part nouns: mia dadá Étɔ́ɖi ̍ dzó.' 'our face' 'his/her/its back' 'our father' .' 'Your book is lost. Mi ̍a̍ƒé nyi ̍wó nyé ési ̍a̍wó.' 'Their houses are not good.' 'Their body is clean. These Possessive pronouns precede the noun: Nyě xɔ mu.' 'His/her arm is broken.

) carriers' Vocabulary Yáwɔ̍ɖá Ya̍wá a̍lẽ́ Yawo Thursday a male born on Thursday sheep goat rearing of animals pig rich person to be rich you are innocent. home' : éŋ́kɔ́ wó de̍ mi ́á de̍nyi ́gbá le éƒé me 'his/her/its name' 'their home' 'our homeland' 'in his/her/its house' mia Dza̍ma̍wó míá Eʋeawó 'its being bought' 'their being killed' 'your (pl. you are not right ("your matter is not right") citizen ("child of town") one who rears animals a female born on Thursday gbɔ̃̌ ̍ lãnyi ̍lá lãnyi ̍nyi ̍ ha ke̍si ̍nɔ̍tɔ́ kpɔ́ ga wǒ nya dzɔ wǒ nya̍ médzɔ o dumeví . you are right ("our matter is right") you are guilty.) being sent' 'our leader' 'its receiver' 'their sellers' 'your German people' 'our Eʋe people' 'your (pl.– 102 – – Verbal nouns: éƒe̍ƒle̍ wó wu̍wu̍ mi ̍a̍ dɔ́dɔ́ – Noun Agents: míá kplɔ̍lá mi ̍a̍ tsɔ́láwó éxɔ̍lá wó dzráláwó – Names of tribes and races: – The following special nouns: ŋ́kɔ́ 'name' : de̍ 'home' : de̍nyi ́gbá 'homeland' : aƒé 'house.

side to punish to cheat someone communal. . to listen to fetch water (from a river/well etc. Nyě a̍gble lolo wú Ya̍wo̍ ƒé ágble.– 103 – dumevínyenye hǎho hǎhodɔ a̍me̍ba̍lá he tó ná fi ́ã́ ́ zi gbãtɔ̍ ési bú bu gbeɖé bé/béná ɖô tó du tsi éya̍ta̍ ablɔɖe klúví kúvíá ɖó ná wɔ kúvíá abé álési … e̍né a̍me̍si ́áme̍ agbenɔnɔ̌ gaxɔ̌/ mɔ̃́ agbe kuviatɔ kosi lɔƒo ba ame citizenship ("being child of town") communal work/community work cheat to burn first time as. to say that to obey.) therefore freedom female slave male slave laziness to request/order to be lazy direction. when to lose reckon. common to all kpɔ́ núblánúí ná (ame) lazy person as/as how life everybody prison mode of life Exercise XI-3: Read 1. éye̍ nyě xɔ hã́ lo̍lo̍ wú éƒé xɔ. calculate never to have mercy on/pity (someone) that.

éye̍ mi ́áƒé xɔ̍ hẫ le afíma̍ lɔƒo. éye̍ wóméɖa̍ nú hẫ ná wóƒé áme̍dzrówó o. Ƀé gbɔ̃wó. ́ ́ 7. Wǒ xɔ̍ lá le dua títína. Ƒe̍ si ̍ vá yi ̍ hẫ. Ƀé xɔ̍wó le Lome. ̍ ̍ ́ kplé hawó vá ɖu nyě ágbeliwó kplé a̍yi ̍wó kéŋ́kéŋ́. kplé a̍lẽwó sɔgbɔ ŋútɔ́. Éya̍ta̍ wɔ́bú wóƒé dumevínyényé kplé wóƒé áblɔɖe. Álé yele tó he̍ gé ná wó abé a̍me̍ba̍láwó kplé kúvíátɔ́wó e̍né. 3. ́ 6. ́ 4. Ékpɔ́ ga geɖe tó lãnyinyi ̍ me. Gaké ŋútsu̍a̍ bé xɔ̍ búbǔá ɖéké méga̍fi ́ã́ wú wǒ xɔ o. Agblea̍wó le bali gãá ɖé me le dua̍ ƒé a̍nyi ́éhě lɔƒo. éye̍ nyɔ́nu̍awó xɔ ƒe etɔ̃. Ŋútsu̍á ɖé vá gblɔ̍ ná mi ́ bé wǒ xɔ̍ fi ́ã́ kéŋ́kéŋ́ etsɔ. and it was the three . Ényé ke̍si ̍nɔ̍tɔ́. Kpándo̍ kplé Kpálíme. Five men and three women stood by a table in front of the judge. Wóƒé ágbenɔnɔ̌ ményó o. Tsó gbe má gbe wózu fi ̍a̍ kplé du blíbo̍ lá ƒé ko̍si ̍wó. ̍ ̌ Ke̍si ̍nɔ̍tɔ́e ́ vávã. Ya̍wo̍ nyé lãnyi ̍lá. Wóba ŋútsu̍ búbuwó le dua̍ me. The tall fat judge looked round the room and went to his beautiful chair. Lãnyi ̍nyi ̍é nyé éƒé dɔ́. Ʋɔnudrɔ̃lá lá gblɔ̍ ná nyɔ́nu̍awó béná wóƒé nya̍ médzɔ o. Édé ŋútsu̍awó gaxɔ̌ me ƒe atɔ̃. ́ 8. He sat down and the people also sat down. Éya̍ta̍ míésúsú bé míáƒé xɔ̍ méfi ́ã́ o. Wónyé wóƒé a̍me̍dzrówó. ̍ ̍ ́ 5. Núblánúí ko me̍kpɔ́ ná ́ mi ̍ kátã. Wónyé kúvíátɔ́wó. mi ̍a̍ƒé nyi ̍wó ́ mi ̍e̍súsú bé nyeméle nú nyáḿ oa? Gbeɖé! Ŋútífáfáé me̍di ́. Wóméwɔ hǎhodɔ́ kplé ŋútsu̍ búbuwó le dua̍ me abé álési fi ̍a̍ ɖóe ̍ ná ŋútsu̍wó lá e̍né o. éye̍ wózu fi ̍a̍ kplé dua ƒé klúvíwó. Míáƒé a̍gblewóe ́ wóƒle. Wóbú wóƒé áblɔɖe.– 104 – ́ 2. Wóméɖó tó wóƒé fia o. agbeli kplé ́ agblemenú búbu̍wó pétée. ́ ̍ nyi ̍wó. Agu. Kéta̍. Míédzrá míáƒé a̍gblea̍wó ná ye̍vúá ɖéwó. Ési ̍ me̍zi ̍ kpi ́ le gbãtɔ̍ ma̍ ŋú ta̍ Exercise XI-4: Translate into Eʋe The court was silent. Lã geɖe le éƒé ábɔ́ me. The judge entered the room and everybody stood up. te. Éme̍gbé étrɔ́ ɖé ŋútsu̍ atɔ̃awó hẫ gbɔ́. Me̍se̍ bé ye̍vú ma̍wó vá ɖze Ya̍wo̍ kplé srɔ̃a gbɔ́. It was these five men who did not do communal work with other men in the town. hawó. Miaƒé álẽwó kplé gbɔ̃wó vá nyě ágble me égbe. ̍ Wómédu tsi ̍ ná dɔ̍wɔ̍láwó o. Wóɖu nyě blî. hégblɔ̍ ná wó bé núsi ̍ wówɔ̍ lá ményó o. Ményé ési ̍a̍e ́ nyé zi gbãtɔ o.

The judge told the three women and the five men that they were guilty. He sent them to prison and they lost their freedom and their citizenship. They were not good citizens. He said that he was going to punish them because they were cheats and lazy people. .– 105 – women who did not cook for their guests.

Possessive pronouns following the Possessed Singular (wǒ 'your'). Xɔwo mu. they take low tones. With family relations. they are suffixed to the preceding noun. and also undergo a change in tone.– 106 – LESSON XII 1. Agblenye mélolo o. as a rule.' 'Your house has fallen. can also be placed after the Possessed. When used in this way.' Note that when these Possessive pronouns are suffixed. Wǒ xɔ mu. the Possessive pronouns in the First and Second Person Singular are. Compare the tone of the Possessive pronouns in the following sentences: Possessive pronouns in the First Person Singular (nyě 'my') and in the Second Person Nyě agble mélolo o. suffixed vǐnye vǐwo fo̍fónye/tɔ́nye fo̍fówo/tɔ́wo dǎnye/nɔnye dǎwo/nɔwo nɔ̍vi ́nye nɔ̍vi ́wo tsɛ̍nye tsɛ̍wo fo̍nye fo̍wo tási ̍nye tási ̍wo nɔ̍ɖi ̍nye 'my child' (never *nyě ví) 'your child' (never *wǒ ví) 'my father' 'your father' 'my mother' 'your mother' 'my brother/sister/cousin' 'my younger brother' 'my elder brother' 'your brother/sister/cousin' 'your younger brother' 'your elder brother' 'my aunt (paternal)' 'your aunt (paternal)' 'my aunt (maternal)' . 'My farm is not big.

– 107 – nɔ̍ɖi ̍wo tɔ́ɖi ̍nye nyrɔ̍enye ̍ tɔ́ɖi ̍wo tɔ́gbi ́nye tɔ́gbi ́wo ma̍mánye ma̍máwo ́ tɔ́gãnye ́ tɔ́gãwo srɔ̃nye srɔ̃wo asinye asiwo atsúnye atsúwo daánye daáwo ƒo̍enye ̍ ƒo̍ewo ̍ 'your aunt (maternal)' 'my uncle (paternal – younger brother of father)' 'my uncle (maternal)' 'your uncle (paternal – younger brother of father)' 'my grandfather (both paternal and maternal)' 'your grandfather (both paternal and maternal)' 'my grandmother (both paternal and maternal)' 'your grandmother (both paternal and maternal)' 'my uncle (paternal – older brother of father)' 'my spouse' 'your spouse' 'my wife' 'your wife' 'my husband' 'your husband' 'my elder sister' 'your elder sister' 'my younger sister' 'your younger sister' 'your uncle (paternal – older brother of father)' (The above list is given here in full for ease of reference. Instead of prefixing the pronoun é.) In the Third Person Singular the Possessive pronoun takes a different form when applied to family relationship. a high or low toned -a is suffixed: fofóá via 'his/her/its father' 'his/her/its child' Note that the tone of the -a so suffixed is dictated by the tone of the preceding noun. .to the Possessed.

– 108 –

Vocabulary fófóá/tɔ́á dadáá ku tsi du tsi kɔ ku kɔ dó dzo yi (nú) dzí fo̍fónye̍ ná ŋ̍dɔ̍ ʋu ŋ̍dɔ̍ʋu̍ʋu̍ ɖevíme núkú agblededě nyré gǒ tsi galí ko̍to̍kú/golo ɖe dzo agblekotoku dzudzɔ dzudzɔ̌ kpɔ́ dzidzɔ̌ ŋúti ́nya̍ víví dɔ̌ agblemenuku kakɛ dadá his/her/its father mother his/her/its mother to fetch water from a receptacle neck to fetch water from a river, lake or well sling on the neck to set fire to continue doing something my father let me do something the sun shines sunshine childhood crop, that which is harvested farming to sharpen gourd to grow up a West African food prepared from cassava sack, bag, pocket to fetch fire a farmer’s sack/bag rest to be happy story, folklore, history work, job to rest

sweet, interesting farm product

a piece of

– 109 – Exercise XII-1: Read ́ FO̍ FÓ NYE̍ FIÁ AGBLEDEDĚ MI ́ VIAWÓ Gbe ɖeká ŋ̍di ́ kányá fo̍fónye yɔ́m hégblɔ̍ nám̍ bé yele nye kplé tsɛ̍nye Kɔ̍dzó kplɔ̍ gé yi agble le ŋ̍di ́núɖu̍ɖu̍ me̍gbé. míéɖí ƒo.” Fo̍fónye̍ hẫ ɖu éƒé ŋ̍di ́núɖu̍ɖu̍. Ési ̍a̍ me̍gbé wotsɔ́ agblenú eve kplé kra̍nté eve nám, éye̍ me̍nyré wó nyúi ́é. Étsɔ́ gǒ hâ nám. Me̍tsɔ́ gǒ lá yi dǎnye̍ gbɔ́, éye̍ woku tsi ̍ dé éme̍ nám. Fo̍fónye hẫ nyré éƒé kra̍nté kplé agblenú. Tsɛ̍nye Kɔ̍dzó métsi ̍ tútúútú o. Éxɔ ƒe e̍nyi ́ ko; gaké míá fo̍fó ná éya̍ hâ tsɔ́ kra̍nté sɔ̍eá ɖé. Dǎnye hẫ tsɔ́ wɔ́, galí kplé dze dé ko̍to̍kú. ̍ sɔ̍ea̍ ɖé me, éye̍ wotsɔ́e ̍ ná tsɛ̍nye Kɔ̍dzó. Kɔ̍dzó tsɔ́ ko̍to̍kú lá ku kɔ. Fo̍fónye tsɔ́ éƒé ̍ ágblekotokú kplé éƒé tú éye̍ woɖe dzo ɖé zě kákɛ́á ɖé dzi. Álé míédzó yi agble ŋ̍di ́ má. Míédó dzo ɖé míáƒé ágblexɔ me. Ési ̍a̍ me̍gbé mi ́éwoɔ dɔ̌ tsó ŋ̍di ́ ga asi ́éke̍ váséɖé ga ɖeká. Dɔ nɔ míá wu̍ḿ ŋútɔ́, éya̍ta̍ fo̍fónye ná me̍ɖa nú. Míéɖu̍ núá le ga ɖeká kplé ga eve dome. Le núɖu̍ɖu̍ lá me̍gbé fo̍fónye ná míédzu̍dzɔ̍ vi ́é, élabéná ŋ̍dɔ̍ nɔ ʋuʋuḿ ákpá. Míéyi míáfé dɔ́wɔ̍wɔ̍ dzi ́ le ga etɔ̃ me. Ési ga atɔ̃́ ƒo̍ lá, nye kplé tsɛ̍nye míéyi avě sɔ̍eá ɖé ̍ me ɖafɔ náke̍. Míéblá náke̍awó hétsɔ́ wó vá aƒéê. Dǎnye kpɔ̌ dzidzɔ̌ ŋútɔ́ bé míétrɔ́ gbɔ. ̍ ̍ Ékpɔ́ dzidzɔ̌ le náke̍awó hẫ ŋútí. Míéle tsi, éye̍ le ési ̍a̍ me̍gbé míéɖu̍ nú. Le fi ̍ẽnúɖu̍ɖu̍ lá ̍ Dǎnye̍ ná ŋ̍di ́núɖu̍ɖu̍ mi ́ mi ́éɖu. Fo̍fónye̍ bi ́á mí bé míéɖí ƒo mahã? Míéɖó éŋú nɛ̂ bé: “E̍̃,

me̍gbé fo̍fónye gblɔ ŋúti ́nya̍ vi ́vi ́á ɖé ná nye kplé tsɛ̍nye. Míémlɔ a̍nyi ́ fi ̍ẽ̍ má kábá élabéná ɖeɖi ̍ té míá ŋú ŋútɔ́. Le ŋu̍fɔ́ke̍ lá, fo̍fónye gakplɔ mí yi agblea̍, éye̍ míéyi míáƒé dɔ́wɔ̍wɔ̍ dzi ́.

Álé míá fo̍fó fíá agbledɔ́wɔ̍wɔ̍ mi ́ tsó mi ́á ɖe̍vi ́me̍ ké. Agblededě nyé dɔ nyúíá ɖé. Ewɔ me, abé te, mɔli ̍, azǐ kplé agbeli e̍né. dɔ̌ le agble me kpɔ́a? Agbledeláé nyé fo̍fówoa? Agblemenúkú geɖee le fo̍fónye ƒé ágble

Exercise XII-2: Translate into Eʋe The next day, we rose early from bed, and (we) went again to the farm. Our father again carried his gun. On the way we saw a big snake under a big tree. We called our father. Our father saw the big long snake. He shot it and killed it. It was me who set the fire in the farm-hut that morning, and my younger brother,

– 110 – Kɔdzo, went and fetched water in a small river. We worked the whole morning. We were tired and hungry too. I cooked and we ate. After eating, we rested for one hour. My father slept a little under a baobab tree, but Kɔdzo and I played in the farm-hut. We continued our work until six o’clock. mother gave us food. After taking a bath, we went to bed. I like farming very much. It is a good job. Do you also like farming? Kɔdzo and I collected firewood for our mother. We returned home at seven o’clock. My

2. The Nominalization of Possessive pronouns
The Possessive pronoun is nominalized by the addition of tɔ to the Possessive pronoun in accordance with the following rules: – In the First and Second Person Singular the Nominalizer tɔ is prefixed to the Possessive Pronouns:

tɔnye tɔwo –

'mine' 'yours (sg.)'

In the Third Person Singular, tɔ is suffixed:

étɔ –

'his/hers/its'

In all the Plural forms, tɔ is placed as a separate word after the Possessive pronouns:

míá tɔ wó tɔ

mia tɔ

'ours'

'yours (pl.)' 'theirs'

– 111 – The Nominalizer tɔ can be used on its own ('the one') as shown in the following sentences: Xɔ̍ si ̍a̍ mélo̍lo̍ wú ŋútsu̍ si ̍a̍ tɔ o. 'This house is not bigger than this man’s (house). ' Wóƒé ágble ményó abé fi ̍a̍ tɔ̍ e̍né o. 'Their farm is not as good as the chief’s (farm).'

Vocabulary yéyě ́ gbãtɔ̍ evelíá ̍ etɔ̃li ́á kpÕ (nú) dzí éke̍má A̍ na̍gó new first second third to look after, to take care of then Yoruba Yorubaland that time today/present day/nowadays to bring forth (someone) the last to travel to travel through male born on Saturday to build a house Friday female born on Friday to found a town/village an ancient Eʋe settlement male born on Friday to be sure/certain right now female born on Saturday

A̍ na̍gónyi ́gbá ɣe̍ má ɣi ̍ égběgbe mlɔ̌etɔ̍ ̍ zɔ mɔ́ zɔ mɔ́ tó Kwa̍mi Á ma̍ tu xɔ Fíɖá Afúá kã́ ɖé nú dzí tso du O̍ yɔ́/A̍ yɔ́ Ko̍fí fifílaa dzi (ame)

Éme̍gbé wódzó le O̍ yɔ́ éye̍ wóvá égběgbe Tógónyígbá me. Tɔ̍nye̍e. Nyě xɔ lolo gaké tɔwo lo̍lo̍ wú. The last Eʋe King was Agɔkɔli. evelíá nyé tɔwo éye̍ etɔ̃li ́á nyé tɔnye. fia mlɔétɔ̍ ŋ̍kɔ́e ́ nyé Agɔkɔ́li ́. Méyi agble haɖé o. Éya̍ta̍ éle fi ̍a̍ gbɔ́ yi ̍ gé le ga adré me. My grandfather told me that all the Eʋes were under one King at Ŋɔtsie. Fo̍fónye gblɔ̍ nám bé xɔ̍ gbãtɔ̍ ̍ ̍ nyé yetɔ. Né ele tɔ̍wo̍ di ̍ḿ lá éke̍má yi Ko̍fi ́ ƒé áƒé me. Fo̍fónye le xɔ yéyě etɔ̃ tu̍ḿ . ményé étɔ̍e ́ aló tɔ̍wo̍e ́ o. as to reign A̍ néxɔ́. éye̍ ́ mi ́á fo̍fó tɔ lo̍lo̍ wú wó kátã. Oyɔ is in present day Yorubaland and Ŋɔtsie is . Mi ̍a̍ tɔ̍ le Ko̍fi ́ gbɔ́. At that time all the Eʋes lived in Eʋeland. Oyɔ and Ŋɔtsie are ancient Eʋe towns. Míá tɔ́gbíwó nɔ A̍ na̍gónyi ́gbá dzi ́ kpɔ́. Ko̍fi ́é le wó ́ dzí kpɔ́ḿ ná mi. 2. Wóyɔ́ du lá bé Yɔ́ élabéná yɔ́ti ́ geɖee nɔ̌ duá me. Tási ̍nye̍ gblɔ̍ nám bé Eʋeáwó ƒé. Mia tɔ méle afî o. Me̍se̍ bé fi ̍a̍ yɔ́e.– 112 – Ŋɔtsie xóxóóxó ɖu fia abé … e̍né kpɔ ame ɖa de Eʋedukɔ́ an ancient Eʋe settlement long long ago the Eʋe nation to visit a person to visit a place such as. Eʋeáwó kátã́ nɔ fi ̍a̍ gã́ ɖeká té. Kpédze̍. Exercise XII-4: Translate into Eʋe in Togo. Gaké yi kábá. Exercise XII-3: Read 1. and Dayĩ are names of important Eʋe town. 3. Agbodrafɔ. éye̍ wóyɔ́e bé O̍ yɔ́ aló A̍ yɔ́. Ko̍fi ́ le aƒéá me fífílaa. Xe̍ má Xi ̍é wótso Ŋɔ̍tsi ́é xóxótɔ̍. Wótso du ɖé afímá hẫ. Me̍se̍ bé xɔ̍awó lolo éye̍ wónyó ŋútɔ́. Wótso du ɖé afímá. Le O̍ yɔ́ kplé Ŋɔ̍tsi ́é lá. Fo̍fónye gblɔ̍ nám bé du lá ŋ́kɔ́ kóŋ́ nyé Yɔ́. Éya̍e ́ nɔ fi ̍a̍ ɖu̍ḿ háfi ́ Eʋedukɔ́ lá ka̍ka̍ ɖé égběgbe Eʋenyígbá dzí. Éle wó tu̍ḿ ɖé Lome le tógbɛ̍á ɖé dzí le Lome ƒe ́ ɣe̍tóɖóƒé lɔƒo.

the Eʋes are in three countries. but his farm is near Kpedze. My mother comes from Agbodrafɔ and my father comes from Ho.. Have you ever visited any Eʋe towns? Your younger brother Kwami Agbodrafɔ. Peki and Keta. travelled in Eʋeland last year. alo ɖě … 'who?' 'what?' 'where?' 'how is ….?' 'have you … ?' Another important question word is něni ̍e̍ meaning 'how much' or 'how many'. Dayĩ. le? ɖě … lóó. 3. Kpalime. Anexɔ. Kpalime is in Togo. A̍ me̍ néni ̍é le xɔ̍ si ̍a̍ me? . Agu. Ho.– 113 – But now.. some in Togo and some are in Benin. Questions with něni ̍e̍? 'how much/many?' So far. Kpando. and Kpedze is in Ghana. Some are in Ghana. you have learnt to use the following question words and phrases: a̍me̍ka̍? núka̍? afi ́ka̍? aleke . Vocabulary ahoḿ teƒé něni ̍e̍ ̂ lãtso̍lá storm on land/sea place/times butcher how much. how many Exercise XII-5: Read the following questions and supply answers to each 1. My father’s house is in Kpalime. He visited many Eʋe towns such as Lome.

Ɖě nele gasɔ́ si ̍a̍ dzráḿ mâ? ̍ 8. I am twenty years old. 13. Ɖě Kɔ̍sí ƒle agblea lóó. and supply the likely questions which you think could produce each answer 1. 14. 9. Něni ̍é Á ma̍ ƒle éƒé sɔ́ ɣí sésẽ́ lâ? 3. Zi něni ̍é adelá lá da tú to̍ lá háfí wokû? 4. I have never been to Kpando. .– 114 – 2. We saw his books in the class-room. Afi ́ka̍ asitsalá lá yi? Nyi něni ̍é wodzrá ná lãtso̍lá lâ? 10. I saw this dog once in your grandfathers house. A̍ me̍ka̍e ́ ƒle avɔ̌ nyúi ́ si ̍a̍? 9. 2. It is here on my table. It was his aunt who gave it to him. It was exactly here that we killed the snake. She is not selling palm-wine. Etɔ̃ te̍ƒé eve le něni ̍ê? 5. he did not buy it. No. Kplɔ̃̍ něni ̍é agbledelá lá ƒle? Něni ̍é ɖeká xɔ? 15. 6. Ƒe něni ̍é Kɔ̍mla̍ le su̍kû si ̍a̍ me nɔ̍ gê? 11. 7. I ate it by Abrã. 3. No. It was Ama who called the hunter. It is mine. 10. 12. Núka̍ núfi ́álá lá le ƒeƒleḿ le fíásé lá me? 12. I ate fufu. 15. Tɔ́gbúi ́nye le mia gbɔ́a? 14. 4. I took it from this room. aló fofóáé tsɔ́e ̍ nɛ́a? 13. Néni ̍é Aƒétɔ́ Kwa̍mi Dzebú dze děha̍ zě gã́ mâ? 7. Those girls come from Dahomey. Lome is a big town. 5. Ƒe něni ̍é nexɔ? Exercise XII-6: Translate the following answers into Eʋe. It is not yours and it is not his. 8. Ten women were in the room. Xɔ něni ̍é mu le ahoḿ lá me? 6. and these boys come from Togo. 11. Yes.

Sɔ́ le asíwo.' 'The man has a farm. mi ̍a̍ and wó precede así.' 'He/She has money.' (lit. the initial letter a in así is dropped leaving only sí.' 'The king has ten cows.' Note that in the Third Person Singular. it loses its initial letter a.) have a horse. 'I have a house. Nyi ̍ e̍wó le fi ̍a̍ si ́.: "House is in my hand.' . 'I had money. Consider the following sentences: Ga nɔ asínye.' 'They have money. Study the following sentences: Xɔ le asínye.' 'We have a house. and in all the plural forms. Ga le ésí. Ga le wó sí.' Agble le ŋútsu̍ lá si ́. Kpéto̍ le ko̍tóko̍ si ́. míá. The past form of le así is nɔ así. Xɔ̍ le míá sí. 'Ama has a pot.' 'You (pl.' 'The pocupine has a cave.' 'My grandfather has money.) have a horse. Note that in all cases where así is prceded by the Possessor. Avǔ nɔ Kwa̍mi ̍ si ́.– 115 – LESSON XIII Predicative Possession: 'to have' The Eʋe expression for 'to have' is le así which means 'to be in hand'. Study the form and position of así in the following sentences: ́ Zě le Ama̍ si.' 'Kwami had a dog. Sɔ́ le mi ̍a̍ si ́.") 'You (sg. Ga le tɔ́gbi ́nye̍ si ́. where the Possessive pronouns é-.

' Vocabulary fṹṹ gbã́ tsitsǐtɔ̍ ɖevítɔ̍ tso (a̍me̍) nu̍ nu̍tso̍tso̍ ƒo nu̍ dzi ̍ ɖé édzí éte̍ƒé médidi o agbatsɔ́ʋu̍ tsa̍ɖi ̍ʋú nya̍te̍ƒétɔ̍e A̍ mu̍tá ̍ lãɖe̍lá he (nú) vɛ̂ nyó dɔme dɔmenyótɔ́ dze agbagbá ŋgɔ̍gbé trɔ́ gbɔ kɔ́ƒé dó mɔ́ (ame) dɔ̌wɔ̍wɔ̍ nyi ̍kpɔ́ káfú (ame) dó ŋúsẽ́ (ame) teƒéá sẽ́ asabu tɔ̍dzíʋú akplóʋú first the elder the younger report to speak/talk to increase/to multiply not long after truck/lorry touring car honestly/truly/truthfully Volta lake fisherman to bring (something) as a result to be kind kind person future/front of to try/endeavour to report (someone) a lot/in large numbers to return/come back village/hamlet cattle ranch work/job/business to prepare and set (someone) on a journey canoe cast-net a boat/ship the place is/was difficult to encourage (someone) to praise (someone) . 'We had no house.– 116 – Xɔ̍ ménɔ̍ mi ́á si ́ o.

́ Ko̍fi ́ Gamelié ƒo̍ nu̍ gbã. Gameli kplé Aguédze trɔ́ gbɔ̍ vá wó fo̍fó gbɔ́. Meƒle ́ Fofóá káfuî. Vǐ eve nɔ ésí. álẽwó. éye̍ wonyé dɔmenyótɔ́ gãá ɖé. so nu̍tso̍tso̍ tsó miaƒé ágbagbádze̍dze̍wó ŋútí. Éya̍ta̍ miyi xéxéá me ɖa̍dze agbagbá ná mi ̍a̍ƒé ŋgɔ̍gbé. Agble e̍wó nɔ ésí. Nyi ̍wó nɔ̍ ésí fṹṹ. Nyi ̍wó. ́ Tsitsǐtɔ̍ xɔ ƒe bláeve vɔ̌ atɔ̃. Ázɔ̃́ Yawo Aguédze hẫ ná nu̍tso̍tso̍ tsó éƒé dɔ́wɔwɔwó ŋútí. Mewɔ dɔ̌ sésié ŋútɔ́.– 117 – dze édzí ná (ame) álé agbagbádze̍dze̍ vévíé núnáná dziláwó Exercise XIII-1: Read NÚ KA̍ LE ASÍWO? Ŋútsu̍á ɖé nɔ duá ɖé me gbeá ɖé gbe.kplé nya̍ si ̍a̍wó béná: “Le ƒe atɔ̃́ me̍gbé lá. Ga geɖee nɔ ésí. Nyě lãwó hẫ sɔgbɔ.” Éná ga ɖevíáwó éye̍ wodó mɔ́ wó. ́̃ Me̍tsɔ́ nyě ga lá ƒle tɔ̍me̍lã̍ hédzrá le kɔ́ƒéwó kplé du sɔewó me. Gbe ɖeká wó fo̍fó yɔ́ wó hégblɔ̍ ná wó béná: “Fífíá mietsi. éye̍ gasɔ́ hẫ le asínye. Égblɔ̍ ná fofóá bé: “Fo̍fónye. Éyɔ́ wó gbe ɖeká Éte̍ƒé médidi o. kplé gbɔ̃wó le asínye fṹṹ. Wó fo̍fó kpɔ́ dzidzɔ̌ ŋútɔ́. Agbatsɔ́ʋú le ame geɖee sí le Lome. ési me̍dzó lá. ga lá dzi ̍ ɖé édzí zi geɖee. éye̍ wǒse ɖesíaɖě ƒé nu̍tso̍tso̍ tsó éƒé dɔ́wɔ̍wɔ̍ ŋútí. ́ ́ Étu xɔ gãwó ɖé dua̍ me. Álé meƒle nú geɖewó. megale mi ̍a̍yɔ́ gé vá gbɔ̌nye né mianá Akosombo. A̍ me̍á ɖéwó gblɔ̍ bé éya̍e ́ nyé ́ ̍ ke̍si ̍nɔ̍tɔ́ gãtɔ̍ nɔ núto̍ má me. éye̍ wodó ŋúsẽe hédá akpé nɛ̂ bé éwɔ dɔ̌ nya̍te̍ƒétɔ̍e. meyi ɖanɔ Lome. éye̍ tsa̍ɖi ̍ʋú éve le asínye. Núsi wǒgblɔ lá nyé ési: . Le ƒe atɔ̃́ me̍gbé tútúútú ŋ̍di ́ kányáá ɖé. Krachi. Nyě nyi ̍kpɔ́ le agbatsɔ́ʋú e̍nyi ́. Mieganyé ɖevíwó o. éye̍ éƒé lãwó hẫ sɔgbɔ. Wónyé ŋútsu̍víwó. Álé ɖevíáwó dzó. Fífíá xɔ atɔ̃́ le asínye le ̍ ́ Lome. Tsitsǐtɔ̍ ŋkɔ́e ́ nyé Ko̍fí Gameli éye̍ ɖevítɔ̍e ́ nyé Yawo Aguédze. éye̍ ɖevítɔ̍ xɔ ƒe bláeve vɔ̌ eve. Tamale vevi ́e̍nyényé to be successful endeavour/achievement importance names of towns and places in Ghana parents gift important and so. Sɔ́ eve le asínye.” ́ A̍ néxɔ́ éye̍ nyě álẽwó kplé gbɔ̃wó le Agu.

Hǒ hẫ ményó nám tútúútú o. Éga̍ƒo̍ nu̍ ná wó le dɔ̌wɔ̍wɔ̍ ƒé vevi ̍e̍nyényé ŋútí. Gameli kplé Aguédze he̍ núnáná geɖee vɛ̂ ná wó fo̍fó kplé wó da̍dá. He has a younger brother. His younger brother’s name is Aguedze. Tsi ̍ médza le ƒe̍ má ́ me o. Dɔ̌ lá dze édzí nám ŋútɔ́. Te̍ƒéá sẽ́ ŋútɔ́. Tɔ̍me̍lã̍ geɖee le A̍ mu̍tá lá me̍ fi ́fi ́á. Kpándo̍ kplé Kéta̍. éye̍ nyé hẫ meƒle tsa̍ɖi ̍ʋú eve. Ga geɖee le asínye̍ fi ́fíá. Tɔ̍dzíʋú sɔ̍e ̍ eve hẫ le asínye. He has eight canoes on the Volta lake. He has houses in Kpando and Keta. ̍ tó. Kpándo̍e ́ nyé Eʋedu gãtɔ̍ le A̍ mu̍tá lá Me̍tsɔ́wó le a̍me̍wó kplé agba vovoovowó tsɔ́ḿ tsó Ako̍so̍mbó le Kpándo̍ Kráchi ́ kplé Tamale yiḿ. They have a big house at Ho. Lesson XI).” Le ɣle̍ti ́ a̍dé me̍gbé ko ́ me̍dzó le Hǒ héyi Kpándo̍. Have you ever been to Dayi? I was there last week. Álé dɔwuamě gãá ɖé vá. Aguedze is in Kpando. geɖee vê nám. He had a lorry. In cases where the relation between Possessor and Possessed is of an inalienable nature (cf. Éya̍ta̍ me̍dzó le afímá yi Hǒ. Éhe ga Exercise XIII-2: Translate into Eʋe Gameli went and stayed in Lome. the verb li 'to exist' is employed. Me̍dí ̍ lãɖe̍láwó dé ʋua̍wó me. a different construction is used to express predicative Possession. Abé álési ne̍nyɛ̂ e̍né lá. Dɔ̌ ménɔ duá me o. and two big farms at Dayi. He sold a lot of fish in the villages. éye̍ wónɔ a̍nyi ́ kplé wó dzi ̍láwó le dzidzɔ gã́ kplé ŋútífáfá me. Do you know them? They are kind and rich. Álé meƒle akplóʋu̍ lo̍lo̍ eve ná lãɖe̍ɖe̍. éye̍ wokáfú éya̍ hẫ le éƒé ágbagbádze̍dze̍ ta̍. Aguedze is also a rich man. His cattle ranch is very big. éye̍ meƒle asa̍bu̍ hẫ ná wó. He bought fish at Lome and sold it in the villages near Lome. Meƒle agblemenúwó dzrá le afímá éye̍ me̍kpɔ́ ga víá ɖé. He has fishermen too. Dayi is a small town in the north of Eʋeland.” Wó fo̍fó dá akpé nɛ̂. He has cows and sheep. This construction is used with body part .– 118 – “Gbã́ lá meyi ɖanɔ Pe̍ki ́ ƒe ɖeká. Their parents are at Agu. He also has a car and two big trucks. Fífíá xɔ le asínye le Hǒ. Now he is a rich man. This brought him much money. In nouns and with nouns expressing family relationships: these cases. He bought a big boat last month.

le así is not followed by the Nya lá le asínye me. blaeve vɔ ɖekɛ therefore means 'twenty over by one'. or responsible for something. when expressing Possession.' 'He has a father.' 'We are in the hands of God.' postposition me 'in'.– 119 – Ta̍ li ̍ nám. the postposition me is placed after le así. ́ Ele̍ wó si ́ me. Afɔ eve li ná mí. The expression vɔ̌ means 'over'. Study the following: 21 22 23 24 25 30 40 50 60 bláeve vɔ̌ ɖekɛ́ bláeve vɔ̌ eve blaeve vɔ̌ etɔ̃ blaeve vɔ̌ ene blaeve vɔ̌ atɔ̃́ bláetɔ̃ bláene bláatɔ̃́ bláadé ̍ 26 27 28 29 bláeve vɔ̌ a̍dé bláeve vɔ̌ a̍dré blaeve vɔ̌ e̍nɣí blaeve vɔ̌ asi ́éke̍ 70 80 90 bláadré ̍ bláenyi ́ ̍ bláasi ́éke̍ 100 a̍la̍fá ɖeká (the original Eʋe word for 100 is ga. Tɔ́ li ̍ nɛ̂.' 'He/she/it is in their hands. 'The matter is in my hands. For 'twenty-one' the Eʋes say bláeve vɔ̌ ɖekɛ́. The expression le así me then means not 'to have' but 'to be in one’s hands': It is important to note that.' How to count from 21 to 29 etc.' 'We have two legs. Mi ́éle̍ Máwú si ́ me. alafa is borrowed from the Arabic word alf ) . But where one wishes to express that he is in charge of. 'I have a head.

) running head to think thinking (v.n.– 120 – 200 a̍la̍fá eve 300 a̍la̍fá etɔ̃ 400 a̍la̍fá ene 1000 akpé ɖeká 2000 akpé eve etc.) care caring for (v.) to walk walking (v.) crown nest living thing the world to smell to breathe.n.n.n.n.n. to return work/job/business look after/care for someone xéxéme fi ̍a̍kúkú núgbágbě atɔ̍ ʋẽ́ (nu) se ́ ʋeʋẽse̍se̍ . etc.) hearing (v. Vocabulary nu̍ nu̍ƒo̍ƒo̍ zɔ núse̍se̍ kpɔ́ (a̍me̍) dzí dzikpɔ́kpɔ́ dzikpɔ́kpɔ́ duƒúƒú ta̍ bu ta̍ me núkpɔ́kpɔ́ dɔ̌wɔ̍wɔ̍ gbɔ gbɔgbɔ ʋeʋẽ́ ŋɔ̍ti ́ ta̍me̍bu̍bu̍ zɔzɔ mouth speaking (v.) seeing/sight nose breath/breathing smell smelling (v.

2. 3. Ŋkú li ̍ ná mi ́ ná nu̍kpɔ́kpɔ́. Not only these! I have two eyes. Así li ̍ ná mi ́ ná dɔ̌wɔ̍wɔ̍. Nu̍ li ̍ ná mí ná nu̍ƒo̍ƒo̍ kplé núɖu̍ɖu̍. The farmer has yams. two ears. Give your answers in complete sentences: 3.2.– 121 – ku death Exercise XIII-3: Read ƉEVÍWÓ ƑÉ HA Miese ɖevíwó ƒe ha nyúi si ̍a̍ kpɔ́a? ̂ Ta̍ li ̍ ná mi ̂ ná ta̍me̍bu̍bu̍. I have one head. You have houses and a lot of money. But what have I? I have nothing! 3. Have you seen Kofi this morning? What is your name? What is his father’s name? Has Komla a farm in Lome? . Agbe li ná ame. The bird has a nest and twenty eggs. cassava. Fo̍fó kplé dadá li ̍ ná míá dzíkpɔ́kpɔ́. The King has a palace and a crown.1.3. one mouth and one nose. Gaké Máwú li ̍ ná a̍me̍wó kátã́ kplé xéxéme̍ bli ́bo̍ lá. He gives us many good things. Translate the following questions into Eʋe. Tó li ̍ ná mi ́ ná núse̍se̍. two arms and two legs. and supply adequate answers in Eʋe. 3. ́ Ŋɔ̍ti ́ li ̍ ná mi ́ ná gbɔgbɔ kplé ʋe̍ʋẽse̍se̍. Exercise XIII-4: Translate into Eʋe 1. Afɔ̍ li ̍ ná mi ́ ná zɔzɔ kplé duƒúƒú. éye̍. He makes you well and makes me well also. ́ Kú li ̍ ná núgbágběwó kátã. And I have a father and a mother too. 3. The butcher has thirty cows and a lot of sheep. The teacher has a school and many pupils. God makes us well. maize and rice.4.

3. 3.8.9. 3.6.7.– 122 – 3. 3.5.10. 3. Is the matter in the King's hands? Did you buy this gun or did your grandfather give it to you? What have they eaten today? Is it his? Whose books are here? Are you a farmer? .

dance!' But in commands to two or more persons.in the second. using the required pronoun in the Singular or in the Plural.(with a Low tone) in the first case. pl.) Go!' '(You.) Sing!' '(You.) Dance!' In Negated Imperatives.– 123 – LESSON XIV 1.(when addressing more than one person). the Negation prefix mé. pl. The Imperative In commands to one person. .'again'. the pronoun mi 'you (pl.)' is always necessary in addressing the command: Mi ̍vá! Miyi! Midzi ha! Mi ̍ɖú ɣe! '(You. ɖǔ ɣe! 'Come!' 'Go!' 'Depart!' 'Sing!' 'Dance!' 'Return!' 'Kofi. In Negated Imperatives. and mi. The sentence-final Negation particle o completes the Negated Imperative. The result of this merging is me. the person or persons being commanded must be addressed personally. These elements are followed by the adverbial prefix ga. the verb alone is used as the Imperative: Vǎ! Yi! Dzǒ! Dzi ha! Ɖú ɣe! Trɔ́ vá! Ko̍fi ́. vǎ afî! ́ Ama̍. respectively.merges with Subject pronoun e(when addressing one person) or mi. pl. come here!' 'Ama.) Come!' '(You. pl. followed by the verb.

Akɔsua. pl. to order to go out to stop doing something pen. pencil writing/what is written playground to learn to pray learning to come to an end. Akɔ́súa. migayi o! ́ Ɖevíwó.) Read it!' '(You. do not come!' 'Kofi. megadzi ha o! ́ Ama̍. megavá o! ́ Ko̍fi ́. pl. the person or persons being commanded may also be addressed by name: Akɔ́súa.– 124 – Compare the following Imperatives in the positive and negative forms. to finish doing something dó gbe ɖá wú nu̍ núsɔ́srɔ̃́ . both in the Singular and Plural: Xlẽe! Ʋu ʋɔá! Mixlẽe! Miʋu ʋɔá! Read it! 'Open the door!' '(You. migafé o! 'Akɔsua. pl. do not sing!' 'Ama.) Don’t open the door!' 'Do not read it!' In both Singular and Plural. do not go!' 'Children.) Open the 'door! Megaxlẽe o! Megaʋu ʋɔá o! 'Do not open the Migaxlẽe o! Migaʋu ʋɔá! door!' '(You.) Don’t read it!' '(You. do no play!' Vocabulary ɖe gbe do gǒ dzudzɔ núŋlɔ̍ti ́ feféƒé srɔ̃́ nú núŋɔ̍ŋlɔ̍ to command. pl.

– 125 – ke nu̍ (me) akɔ́ta̍ dzeŋe tsyɔ́ akɔ́ a̍nyi ́ ali dɔ̌wɔ̍kplɔ̃̍ ati ́ke̍kɔ́e/ati ́ke̍ƒo̍ƒo̍e ̍ ́ mi nú kpɔ́ (nú) gãã zi etɔ̃ gbe ɖeka éte̍ƒé médidi o váséɖé ƒo ƒú dziláwó atíke̍wɔ̍lá/dɔdalá aka̍ɖí dǒ (nú) kpɔ́ dɔme tume/dzime tsó atíke̍dzráƒé gatsí atíke̍ kú/kúí afã́ háyá to open the mouth chest to lie face down desk to gaze. to look at (something) steadily to swallow something three times a day/daily soon after/not long after up to/until/till to pack/put together parents doctor lamp to test/examine/try something stomach back (of body) pharmacy medicine spoon seed (also applied to tablets and capsules) to rise up/stand up/get up. núfíálá lá tsí tre gblɔ béná: “Midzudzɔ ́ núŋɔ̍ŋlɔ̍ ázɔ̃! Mi ̍tú mi ̍a̍ƒé agbalẽwó! Mido go víé!” . to become well Exercise XIV-1: Read Núfíálá lá gé ɖé su̍kûxɔ̍ lá me. to come from pill waist to lie face up half to recover from illness. éye̍ woɖe gbe ná su̍kûvi ́áwó gblɔ̍ béná: “Mi ̍tsi ́ tre! Minɔ a̍nyi ́! Migaƒo nu̍ o! Mi ̍tsɔ́ mi ̍a̍ƒé ágbalẽwó kplé mi ̍a̍ƒé núŋlɔ̍ti ́wó! Miŋlɔ nya sîawo! Ési ɖevíáwó ŋlɔ núá abé gaƒoƒo afã́ me̍gbé lá.

and the doctor looked into my mouth with a small lamp. but the doctor went and opened a big window. The doctor stood by a table in the room. Doctor: “Lie on this table!” I lay on the table. Doctor: “Open your mouth!” I opened my mouth. Doctor: “Sit down on this chair!” I sat on a high chair by the doctor. Éme̍gbé éya̍ hẫ do gǒ yi ɖevíáwó gbɔ́. Doctor: “Breathe heavily!” I breathed heavily and the doctor examined my chest and my back. Doctor: “Open your eyes!” I opened my eyes also. éye̍ wǒgaɖe gbe ná ɖe̍vi ́áwó gblɔ̍ béná: “Miƒo ƒú mi ̍a̍ƒé ágbalẽwó! Mi ̍tsi ́ tre mídó gbe ɖá!” Le ési ̍a̍ me̍gbé ɖevíáwó yi aƒéme le wó dzi ̍láwó gbɔ́.– 126 – Su̍kûvíáwó do gǒ yi wóƒé feféƒé le su̍kûxɔ̍ lá ŋgɔ. Doctor: “Lie on your stomach!” . Wóyi ̍ wóƒé núsɔ́srɔ̃́ dzi ́ váséɖé ga ene me. núfíálá lá kábá!” Ɖevíáwó ƒú du tsó núfíálá lá gbɔ́ yi su̍kûxɔ̍ lá me. The room was cold. Doctor: “Come here!” I went into the room. and the doctor examined my stomach. Núfíálá lá ʋu fésre̍awó kátã́ kplé ̍ ʋɔtrúáwó hẫ. ́ dó ɣlí gblɔ̍ béná: “Midzudzɔ fefé ázɔ̃! Mi ̍ƒú du vá gbɔ̌nye le afî! Mi ̍trɔ́ yi su̍kûxɔ̍ me̍ Exercise XIV-2: Translate into Eʋe I was sick last week. and the doctor looked steadily into my eyes. The doctor went into another room. and so I went to see my doctor. Núfi ́álá lá ga̍tsi ́ tre. Á lé su̍kû wú énu̍ gbe má gbe. Le gaƒoƒo afã́ me̍gbé lá. This is how the doctor examined me. Doctor: “Face up!” I lay on my back.

' Note that in Eʋe.) wo. 2. get up!” I stood up. He stood up and said to me: “Go and buy this medicine from a pharmacy! Take two spoonfulls a day! Here are some tablets too. I became well after three days. He looked at me again steadily but said nothing. 'Let us go. He took a piece of paper and (he) wrote something on it. The verb ná in Na mídzó. the person being invited or to whom a suggestion is made is always a low tone as it carries the tone of the Second Person Pronoun (Sing. Some notes on ná 'to give' The verb ná standing by itself means 'to give': ́ Ená agbalẽ Ko̍fi.– 127 – He examined my waist also.' 'Let us eat the food now.' or 'to make one do something' as in: addressed both in the Singular as well as in the Plural. The verb ná has other meanings.́ Nǎ bli ̍ ko̍klóawó! ́ Now study the following sentences: 'He gave Kofi a book.' 'Give corn to the fowls!' Na mídzó. 'The man allowed them to fetch water in his farm. The medicine helped me very much. Doctor: “Now. Take two tablets daily!” I thanked him and returned home. The doctor went back to his desk. takes . He sat on his chair and I also sat on the high chair. ́ Miná míɖu núá ázɔ̃. It may mean 'to allow' as in Ŋútsu̍ lá ná wóku tsi le éƒé ágble me.

– 128 – Fi ̍a̍ lá ná wónɔ ga dzódzǒ lá dzí. the combination tsɔ́ … ná also 'Give the bicycle to Ama!' 'They gave it to us. in these cases. the verbs are not linked by a conjunction 'and'. When the verb tsɔ́ 'to take' is followed by ná 'to give'. If ná is the verb in such a series.) Note that. to the benefit of' and is thus often called a "Benefactive" preposition. ́ Tsɔ́ gasɔ́ lá ná Ama̍! Wótsɔ́e ná mí. One example may suffice: ÈdÕ wɔ ná Kofí. 'Take the yam to the woman!' 'Bring the load to me. ná works as a preposition meaning 'for. Tsɔ́ … ná literarily implies 'to take and give'.' In such cases.' means 'to give'. tsɔ́ … ná is more elaborately expressed by placing another verb denoting direction between tsɔ́ and ná : Tsɔ́ te̍ lá yi ́i ̍ ná nyɔ́nu̍ lá! Tsɔ́ agba lá vɛ̂ nám. there are cases – depending on the meaning of the preceding verb(s) – where the meaning 'give' does not make sense. . 'The king made them sit on the hot metal. and the verbs occurring in a series are called "Serial verbs". Furthermore.' Sometimes. the verbs do not denote two or more independent actions but rather two ore more parts of one single action or event. 'S/he works for Kofi. This phenomenon is called "Verb Serialization".' In the above examples the verbs yii and vɛ̂ are of special interest: yi va 'to go' 'to come' but but yii vɛae 'come with it' 'go with it' (Remember that the combination vae produces ɛ in vɛ.

. Mewɔ dɔ̌ vovoovowó le agbleá me. Etsɔ si vá yi hẫ mede agbleá. Wóɖu agbeli kplé dekúwó. Núsiwó mewɔ le agbleá me etsɔ lá nyé ésiawo: Me̍fɔ́ ŋdí ga a̍dré. Le ga wúíeve me̍gbé lá. A̍ lẽawó ɖu gbě dáma̍wó lé agblemɔ́ lá tó. fo̍fónye kplɔ a̍lẽawó do goê. Fo̍fónye̍ vá agbleá le ga e̍wó me. Me̍ná núɖu̍ɖu̍ haa̍wó hã. Míéɖu̍ núá le ga ɖeká me. Gbã́ la me̍ná bli ̍ fo̍fónye̍ ƒé ko̍klówó. fo̍fónye̍ ná meyi dǎnyé gbɔ́ le aƒéme ɖaxɔ núɖu̍ɖu̍ vɛ̂.– 129 – Vocabulary mɔ́ke̍ke̍ dekú gbě dáma̍ ɖɔ́ azi gběhá dzra̍ ɖó kplɔ nú palm-nut rich green grass to get ready / to prepare bath pen for sheep (sheep-pen) calabash evening comes that day to tie bundle to lay egg bush pig / swine to sweep holiday tsi ̍le̍ƒé ́ a̍lẽkpɔ́ tré fi ̍ẽ̍ ɖó gbe má gbe blá bablá Exercise XIV-3: Read Mewɔ dɔ̌ le fo̍fónye̍ ƒé ágble me kwa̍si ́ɖá eve háfí nyě mɔ́ke̍ke̍ wú énu̍. Avǔ atɔ̃́ le fo̍fónye̍ sí. Ési ̍a̍ me̍gbé me̍tsɔ́ zě gãá ɖé le agblexɔ lá me ɖaku tsi ̍ ná haawó. ́ ́ Ési míéɖu̍ núá vɔ̍ lá. Tsi ̍ sɔ̍eá ɖé ̍ ̂ ko̍e ́ nɔ wóƒé tsi ̍le̍ƒéá. éye̍ avuawó ná a̍lẽawó ƒú du víé háfí ɖu wóɖé ŋdɔ̍núɖu̍ɖu̍. Fo̍fónye̍ ɖe gbe ́ ́ ́ ́ ná avuawó. Ko̍kló a̍la̍fá e̍nyí le fo̍fónye̍ sí le ́ agbleá me. Ékpɔ́ dzidzɔ̌ ŋútɔ́ tsó nyě ɖɔ́wɔ̍wɔ̍ ŋútí.

We were hungry. So our mother called Ama again and said to her: “Cook something for them! They are very hungry. She gave us a little pot of palm-wine and said: “Take this little palm-wine to your father!” We took it and left. She was in her room. Fo̍fónye̍ ná meyi ko̍klóáwó gbɔ́ ɖaƒɔ ko̍klóziwó. At four o’clock. too. our father took his gun and said to us: “Let us go into that forest behind the hill. Ko̍klóawó ɖɔ́ azi geɖee gbe má ́ gbe. He shot at them and killed one. We ate all the fufu. Our mother said: “Ama. Ama came out from the room. Our mother called her. We were thirsty.” Ama cooked yam-fufu and brought it to us in our room. Zã̌ nɔ dodóḿ.– 130 – Fi ̍ẽ̍ ɖó. Our father was working on his farm that day. We gave the palm-wine to our father in the farm. We gave the firewood to our aunt (paternal) and the yams to our mother.” We went into the forest and stood behind a huge tree. éye̍ mi ́étrɔ́ vá aƒé. give them water! They are thirsty!” Ama gave us water and we drank it. Fo̍fónye̍ yɔ́m gblɔ̍ nám bé: “Dzra ɖó! Míéle aƒé y̍i ̍ gé! Fɔ ńake̍ vi ́á ɖé tsɔ́ yi ̍i ́ ná dǎwo! Tsɔ́ ko̍klózi bláeve hã́ dé ko̍to̍kú si ̍a̍ me!” Mewɔ núsi ̍wó kátã́ fo̍fónye gblɔ̍ nám̍ lá. we went back to the farm. . She said she had already eaten. Ama did not see us. We brought the animal to our mother. our father saw four bush pigs. Our father also gave us one bundle of firewood and five yams.” We returned home. In the afternoon. and we were satisfied. Our father was still working on the farm. Soon after. Exercise XIV-4: Translate into Eʋe My aunt (paternal) gave us food. and we ate it. and said: “Take the bundle of firewood to your aunt (paternal) and the yams to your mother. Ama did not eat the fufu with us.

' . 'We had a bath yesterday.. Mielea tsi gbesiagbe. etc. or usually occurs or is performed habitually.– 131 – LESSON XV 1. where the Present Tense.' 'They usually eat at the chief's. In Eʋe. Eʋe has a grammatical way of forming the Habitual Aspect. that is the nature of human beings) Wóyina ga̍trɔ́ná gbe má gbe̍ ké. 'Man dies. The suffixes -a and -na nearly always take the tone of the verb to which they are suffixed. When the verb is followed by an object. habitually.' 'They ate at the chief's. Study the following examples: ̍ Ame̍ kúná. Wóɖu̍a̍ nú le fi ̍a̍ gbɔ́. the adverbs usually. professionally Míéle tsi etsɔ. it is also commonly used in proverbs. the suffix -na is used in forming the Habitual. Wóɖu̍ nú le fi ̍a̍ gbɔ́.' 'We usually take a bath every day.e. The habitual Aspect in Eʋe is formed by suffixing -a or -na to the verb. or the auxiliary verb to use to is employed to express a habitual meaning. often. The Habitual Aspect The Habitual Aspect expresses an action which alway. 'They usually go and return that same day. Compare the following pairs of sentences: Unlike English.' Where the verb carries no object. the Habitual is formed by suffixing -a to the verb.' (i.

Míétsɔ́nɛ́ ɖanɛ. 'We use cassava in cooking fufu. to be under the spell of day (see gbe) spirit. and the combination a + e becomes ɛ. Study the following examples: Míétsɔ́á agbeli ɖaa fufu.' 'We use it in cooking it. breath ́ trɔ̃xɔ̍ ŋke̍ke̍a̍ de me légba ʋu kɔ̍ … ɖí/ kɔ … ɖe kɔ aha ɖí súbɔ́lá ʋǔƒo̍lá to set a day/date idol the day comes. the suffix -a is replaced by –na.' Vocabulary trɔ̃́ ́ trɔ̃si didí bíá gbe (ame) né dó ŋgbe̍ kpuiƒé didiƒe kpé ame ɖé ɖoɖó nu̍ dze (ame) dzi gbɔgbɔ ŋkeke ɖǒ ŋkeke légba̍ fetish fetish priest/priestess fetish hut wish to question someone if to make a promise nearby place distant place to invite/meet someone according to order to fall on someone. the time is up to model or mould an idol a̍me̍kpékpé invitee/invited person to pour liquid or flour to pour libation drummer servant/worshiper blood .– 132 – If the Habitual marker is preceded by a Third Person Singular Object pronoun (-é).

same (as in gbe má gbe̍ ké 'that same day') tsɔ́ (nú) de así ná (ame) to pledge to meet méga̍nyé a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍ meeting hall it is no longer/no more elder. old person sometimes/at times .– 133 – súbɔ́ dze klo ké Máwúgã́ kpeɖeŋutɔ hǎme̍nɔ̍lá vaválá tó (a̍me̍) dzi tɔ̍xɛ̍ énu̍enu̍ ́ ku aha ná da gbě/da dɔ/wɔ atíke̍ dze dɔ lé doɔ dɔlélá xé adzɔ éɖóku̍i ̍ kpé ta̍ a̍nyígbá ta̍kpéxɔ̍ ɣe̍á ɖewó ɣi ̍ dɔnɔ kwasiɖa sia/kwasiɖa ké lãme to serve/to worship to kneel body but (from gaké) helper/assistant every week one who comes through someone special often to serve one a drink to heal/cure. to give treatment in illness to fall sick/ill to be sick patient patient (usually victim of a long sickness) to pay a fee himself ground/earth The Great God member of a congregation/club etc.

Né wóse éƒé nya̍wó vɔ me̍gbé lá. Ha̍me̍nɔ̍láwó hẫ méle ésí o. Né gbɔgbɔ lá lɔ̃ ƒo̍ nu̍ lá. wódóá ŋgbe̍ nánɛ̂ éye̍ wóɖóá ŋkeke wɔa éƒé didíwó kátã́ nánɛ̂ ɖé ɖoɖó si ̍wó wobíá lá nu̍. ̍ ̂ Ázɔ̃́ vaváláwó ɖu̍a̍ nú héno̍a̍ nú hã. Xe̍á ɖéwó ɣi ̍ méƒo̍a̍ nu̍ aló ga̍ɖu̍a̍ nú gɔ̃ hẫ o. wóyɔ́á trɔ̃si ̍ búbuwó tsóá kpuiƒéwó kplé didiƒéwó vánɛ̂.– 134 – Exercise XV-1: Read ́̃ ̍ ̍ ̍ ÁLÉSI AMEWÓ ZUA TROSIWÓ Gbã́ lá. Éme̍gbé wótsoa a̍lẽ́ aló gbɔ̃́ kplé ko̍klówó náá trɔ̃́ lá. Gbɔgbɔ lá wɔnɛ woɖúá ɣe. Wódzia trɔ̃ha tɔ̍xɛ̍wó hẫ nánɛ̂. they also heal. Le ́ nya̍te̍ƒé me̍ trɔ̃si ̍ lá ko̍e ́ nyé ésúbɔ́lá. Le ési ̍a̍ me̍gbé a̍me̍kpékpéawó kátã́ vá nɔa a̍nyi. aló faa avǐ. ́ ́ Tsó gbe má gbe a̍me̍ lá zua trɔ̃si. éye̍ wóawó hã̂ tsi ́á tre̍ ɖúá ɣe. . Trɔ̃si ̍ búbuwó hẫ ƒé trɔ̃wó ́ váná. ɖa̍tsɔ́nɛ̂ náá trɔ̃́ lá. Wótsɔ́á núsi ̍ wóɖa̍ lá ƒé sɔ̍eá ɖé yia trɔ̃xɔ̍ lá me. Wókua aha náá /trṍsi ̍ tsi ̍tsi ̍tɔ̍ éye̍ ́ ́ wodóá gbe ɖá náá trɔ̃́ yéyě lá le trɔ̃xɔ̍ lá nu̍ le légba̍ lá gbɔ́ tútúútú. Ta̍kpéxɔ̍ méle trɔ̃́ si ́ o. Many fetish priests do not only dance. Exercise XV-2: Translate into Eʋe The fetish priest is the only worshiper of the fetish. Wótua xɔ̍ náá trɔ̃́ yéyě lá gbe má gbe̍ ké. égblɔa éƒé didíwó náá fi ̍a̍ kplé éƒé áme̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó. gbɔgbɔá ɖé vá dzea ame̍a̍ dzi ́. éye̍ wótsɔ́á lã̍ lá ɖa̍a̍ ́ núî náá vaváláwó. ́ ́ Énu̍enu̍ lá trɔ̃́ yéyě lá dzea a̍me̍ lá dzi ́. ́ Né ŋke̍ke̍a̍ de̍ lá. Édóá gbe ɖáná álé: “Ó. éye̍ wómea légba̍ nánɛ̂. Fi ̍a̍ kplé éƒé áme̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó vá kpéá ta̍ éye̍ ́ A̍ nyi ́gbá dzi ́ trɔ̃wó kátã́ hẫ misee! Trɔ̃́ yéyěa̍ hẫ nésee!” Éyia édzí áléá nɔa aha lá kɔ̍ḿ ɖí hégblɔa núsi ̍wó trɔ̃́ yéyě lá bíá lá. Légba̍ lá nɔa nɔnɔme si trɔ̃́ lá di ́ lá me. Wótsɔ́á ʋu lá kɔ̍na̍ ɖé légba̍ lá dzi ́. éye̍ wotsóná héɖúá ɣe. ʋǔƒo̍láwó ƒoa ʋú náá trɔ̃́ yéyě lá. Máwúgã́ wǒ áhaé nyé ési! Tɔ́gbi ̂wó kátã́ misee! ha. aló dzia wóbíáá gbe gbɔgbɔ lá tóá a̍me̍ lá dzi ́. ́ Né wóɖu̍ nú vɔ̍ lá.

After this he goes into the fetish hut and prays to the fetish in front of the idol. He usually prays with palm wine like this: First he fetches a little palm-wine in a calabash.' 'The woman (which) you saw is When the antecedent is in the Plural. the Plural marker –wó is suffixed to the Relative pronoun.' Kofi’s wife. Relative pronouns The relative pronouns are si in the Singular and si ̍wó in the Plural. From that day the patient is no longer a worshiper of the fetish. Nyɔ́nu̍ si ̍ ne̍kpɔ́ lá nyé Ko̍fi ́ srɔ̃.' 'The house (which) we bought is very 'They called the man whom they knew well.– 135 – When a person is sick and goes to a fetish priest he also becomes a worshiper of the fetish for only a short time. 'The man who bought the horse for me has come. The patient usually kneels before the fetish and pledges himself to it. Study the following sentences: Ŋútsu si ƒle sɔ́ lá náḿ lá vá. 2. Atí si ̍ mu̍ lá wu gbɔ̃̌ eve. If the patient recovers he pays a fee to the fetish. The end of the relytive clause is marked the the "Sentence Article" lá. The fetish priest usually gives medicines to the patient every week. Xɔ̍ si ̍ míéƒle̍ lá lo̍lo̍ ŋútɔ́. The fetish priest prays to his fetish for his patient.' 'The tree which fell killed two goats.' large. Study the following sentences: . Wóyɔ́ ŋútsu̍ si ̍ wónyá nyúíé lá vɛ̂. The relative pronoun si is low toned and follows its antecedent as a separate word. From that moment the patient becomes a worshiper of that fetish. Then he pours a little on the ground for the Great God. The fetish priest’s helper serves the rest of the palm-wine to all invitees. The fee is usually money and drinks and sheep or fowls.

– 136 – Ko̍fi ́ dzrá xɔ̍ si ̍wó woƒle lá. Wótsɔ́ ési ̍ me̍ƒle̍ lá nám.' it.' 'Do what (that which) your father tells/told you.' The relative si combined with the nouns ame 'person' and nú 'thing.' 'The ones which are still in the farm are not good.' 'I have not seen the person who killed . Wɔ núsi fo̍fówo gblɔ ná wo. Núsi ̍ ne̍wɔ̍ lá ményó o.' 'They gave me the one (which) I bought. Nyemékpɔ́ amési wui o. 'Kofi sold the houses which he bought. Ati ́ si ̍wó mi ́étso̍ lá gale gběá me.' The Relative pronoun can also be nominalized by prefixing é. and that núsi is used for things only: Amési wu gbɔ̃a lá sí. 'The one (which) I saw is not big. 'The person who killed the goat has run away. matter': amési núsi '(the person) who' '(the thing) which' It is important to note that amési is used for persons only.' 'The trees which we fell are still in the bush.' 'What (that which) you did was not good. ́ Esi ̍wó gale agblea lá ményó o.to it: ́ Esi ̍ me̍kpɔ́ lá mélolo o.

'The child to whom I gave it has left.' Ɖeví si ̍ me̍tsɔ́e ná lá dzó. curing his real name clinic. or 'whose': Amési ̍ ƒé ga bú lá fa avǐ.' Note that the Relative pronoun sí or the combination amési may also refer to the Indirect Object of a sentence: 'The person whose money was lost wept. dispensary ̍ né éƒé lãme̍ sẽ́ gběda̍da̍ éƒé ŋkɔ́ ŋútɔ́ ati ́ke̍wɔ̍ƒé gběda̍dzo̍ dzo dzotɔ́ Eʋenyígbá vuwɔdzǒ gbé dzoŋ́kɔ́ juju for healing juju-man.' Vocabulary fa avǐ vévíé a̍ŋgba̍ yrɔ nú ɖeká a̍me̍yi ̍bɔ̍ ́ trɔ̃tɔ́ ké boŋ́ to weep bitterly leaf to wither one thing/the same thing black man fetish owner if/when he recovers but rather juju name to refuse healing. Ko̍fi ́ tso atí si ̍ ƒé áŋgba̍ yrɔ̍ lá. the combination amési ƒé means 'the person whose'. one who possesses juju/magic Eʋeland juju. magic juju for fighting .– 137 – When amési or si is followed by the possessive ƒé. hospital. 'Kofi felled the tree whose leaves withered.

Dzotɔ́ ɖea gbe ná éƒé dzo si ̍wó le ésí lá abé éƒé ásra̍fo̍ e̍né. gaké ́ dzotɔ́wó mésúbɔ́á wóƒé dzowó o. Dzotɔ́wó bua wóƒé dzowó abé ŋúsẽ́ tɔ̍xɛ̍á ɖé sí nyé súbɔ́lá ná wó lá e̍né. Né dzotɔá ɖé da dɔ ná dɔnɔá ɖé woháyá lá. Gaké ye̍vú geɖewó súsúná béná dzo kplé trɔ̃́ le ɖeká. . forever soldier to become famous/popular young man/lad to have success success to trust in something though. Ényé nya̍te̍ƒé bé trɔ̃si ̍wó súbɔ́á wóƒé trɔ̃wó. Dzotɔ́ kplé ́ ́ ́ Trɔ̃si geɖewó le Eʋenyígbá dzí. even though juju for love juju for killing bad/evil spirit young woman/lass to receive and keep/to keep because of/due to sickness Exercise XV-3: Read DZO KPLÉ TRƆ́̃ Dzo kplé trɔ̃́ ményé nú ɖeká o. Dzo si dzotɔ́ kpɔ́ bé mégale dɔ̌ wɔ̍ḿ ná ye̍ nyúíé ó lá. étsɔ́nɛ̂ ƒúá gbě. éye̍ dɔnɔ búbǔwó yia égbɔ́ ɖaxɔa atíke̍. Le ́ ési ̍a̍ ta̍ ye̍vúá ɖéwó gblɔ̍na̍ bé a̍me̍yi ̍bɔ̍wó súbɔ́á Dzo kplé Trɔ̃. xɔ ɖí because of this/due to this always. ́ Míéyɔ́á amési ̍ si ́ Dzo le lá bé Dzotɔ́. Dzotɔ́ mésúbɔ́á éƒé dzoá ɖéké o. nú ŋú tógbɔ́ bé lɔlɔ̃dzǒ a̍me̍wu̍dzo gbɔgbɔ vɔ̃́ xɔ da ɖí. dzotɔ́ má xɔa ŋ́kɔ́. éye̍ mi ́éyɔ́á amési ̍ sí Trɔ̃́ le̍ lá bé Trɔ̃si. Trɔ̃́ ɖeká ko̍e ́ nɔa trɔ̃si ̍ si ́. although. Tó gběda̍da̍ me dzotɔ́á ɖewó zua ke̍si ̍nɔ̍tɔ́wó. Dzo geɖee nɔa dzotɔ́ ɖeká sí. Ési ̍a̍ ményé nya̍te̍ƒé o. Dzotɔ́á ɖéwó tsɔ́á wóƒé dzo daa gbě le dɔnɔwó Ŋútí.– 138 – ési ̍a̍ ta̍ le dɔlélé ta̍ tegbee asráfo̍ xɔ ŋ́kɔ́ ɖekákpu̍i ̍ ɖetugbuǐ kpɔ́ dzǐdze̍dze̍ dzǐdze̍dze̍kpɔ́kpɔ́ dó dzi ɖé.

Né dɔnɔ lá ƒé lãme̍ sẽ́ lá éxéá ádzɔ náá trɔ̃́ lá. was happy that Ozigidi came to the town that day. The medicine which the juju-man gave her worked well. the woman recovered. His real name is Kɔmla Gakpe. Mr. Gakpe is very popular in our own. Mr. Gaké dzotɔ́e ́ yi ɖaxɔa dzo da̍na̍ ɖé éɖóku̍i ̍ gbɔ́ abé Exercise XV-4: Translate into Eʋe The young man who came to our father is a juju-man. Ozigidi left the town. éƒé kpéɖéŋútɔ́ e̍né. The patient drank all the medicines. juju for healing and juju for killing people. On the next day. I do not believe in the power of juju. Gakpe was very happy about his success. juju for love. trɔ̃si ̍ lá wɔnɛ wǒzua trɔ̃́ lá súbɔ́lá le ɣe̍yíɣi ̍ máwó me ko. dɔnɔ lá méga̍nyé trɔ̃́ ma̍ súbɔ́lá o. Though the patient recovered. Tsó gbe má gbe̍ lá. The juju-man gave the f'armer’s wife some of his medicines. Gaké né a̍me̍á ɖé le dɔ léḿ éye̍ wǒyi trɔ̃si ̍á ɖé ́ ̍ gbɔ́ lá. A farmer whose wife was sick. take me to a hospital. He is from Kpalime. After three days. such as juju for fighting.– 139 – ́ ́ Trɔ̃si ̍ ko̍e ́ nyé amési ̍ súbɔ́á éƒé trɔ̃́ tegbee. The farmer who believed in the power of juju. His juju name is Ozigidi. called the juju-man to his house. Ozigidi had different kinds of juju.” But the f'armer refused. she never believed in the power of juju. She called her husband and said: “My husband. and he is thirty years old. The farmer’s wife was not happy about the medicines. Trɔ̃́ nyé gbɔgbɔ vɔ̃́ si ̍ vá nɔa a̍me̍ gbɔ́. . There is a good one at Kpando.

the Future Tense is formed by prefixing á. The Future Tense The Future Tense expresses that an action which will (certainly or most probably) take place in the future. Second Person Singular: e + á → a̍. .to the verb: AORIST ɖu nú yi dzi ha FUTURE 'eat/ate' 'sing/sang' 'go/went' áɖu̍ nú ádzi ha áyi 'will/shall eat' 'will/shall sing' 'will/shall go' With the connected form of the Personal pronoun as Subject. Third Person Singular: é + á → â. the future prefix áundergoes tonal changes. In Eʋe. Study carefully the tones taken by the Future á.– 140 – LESSON XVI 1.with the following pronouns as Subject: meeémímiwóNote: – – – +á +á +á +á +á +á → → → → → → ma̍vá a̍vá âvá mi ́a̍vá míavá 'I shall come' 'you will come' 'he/she/it will come' 'we shall come' 'you will come' wóavá 'they will come' ̍ First Person Singular: me + á → ma̍.

The Future Tense is also used in Conditional sentences: Study the following sentences: Né ma̍nyé wo̍ lá.) will not leave' 'he/she/it will not come' 'we shall not go' 'you (pl.' 'If you ate all you would be satisfied.' 'Kofi will eat fufu.' 'Kofi will not eat fufu.form that is used with the Future Tense): mi + á → mía. changes similar to those listed above occur: nyema̍yi o madzó o mâvá o míáyi o / mímáyi o miadzó o / mima̍dzo o woma̍vá o 'I shall not go' 'you (sg.form that is used with the Future Tense): mí + á → mi ́a̍. Ko̍fi ́ a̍ɖu fufu. 'The man will leave. Second Person Plural (note that it is the mi. 'The man will not leave. Né a̍ɖu̍ wó kátã́ lá a̍ɖí ƒo. Né ma̍kpɔ́e ̍ lá ma̍wui. ma̍ƒlee.) will not leave' 'they will not come' .' NEGATIVE FUTURE Ŋútsu̍ lá ma̍dzó o. 'If I were you I would buy it. Ko̍fi ́ ma̍ɖu fufu o. Third Person Plural: wó + á → wóa̍.' For the expression of the Negative Future.' When the Negative Future takes a Personal pronoun as Subject.– 141 – – – – First Person Plural (note that it is the mí. study the following sentences: AFFIRMATIVE FUTURE Ŋútsu̍ lá a̍dzó.' 'If I saw it I would kill it.

' Vocabulary viŋútsu̍vi ́ ko a̍lɔ́gbɔ́núi ́ ke nu̍ da gbě le (a̍me̍ ŋú) fɔ̂ fu xɔ ƒe son to smile to open ones mouth/to utter to cure/heal someone to be pregnant to fall sick. A̍ xɔ ga lá. Mánɔ yiyiḿ.– 142 – In order to express the Progressive Aspect in the Future Tense. to become ill.' 'I shall be taking the lead. GẼ (ANEXƆ) Wóláyi etsɔ. Compare the following: STANDARD EƲE Wóáyi etsɔ. Éláxɔ ga lá.' 'They will be singing before the teacher comes.' Míláwɔ dɔ nɛ̂. the auxiliary verb nɔ is put into the Future: Mia̍nɔ éɖu̍ḿ háfí máyá.' In the Anexɔ or Gẽ dialect of the Eʋe language. to be infected with disease to speak up/louder. lá is used in place of the future á to indicate future. without exception old (in years)/age dze agbagbá le (a̍me̍) ŋú to try about someone vǐdzi ̍̃ xɔ dɔlélé kɔ́ gbe dzǐ síá ta̍ le éɖu̍ḿ / évéḿ nɔ agbe didǐ baby . Wóánɔ ha dziḿ háfí núfíálá lá nává. Míáwɔ dɔ nɛ̂.' 'He/she/it will receive the money. 'They will go tomorrow. to raise ones voice s/he is having a headache ("head is biting him/her") to live long all. 'You (pl.) will be eating it before I come. 'We shall work for him.

to be interested important will never happen/come to pass spectacles s/he is having stomachache ("stomach is biting him/her") to advise (someone) to bring forth di ̍ vévi ́é yayrá asabu da asabu kpɔ́ mɔ́ ná mɔ́zɔ̍zɔ̍ ɖó ƒu̍ta̍/ ƒu̍nu̍ énu̍máké ƒú tsi yrá (ame) to bless (someone ) blessing cast net to throw/cast a net journey. to expect beach.– 143 – le míá dome kokooko ɖɔ̌ Tógó ƒé dugã́ dze̍ moɔ́ dze (a̍me̍) gbɔ́ ́ sẽe ́̃ kpɔ́ (nú) dṹ su̍kûde̍de̍ ̍ lãme̍ gblẽ́ lãme sẽ bɔ̍bɔ̍e ̍ ŋútété nyó ta tsɔ́ ɖě le éme̍ ná (ame) vévíé ma̍vá éme̍ ákpɔ́ o gaŋkúí dɔme le éɖu̍ḿ /évéḿ ɖó aɖaŋu ná (ame) dzi vi he ɖɔ̌ among us by all means drag net to draw a net the capital of Togo to start on a journey a little while to put up with or lodge someone to wish/yern for strongly to gaze blankly at (something) attendance at school to be indisposed/sick to be/become healthy/well easily. softly one's best/within ones power to be excellent to care about/for someone. immediately . shore. sea coast at once. travel to arrive at to swim to look forward to.

” Fofóá ga̍bi ́ɛ̍ bé: “Núka̍ta̍e ́ ne̍di ́ bé yea̍zu dɔdalá mâ?” Ɖeví lá ɖó éŋú nɛ̂ gblɔ̍ béná: “Me̍di ́ bé mázu dɔdalá bé maté ŋú áda gbě le dɔnɔwó ŋúti le̍ mi ́áƒé núto̍ si ̍a̍ me. né e̍tsi ̍ ɖé. éye̍ wobi ́ɛ̂ be: “Vǐnye. Ma̍wɔ núsi ma̍té ŋúí lá bé a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó ̍ ƒé lãme̍ ásẽ́ bé wóanɔ agbe didǐ le̍ mi ́á dome. héko a̍lɔ́gbɔ́núi ́ éye̍ wokpɔ́ fofóá dṹ abé aɖabaƒofǒ atɔ̃́ e̍né. éke̍má wo ákpɔ́ o. Ŋútsu̍ tsi ̍tsi ̍wó kplé nyɔ́nu̍ tsi ̍tsi ̍wó si ́á la̍nyé nyě dɔnɔwó. Éke̍ nu̍ hégblɔ̍ ná fofóá béná: “Fo̍fónye.” Fofóá ɖô tó se nya si ̍wó kátã́ via̍ gblɔ. Né ɖevíá ̍ ɖé ƒé lãme̍ gblẽ́ ŋútɔ́ lá. Ma̍ɖó aɖaŋu ná a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó tsó wóƒé núɖu̍ɖu̍ kplé núno̍no̍ ŋútí. éye̍ ma̍dó wó ákpɔ́. né metsi héwú nyě su̍kûde̍de̍ nu̍ lá. afísi nye̍ ́ ̍ ́ kplé dɔdalá búbuwó míádze agbagbá le̍ éŋú váséɖé ésime éƒé lãme̍ ásẽ. Ékpɔ́ dzidzɔ ŋútɔ́ le ɖeví lá ƒé susúẃó ŋútí. ma̍di ́ vévi ́é bé mázu dɔdalá. A̍ me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó le̍ vévíé náḿ ŋútɔ́. Aló ɖě metsɔ́ ɖeké le̍ éme̍ ná mi ́ a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó oa?” Énu̍máké ŋútsu̍vi ́ lá kɔ́ gbe dzǐ gblɔ̍ ná fofóá béná: “Fo̍fó. Gaké nú vévíé ɖeká li si fofóá mése o. NÚ KA̍ NAVA ZU ? Fo̍fóá ɖé yɔ́ via ŋútsu̍vi ́ si xɔ ƒe̍ wúíeve ŋ̍dí kányaá ɖé. ma̍ná woa̍ƒle gaŋkúí. Né nyema̍da gbě le̍ a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó ŋú o̍ ɖé. ma̍ɖó aɖaŋu ná édzi ̍láwó bé wóatsɔ́e ̍ áyi dɔnɔkɔ́dzí. Ma̍da dɔ ná a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó hẫ. ɖevíwó kplé vǐdziwó ma̍ga̍kú abé tsã́ e̍né o. Ma̍kpé ɖé ̍̃ nyɔ́nu̍ si ̍wó fɔ̂ fú lá hẫ ŋútí bé wóáté ŋú ádzi vǐ bɔ̍bɔ̍e. Né a̍me̍á ɖé tsi. éye̍ ma̍yi afé síá aƒé me. Ma̍tsa le duwó kplé kɔ́ƒéẃó me. núsi ̍wó kátã́ ne̍gblɔ̍ lá nyó ta! Gaké měgblɔ núsi nǎwɔ̍ ná mi ́ a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍ si ̍wó ânɔ dɔ léḿ o. Ma̍ná ati ́ke̍ wó né ta̍ aló dɔme le wó véḿ. Ma̍kpɔ́ ɖévi ́wó kplé a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍wó.” ̍ ̍ fo̍fónye̍ ɖé? Ɖě ma̍zi ̍ kpí ánɔ kpɔ́wo̍ḿ né wǒ lãme̍ gblẽ́ máhã? Gbeɖé! Ési ̍a̍ ma̍vá éme̍ .– 144 – yi kplé (ame) ɖe lã to come with someone to fish Exercise XVI-1: Read VǏNYE. mégale nú kpɔ́ḿ nyúi ́é o lá. nyeméwú nyě nu̍ƒo̍ƒo̍ nu̍ haɖé o. dɔ̌ ka̍e ́ nadi ́ bé yeavá wɔ?” ́ Ŋútsu̍vi ́ lá bu ta̍ me̍ sẽ. Ma̍wɔ nyě ŋútété ná vǐdziwó hẫ ̍ ̍̃ bé wómágaxɔ dɔlélé vovovo si ̍wó vǐdziwó xɔ̍na gódóó le míáƒé duwó kplé kɔ́ƒéwó me. Ma̍ná ati ́ke̍ ɖevi ́ si ̍wó le dɔ léḿ. Éya̍ta̍ wǒgblɔ̍ ná ɖeví lá béná: “Vǐnye. ̍̃ Né ma̍té ŋú áwɔ̍ ési ̍a̍ lá. Ma̍ná ati ́ke̍no̍no̍ kplé atíke̍ƒo̍ƒo̍e ̍ wó.

We shall travel by train. We shall visit the Lome beach also. Can you fish? No. meaning in this case 'someone' or 'anybody'. The appropriate translation into English is. The unknown or uncertain Subject: The "Passive" There is no Passive construction in Eʋe. uncertain. We shall put up in a big hotel near the Lome market. We shall play in the beautiful sand but we shall not swim. so we are looking forward to seeing the city of Lome for the first time. we shall visit the Lome hospital. We know a doctor in this hospital. We shall buy some drinks. or uninteresting. We shall go for a walk under the coconut trees and lie on the beautiful sand. Will you come with us? 2.” Exercise XVI-2: Translate into Eʋe Tomorrow we shall go to Lome. Lome is the capital of Togo. some men’s clothes and some fish. some childrens' wears. He fishes in rivers with a cast net. We shall start our journey from Kpando at eight o’clock in the morning. mesee. and we shall take some gifts to him. wǒ susúáwó nyó ŋútɔ́. Kpando is only a three hours’ journey from Lome. Akpé ná wo. My father told me that drinks are very cheap in Lome. fofóá gblɔ̍ nɛ̂ bé: “Vǐnye.– 145 – Ési ɖeví lá gblɔ nú si ̍a̍wó kátã́ vɔ lá. There are a lot of coconut trees on the Lome beach. Me̍di ́ Máwú ƒé yayrá ná wo̍ bé wǒ susú nyúi ́ si ̍a̍wó nává éme̍ ná wo lóo̍!” Ɖeví lá ɖó éŋú nɛ̂ bé: “Yoo. We have never been to Lome. We shall go round the Lome market and visit some shops too. the pronoun of the Third Person Plural is used. On the next day. some ladies’ dresses. We shall watch fishermen drawing their nets. then. If a Subject is unknown. but my elder brother can. I have never fished. fo̍fónye. a Passive construction: . and we hope to arrive in Lome at eleven o’clock.

.clearly refers to Ŋútsu eveawó and should therefore be translated as 'they'. always day breaks to break/pull down a house/building bridge thief. Wótu xɔ̍ ɖé afímá. the dead. Vocabulary ɖe (ame) ɖé xéxé ɣe̍si ́a̍ɣi ̍ ŋu ke gbã xɔ lẽ̍ fi ̍a̍fi ̍tɔ́ a̍me̍kúkú to out-door (someone) every time.is clearly not referring to a specific Subject. 'We saw a huge building in the center of the town. Wótu xɔ̍a.' In this case. 2. ̍ 'They killed the lion. Study the following sentences: – ́ Míékpɔ́ xɔ̍ gãá ɖé le dua títína. meaning thus 'someone' or 'some persons'. Le Eʋea̍wó dome né wódzi vi lá.– 146 – Wówu dzatá lá. wó. We were told it was built in the year 1300. dead person Exercise XVI-3: Read and translate into English 1. They built there and (they) made a farm also. the pronoun wó. éye̍ wóde agble hẫ. Wógblɔ̍ ná mi ́ bé wótui le ƒe 1300 lia me. Wɔ núsi ̍ wógblɔ̍ ná wo ɣe̍si ́a̍ɣi ̍. 'The two men left Agu for Aglama. one who steals dead body.' 'They built the house.' Whether a sentence means 'they killed the lion' or 'the lion was killed' has to be inferred from the context. Therefore the English translation must take the Passive form.' / 'The lion was killed. – Ŋútsu eveawó dzó le Agu yi Aglama.' Here.' / 'The house was built. wóɖe̍ nɛ̍ ɖé xéxé le ŋkeke e̍nyi ́á gbe.

– 147 – 3. Ési ̍ mi ́étrɔ́ tsó Pe̍ki ́ vá aƒé lá, míékpɔ́ bé wótso atí lo̍lo̍ eve siwó le míáƒé ágblea̍ me. 4. Wógbã fíáséá háfí ŋu ke. 5. Wóméxé fe̍ ná dɔ̌wɔ̍láá ɖéké ɣle̍ti ́ si ̍a̍ me haɖé o. 6. Wóƒle asi ̍tsa̍lá ma̍ ƒé ádzɔnúáwó xóxóa? 7. Wódé fiafi ̍tɔ́awó gaxɔ me ƒe e̍wó. ́ 9. Adelá lá kpɔ́ a̍me̍kúkúá ɖé le aveá me. Wótso ta̍ le énu̍. 10. Wódzi nyɔ́nu̍vi ́ si ̍a̍ le Luánda, Angóla̍ ƒé dugã́ me. Exercise XVI-4: Translate into Eʋe 1. The long bridge was built in 1956. 2. I was born here. 3. The debt has been paid by the two teachers. 4. The cow was sold. 5. The cow was bought by his father. 6. This house was built with stones and wood. 7. The door was closed. 8. Three goats and a sheep were slaughtered for the fetish. 9. We were not given food or water for ten days. 10. Were they called? 8. Wówu da lá háfî nyɔ́nu̍awó gé ɖé xɔ̍ lá me. ̍

– 148 –

LESSON XVII
1. The Reflexive pronouns
The Reflexive pronoun is formed in Eʋe with ɖokui 'self', added to the Possessive pronoun. The Reflexive Pronouns are:

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR SECOND PERSON SINGULAR THIRD PERSON SINGULAR FIRST PERSON PLURAL SECOND PERSON PLURAL THIRD PERSON PLURAL

ɖokúínye ɖokúíwo éɖoku̍i ̍ míá ɖóku̍i ̍ó mia ɖo̍ku̍i ̍wó wó ɖóku̍i ̍wó

'myself' 'yourself' 'him-/her-/itself' 'ourselves' 'yourselves' 'themselves'

Note that with the Plural forms the Possessive pronoun precedes ɖoku̍i ̍ and is separated from it. In the First and Second Persons Singular, the Possessive pronoun is suffixed to ɖóku̍i ̍ while in the Third Person Singular it is prefixed to it. The Reflexive pronouns can be emphasized by adding the Absolute form of the Personal pronoun modified by ŋútɔ́ 'very' to either ɖóku̍i ̍ (ɖóku̍i ̍wó in the Plural forms) or – for extra emphasis – to the Reflexive pronouns shown above. Study the following examples:

nye ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍

nye ŋútɔ́ ɖokúínye wo ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍ wo ŋútɔ́ ɖokúíwo

'I myself'

'I myself (more emphasized)' 'you yourself' 'you yourself (more emphasized)'

– 149 – éya̍ ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍ éya̍ ŋútɔ́ éɖóku̍i ̍ 'he himself/she herself/it itself' 'he himself/she herself/it itself (more emphasized)' Míá ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍wó Míá ŋútɔ́ mi ́á ɖóku̍i ̍wó Mi ̍a̍ ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍wó 'we ourselves' 'we ourselves (more emphasized)' 'you yourselves'

Mi ̍a̍ ŋútɔ́ mi ̍a̍ ɖóku̍i ̍wó Wóáwó ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍wó Wóáwó ŋútɔ́ wó ɖóku̍i ̍wó

'you yourselves (more emphasized)' 'they themselves' 'they themselves (more emphasized)'

Vocabulary dzu (ame) ƒo (ame) ne̍némáké sɔ̍ pɛ́ ɖǒ ŋkú (nú) dzi ɖusí fu̍wɔ̍wɔ̍ a̍me̍ɖóku̍i ̍ tsó ɖé (a̍me̍) ŋú vevé vevése̍se̍ lé nɔ̍vi ́sí lé a̍me̍ɖóku̍i ̍wu̍wu̍ tsrɔ̃́ ati ́kpo̍/atíbo̍li ́ kútú/ a̍ŋu̍ti ́ ma̍máyɔ́vi ́ má (nú) mli se vevé to abuse (someone) to beat/strike (someone) in like manner/in the same way just as, just equal to (the same as núɖusí) to rise up against (someone), to revolt against (someone) pain to feel pain pain (v.n.) to catch, hold killing oneself/suicide to eliminate, destroy log orange grandchild to share/divide (something) to roll (over) to hold hands of brotherhood, to co-operate worrying oneself to remember (something)

– 150 – wɔ (nú) véví (ame) he tó ná (ame) ƒe atɔ̃́ sɔ́ŋ xlɔ́ nú (ame) ̍ ̍ núxlɔ̃ame̍nya̍ to do (something) to (someone), to harm (someone) five good/long years word of advice to advise (someone) to punish (someone)

Exercise XVII-1: Read ̍ ̍ ́ MAMÁ NYE XLƆ̍̃ NÚ MI ́ ÉFÉ MAMA̍ YƆ̍̃ VIWÓ Etsɔ ma̍mánye̍ yɔ́ nye̍ kplé nɔ̍vi ́nye̍wó yi éƒé áƒé mé. Míénɔ̍ a̍nyi ́ ɖé atí si le aƒéá ti ́ti ́na̍ lá té. Égblɔ̍ ná mí bé ményé ɖě ye̍yɔ́ mi ́ bé mi ́ává ɖu nú o, ké boŋ́ ɖě ye̍bé yea̍xlɔ̃ nú mi ́. Ƀo̍ nu̍ ná mí gblɔ̍ béná: “Né me̍dzu̍ mi ̍ lá, ɖoku̍i ̍nye̍e ́ medzu. Né me̍ná dɔ wu mi lá nye̍ ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍é me̍ná dɔ wu. Né me̍ƒo̍ mi ̍a̍ do̍me̍tɔ́á ɖé lá, nye̍ ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍é meƒo. Élabéna vǐnye̍wóé mi ̍e̍nyé. Nye̍ ŋútɔ́ ƒé ʋué mi ̍e̍nyé. Mi ̍a̍ƒé vev́ese̍se̍ nyé nyě vevése̍se̍, éye̍ mi ̍a̍ƒé dzidzɔ̌ nyé nyě dzidzɔ̌. Ne̍némáké, né miewɔ fu̍m lá mi ̍a̍ ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍wóé miewɔ fu. Né mi ̍e̍gblẽ́ ŋkɔ́nye̍ lá, mi ̍a̍ ́ ŋútɔ́ mi ̍a̍ ɖóku̍i ̍wó ŋkɔ́e ́ mi ̍e̍gblẽ. Ésɔ̍ pɛ́ abé álési ̍ fo̍fóá ɖé aló dadáá ɖé nánɔ viawó ́ ́ ́ gblẽḿ . Ményé ɖevíáwó gblẽḿ wole o, ké boŋ éya̍ ŋútɔ́ ɖóku̍i ̍ gblẽḿ wole. Éya̍ta̍ né ́ ́ fo̍fóá ɖé le viawó gblẽḿ lá éya̍ ŋútɔ́ éɖóku̍i ̍ ko gblẽḿ wole. Ne̍némáké né miele mi ̍a̍ nɔ̍ewó ƒo̍ḿ , aló miele mi ̍a̍ nɔ̍ewó dzu̍ḿ lá mi ̍a̍ ŋútɔ́ mi ̍a̍ ɖóku̍i ̍wó miele ƒoƒoḿ héle ̍ ̍ dzudzuḿ hẫ. Éya̍ta̍ mi ̍lé nɔ̍vi ́si ́. Mi ̍kpé ɖé ŋúnye né nye̍ hẫ mákpé ɖé mi ̍a̍ ŋú. Mi ̍kpé ɖé mi ̍a̍ nɔ̍ewó ̍ ŋú. Né mi ̍e̍kpɔ́ nú lá, mi ̍ná mi ̍a̍ nɔ̍ewó. Mi ̍ɖó ŋ̍kú A̍ me̍gã́ Ʋenya ƒé nya sia̍wó dzí béná: ̍ ‘Ɖusí klɔ́á mia, éye̍ Mi ̍a̍ hẫ klóá ɖusí.’ Amési wɔa fu éya̍ ŋútɔ́ tɔ̍wó lá méle̍ nú nyáḿ o. Fu̍wɔ̍wɔ̍ a̍me̍ ɖókuí nyé a̍me̍ɖóku̍i ̍wu̍wu̍ ko. Né dukɔ́á ɖé tsó ɖé éɖóku̍i ̍ ŋú lá, wóáwó ŋútó wó ɖóku̍i ̍wó ́ wótsrɔ̃ná.”

̍ ̍ Le míá ma̍má ƒé núxlɔ̃ame̍nya̍ nyúi ́ si ̍a̍wó se̍se̍ me̍gbé lá, me̍tsi ́ tre hédá akpé nɛ̂, élabéná nye̍e ́ nyé tsitsi ̌tɔ̍ le nɔ̍vi ́nye̍awó dome. ̍

– 151 – Exercise XVII-2: Translate into Eʋe 1. and they exist only in the Plural. and you will hurt yourself. 3. At the court. Reciprocal pronouns. 6. therefore. 8. The Reciprocal Pronouns Reciprocal pronouns express that an action is performed with respect to one another. The Reciprocal Pronouns in Eʋe are formed by adding nɔ̍ewó 'each other' to the ̍ Possessive pronoun: FIRST PERSON PLURAL SECOND PERSON PLURAL THIRD PERSON PLURAL Example: Ŋútsu̍áwó wu wó nɔ̍ewó. My children.' . you are only punishing yourself. she spoke for herself. 4. 2. can only be used with transitive verbs. ̍ míá nɔ̍ewó ̍ mi ̍a̍ nɔ̍ewó ̍ wó nɔ̍ewó ̍ '(we) each other' '(you) each other' '(they) each other' 'The men killed each other. 2. It can roll over. If you do not eat. 5. He did this difficult work for himself for five good years. It was they themselves they helped. They did not help me. Do not stand on that log. you have to do this for yourselves. 7. and we also built this one for ourselves. with chalk on the board. 10. They built that house for themselves. I did it for myself. I drew myself. 9. The teacher asked the pupils to share the twenty oranges among themselves.

schooling shopkeeper . relatives (and) then school days/times moreover to part/separate times of joy to converse from time to time middle school since that time cocoa farm all the two persons to part (on the road) you are welcome Farewell/Goodbye/Safe journey! (good) day to you they are well/fine to burst into tears since ten years school-mate to forgive/excuse someone for (something) to exchange greetings on the road to know/recognise (someone) kplá así kɔ̍/ná (ame) to embrace (someone) times of suffering bɔ́ (nya) / gblɔ (nya) to narrate to attend school attendance at school. both yours.– 152 – Vocabulary dze sí (ame) ŋdɔ̍ sésẽ́ wó kplé eve tɔ̍wo̍wó tete su̍kûde̍ɣi ̍ ga̍wú klã́ dzidzɔ̌ɣi ̍wó ɖó dze énu̍enu̍ ́ ti ́ti ́na̍su̍kû tsó ɣe̍ má ɣi ̍ kokôgble̍ wo ame eveawó siá má mɔ́ Woé zɔ Hede nyuie! mɔ́ta̍ ŋdɔ̍ ná wo wódɔ́/wófɔ́ wó avǐ tsɔ́ (nú) ke ame ƒe̍ e̍wó nyé ési fu̍kpéɣi ̍wó su̍kûhátí de su̍kû fíáséme̍nɔ̍lá su̍kûde̍de̍ lɔ̌ gbe hot noon/sun the two of them. your people.

Ɖéká nyé a̍me̍ kɔ́kɔ́ éye̍ eveli ́á ̍ nyé a̍me̍ kpu̍i ̍. Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Vi ̍wo̍wó ɖê? Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍: Wódɔ́. ̍ Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍: Srɔ̃wo̍ kplé ɖevíáwó ɖe? Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Wódɔ́ nyúíé. éfɔ́. Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍: Wódɔ́. . Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍: Wo̍ezɔ̍ lóo̍! ́ Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Yoo. Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍: Ŋdɔ̍. ̍ Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Srɔ̃wo̍ fɔ́a? Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍: E̍̃. Tsóƒétɔ́wó ɖê? Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Wódɔ́. Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍: Yoo. the time is up to shed tears of joy Exercise XVII-3: Read SU̍ KÛ HÁ TI ́ EVEAWÓ ́ Ŋutsu eveá ɖéwó do go wó nɔ̍ewó le̍ mɔ́ta̍ ŋdɔ̍ sésẽá ɖé. A̍ me̍gã. Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Wo hâ wo̍e ́ zɔ. Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Wo̍ hẫ wǒ mɔ́dzi ́tɔwó ɖê. Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍: Wǒ mɔ́dzi ́tɔ́wó hẫ? Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Wódɔ́.– 153 – de agble ɣe̍yi ́ɣi ̍a̍ de fa dzidzɔ̌vi ́ to farm it is time. Wódó gbe ná wó nɔ̍ewó álé: ̍ ̍ Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍: Ŋdɔ̍ ná wo̍ lóo̍.

éye̍ wówó avǐ. Nye̍ kplé woé nɔ su̍kû le Kpálíme. nyemété ŋú ɖó ŋ̍kú wǒ ŋkɔ́ aló míáƒé godóƒé dzí o. They conversed about their teachers and about their other school-mates. Me̍tsó Nyagbo Gagbeƒé le Kpándo̍ núto̍me. He helped his . Tete kpui ̍tɔ̍ dó ɣlí gblɔ̍ bé: “Ô! Me̍ɖó ŋ̍kú édzi ́ ázɔ̃. They reminded each other of their happy times and their times of suffering in Kpalime.” Tete Kwa̍mi Aguédze hẫ dó ɣlí gblɔ̍ béná: “Ô. Gaké ɖeké ̍ méga̍ke̍ nu̍ o. Le aɖabaƒoƒoá ́ ɖéwó me̍gbé la. ŋútsu eveawó ga̍tɔ́ nɔ wó nɔ̍ewó kpɔ́ḿ dṹú̃. ɖě míédó go kpɔ́ le afíá ɖéa?” tútúútú míédó go le o. Yawo Apasu said that after finishing the Middle School at Kpalime.– 154 – Le gbeá lɔ̍lɔ̍ vɔ me̍gbé lá. Yawo Apa̍sú! Tsɔ́e kem. Wófa dzidzɔví élabéná wónyé ̍ xɔ́lɔ̃̍ nyúi ́wó le wóƒé su̍kûde̍ɣi ̍. They embraced each other from time to time. nye̍ tútúútúé!” Gaké éya̍ méɖó ŋ̍kú kpui ̍tɔ̍ ƒé ŋkɔ́ dzi´o. Gaké wǒ ŋ̍kúme fíá bé me̍kpɔ́ wo kpɔ́ gódó le nyě ɖevíme̍ lóó aló le nyě ɖekákpu̍i ̍me. Me̍ɖó ŋ̍kú dzǐwo ́ ázɔ̃. Kpui ̍tɔ̍ ga̍yi ̍ édzi ́ bi ́ɛ̂ bé: “Měɖó ŋ̍kú dzi ̍nye̍ kpɔ́ oa?” Kwa̍mi Aguédze ga̍ɖǒ éŋú nɛ̂ bé: “O. Mété ŋú ɖó ŋ̍kú nánéké dzi ́ o. éye̍ wódó hěde̍ nyúíé ná wó nɔ̍ewó.” ́ Wó ga̍kpɔ́ wó nɔ̍ewó dṹṹ. They laughed when one of them talked about how the strong boys used to fight one another at night until the teachers would come to punish them. nyemété ŋú ɖó ŋ̍kú wǒ ŋkɔ́ lóó aló míáƒé godóƒé dzí haɖé o. he went to Lome.” Ŋútsu eveawó kplá así kɔ̍ ná wó nɔ̍ewó. ŋútsu̍ kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍ bi ́á Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍ béná: “A̍ me̍gã. Ményé ̍ woé nyé Kwa̍mi Aguédze oa?” Kɔkɔ́tɔ̍ ɖó éŋú gblɔ̍ bé: “E̍̃. ̍ Ŋútsu̍ kɔ́kɔ́tɔ̍ ʋúʋú ta̍ gblɔ̍ béná: “Éwɔ̍ ná nye̍ hẫ ne̍némá.” Á lé Kpu̍i ̍tɔ̍ yi ̍ édzi ́ gblɔ̍ nɛ̂ bé: “Ŋkɔ́nye̍e ́ nyé Yawo Apa̍sú. Ga̍wú lá nye̍mégale nú kpɔ́ḿ nyúi ́é o. Míéklã́ ƒe̍ bláeve vɔ̌ atɔ̃́ nyé ési. Each of them narrated what he had been doing since he left Kpalime. Ési ̍a̍ me̍gbé su̍kûháti ́ eveawó má mɔ́. Éwɔ̍ ná wó do̍me̍tɔ́ ɖesíaɖě abé ɖě wǒdze sí nɔvíá e̍né.” “O. gaké nye̍méɖó ŋkú afísi ̍ Exercise XVII-4: Translate into Eʋe The two men talked about their school days.

– 155 – uncle (paternal) who was a storekeeper. But his uncle died fifteen years ago. So he became the shopkeeper since then. He said also that he was married and had three children – two boys and a girl. Kwami Aguedze too spoke. He said after the Middle school, he could not continue schooling as he thought. His father died in the very year he left Kpalime. His aunt (paternal) helped him. She gave him some money. He went to Akebu district and bought a piece of land there. He made a cocoa farm on the land. He said he too was married and had two children – all boys. Mr. Apasu and Mr. Aguedze embraced each other again. But the time was up for them to part. They said goodbye to each other and left.

3. The derivation of nouns from verbs
Three types of nouns can be derived from Eʋe Verbs. These are: a. Verbal nouns b. Noun Agents (usually called "nomen agentis") c. Nouns denoting a place a. Verbal nouns: In order to form the Verbal noun, the verb is reduplicated:

yi vǎ dzó

→ → →

yiyi vavá dzodzó

'(the) going' '(the) coming' '(the) leaving'

With transitive verbs, the object is placed first, followed by the nominalized (i.e. reduplicated) verb, e.g.:

ɖu nú le tsi

→ →

núɖu̍ɖu̍ tsi ̍le̍le̍

'(the) eating' '(the) bathing'

– 156 – ƒo ame de agble → → a̍me̍ƒo̍ƒo̍ agblededě '(the) beating' '(the) farming'

b. Noun Agent ("nomen agentis") With intransitive Verbs, -lá is suffixed to the Verbal noun, e.g.:

yiyi vavá dzodzó

→ → →

yiyilá vaválá dzodzólá

'someone who goes' 'someone who comes' 'someone who leaves'

With transitive verbs, the Object is placed first, followed by the simple form of the verb with -lá suffixed to it, e.g.:

ɖu nú le tsi ƒo ame de agble

→ → → →

núɖu̍lá tsi ̍le̍lá a̍me̍ƒo̍lá agbledelá

'eater' 'bath-taker' 'someone who beats people; rowdy' 'farmer'

c. Nouns denoting a place Nouns in this group denote the place where something is done, or where something happens. These nouns are derived by means of the Possession marker Ď which is originally a noun meaning 'place (of)'. With intransitive Verbs, Ď - is suffixed to the Verbal noun, e.g.:

yiyi vavá dzodzó

→ → →

yiyiƒé vaváƒé dzodzóƒé

'place of going' 'place of coming' 'place of leaving'

Р157 РSometimes the Possession marker Ď is suffixed to intransitive verbs in their simple form, i.e. without reduplicating it; e.g.:

kú dzo dzǒ

→ → →

kúƒé / kukúƒé dzoƒé / dzodzoƒé dzóƒé / dzodzóƒé

With transitive verbs, the Object is placed first, followed by the simple form of the verb with -Ď suffixed to it, e.g.:

ɖu nú le tsi ƒo ame de agble

→ → → →

núɖu̍ƒé tsi ̍le̍ƒé a̍me̍ƒo̍ƒé agbledeƒé

'dining place, restaurant' 'bathing-place' 'place of beating' 'place of/for farming'

Exercise XVII-5: Complete the following table VERB ƒle nú ta nú srɔ̃́ nú tu xɔ dó dzo sí fé trɔ́ xlẽ agbalẽ̌ VERBAL NOUN NOUN AGENT PLACE NOUN

– 158 –

Vocabulary gblẽ́ ɖé/ … ɖi le ési ̍a̍ ta̍ ̍ lãdzrálá ɖi tsa te̍ ɖé (nú) ŋú ̍ lãdzráƒé as a result, because of this meat/fish seller/butcher to be near, in the vicinity of meat/fish shop fish shop a big piece of meat to stop to burst/explode/bark greedy person greediness to be greedy to carve something swimming pool swimmer swimming to hide to jump suddenly theft to go/pass through/pound pity/sadness to take a walk/go on a journey/do sightseeing to leave behind

̍ tɔ̍me̍lãdzráƒé ̍ lãkɔ́ tɔ́ wó ́ ŋu̍klẽlá

ŋu̍kéklẽ́ klẽ́ ŋu kpa nú tsi ̍ƒúƒé tsi ̍ƒúlá tsi ̍ƒúƒú dzo kpó kásíá núblánúí núfíáfíá geɖéme̍ƒé núkpa̍ƒé ̍ lãɖe̍ɖe̍ ɖe vǐ fi tó be

teaching entrance fishing profitable to follow someone carver’s workshop

dze a̍me̍ yo̍me

Égblẽ́ avu lá ɖé éƒé ágblekɔ́ƒé me. Avǔ ŋu̍klẽlá lá bú lã si wǒfi ̍ lá ̍ hâ. ́ Étrɔ́ vá agblekɔ́ƒé lá kplé núblanúí gãá ɖé. Le ési ̍a̍ ta̍ wofɔ́ kábá le ŋkeke a̍déá ƒé ŋ̍di ́ kányá héyi asi ̍á ɖé si ̍ te̍ ɖé agblea ŋú lá me. Méfi fi ̍ kpɔ́ o. 3. He took us to a large swimming pool where we saw many swimmers swimming. Le̍ mɔ́ta̍ lá évá ɖó lẽá ɖé dzí. Avu lá tɔ́ ɖé lẽ̍ lá dzi ́ vi ́é. ̍ ̍ ́ ̍ Éyi lãdzráláá ɖé ƒé lãdzraƒé. Fishing is a profitable work. ̍ Lãdzrálá lá ƒú du dze̍ éyo̍me. Tɔ̍si ́si ́ glo̍bo̍á ɖé tó lẽa̍ té. Gaké agbledelá lá mégbɔ haɖé o. ̍ ́ Kásíá. élabéná énɔ̍ ná agbledelá lá bé woanɔ dua me ŋkeke a̍dé sɔ́ŋ háfí ágbɔ. Gaké avu lá ɖu lã̍ kplé núɖu̍ɖu̍ si ̍wó kátã́ agbledelá lá gblẽ́ ɖí nê ná ŋkeke a̍déá lá le ŋkeke etɔ̃ me ko. Ékpɔ́ lãkɔ́ gãá ɖé le ́ avu si wokpɔ́ lá nu̍. éye̍ wǒbe ɖé atí gãá ɖé xa̍ hénɔ̍ lãdzrálá lá kpɔ́ḿ . Nánéké hẫ ménɔ aƒéá me̍ si avu lá áɖu gbe má gbe o. Fishermen are rich people. Álé dɔ vá wu̍i ̍ ŋútɔ́ le ŋkeke e̍ne̍a̍ gbe. Exercise XVII-6: Translate into Eʋe 1. We entered the kitchen and saw the cook cooking. ̍ ̍ Avua ɖó ta̍ agblekɔ́ƒéá. Énu̍máké ̍ ́ éƒé lãkɔ́ lá gé le énu̍ ɖé tɔ̍ lá me. Cbe ɖeká agbledelá lá ɖi tsa yi duá ɖé me. This is the entry to the playground. Égblẽ́ ŋkeke a̍dé ƒé núɖu̍ɖu̍ ɖí ná avu lá. 4. gaké avu lá dzó le égbɔ́. éye̍ tɔ̍si ́si ́ lá tsɔ́e ̍ dzóe. Dɔwuame lá nu̍ sẽ́ ŋútɔ́ le ́ ŋkeke atɔ̃á gbe. My father has many fish shops in the town. Ési agbledelá lá gbɔ̍ vá se núsi éƒé ávú lá wɔ̍ lá éhe tó nɛ̂. Álé wǒke nu̍ héwó sési ́ẽ. 2. gaké dɔwuamě wɔe wozu fi ̍fi ̍lá. éye̍ wodi ́ bé yeáxɔ éya̍ hẫ gódó. éƒú du kábá. Ési ̍ ̍ ́ wokpɔ́ bé lãdzrálá lá nɔ nu̍ ƒo̍ḿ kplé ŋútsu̍á ɖé lá. The carver is carving in his workshop. Tsó ɣe̍ má ɣi ̍ avu lá mégafi a̍me̍á ɖéké ƒé lã̍ kpɔ́ o. ékpɔ́ éɖóku̍i ̍ le tsi ̍ lá me hésúsú bé avu búbuá ɖé kpɔ́ḿ yele. Teaching is a difficult job.– 159 – Exercise XVII-5: Read ́̃ ̍ AVǓ ŊUKLELÁ LÁ Avuá ɖé nɔ agbledeláá ɖé sí. swimming their job? . tsɔ́ lãkɔ́ gãá ɖé hésí. Is 6. 5. But entry is not allowed. but farming is more difficult.

– 160 – VOCABULARY EƲE – ENGLISH .

just as bed (14) (9) (9) (11) (3) (4) (4) (4) shoe. wares street as how. home town. hose (12) . abatí abé … e̍né abé álési … e̍né ablegɔ́ Ablotsí ablɔ̌ ablɔɖe abólo̍ abɔ́ abɔ́ta̍ Abrã́ a̍dé adelá adidó a̍dré adzɔ adzɔnú aɖabaƒoƒǒ aɖáka aɖubá aɖubátí afã́ afɔ afɔ̍kpa̍ afɔ̍wu̍i ̍ afé afî afi ́ka̍ Afúá afímá (10) (10) (9) (6) (12) (11) (1) (6) (3) (6) (5) (5) (3) (4) (1) (3) (3) (11) (1) as. sandal home. leg box goods.) A. a type of tree found in the savanah lands of Africa seven fee for services.– 161 – (Figures in brackets indicate Lessons in which the particular word is used for the first time. duty on goods second (of a minute). homeland where name for a female born on Friday there here socks. just as chair Europe freedom bread arm (also as measure for yard or metre) shoulder name for a female born on Tuesday six hunter baobab. twinkle of an eye pawpaw half pawpaw tree foot.

Gentleman.. Sir Agbodrafɔ name of a town in Togoland the name of the last known Eʋe King (whose cruel name of an Eʋe town in Togo storm at sea or on land lamp the name of a small non-Eʋe speaking tribe in Northern Togoland. Lady plate endeavour. letter library. carrier. also the name of their main town mirror any alcoholic drink rule led to the migration of the Eʋe people from Ŋɔtsie a farm hut/house . Lord. achievement book. farm product reader. one who reads porter. place where one can read reader. the way one lives farm farming a place where one can farm farmer a farmers bag/sack farm product (especially that which is harvested) hoe a path leading to the farm crop. Master..n. paper.) load Mr. reading (v.– 162 – Aƒénɔ̍ Aƒétɔ́ agbǎ agba agbagbádze̍dze̍ agbalẽ ̍ agbalẽxe̍xlẽ̍ ̍ ̍ agbalẽxlẽƒé ̍ ̍ agbalẽxlẽlá agbatsɔ́lá agbatsɔ́ʋú agbe agbeli agbenɔnɔ̌ agble agblededě agbledeƒé agbledelá agblekotoku agblemenú agblemenuku agblemɔ́ agblenú agblexɔ̌ Agɔkɔ́li ́ Agu aha ahoḿ aka̍ɖí Akébu ́ ahuhɔ̃e ́ (5) (5) (1) (13) (1) (17) (17) (17) (11) (13) (11) (5) (11) (1) (12) (17) (9) (12) (9) (12) (10) (11) (12) (10) (7) (6) (12) (14) (17) (9) (10) (11) Mrs. one who carries loads lorry/truck/vehicle which carries goods life cassava one’s mode or life.

calculation.– 163 – aklɔ̍ Ako̍so̍m̍ bó akɔ̍ɖú akɔ́nta̍ Akɔ́súá akɔ́ta̍ akpa̍ ákpá akpé akpé akplóʋú ́ Akúa̍ a̍la̍fá ́ Ala̍ványó a̍lẽ́ álé áléké ́ ́ a̍lẽkpɔ́/a̍lẽkpó ali ́ Ama̍ ame a̍me̍ba̍lá a̍me̍dzró a̍me̍dzródze̍ƒé a̍me̍ƒo̍ƒé a̍me̍ƒo̍ƒo̍ a̍me̍ƒo̍lá a̍me̍há a̍me̍ka̍ a̍me̍kpékpé a̍me̍kúkú amési a̍me̍ɖóku̍i ̍wu̍wu̍ (9) (1) (8) (3) (14) (8) (13) (8) (13) (8) (13) (10) (11) (13) (2) (14) (14) (12) (1) (11) (6) (2) (13) spear banana name for a female born on Sunday (See also Kɔsi) chest (of the body) too fish (the smaller types) thousand thanks canoe name for a female born on Wednesday hundred name of an Eʋe Division (Dukɔ́) in Ghana sheep so. a dead person who mathematics. a place of lodging suicide. motel. killing of oneself flogged the scene of being beaten. where one is beaten or beating (of a person) one who beats someone (a beater) crowd an invitee who. one who cheats stranger hotel. to reckon name of the Volta Dam site in Ghana (17) (17) (17) (17) (4) (15) (15) (16) (6) . and so how sheep pen waist name for a female born on Saturday person a cheat. whom dead body.

capsule hospital. i. kills black man. an old person ̍ Ana̍gó ̍ Ana̍gónyi ́gbá ̍ Anéxɔ́ a̍nyi ́éhě a̍nyígbá a̍nyi ́kpé a̍ŋ̍gba̍ ̍ Aŋ̍kú a̍ŋ̍u̍ti ́ asabu asi asi así asíéke̍ asigbe asisi asi ̍tsa̍lá asi ́wu̍i ̍ asráfo̍ (11) (15) (6) (3) (14) (14) (15) (14) (1) (11) atadidi/atawu atákpu̍i ̍ ati ati ́gli ́nyi ̍ ati ́ke̍ ati ́ke̍dzraƒe ati ́ke̍ƒo̍ƒo̍e/ ati ́ke̍kóe ́ ̍ ati ́ke̍wɔ̍ƒé shorts (a pair of) elephant medicine.– 164 – amési ̍ ƒé a̍mési ́áme a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍ a̍me̍wu̍dzo̍ a̍me̍yi ̍bɔ̍ Amu ̍ Amu̍tá (15) (11) (15) (15) (15) (13) (12) (12) (10) (5) (10) (15) (8) (17) (13) (5) (11) (13) (3) (6) (9) (8) (12) whose everybody. every person. tablet. country brick leaf name for a male born on Wednesday orange (see also kútú ) cast net market wife hand nine customer trader glove soldier market day Eʋe name for the river Volta in Ghana an elder. drugstore pills. drug pharmacy. land. the black race the Volta Lake Eʋe name for Yoruba Yorubaland a section of the Eʋe-speaking people north earth. dispensary.e. every one a juju which take peoples’ lives. clinic tree a pair of trousers . a black person.

g. to say that to ask. beans egg groundnuts. to demand to question someone to tie seventy ninety forty thirty twenty (in some areas bláa̍ve) eighty fifty sixty bíá gbe (15) (13) (13) (13) (13) (13) (13) (13) (7) (14) . stuff underwear. nuts now forest dog five B. singlet mongoose. e. to request. male cloth. material. see also príkú bean. ba ame bablá bali be béná bi bíá blá blǎadé ̍ blǎadré ̍ blǎasi ́éke̍ ̍ blǎatɔ̃́ ̍ blǎene̍ ̍ blǎenyi ́ ̍ blǎetɔ̃ ̍ blaeve (11) (14) (17) (7) (11) (8) (10) to cheat someone bundle valley to hide to burn that.– 165 – ati ́ke̍wɔ̍lá ati ́kpa̍lá ati ́kpo̍/ati ́bo̍li ́ atɔ̍ atɔ̃́ atsu avě avɔ̌ avǔ a̍wu̍téwu̍i ̍ ́ axlɔ̃e ́ a̍yi azi azi ázɔ̃́ (14) (10) (17) (13) (11) (4) (1) (7) (11) (9) (3) (3) (3) (2) (3) doctor carpenter log nest husband.

to cure to cure someone to cast a net elder sister mother to shoot. to arrive native land. homeland to farm palm name of a tributary of the river Volta (Ghana) my mother (compare with nɔnye) his/her/its mother . another to reckon. to cure to treat. maize Eʋe name for Twi (a language spoken in Ghana) Twi-speaking area to be soft soft. easily Tuesday to lose to work out a mathematical problem. to render account to think other. to calculate to narrate. the lot D.– 166 – blema blî bli ́bo̍ Blǔ Blǔme̍ bɔ̌ nya bɔbɔ bɔ̍bɔ̍e ̍ ̌ Brãɖá bu bú bu akɔ́nta̍ bu ta̍ me búbǔ (5) (1) (8) (16) (11) (11) (8) (13) (8) (17) (6) (2) (8) ancient times. fire a gun your mother (compare with nɔwo) ti have been to. olden days corn. to tell whole. da dá akpé da asabu da dɔ da gbě da tú dǎá dadá dadáá dadanye/danye dadáwo/dǎwo Dayĩ de de̍ dě de agble da gbě le a̍me̍ ŋú (5) (8) (16) (15) (16) (4) (12) (11) (12) (12) (3) (5) (8) (17) (12) (12) (15) snake to thank to heal.

amidst work. to yearn for long to be long wish hole. to go to school palm-nut homeland.) to be hungry ("hunger kills someone") to sleep hunger to ride a horse (12) (8) (10) (14) (11) (7) (6) . job to send someone to send to doctor.– 167 – de su̍kû děha̍ dekú denyígbá detí dí dí vévíé didi di ̍di ̍ didí dǒ dǒ a̍me̍ kpɔ́ dó awu dó dzi ɖé ame ŋu dó dzo dǒ gbe ɖá do gbe na ame dó ɣli do gǒ dó go dó mɔ́ ame dó ŋgbe̍ dó sɔ́ do ŋusẽ ame dó vɔvɔ̃́ ná ame dome dɔ dɔ̌ dɔ̌ alɔ̃ dɔ́ ame dɔ ɖe dɔ wu (ame) dɔdalá dɔdɔ́ (17) (8) (14) (8) (16) (1) (3) (15) (9) (14) (6) (15) (17) (14) (8) (5) (14) (13) (15) (11) (13) (8) (6) (11) to attend school. put on clothes to trust (in) someone to set a fire. a pit to examine/test someone to dress up. to look for palm-wine (10) (5) (7) to frighten someone between. a healer sending (v. among. nativeland palm-tree to wish for strongly. to kindle a fire to pray to greet someone to shout to go out to set one on an errand/a journey to promise to encourage someone to meet to want/wish to.n.

– 168 – dɔlélá dɔlélé dɔme dɔmenyótoɔ́ dɔnɔ dɔ̌wɔ̍kplɔ̃̍ dɔ̌wɔ̍lá dɔ̌wɔ̍wɔ̍ dɔwuamě du du tsi duƒúƒú dukɔ́ dumeví dumevínyényé Dzama Dzamame Dzǎma̍wó dzatá dze dze (15) (14) (13) (15) (9) (14) (13) (7) (4) (11) (13) (10) (11) (11) (5) (11) (3) (4) (5) (15) patient. to lodge someone dze a̍me̍ yo̍me to fall sick/ill to kneel to lie face up.) hunger town.g. n. to lie on one’s back to set off on a journey to succeed to follow someone . a pot running a nation. e. the inhabitants of a city. a people. disease dɔme le ame ɖu̍ḿ /évéḿ (16) dze agbagbá dze agbagbá le a̍me̍ ŋú dze a̍me̍ dzi ́ dze a̍me̍ gbɔ́ dze dɔ dze édzí ná (ame) dze klo dze mɔ́ dze ŋe (3) (13) to buy (used for buying of liquids) to attempt. village to fetch water from a well. one who is kind-hearted desk/table/bench on which one works work. job. to appeal to to put up with someone. patient to have stomachache ("stomach is biting person") sickness. town or village citizen citizenship German the Germans salt lion German-speaking area worker sick person. to try to try about or for someone (16) (13) (11) (15) (15) (16) (14) (13) (17) to fall on someone. sick person stomach kind person. or from a river in a large receptacle. working (v.

) . to get prepared seller (see also núdzrálá) to keep something in safe custody. fireplace one who sets or kindles a fire one who leaves/departs juju name juju owner.) south heaven. to repair to sell departure. to take side red. the care of. mirth days of joy red. reddish (attr. reddish (pred. leaving (v. under one’s responsibility parents upper part of the back of the body – opposite the chest fire juju to fly to leave.n.– 169 – dze sí ame dze xɔ́lɔ̃ (ame) dzí dzi ̍̃ dzi ame dzi ̍ ɖé édzí dzi ha dzi vǐ dzi ̌dze̍dze̍kpɔ́kpɔ́ dzidzime dzidzɔ̌ dzidzɔ̌ɣi ̍ ̍̃ dzié dzíehě dziƒô dzikpɔ́kpɔ́ dziláwó dzime dzo dzo dzo dzó dzo kpó Dzǒɖá dzodóƒé dzodólá dzodzó dzodzólá dzoŋkɔ́ dzotɔ́ dzrá dzra ɖo dzra nu ɖo dzrálá (8) (4) (9) (13) (16) (6) (9) (17) (9) (10) (5) (13) (13) (14) (7) (6) (3) (17) (15) (3) (15) (12) (9) to know/recognise someone on. to multiply to deliver a child success generation joy. space care.) to increase. “juju man”. surface. depart to jump Monday to sing to bring forth someone to befriend (someone) (8) (10) (17) (17) (15) (15) (14) (10) (11) (3) (17) kitchen. one who has juju to get ready.

– 170 – dzu ame dzudzɔ̌ dzudzɔ (17) (12) (12) to abuse/insult someone rest to rest Ɖ. -ɖa ɖa nú ɖasefó ɖe a̍me̍ ɖe xéxé ɖe dɔ̌ ɖe dzo ɖe lã ɖe mɔ́ ná ɖe vǐ ɖeɖi té (a̍me̍) ŋú ɖeɖitéame̍ŋú ̍ ɖeká ɖekákpu̍i ̍ ɖéké … o ɖesi ́a̍ɖě ɖeví ɖetugbuí ɖevíme ɖevitɔ̍ ɖevi ́wu̍ ɖi ɖí ƒo ɖi tsa ɖiɖiƒé ɖó ɖó aɖaŋu ná ame ɖe tɔ̍me̍lã̍ ɖe gbe ná ame (6) (3) and to cook something (16) (9) (12) (13) (10) to out-door someone to dig a hole/pit to fetch fire to fish to allow. each tedium. tiredness to command/order witness (16) (10) (16) (17) (9) (3) (15) (6) (15) (1) (12) (8) (9) (16) (4) (17) (15) (16) (16) (9) (11) children’s wear/dress to be cheap to go for a walk. none a lass. a girl child childhood every. lad. to go on a trek/journey. young man no. a young woman. permit to fish to yield profit. to go distant/far off place to advise someone to arrive at sightseeing to eat to one’s satisfaction the younger one . tediousness. to be profitable to be tired one youth.

tablet right. from time to time eight English-speaking area as. soon due to this. head towards to travel by a vehicle as a passenger order. under drag net (for fishing) to lay egg gun-powder to reign to dance to eat/bite something pill. because of this immediately. E̍̃ égbe égběgbe éke̍má ene énu̍enu̍ ́ énu̍máké e̍nyi ́ Éŋle̍sime ési ési ̍a̍ ta̍ éte̍ƒé médidi o élabéná (1) (5) Yes today (12) (8) (12) (3) (15) (16) (3) then four nowadays because often. to obey to request/order something from someone E. to enstool one as chief to converse to reply/answer to set a date/day to remember something to go towards. arrangement underneath. when not long after. at once (5) (15) (13) (11) . capsule . righthand to listen.– 171 – ɖó ame fia ɖó dze ɖó nú ná ame ɖó nya̍ ŋú ɖǒ ŋkeke ɖǒ ŋkú nú dzí ɖó ta̍ ɖô tó ɖoɖó ɖome ɖɔ̌ ɖɔ́ azi ɖu ɖu fia ɖú ɣe ɖu nú ɖǔfa̍ ɖusí/nuɖusi (17) ɖó ʋǔ (10) (17) (10) (15) (17) (9) (6) (9) (5) (16) (14) (9) (12) (6) (3) (11) (11) to crown someone as king.

Eʋe Eʋe-speaking area ten therefore and second. tomorrow the Eʋe people the Eʋe nation the Eʋe language. emperor to burn thief thief (a professional or habitual) to teach something theft play-ground . from fá ) debt to play receipt game.– 172 – etɔ̃ (3) (12) (3) (12) (11) (5) (12) (15) (3) (11) (2) (11) (6) three yesterday.) fi fi fia fi ́ã́ fíá nú fi ̍a̍fi ̍ fi ̍a̍fi ̍tɔ́ (1) (3) (17) (3) (10) (10) (14) (17) (1) (17) (9) (11) (16) (16) (3) (17) (17) (6) (15) to be cold/cool to weep. to cry to shed tears of joy cold. chief. fá fa aví fa avi vévíé fa dzidzɔví fáfá /fáfɛ́ fe fé fe̍dzi ́gba̍lẽ̍ fefé feféƒé fefela fésre̍ fi (n. the land of the Eʋe people two third. to pilfer king. play to weep/cry bitterly player. the third ̍ etɔ̃li ́á etsɔ eve Eʋeawo Eʋedukɔ́ Eʋegbě evelíá Eʋeme Eʋenyígbá e̍wó éya̍ta̍ éye̍ F. cool (Adj. one who plays window to steal. the second (in counting) Eʋeland.

times of suffering a lot. shopkeeper Friday evening falls. five long years . coarse (attr. cassava. at present. ƒe ƒe atɔ̃́ sɔ́ŋ́ ƒe̍ e̍wó nyé ési ƒla̍tsa̍ ƒlatsaa ƒle nú -ƒo ƒo ame ƒo ƒú ƒo nu̍ ƒo ʋǔ ƒo̍e ̍ (6) (11) (9) (9) (5) (14) (13) (10) (12) (5) (1) (17) year since ten years rough. presently evening palace fi ̍ẽ̍ ɖó fi ̍fi ̍lá fífílaa fo̍ fo̍fó fɔ fɔ́ fɔ̂ fú fufu Ƒ.) rough. soon. to beat a drum younger sister to speak/talk to beat or strike someone to buy something (other than liquids) for five good years.) surface to pack.– 173 – fi ̍a̍kúkú fi ̍a̍sã́ fíásé fi ́áséme̍nɔ̍lá Fíɖá fi ̍ẽ̍ fífíá (13) (6) (12) (14) (17) (17) (12) (11) (5) (6) (16) (5) (17) (13) (17) (8) (4) (10) (10) crown shop. just now elder brother father (see also tɔ́) to collect e. coarse (pred. it is evening a thief. fruits. plantain or cocoyam fu̍kpéɣi ̍wó fṹṹ fu̍wɔ̍wɔ̍ a̍me̍ ɖóku̍i ̍ hard times. be together to drum. to discover/find to get up from a lying position to be pregnant a West African dish prepared from yam. in large quantities worrying oneself now.g. one who steals right now. store storekeeper. put together.

coast. day to refuse green grass that day healing/curing (v.) one day. long ago metal pot more over metal plate. large. firstly flat (large surface) first voice. once upon a time bush day (see égbe) once upon a time. the first. beach to swim kind of. stomach sea to run shore. money again. pan gagbá gaké galí gaŋ̍kúi ́ gasɔ́ gatsí ga̍wú la gaxɔ̍ gazé gbã gbã́ gbaɖegbe gbadzaa gbadzɛ gbãtɔ̍ gbe gbe gbé gbě gbě dáma̍ gbe ɖeká gbe má gbe gbědada flat (small surface) .– 174 – ƒome ƒo̍me̍vi ́ ƒu ƒú du ƒu tsi ƒu̍ta̍/ƒu̍nu̍ (5) (4) (16) (16) (6) (8) family.n. ga gagã́ (1) (8) (4) (11) (2) (12) (16) (1) (14) (11) (11) (8) (9) (9) (12) (10) (15) (7) (14) (14) (15) (6) (6) (13) (11) (17) metal. huge but a West African food prepared by granulating cassava spectacles. goal. long. jail to break first. type of G. eye glasses bicycle spoon prison. still big.

) wall large and very deep to be crooked gourd by all means. side goat breath. ghost evil/bad spirit to fall from a height to enter many. underneath. pocket ́ spoiled/bad (adj. bag. much. usually tinned meat or fish sack. by the side of.n. entering (v. a juju used for healing or curing never chapel. cathedral swine. spirit. white clay that time . to be under someone Ɣ. one who cures gblẽ́ ɖé/ gblẽ́ ɖi crooked (adj. ɣé ɣe̍ má ɣi ̍ (1) (12) chalk. a lot of entrance entry. from gblẽ) healer. wild pig to spoil every day to leave behind to say/narrate/tell to breathe to return/come back near.– 175 – gběda̍dzo̍ gběda̍lá gbeɖé gbedóxɔ̍ gbegblẽ́ gběha̍ gbesíágbe gblẽ́ gblɔ gbɔ gbɔ gbɔ́ gbɔ̃̌ gbɔgbɔ gé gé ɖé geɖee geɖéme̍ƒé gegéɖéme gli globoo glɔ̃́ gǒ gódóó golo gomelã̌ gɔ̃glɔ̃́ gɔme gbɔgbɔvɔ̃́ (15) (11) (7) (14) (1) (8) (11) (10) (13) (3) (4) (11) (13) (15) (6) (6) (5) (17) (9) (3) (12) (8) (6) (3) (5) (12) (1) (17) (3) (15) healing/curing juju. from glɔ̃́ ) under.

common to all to drag a net K. always afternoon it is time.) moon. to bring about (something) to punish someone knife to need. kã́ ɖé (nú) dzí kábá (12) (9) to be sure.) time. farewell. at times every time. month star white (attr. safe journey communal. ha hẫ haɖé … o háfí hǎho hǎhodɔ́ hǎme̍nɔ̍lá háyá hẽ héhe (nú) vɛ̂ he ɖǒ he tó ná ame hede nyuie hɛ̌ hi ́̃á (11) (4) (2) (10) (11) (15) (14) (5) (9) (13) (16) (11) (11) (8) (17) (11) pig also. to be certain quickly . necessary goodbye. the time is up white (pred. membership to recover/get well and light brown. too not yet before communal work. each time. community work member. reddish brown to result. period west east (6) (7) H.– 176 – ɣe̍á ɖéwó ɣi ̍ ɣe̍dze̍ƒé ɣe̍si ́a̍ɣi ̍ ɣe̍tóɖóƒé ɣe̍trɔ́ ɣe̍yi ́ɣi ̍ ɣe̍yi ́ɣi ̍a̍ de ɣí ɣíé ɣle̍tí ɣle̍ti ́vi ́ (13) (16) (8) (17) (9) (9) (9) (10) (10) sometimes.

find by accident to doubt.– 177 – káfú ame ka̍ka̍ ɖé kakɛ kásíá kátã́ ké ké ké ké boŋ́ ke ɖé nú ŋú ke ɖi ke nu keke ke̍ke̍ kemɛ kemɛwó kéŋ́kéŋ́ ke̍si ̍nɔ̍tɔ́ Kéta̍ kétéke klã́ kluvi ko ko alɔgbɔnui ko nú ko̍kló (13) (12) (17) (8) (15) (9) (15) (15) (10) (14) (1) (3) (4) (4) (2) (11) (3) (1) (17) (10) (5) (3) (11) (16) (12) to praise/congratulate someone to scatter/spread over suddenly but (short form of gaké) sand same but rather to come upon. wide broad. wide that yonder those yonder completely. to part company only male slave all. sack. to utter/say something to be broad. to be clean/without sin pocupine really. whole a bit. extremely fowl to smile koklozi kokôgble̍ kokooko kóŋ́ kosi ko̍tókó̍ ko̍to̍kú kɔ (3) (17) (16) (11) (13) (12) (11) (2) . a piece (9) to laugh egg (of a hen) cocoa farm/plantation by all means. indeed. entirely. to compete. bag to be neat. to argue over something open the mouth. at all costs female slave pocket. altogether rich/wealthy person name of an Eʋe coastal town in Ghana train to separate.

to look forward to to gaze at. to look steadily in bewilderment to look after/take care of something high. cottage.– 178 – kɔ kɔ́ kɔ aha ɖí kɔ̍ ɖí/ kɔ̍ ɖé kɔ́ gbe dzǐ kɔ́ƒé Kɔ̍fi ́ kɔ́kɔ́ Kɔ̍sí kpa nú Kpálíme Kpándo̍ kpɔ́ kpɔ́ kpɔ́ … o kpɔ́ a̍me̍ ɖá kpɔ́ a̍me̍ dzi ́ kpɔ́ dzidzɔ̌ kpɔ́ dzi ̌dze̍dze̍ kpɔ́ ga kpɔ́ mɔ́ ná kpɔ́ nú dṹú̃ kpɔ́ nú dzí kpɔ́ nú gã kpɔtɔɔ kpé kpé kpé ame kpé ɖé a̍me̍ ŋú kpé ta̍ kpéɖéŋútɔ́ Kpédze̍ kpɔ́ núblánúi ́ ná ame Kɔ̍mla (12) (1) (15) (16) (12) (5) (3) (13) (15) neck to be tall/high to pour libation (an African custom) to speak out/up. assistant (11) to have mercy/pity on someone (1) (15) (10) (15) (15) (12) (5) to invite someone.g. rock to meet to help (someone) to meet helper. never before to visit someone to look after/ care for someone to be happy to succeed to be rich to expect. from kɔ́) village. to meet someone (also incidently) name of an Eʋe town in Ghana . water) stone. to raise one’s voice. hamlet to pour into/out (3) (17) (3) (3) (5) (7) (7) (10) (13) (12) (15) (11) (16) (16) (14) (9) (12) to look/gaze questionably muddy (e. tall (adj. to speak louder name for a male born on Friday name for a male born on Tuesday name for a male born on Sunday to carve name of an Eʋe town in Togo name of an Eʋe town in Ghana to see/look before/once never.

quite. each Sunday lazy person L. each week week Sunday every Sunday. e.– 179 – kpe̍kpe̍ kpekpeme kpéto̍ kplá así kɔ kplé kplefuu kplɔ kplɔ̃̍ (11) (11) (13) (3) (9) (6) (1) (14) (17) heavy weight cave and/with to lead/accompany table to sweep something misty. bag) to fetch water from a receptacle. short/low nearby place name of a town in Ghana cutlass.g. meat. matchet to die. pill hat rather. tablet. flesh .g. pot seed. death to serve someone a drink to sling on the neck (e. lã (4) animal. greyish to embrace kplɔ nú kplɔlá kpu̍i ̍ kpuiƒé Krachi kra̍nté kú ku aha ná ame ku kɔ ku tsi kú/ kúí Kuɖa kuku kúráá kútú kútsétsé kúvíá kúvíátɔ́ Kwa̍mi kwasiɖa sia kwasiɖa Kwasiɖa sia Kwasiɖa kwasiɖa/kɔsiɖa Kwa̍si ́ɖá/Kɔ̍si ́ɖá (11) (1) (15) (13) (10) (4) (15) (12) (12) (14) (6) (9) (11) (12) (17) (11) (2) (8) leader to be short/low. foggy. fairly fruit orange (see also aŋuti) Wednesday laziness (15) (6) (6) name for a male born on Saturday every week.

to get healthy after illness or sickness within the body meat/fish dealer/seller fisherman lãme ̍ lãme̍ gblẽ́ ̍ lãme̍ sẽ́ ̍ lãnyi ̍lá ̍ lãnyinyi ̍ ̍ ̍ lãtso̍lá lé lẽ̍ le así me le ɖoɖó nu̍ lé dɔ lé nɔ̍vi ́si ́ lé ŋ̍kú ɖé nú ŋú le tsi légba̍ li lolo lo̍lo̍ lɔ̃ Lome lɔ̃ ame lɔ̃ gbe lɔƒɔ lɔlɔ̃dzǒ big/large/fat to agree to be big/large/fat (9) (17) (11) (15) (9) capital of Togo (the largest Eʋe town) to love/like someone direction of. one who kills animals for food to catch/hold bridge to be in someone’s hands to be in order. rearing of animals. being present to watch/observe to recover. lump of meat to be indisposed/sick/ill one who rears animals as a profession. butcher’s shop large piece of meat. towards. live-stock keeper animal husbandry. vicinity of juju used for inducing love to exchange greetings M. area of.– 180 – ̍ lãɖe̍ɖe̍ la̍ɖe̍lá ̍ lãdzráƒé ̍ lãdzrálá ̍ lãkɔ́ (17) (17) (17) (16) (16) (11) (11) (12) (17) (16) (13) (15) (15) (17) (10) (6) (15) (8) (1) (3) (3) (15) (17) (13) fishing meat/fish shop. má (4) that . according to order to be ill. live-stock keeping butcher. to co-operate to take a bath idol to exist. to be sick to hold hands of brotherhood.

inside not to model/mould an idol it is no longer. castle holiday rice journey/travel/trek to fall (standing objects not in motion) on the road/ way permission. it is no more behind. lie in bed the last to roll (over) face (see also ŋkume) prison. back (n.) to swallow (something) left left shoulder to lie.– 181 – má mɔ́ má nú ma̍má ma̍máyɔ́vi ́ mamlɛ́ máwó Máwú me Máwúgã́ mé … o me légba̍ méga̍nyé me̍gbé mi nú mia mi ̍a̍bɔ́ta̍ mlɔ́ mlɔ́ a̍nyi ́ mlɔétɔ̍ mli mo mɔ́ mɔ̃́ mɔ́ɖe̍ɖe̍ mɔ́ke̍ke̍ mɔ́li ̍ mɔ́ta̍ mɔ́zɔ̍zɔ̍ mu (17) (12) (17) (8) (5) (15) (5) (1) (15) (15) (5) (14) (11) (11) (6) (6) (12) (17) (10) (1) (11) (10) (14) (3) (17) (16) (3) (4) (17) to part company grandmother grandchild last/rest/residue God The Great God in. after. to lay to lie down. ná náke̍ náné (5) (1) (6) to give. path those to share/divide N. rear.) something firewood . for (prep. permit way. fortress. road.

lived. cousin) my relative/sister/brother/cousin your relative/ sister/brother/cousin mouth. entrance. condition. one who cooks thing. restaurant teaching teacher speaking/talk (v. customer.n. pred. stayed to be present at. edge one thing. when Past form of le 'to be (somewhere)'. how much to drink round (solid objects.n. lived. was aunt (maternal) form. attr.– 182 – nánéké né ne̍némáké něni ̍é no nú nogo nogoo nótsi ̍ nɔ nɔ nɔ (nu) te̍ƒé nɔ agbe didǐ nɔ a̍nyi ́ nɔ̍ɖi ̍ nɔnɔme nɔ̍vi ́ nɔ̍vi ́nye nɔ̍vi ́wo nu̍ nú nú ɖeká núbla̍núi ́ núɖa̍lá núdódó núɖu̍ƒé (6) (17) (10) (3) (9) (5) (6) (10) (16) (9) (11) (5) (12) (12) (12) (13) (8) (10) (17) (8) (11) (9) (11) (15) nothing in the same way. existed. character relative (brother.) milk round (solid objects.) (3) (17) (13) (13) (4) (8) (17) (17) . to witness something to live long to be seated. eating (v. matter núɖu̍ɖu̍ núƒe̍ƒle̍ núfíáfíá núfíálá núƒle̍lá nu̍ƒo̍ƒo̍ núgbágbě núka̍ núka̍ta̍ (17) (6) food. sadness clothing cook.) dining hall. shape.n. one and the same thing pity. sister. in like manner how many.) mother (see also dadá) if. one who buys buying (v.) a living thing what why buyer.

district.) school. disciple.) learning. splendid woman dress. matter to wash something truth. nice cow-milk . complaint ̍ advice (see also núxɔ̍xlɔ̃) word of advice word. fact to know something. truthfully cow cattle ranch to be kind/generous excellent. sight ̍ ̍ núxlɔ̃ame̍nya̍ núxɔ̍xlɔ̃̍ nya nya nú nyǎ nú nya̍te̍ƒe̍ nyi nya̍te̍ƒétɔ̍e ̍ nyi ̍kpɔ́ nyinótsi ̍ nyó dɔme nyó ta nyó nyɔ́nu nyɔ́nu̍vi ́ nyɔ́nu̍wu̍ honestly.n. women’s wear girl to be good. product of the farm pen.– 183 – núkpa̍ƒé núkpa̍la̍ núkpɔ́kpɔ́ núkú núnáná núŋlɔ̍ti ́ núŋɔ̍ŋlɔ̍ núse̍se̍ núsɔ́srɔ̃́ ́ núsrɔ̃ƒé ́ núsrɔ̃lá nútáƒé nútálá nútátá núto̍me nu̍tso̍tso̍ nu̍wúwú ̍ ̍ núxlɔ̃ame̍ (17) (10) (12) (14) (14) (13) (17) (17) (17) (17) (17) (17) (11) (13) (9) (17) (17) (7) (8) (8) (5) (13) (13) (5) (16) (1) (3) (4) (11) (13) (3) (13) (13) carver’s/sculptor's workshop carver crop. study (v.) gift seeing. to be wise advice (see also núxlɔ̍ame̍) ̍ end hearing (v. area report. drawing. truly. beautiful. seed. one who draws and paints painting. artist. a place where one studies/learns student. one who studies or learns studio of an artist painter.n. pupil. reptile region.n. pencil writing (v. very good.

greediness greedy person town in Togo to write something eye hot noon. tree trunk. cloth).– 184 – nyré nyrɔ̍e ̍ nyúí nyúíé (12) (3) (2) (12) to sharpen (e. nicely. mirror. the time is up name real name face. ŋ̍dí ŋ̍di ́ kányá ŋ̍di ́núɖu̍ɖu̍ ŋ̍dɔ̍ ŋ̍dɔ̍ ná wo ŋ̍dɔ̍ sésẽ́ ŋ̍dɔ̍ʋu̍ʋu̍ ŋé ŋéŋé ŋgɔ ŋ̍gɔ̍gbé ŋ̍ke̍ke̍ ŋ̍ke̍ke̍á de ŋkɔ́ ŋkɔ́ ŋútɔ́ ŋ̍kú ŋ̍kúme (4) (6) (4) (17) (17) (12) (3) (4) (5) (13) (15) (15) (11) (15) (5) (9) (9) (6) morning breakfast noon. future day (see also gbe) the day comes. of wall. also name of a day breaks.g. knife) uncle (maternal) good/beautiful/nice well. surface (e. foreward. correctly. surface (of liquids) front. it is day surface e.g.g. hot sun early morning ŋlɔ agbalẽ̌ ŋlɔ agble ŋlɔ nú ŋɔ̍ti ́ Ŋɔ̍tsi ́é ŋu ke ŋú/ ŋútí ŋu̍fɔ́ke̍ ŋu̍kéklẽ́ ́ ŋúklẽlá (5) (13) (12) (16) (5) (11) (17) (17) (10) . beautifully Ŋ. body next day greed. midday. before to write a book/letter to weed/clear a farm nose name of an ancient Eʋe settlement. sun Good day to you sunshine to break broken front. rightly.

Pe̍ki ́ pétéé príkú (3) (2) (9) name of an Eʋe town in Ghana completely. what is within one’s power or ability O. entirely. authority peace history.– 185 – ŋúsẽ́ ŋútété ŋútífáfá ŋúti ́nya̍ ŋútɔ́ ŋútsu ŋútsu̍ví ŋútsu̍wu̍ (10) (9) (12) (3) (11) (4) (2) (16) power. O Osɔ́fo̍ O̍ yɔ́ (9) (12) (1) No Pastor. altogether (see also kéŋ́kéŋ́ ) ́ mongoose (see also axlɔ̃e ̃́ ) S. sa̍bálá sáma̍ sámá sẽ́ se nú se vevé ́ sẽe ́̃ sésẽ́ sí (8) (10) (1) (10) summons to recover/get well. Father (as in the Roman Catholic Church) the name of an ancient Eʋe settlement – the sight is believed to be near the town of Oyo in Western Nigeria P. story man men’s wear/clothes boy very one’s best. Priest. from sẽ́ ) . might. hard (adj. to be strong/hard to feel pain to hear something to summon onion (16) (3) (5) (17) (6) a little while to run away strong.

attendance at school pupil. top of. worshiper schooling. a place where one can escape golden plate these (11) T. student. over . the act of running away one who runs away. just equal to to be little/small/few. enough to pay (someone) a visit spouse. a runaway umbrella horse same as. ta̍ tá (9) (13) lake. wife/husband to learn wife (see also asi) husband (see also atsú) servant. without exception gold sugar escape. little/small/few many. above.– 186 – si ̍a̍ síá si ̍a̍wó si ̍ká si ̍kágbá/si ̍kátsi ̍gbá síkli sisí sisíƒé/síƒé sisílá sɔ́ sɔ̍ pɛ́ sɔ̍e ̍ sɔgbɔ srã́ (a̍me̍) kpɔ́ srɔ̃ srɔ̃ nú ̍ srɔ̃nyɔ́nu̍ ̍ srɔ̃ŋútsu̍ súbɔ́ súbɔ́lá su̍kû su̍kûde̍de̍ su̍kûde̍ɣi ̍ su̍kûde̍lá su̍kûháti ́ su̍kûví susú súsú su̍kûxɔ̍ so̍wu̍i ̍ɛ̍ (4) (16) (10) (10) (17) (17) (7) (17) (1) (1) (10) (11) (14) (11) (11) (15) (15) (16) (17) (17) (8) (8) (8) (3) (17) (8) (4) this all. student school building to think thought school days school to serve/worship sight of escape. one who attends school schoolmate pupil. just as. pond. lagoon head.

bank of a river or lake mountain. halt. ass place. underneath donkey.) then.) meeting hall handkerchief thinking.) round (pred. below. although hill even though. to pound. from tri) edge. any large collection of water Capital of Togo .– 187 – ta̍ le a̍me̍ ɖu̍ḿ tá nú táflo̍ ta̍kpéxɔ̍ ta̍kúvi ́ Tamale ta̍me̍bu̍bu̍ tási ̍ te té tédzí teƒé tegbee tegblẽ tegblẽe tete títína ti ́ti ́na̍su̍kû ti ̍tri ̍ to to̍ tó tó (a̍me̍) dzí tó … ŋú tógbɔ́ bé tógbɔ́ bé … hẫ tógbɛ̍ tɔ tɔ́ tɔ́ (v. thought aunt (paternal) yam under. per someone though. centre middle school thick (adj. ear. lake. forever round (attr. and then middle. times (as in 2 times 2) always. to go over/through/accross through someone. boat to stop. sea. younger brother of father) surface (of water) ship.) tɔ́ɖi ̍ tɔ̍dzíʋú tɔƒo Tógó ƒé dugã́ (16) (1) (11) (13) (13) (3) (7) (10) (15) (9) (9) (17) (5) (17) (3) (3) (5) (5) (15) (15) (9) (16) (5) (11) (11) (5) (4) (17) (11) (15) (7) to have a headache board (for writing on in schools etc. stand still river. although to pass by buf'falo name of a town in the north of Ghana to draw something (4) father (see also fofo) uncle (paternal.

come back to face. to look towards to face. to look towards to turn and come (back) to to turn and go (back) to fetish priest/priestess fetish owner fetish hut/house calabash thick to wander about. days gone by. in the past yours. to go sightseeing to look round touring car younger brother water to grow to be late.– 188 – tɔ́gbi ́ (10) (8) (12) (17) (17) (15) (6) (15) (10) (13) (10) (10) (6) (6) (15) (15) (15) (1) (8) (9) (13) (6) (14) (17) (17) grandfather fish seller/ fish dealer river turning. your people/relatives to turn. change point of return special fetish to turn to/towards to return. to remain behind to stand up swimming swimmer to be thirsty swimming pool. place where one can swim former days. to change fish tɔ̍me̍lã̍ tɔ̍si ́si ́ tɔtrɔ́ ̍ tɔ̍me̍lãdzrálá tɔtrɔ́ƒé/trɔ́ƒé tɔ̍wo̍wó tɔ̍xɛ̍ trɔ́ trɔ̃́ trɔ́ ɖé trɔ́ gbɔ trɔ́ mo̍ ɖé trɔ́ ŋ̍kúme̍ ɖé trɔ́ vá trɔ́ yi trɔ̃si ́ trɔ̃tɔ́ tré tri tsa tsã́ tsa ŋ̍kú tsɛ̍ tsi tsi tsi ́ me̍gbé tsí tre tsi ̍ƒúƒé tsi ̍ƒúƒú tsi ̍ƒúlá tsi ̍kɔ́ wu ame tsa̍ɖi ̍ʋú ́ trɔ̃xɔ̍ (12) (8) (9) (17) (7) (17) (17) (1) (12) .

until. vǎ vá ɖó váséɖé vavá vevé (9) (14) (17) (17) (3) to come to. to carry to pledge (something). to arrive at coming/arrival of pain up to.g. to come from bath/bathroom tsɔ́ (nú) dé así … ná ame (15) (12) (14) (2) tútúútú V. a door) to build a house back of the body exactly. to take to carrier. one who carries to eliminate/destroy to lie on the stomach to be pointed gun to close (e. to reach. definitely.– 189 – tsi ̍kɔ́/ ts̍ikɔ́wu̍ame̍ ̍ tsi ̍le̍ƒé tsitsǐtɔ̍ tsi ̍wu̍ tso tsó tso a̍me̍ nu̍ tsó ɖé a̍me̍ ŋú tso du tsɔ́ tsɔ́ … ná tsɔ́ ɖě le̍ éme̍ ná ame tsɔ́ nú ke ame tsɔ́ nú vɛ̂ tsɔ́ yi ̍i ̂ tsɔ́lá tsrɔ̃́ tsyɔ́ akɔ́ a̍nyi ̂ ̍ tsyɔ̃e ̍ tú tu tú agba tu xɔ tume tsó ɣe̍ má ɣi ̍ (7) (13) (11) (3) (13) (12) (7) (14) (16) (17) (10) (14) (11) (17) (14) (4) (4) (3) (11) (17) (17) (3) (14) thirst the older/elder one rain coat to fell (a tree). till to come . surely to untie a load to rise/revolt against someone to rise/stand up. to entrust into someone’s care to give to to care about/ care for/ to show interest in someone to forgive/excuse someone to bring something to go with something. to slaughter to report someone to found a town or village from that time. since then to take.

court case (10) (1) (10) judge door court. types of to be finished to be afraid sin.) to struggle blood drum drummer vehicle (as lorry. bitter important child. one’s daughter or son baby little. car. wrong fear a fight with blows juju used for fighting (“fighting juju”) importance feeling of pain Ʋ. interesting your child different kinds. small.n. court room (13) (13) (15) (3) (6) (15) (10) (13) smell. few son my child sweet. vovoovowó vɔ vɔ̃́ vɔ̃̌ vɔvɔ̃́ vu vuwɔdzɔ̌ viŋútsu̍vi ́ (13) (12) (16) (12) (16) (12) (12) (8) (7) (17) (9) (9) (15) (6) (13) (17) sour. scent smelling (v.– 190 – vévé vevése̍se̍ vévíé vevíényényé vǐ vi ̌dzi ̃̍ víé vǐnye víví vǐwo vovoovo. ʋɔnu ́ ʋɔnudrɔ̃ƒé ́ ʋɔnudrɔ̃lá ʋɔtrú ʋẽ̌ (nú) se ʋẽʋẽ́ ʋli ʋu ʋu ʋǔ ʋǔ ʋǔƒo̍lá ́ ʋẽʋẽse̍se̍ trial. to scent . ship or plane) to open to smell (something). sorts of.

both of them you are welcome to do/make to treat/cure someone to fight a war to work to maltreat someone to be lazy to live in brotherhood/harmony to offend (someone) to do (something) to (someone).– 191 – W. they are fine (a form of greeting) both.) thirteen flour they are well/fine (a form of greeting) all. dog) to burst into tears they are well. all of them one of them (17) (17) (5) (3) (15) (5) (10) (11) (9) (10) (17) (4) (14) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (11) (7) (7) (3) (9) .n. to harm (someone) to fight with blows to kill to surpass sixteen to end/finish doing something seventeen nineteen fifteen eleven fourteen eighteen twelve killing (v.g. to explode. wó wó avǐ wó do̍me̍tɔ́ ɖeká wó ɖóku̍i ̍wó wó kátã́ wó kplé eve wódɔ́ wo̍e ́ zɔ wɔ wɔ́ wɔ ati ́ke̍ ná a̍me̍ wɔ aʋa wɔ dɔ̌ wɔ fu ame wɔ kúvíá wɔ nɔ̍vi ́ wɔ nú ɖé (a̍me̍) ŋú wɔ (nú) véví (a̍me̍) wɔ vu wu wú wú nu̍ wúíade wúíadre wúíasíéké wúíatɔ̃́ wúíɖekɛ́ wúíene wúi ́e̍nyi ́ wúíetɔ̃ wúíeve wu̍wu̍ (17) (17) (3) (17) (8) (17) to burst. to bark (e.

to be infested. xa̍ xáxá/xáxɛ́ xé adzɔ xé fe xe̍vi ́ xéxé xéxéme´ xe̍xi ́ xlɔ̃ nú ame xlẽ agbalẽ̌ xlẽ nú xóxó xóxó xoxooxo xɔ xɔ (nú dzí) se xɔ xɔ agbalẽ ɖé fe̍ dzi ́ xɔ asi xɔ da ɖí/ xɔ ɖí xɔ dɔlélé xɔ dzo xɔ dzǒ xɔ ƒe (5) (1) (15) (1) (10) (5) (15) (17) (7) (7) (11) to be narrow. receiver to save someone . to pay for services bird outside. to take and keep to fall sick/ill. narrow to pay a debt. former already long ago. long long ago house. to become ill/ sick to be hot hot (adj.– 192 – X. from xɔ dzo) expensive. outdoors to pay a fee by the side of.) saviour. popular (attr. near to to advise someone to read a book/letter to count something old. dear to receive umbrella the world (11) (3) (12) (1) (8) (3) (10) (4) (15) (1) (3) (16) xɔ fe̍dzi ́gba̍lẽ̍ xɔ ná ame xɔ ŋkɔ́ xɔla xɔ́lɔ̃ xɔ̍ŋkɔ́ xɔse xɔ̍tu̍ƒe̍ xɔ̍ ŋusẽ́ (10) (16) (15) (10) (9) (8) (17) (11) (9) to take a receipt age. building to believe (something) to take a receipt (on a debt) to keep. to be old (in years) to be famous/popular to empower (someone) friend belief building site famous.

fresh to go cutlass. night has fallen pot midnight night (1) (7) the largest type of antelope found in the savanah lands of West Africa .– 193 – xɔ̍tu̍lá xɔxɔ́nu̍ (17) (5) builder court yard Y. matchet (see also kra̍nté) to come with someone black (attr.) departure to call alright. black (pred.) to continue (doing something) air. O. ya̍ yaa ya̍me ya̍me̍ʋú Ya̍wá Yawo Yáwo̍ɖa̍ yayrá ye̍vú yéyě yi yí yi kplé ame yi nú dzí yi ̍bɔ̍ yibɔɔ yiyi yo̍o̍ yɔ́ yrá ame yrɔ (9) (4) (11) (11) (16) (9) (12) (3) (10) (16) (9) (4) (17) (8) (5) (16) (12) (11) (4) tasteless (not sweet.K. weather aeroplane name for a female born on Thursday name for a male born on Thursday Thursday blessing European. gas (in aeriform) (15) to wither to bless someone Z. white person new. zã̌ zã dó zãtíƒe̍/zãtitina zě zǐ (9) (4) (6) night falls. not bitter) atmosphere.

n.) to be smooth smooth (pred. the first time stool. to pass through walking (v.– 194 – zi ɖoɖo̍e ́ zi etɔ̃ gbe ɖeká ́ zi gbãtɔ̍ zi kpí zikpuǐ zɔ zɔ mɔ́ zɔ mɔ́ tó zɔzɔ zrɔ̃ zɔ̍zrɔ̍e ̍ zu (10) (14) (11) (10) (13) (12) (12) (9) (9) (9) (13) (1) to keep silent three times a day. seat to travel.) to become to walk to refuse to speak . to go on a journey to travel through. thrice daily first time.

– 195 – VOCABULARY ENGLISH – EƲE .

. ényó hẫ tógbɔ́ bé … hẫ xóxó ya̍ although altogether always amidst/among among ancient times and animal husbandry animal another kéŋ́kéŋ́. xlɔ̃ nú ame ɣe̍trɔ́ gaxɔ ƒe lɔ̃ wó kátã́ ́ kátã. núxɔ̍xlɔ̃. hé-. ɖa-. pétéé dome le . a. tsã́ tegbee. ɣe̍si ́a̍ɣi ̍. kplé ̍ lãnyi ̍nyi ̍ búbǔ lã . a certain a lot of above abuse someone (to) accompany (to) accross advice advise someone (to) aeroplane after afternoon again age agree (to) air all of them all allow somthing (to) already alright also afraid (to be) achievement -á … ɖé geɖee dzu ame tó kplɔ ta̍ agbagbádze̍dze̍ ̍ ̍ ̍ aɖaŋuɖóɖó. ɣe̍awó kátã́ ɣi ̍ ̍ éye̍..– 196 – A. síá ɖe mɔ́ ná yo̍o̍. núxlɔ̃ame̍ ya̍me̍ʋú vɔ̃́ me̍gbé ɖó aɖaŋu ná ame. dome blema.

) . gódóó.). ési bíá tédzí kpéɖéŋútɔ́ kokooko. golo akɔ̍ɖú gblẽ́ (v. aɖaŋuwɔlá abé álési … e̍né abé … e̍né.– 197 – answer (to) appeal to someone for help (to) area of area argue over something (to) arm arrangement arrival artist as how as ask (to) ass assistant at all costs at once at present at times atmosphere attempt (to) attend school (to) aunt (maternal) aunt (paternal) authority attendance at school arrive at (to) ɖó nya̍ ŋú lɔƒɔ núto̍me abɔ̌ vavá. gbegblẽ́ (adj. baby back of the body bad spirit bad bag banana vi ̌dzi ̍̃ tume. gódó gódó gódó énu̍máké fífíá ɣe̍á ɖéwó ɣi ̍ ya̍me dze agbagbá su̍kûde̍de̍ nɔ̍ɖi ̍ ŋúsẽ́ tási ̍ de su̍kû ɖoɖó ke ɖi tso nú ŋú dze a̍me̍ dzi ́ B. ɖoɖó vá ɖó nútálá. megbé gbɔgbɔvɔ̃́ ko̍to̍kú.

black person bless someone (to) blessing bird to̍ wó tsi ̍le̍ƒé tsi ̍le̍le̍ ƒu̍ta̍/ƒu̍nu̍ a̍yi ̍ ƒo ƒo ʋǔ ƒo ame nyó (v.) yrá ame yayrá a̍me̍yi ̍bɔ̍ xe̍vi ́ lolo (v. take a bath (to) bathing beach beans beat (to) beat a drum (to) beat someone (to) beautiful beautifully because because of this become (to) become ill/sick (to) bed before behind belief believe something (to) below between us between bicycle big bit bitter black blackman. yibɔɔ (pred. gã́ (adj.). nyúíé (adj. bathroom bath (to). ŋ̍kúme xɔse té xɔ nú dzí se me̍gbé le tsi adidó dome gasɔ́ le míá dome kakɛ vévé yibɔ̌ (attr.) nyúíé élabéná ési ̍a̍ ta̍ zu xɔ dɔlélé abatí háfí. lo̍lo̍ (adj.).).– 198 – bank (of a river or lake) baobab bark (to) bath.) .). nyúí.

dzi vǐ keke (v. both of them box boy bread break (to) breakfast breath breathe (to) brick bridge bring something to bring about (something) (to) bring forth (to) broad broken buffalo build a house (to) builder building building site bundle burn (to) ʋu tɔ̍dzi ́ʋu̍ agbalẽ wó kplé eve aɖáka abólo̍ ŋútsu̍ví gbã.).) ŋé. ké ké boŋ́ ̍ lãtso̍lá ƒle gbě to táflo̍ bablá wó burst (to) burst into tears (to) bush but but rather butcher butcher’s shop buy (to) ̍ lãdzráƒé .– 199 – blood board boat book both. fíã́ wó avǐ gaké. ŋé ŋ̍di ́núɖu̍ɖu̍ gbɔgbɔ gbɔ a̍nyi ́kpé lẽ̍ tsɔ́ nú vɛ̂ he (nú) vɛ̂ dzi ame. ke̍ke̍ (adj. bi dzo. ŋéŋé tu xɔ xɔ̍tu̍lá xɔ xɔ̍tu̍ƒe̍ bi.

nútsɔ́lá. ɖǔfa̍. gódóó.– 200 – buyer. one who buys by all means by the side of núƒle̍lá gbɔ́. ati ́ke̍ƒo̍ƒo̍e ̍ ́ ́ ʋǔ tsɔ́ ɖě le̍ éme̍ ná ame kpɔ́ a̍me̍ dzi ́ ati ́kpa̍lá agbatsɔ́lá. calabash calculate (to) calculation call (to) canoe capsule car care about/for someone care for someone (to) carpenter carrier carry (to) carve (to) carver carver’s workshop cassava cast a net (to) cast-net castle tré bu akɔ́nta̍ yɔ́ akplóʋú ati ́ke̍kóe. tsɔ́lá tsɔ́ kpa nú núkpa̍la̍ agbeli asabu mɔ̃́ lé da asabu núkpa̍ƒé catch (to) cathedral cattle ranch cave centre certain (to be) chair chalk change change (to) nyi ̍kpɔ́ títína kã́ ɖé nú dzí ablegɔ́ tɔtrɔ́ trɔ́ ɣé kpéto̍ gbedóxɔ̍ gã́ . xa̍ kokooko. customer. a̍ma̍kɔ́e. gódó gódó C.

trɔ́ gbɔ tsó ke ɖé nú ŋú yi kplé ame ɖe gbe hǎho vá ɖó ƒla̍tsa̍ (attr. fáfá. tegblẽe (pred. ƒlatsaa (pred. a pit.– 201 – chapel character cheap cheat cheat someone (to) chest (of the body) chief child childhood children’s wear circular citizen citizenship clean (to be) clear a farm (to) clinic close cloth clothes. cocoa plantation cold collect something (to) come (to) come back (to) come from (to) come to (to) come upon (to) come with someone (to) command (to) common to all gbedóxɔ̍ nɔnɔme ɖi ba ame akɔ́ta̍ fia ɖeví.) ŋútsu̍wu̍ a̍me̍ba̍lá fá (v.g. dza ŋlɔ agble ati ́ke̍wɔ̍ƒé tú (as in tú ʋɔ) avɔ̌ núdódó ƒu̍ta̍/ƒu̍nu̍ kokôgble̍ fɔ nú gbɔ. ɖevíwó ƒé núdódó tegblẽ (used for hollow things. beach cocoa farm.).) vǎ .). e. fáfɛ́ (adj.) dumeví dumevínyényé kɔ. men’s wear clothing coarse coast. attr. vǐ ɖevíme ɖevi ́wu̍.).

da gbě le fa avi vévíé xɔxɔ́nu̍ a̍nyígbá yi nú dzí nɔnɔme vev́ese̍se̍ nu̍tso̍tso̍ núɖa̍lá ɖó ame fia. fáfá. da dɔ ná ame. wɔ dɔ̌ ƒoƒúí blî nyúíé kɔ́ƒé ́ ʋɔnudrɔ̃ƒé ʋɔnu. fáfɛ́ (adj.) curing juju hǎhodɔ́ lɔ ame ke ɖi kéŋ́kéŋ́. ɖó fia . ati ́ke̍wɔ̍wɔ̍ wɔ ati ́ke̍ ná ame. agblemenú. núkú a̍me̍há fi ̍a̍kúkú fa aví de agble a̍me̍ ŋú gběda̍dzo̍ gbědada. ko̍dzó nyi nyinótsi ̍ glɔ̃́ (v.).n.) lé nɔ̍vi ́ sí. pétéé káfú ame ɖó dze ɖa nú fá (v.– 202 – communal/community work compare with (to) compete (to) complaint completely condition congratulate someone (to) continue something (to) converse (to) cook cook (to) cool co-operate (to) corn correctly cottage country court.). dɔdadǎ. court room court case court yard cow cow-milk crooked crop crowd crown crown (to) cry (to) cry bitterly (to) cultivate (to) cure someone (to) curing (v. gɔ̃glɔ̃́ (adj.) agblemenúkú.

bíá bé dzodzó. dead person dear (to be) death debt definitely deliver a child (to) demand (to) depart (to) departure desk destroy completely (to) die (to) different kind dig a hole/pit (to) dining hall disciple discover (to) disease dispensary distant place district divide (to) do (to) direction of ɖú ɣe ŋ̍ke̍ke̍. it is day day days gone by days of joy dead dead body. yiyi dɔ̌wɔ̍kplɔ̃̍ tsrɔ̃́ kú dzó ŋu ke vovoovo núɖu̍ƒé lɔƒɔ fɔ dɔlélé ɖiɖiƒé núto̍me má nú wɔ ati ́ke̍wɔ̍ƒé ́ núsrɔ̃lá ɖe dɔ̌ . asi ̍si ̍ kra̍nté. yí D. gbe ́ tsã.– 203 – customer cutlass núƒle̍lá. gbeá ɖé gbe dzidzɔŋkekewo kúkú a̍me̍kúkú xɔ asi kú fe tútúútú dzi vǐ bíá. dance (to) day breaks. ŋ̍ke̍ke̍ si ̍wó vá yi.

ɖǔtɛ̍ le ési ̍a̍ ta̍. ta avɔ̌ awu. women’s wear drink drink (to) drink (alcoholic) drug druggist’s shop drum (to) drum drummer due to this (to be) duty (on goods) ati ́ke̍wɔ̍lá. each each time each week ear early morning earth easily east eat something (to) eat to one’s satisfaction edge ɖesi ́a̍ɖě ɣe̍si ́a̍ɣi ̍ tó a̍nyígbá ɣe̍dze̍ƒé ɖu nú ɖí ƒo to̍. ama ati ́ke̍dzraƒe ƒo ʋǔ ʋǔ ʋǔƒo̍lá adzɔ. dɔdalá. ke ɖi tsó nú ŋú tédzí dó awu.– 204 – doctor dog donkey door doubt (to) down drag/draw a net (to) drag-net draw something (to) dress up (to) dress. nu̍ bɔ̍bɔ̍e ̍ ŋ̍di ́ kányá kwa̍si ́ɖá síá kwa̍si ́ɖá. nyɔ́nu̍wu̍ núno̍no̍ no aha ati ́ke̍. gběda̍lá avǔ ʋɔtrú a̍nyí he ɖǒ ɖɔ̌ tá nú ke ɖi ame. kɔ̍si ́ɖá síá kɔ̍si ́ɖá . ési ̍a̍ ta̍ E.

ɖó fia gegéɖéme mɔ́ nu̍.– 205 – edible thing egg (of a hen) egg eight eighteen eighty elder elder brother elder one elephant eleven eliminate (to) embrace (to) emperor empower someone (to) encourage someone (to) end end (something) (to) endeavour endeavour (to) English English-speaking area enough enstool someone (to) enter (to) entirely entrance entrust (to) escape Europe European even though entering (v.n. entry elder sister núɖu̍ɖu̍ ko̍klózi e̍nyi ́ blǎenyi ́ ̍ fo̍ a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍ tsitsǐtɔ̍ wúi ́e̍nyi ́ azi dǎá ati ́gli ́nyi ̍ wúíɖekɛ́ tsrɔ̃́ kplá así kɔ fia nǎ ŋúsẽ́ ame dǒ ŋúsẽ́ ame wǔ (nú) nu̍ agbagbádze̍dze̍ dze agbagbá Éŋle̍si ̍ sɔgbɔ gé ɖé Éŋle̍sime nu̍wúwú ɖó ame fia. pétéé .). geɖéme̍ƒé sisí Ablotsí ye̍vú tógbɔ́ bé … hẫ tsɔ́ dé asi ́ ná kéŋ́kéŋ́.

trɔ́ ŋ̍kúme̍ ɖé . mu. Ewe language Ewe nation Ewe people. each week everybody. every person evil spirit Ewe. Ewes Ewe-speaking area Eweland exactly examine (to) excellent exchange greetings (to) excuse (to) exist (to) expect (to) expensive explode (to) extremely eye eye glasses fi ̍ẽ̍ gbesíágbe ɣe̍si ́a̍ɣi ̍ a̍mési ́áme gbɔgbɔvɔ̃́ kwa̍si ́ɖá síá kwa̍si ́ɖá. xɔ dɔlélé gé . face face (to) fact fairly fall sick/ill (to) fall (to) family ŋ̍kúme. nɔ a̍nyi ́ (Past) xɔ asi (v.– 206 – evening evening falls. mo nya̍te̍ƒe̍ kúráá dze dɔ. always every week. dze a̍nyí ƒome trɔ́ mo̍ ɖé. everyone. dǒ nú kpɔ́ nyó ta lɔ̃ gbe tsɔ́ nú ke li (Present).) wó kóŋ́ kpɔ́ mɔ́ ná gaŋ̍kúi ́ ŋ̍kú F. Eʋegbe Eʋedukɔ́ Eʋeawó Eʋeme Eʋenyígbá tútúútú dǒ a̍me̍ kpɔ́. kɔ̍si ́ɖá síá kɔ̍si ́ɖá ɖesi ́a̍ɖě fi ̍ẽ̍ ɖó Eʋe. it is evening every every day every time. each time.

) hěde̍ nyúi ́é agble agblexɔ̌ agblemenúkú agblekotokú agblededě lolo. víé wúíatɔ̃́ blǎatɔ̃́ ̍ vu wɔ aʋa fɔ ke ɖé nú ŋú wɔ vu . dé ami (v.).) fo̍fó.– 207 – famous far off place farewell farm farm (to) farm hut/house farm path farm product farmer farmer's bag/sack farming fat father fear fee (for services) feel pain (to) feeling of pain fell a tree (to) female slave fetch a fire (to) fetch water (for someone to drink) (to) fetch water (from a well or river) (to) fetish fetish hut/house fetish owner few fetish priest/priestess fifteen fifty fight (with blows) fight (with blows) (to) fight a war (to) find (to) find accidentally (to) xɔ̍ŋkɔ́ (attr. tɔ́ vɔvɔ̃́ adzɔ se vevé vevése̍se̍ tso atí kosi ɖe dzo ku tsi du tsi trɔ̃́ agblemɔ́ agbledelá de agble ɖiɖiƒé ́ trɔ̃xɔ̍ ́ trɔ̃tɔ́ trɔ̃si sɔ̍e ̍ (v. adj..

ɖe lã ̍ tɔ̍me̍lãdzrálá ̍ tɔ̍me̍lãdzráƒé ́ ́ gbã. tɔ̍me̍lãɖe̍ɖe̍ ɖǒ ŋkeke gbadzaa gba̍dzɛ̍ lã wɔ́ dzo dze a̍me̍ yo̍me kplefuu. akpa̍ (the smaller types) atɔ̃́ ̍ la̍ɖe̍lá. litii afɔ ná núɖu̍ɖu̍ forest forever forgive (to) form former former days fortress forty avě tsɔ́ nú ke nɔnɔme xóxó tsã́ tegbee blǎene̍ ̍ mɔ̃́ .– 208 – finish doing something finished (to be) fire fireplace firewood first time first firstly fish fish (to) fish seller/dealer fish shop fisherman fishing five fix a date/day (to) flat (large surface) flat (small surface) flesh flour fly (to) foggy food foot for follow someone (to) wú nu̍ vɔ dzo náke̍ dzodóƒé ́ zi gbãtɔ̍ ́ gbã. gbãlá ̍ tɔ̍me̍lã. tɔ̍me̍lãɖe̍lá ̍ ̍ lãɖe̍ɖe̍. gbãtɔ̍ ̍ ɖe tɔ̍me̍lã.

gã. ŋ̍gɔ̍gbé kútsétsé ŋgɔ. ɣe̍yi ́ɣi ̍ si ̍ gbɔ̍na/ le vavá gé xɔ́lɔ̃ yéyě ko̍kló tso du G. ɖetugbuí núnáná fɔ́ dzra ɖo Dza̍ma̍wó/ Dzwa̍ma̍tɔ́wó . ŋ̍gɔ̍gbé.– 209 – forward found a town/village (to) four fourteen fowl freedom fresh Friday friend frighten someone (to) from that time from time to time front fruit future ŋgɔ. nɔ kla̍lo ́ háyá. ŋ̍gɔ̍gbé ene wúíene ablɔɖe Fíɖá dó vɔvɔ̃́ ná ame tsó ɣe̍ má ɣi ̍ énu̍enu̍ ́ ŋgɔ. sẽ́ gbɔgbɔ nyɔ́nu̍vi ́. game gaze at something (to) gaze at something questionably (to) generation generous (to be) Gentleman German fefé kpɔ́ nú dṹú̃ kpɔ́ nú gã dzidzime Aƒétɔ́ nyó dɔme Germans (the) German-speaking area get prepared (to) get ready (to) get up from a lying position (to) get well (to) ghost gift girl Dzama Dzamame ̍ get healthy after illness or sickness (to) lãme̍ sẽ́ dzra ɖo.

nyúíé (adj. nyúí.) ŋ̍dɔ̍ (greeting) hěde̍ nyúi ́é adzɔnúwó gǒ ŋ̍dɔ̍ ná wo (greeting) si ̍kátsi ̍gbá tsɔ́ … ná go for a walk/on a trek/sightseeing (to) ɖi tsa grandchild grandfather grandmother Great God greed. jail goat God gold gold plate golden plate good Good day goodbye goods gourd Good day to you ná asi ́wu̍i ̍ yi trɔ́ yi yi. zɔ mɔ́ do gǒ tó tsa. ɖi tsa tó de su̍kû ɖó ta̍ tsɔ́ yi ̍i ̂ gaxɔ̍ gbɔ̃̌ Máwú si ̍ká si ̍kágbá nyó (v. greediness greedy person green grass greet (to) tɔ́gbi ́yɔ́vi ́/ ma̍máyɔ́vi ́ tɔ́gbi ́ Máwúgã́ ŋu̍kéklẽ́ ́ ŋúklẽlá gbě dáma̍ dó gbe ná (ame) ma̍má .).– 210 – give (to) give to (to) gloves (a pair of) go (to) go back to (to) go on a journey (to) go out (to) go over/through/accross (to) go sightseeing (to) go through (to) go to school (to) go towards (to) go with something (to) goal. mɔ́zɔ̍zɔ̍.

). curing healing juju hear (to) hearing heaven. ɣe̍yi ́ɣi ̍ sésẽwó sẽ́ (v. da gbě la a̍me̍ ŋú gbědada. ati ́ke̍wɔ̍dzo̍ le tsi kpɔ́ núblánúi ́ ná ame kpɔ́ dzidzɔ̌ kɔ́ƒé dɔdalá.– 211 – greyish ground groundnuts. wɔ ati ́ke̍. nuts grow (to) gun gun-powder kplefuu azǐ tú ɖu tsi a̍nyi ́gbá H. dɔdadǎ se núse̍se̍ kpe̍kpe̍ ko̍tóko̍ kpéɖéŋútɔ́ afî kpé ɖé a̍me̍ ŋú dziƒô gběda̍dzo̍.. space heavy hedgehog help someone (to) helper here afã́ tɔ́ ta̍kúvi ́ ́ fu̍kpéɣi ̍wó.) wɔ núvéví ame kúkú le . ati ́ke̍wɔ̍wɔ̍. half halt hamlet handkerchief happy (to be) hard times hard harm (to) hat have mercy on someone (to) have (to) have/take a bath (to) head towards (to) head heal (to) healer healing. así ɖó ta̍ ta̍ da dɔ.. dɔdadzǒ. sésẽ́ (adj. gběda̍lá . ati ́ke̍wɔ̍lá.

atsú I. de̍ nya̍te̍ƒétɔ̍e sɔ́ afɔ̍wu̍i ̍ ati ́ke̍wɔ̍ƒém.) tógbɛ̍ agblenú lě nú ɖé así dǒ lé nɔ̍vi ́si ́ mɔ́ke̍ke̍ afé denyígbá afé. if idol ill (to be) légba̍ né lé dɔ . building how how many.– 212 – hide (to) high.) a̍me̍dzródze̍ƒé. tall hill history hoe hold (to) hold hands of brotherhood (to) hole holiday home homeland homeland. kɔ́kɔ́ (adj. dɔdaƒé.). xɔ dzǒ (adj. home town honestly horse hose hospital hot hotel house.). dukɔ́ŋúti ́nya̍ dɔ wu ame adelá srɔ̃ wɔ núvéví (ame) ̍ srɔ̃ŋútsu̍. how much huge hundred hunger hunter hungry hurt (to) husband husband be kɔ́ (v. dɔwuamě ŋúti ́nya̍. dzeƒé xɔ áléké něni ̍é gã́ a̍la̍fá dɔ. dɔnɔkɔ́dzi ́ xɔ dzo (v.

jail job journey joy judge juju juju for fighting juju for healing/ curing juju for inducing love juju for killing others juju name juju owner/ juju-man dɔ̌ mɔ́zɔ̍zɔ̍ ́ ʋɔnudrɔ̃lá dzo gběda̍dzo̍ a̍me̍wu̍dzo̍ dzoŋkɔ́ dzotɔ́ lɔlɔ̃dzǒ vuwɔdzɔ̌ dzidzɔ̌ gaxɔ̍ .g.– interesting story) kpé ame a̍me̍kpékpé J. ŋúti ́nya̍ vi ́vi ́. le ési ̍a̍ te̍ƒé dzu ame víví (e. le ɖoɖó nu̍ le̍ a̍me̍ si ́ me tsã́ lá ne̍némáké vévíé ne̍némáké me dzi ̍ ɖé édzí kóŋ́. inside increase (to) indeed indisposed (to be) infested with desease (to be) inside/within the body instead insult someone (to) interesting invite someone (to) invitee in the same way énu̍máké vevíényényé fṹṹ le ɖoɖó me.– 213 – immediately importance important in large quantities/numbers in like manner in order (to be) in someone’s hands (to be) in the past in. ŋútɔ́ ̍ lãme̍ gblẽ́ xɔ dɔlélé lãme kéboŋ́.

– 214 – jump (to) just as just equal to just now dzo kpó abé álési … e̍né. sɔ̍ pɛ́ fífílaa sɔ̍ pɛ́ K. lolo (v. keep in safe custody (to) keep silent (to) kill (to) killing illing of oneself kind (to be) kind of kind person kindle a fire (to) king kitchen kneel (to) knife know (to) know someone (to) dzra nú ɖó wu wuwu a̍me̍ɖóku̍i ̍wu̍wu̍ nyó dɔme ƒo̍me̍vi ́ dɔmenyótoɔ́ dó dzo fia dzodóƒé hɛ̌ dze sí ame. lad Lady lagoon lake lamp land large ɖekákpu̍i ̍ Aƒénɔ̍ tá tá (tɔ) a̍nyígbá ́ gã.) globoo ̍ lãkɔ́ aka̍ɖí large and deep large piece of meat lass ɖetugbuí . nyá ame nyǎ nú dze klo zi ɖoɖo̍e ́ L.

– 215 – last last (the) late (to be) laugh (to) lay (to) lay egg (to) laziness lazy (to be) lazy person lead (to) leader leaf learn (to) learning leave (to) leave behind (to) left shoulder left leg letter library lie (to) lie face up. tsɔ́mlɔ́ tsi ́ me̍gbé núsɔ́srɔ̃́ gblẽ́ ɖé. nɔ (Past) nɔ agbe didǐ wɔ nɔ̍vi ́ ɖô tó lɔ̃ ame . víé ́ sẽe ̃́ li (Present).). gblẽ́ ɖi mi ̍a̍bɔ́ta̍ mia afɔ agbalẽ. lɔta ̍ ̍ agbalẽxlẽƒé mlɔ́ dze ŋe tsyɔ́ akɔ́ a̍nyi ̂ agbe hẽ like someone (to) dzatá sɔ̍e ̍ (v.. susɔ́etɔ̍ ́ ko nú ɖɔ́ azi kúvíá kúvíátɔ́ kplɔ kplɔlá a̍ŋ̍gba̍ sŕɔ ́̃ nú dzó wɔ kúvíá mlɔ́. lie on the back (to) lie on the stomach (to) life light lion listen (to) little little while live (to) live in brotherhood or in harmony live long mamlɛ́. susɔ́e ́ mlɔe̍tɔ̍. adj. ví.

trɔ́ ŋ̍kúme̍ ɖé Aƒétɔ́ agbatsɔ́ʋú. gbaɖegbe. adj. fṹṹ lɔlɔ̃ lɔ̃ ame bú xóxóóxó. klúví ŋútsu sɔ gbɔ asi wɔ fu ame wɔ . ʋǔ. long long ago long look (to) look after (someone) (to) look after something (to) look at something thoughtfully (to) look for.. ati ́bo̍li ́ didi (v. di ̍di ̍ (adj.– 216 – live-stock keeper live-stock keeping living/one’s life living thing load lodge someone (to) log long ago. maize make (to) male male slave maltreat someone (to) man many.) M.) kpɔ́ kpɔ́ (a̍me̍) dzí kpɔ́ nú dzí kpɔ́ nú dṹú̃ dí kpɔ́ mɔ́ ná tsa ŋ̍kú trɔ́ mo̍ ɖé. lɔri ́ bli ́bo̍.). gbeaɖegbe dze (a̍me̍) gbɔ́ agbenɔnɔ̌ kpu̍i ̍ (v. enough market blî atsu klú. wish to (to) look forward to (to) look round (to) look towards (to) Lord lorry lose (to) lot love low love someone (to) ̍ lãnyi ̍lá ̍ lãnyi ̍nyi ̍ núgbágbě agba ati ́kpo̍. wó kátã.

axlɔ̃e ́̃ ɣle̍tí ga me légba̍ dzidzɔ̌ nótsi ̍ mirror mirth misty model an idol (to) Monday money mongoose month . yí zãtitina.– 217 – market day matchet mathematics matter meat meat dealer/seller meat shop. kpé ta̍ lã kra̍nté. butcher’s medicine meet (to) meet someone (on the way) (to) meeting meeting hall member membership men’s wear. zãtíƒe̍ ŋúsẽ́ ́ ahuhɔ̃e ́ kplefuu Dzǒɖá ́ príkú. ŋútsu̍wó ƒé núdódówó ga gagbá gazé ŋ̍dɔ̍ títína ti ́ti ́na̍su̍kû dó go. ama kpé ame ta̍kpékpé ta̍kpéxɔ̍ hǎme̍nɔ̍lá. hǎbɔ̍bɔ̍me̍nɔ̍nɔ̍. hǎbɔ̍bɔ̍me̍tɔ́ hǎme̍nɔ̍nɔ̍. hǎbɔ̍bɔ̍me̍nɔ̍lá. nú ̍ lãdzrálá ̍ lãdzráƒé ati ́ke̍. hǎme̍tɔ́. hǎme̍tɔ́nyényé ŋútsu̍wu̍wó. ŋútsu̍wó ƒé áwu̍wó. men’s clothings metal metal plate metal pot midday middle middle school midnight might milk asigbe akɔ́nta̍ nya.

adj. adj. xáxɛ́ dukɔ́ de̍. o ŋu̍fɔ́ke̍ nyúíé zã̌ zã dó asíéke̍ zã le dodóḿ nyó (v.) yéyě .– 218 – moon morning mother mould an idol (to) mountain mouth Mrs. bɔ̌ nya xáxá. night has fallen night is falling nine ŋkɔ́ gblɔ.).. nyúíé (pred.) dzi ̍ ɖé édzí geɖee me légba̍ ŋ̍dí N. name narrate (to) narrow nation native land nativeland near nearby place neat necessary neck nest need (to) never (before) new next day nice nicely night night falls. xa̍ kɔ. much muddy multiply (to) ɣle̍tí dadá/ nɔ tó nu̍ Aƒénɔ̍ kpɔ̍tɔ̍ (attr. kpɔ́ ..). kpɔtɔɔ (pred. aƒé děnyígbá gbɔ́.). dza hi ́̃á kɔ ́ hi ̃á kpuiƒé atɔ̍ gbeɖé. nyúí (attr.

dó a̍me̍tsi ̍tsi ̍ dzí mɔ́ta̍ ɖeká blema. years old) old person on on the road/way once upon a time one one and the same thing one day. fífíá égběgbe azi a̍nyi ́éhě O. enyó lé ŋ̍kú ɖé nú ŋú dzikú ná ame énu̍enu̍ ́ xóxó. tsi ̍tsi ̍ xɔ ƒe … ɖô tó ̍ da vo ɖé a̍me̍ ŋú. obey (to) observe (to) offend someone (to) often old old (to be .– 219 – nineteen ninety no none noon north nose not not long after. tsã́ gbǎɖégbe nú ɖeká.. once upon a time one of them onion olden days yo̍o̍. soon not yet nothing now nowadays nuts wúíasíéké blǎasi ́éke̍ ̍ O ɖéké … o ŋ̍dɔ̍ ŋɔ̍ti ́ mé … o éte̍ƒé médidi o. O. wɔ núvɔ̃́ ɖé me̍ ŋú.K.. núsi sɔ wó do̍me̍tɔ́ ɖeká sa̍bálá gbe ɖeká . te̍ti ̍ ko haɖé … o nánéké … o ́ ázɔ̃.

tó Osɔ́fo̍. kpɔ́ a̍me̍ ɖá xé fe dɔlélá.– 220 – only open (to) orange order order (to) other outdoor someone (to) outside. dɔléá. ɖó ná (ame) ʋu P. kútú ɖoɖó búbǔ ɖe a̍me̍ ɖé xéxé ta̍ xéxé ɖe gbe ná (ame). pépa dziláwó klã́ tsó. pack (to) pain painter (artist) painting palace palm palm nut palm tree palm wine pan paper parents part company with (to) pass by (to) pastor path patient pawpaw pawpaw tree pay a debt (to) pay a fee (to) pay someone a visit (to) pass through (to) ƒo̍ ƒú vevé nútálá nútátá fi ̍a̍sã́ dě detí gagbá agbalẽ. klã́ ɖá tsó. outdoors over ko a̍ŋ̍u̍ti ́. dɔnɔ děha̍ dekú . má mɔ́ tsó tó … ŋú zɔ mɔ́ tó. má mɔ́. Máwúnu̍nɔ̍lá mɔ́ aɖubá aɖubátí xé adzɔ srã́ a̍me̍ kpɔ́.

permit permit (to) person pharmacy piece pig pilfer (to) pill pit pity place plane plate play play (to) player play-ground pledge something (to) pocket pocupine ŋútífáfá dukɔ́ ɣe̍yi ́ɣi ̍ ɖe mɔ́ ná ati ́ke̍dzraƒe kákɛ́ fi fi ɖǔfa̍. tsɔ́ nú dé asi ́ ná ha ame mɔ́ɖe̍ɖe̍ núŋlɔ̍ti ́ point of return point/place of escape pointed (to be) pond popular (to be) popular porter pot pound (to) pour into/out (to) .– 221 – peace pen.) tá. pencil people/inhabitants of a town/village period permission. trɔ́ƒé síƒé. a̍ma̍kɔ́é ́ ̍ dǒ núbla̍núi ́ te̍ƒé ya̍me̍ʋú agbǎ fefé fé fefela feféƒé ko̍to̍kú. golo ko̍tókó̍ tɔtrɔ́ƒé. tɔgba tsɔ́ nú dé a̍wo̍bá. ati ́ke̍kɔ́e. ati ́ke̍ƒo̍ƒo̍e. sisíƒé ̍ tsyɔ̃e ̍ xɔ ŋkɔ́ agbatsɔ́lá zě tó kɔ̍ ɖí/ kɔ̍ ɖé xɔ̍ŋkɔ́ (attr.

bia gbe (ame) kúráá kábá R. goal. rain coat rather raise one’s voice (to) reach (to) read a book/letter (to) reader (book) kɔ́ gbe dzǐ kúráá xlẽ agbalẽ̌ ̍ agbalẽxe̍xlẽ̍ vá ɖó tsiwu . question (to) quickly quite bia. tsɔ́ aha dó gbe ɖá ŋúsẽ́ káfú (ame) fɔ̂ fú li fífíá nɔ nú te̍ƒé Osɔ́fo̍. one who studies or learns put on clothes (to) put together (to) put up with someone (to) kɔ aha ɖí. one who attends school pupil.– 222 – pour libation (to) power praise (to) pray (to) pregnant (to be) present (to be) present at (to be) presently priest prison. jail product of the farm profitable promise punish someone (to) pupil pupil. ta avɔ̌ ƒo ƒú dze (ame) gbɔ́ dǒ gbe ɖá núkú Q. gaxɔ̍ ɖe vǐ ŋ̍gbe̍dódó he tó ná (ame) su̍kûví su̍kûde̍lá ́ núsrɔ̃lá dó awu. Máwúnu̍nɔ̍lá ́ mɔ̃.

bíá tsó. lãme̍ sẽ́ hẽ (v. sẽ. dzi ̍̃ (pred. sister. adj. trɔ́ dzudzɔ tso a̍me̍ nu̍ dzi ̍̃ (attr. gã. cousin) remain behind (to) remember (to) render account (to) repair (to) reply (to) report report someone (to) reptile request request (to) request someone (to) residue.) bíá .) gbé zi kpí núto̍me ɖu fia nɔ̍vi ́ tsi ́ me̍gbé ɖǒ ŋkú nú dzí bu akɔ́nta̍. ame sí bé mamlɛ́. me̍tsó nú gbɔ.).. su̍sɔ́e ́ dzudzɔ̌ núɖu̍ƒé he nú vɛ̂. reddish reddish brown refuse (to) refuse to speak (to) region reign relative (brother. nyá ́ ́ ̍ háyá. akɔ́nta̍ núxɔla dze sí. ná akɔ́nta̍ dzra nú ɖó ɖǒ nya̍ ŋú nu̍tso̍tso̍ nútátá biabíá ɖó nú ná (ame). rest rest rest (to) restaurant result (to) return (to) ̍ ̍ agbalẽxlẽlá megbé xɔ nú kóŋ́ fe̍dzi ́gba̍lẽ̍ xɔ ŋu´sẽ́ bu.– 223 – reader (person) really rear receipt receive (to) receive power/authority (to) receiver reckon (to) recognise someone (to) recover (to) red.

) tegblẽ (attr. tegblẽẽ (pred. ƒlatsaa (pred.). ka̍ xlẽ́ ʋẽʋẽ́ xɔ ná ame ké núbla̍núi ́ ko̍to̍kú. ɖelá ke nú gblɔ ka̍ka̍ ɖé. mli nú ƒla̍tsa̍ (attr.). golo . righthand rightly rise up (to) rise/revolt against someone (to) river road rock roll (over) (to) rough round (hollow objects) round (solid objects) run (to) run away (to) run-away tsó ɖé a̍me̍ ŋú mɔ́li ̍ ke̍si ̍nɔ̍tɔ́ dó sɔ́ ɖusí.) ƒú du sí sisílá nyuie fífílaa kpɔ́ ga S. tsáótsáó xɔlá. tsí tre tsó ɖé a̍me̍ ŋú.– 224 – revolt against someone (to) rice rich (to be) rich person ride a horse (to) right now right.). nogoo (pred. sack sadness salt same sand sandal save someone (to) saviour say (to) say something (to) scatter over (to) scent dze ké afɔ̍kpa̍. tɔ̍si ́si ́ mɔ́ kpé mli.) nogo (attr. dze agls̃ ɖé a̍me̍ ŋú tɔ. núɖusí tsó.

má. ʋẽ̌ nú se ́ núsrɔ̃ƒé. klã́ ɖá. kúí dzrá nú dɔ́ ame ́ klã. kú. má ɖá súbɔ́lá súbɔ́ ku aha ná ame dó dzo dó mɔ́ ame a̍dré wúi ́a̍dré dze mɔ́ ɖǒ ŋkeke su̍kûde̍de̍ su̍kûde̍ɣi ̍ blǎadré ̍ má nú nyré nɔnɔme fa dzidzɔví a̍lẽ́ tɔ̍dzi ́ʋu̍ afɔ̍kpa̍ ́ a̍lẽkpɔ́ . su̍kû su̍kûxɔ̍ su̍kûháti ́ núkpa̍lá ƒu zikpuǐ nɔ a̍nyi ́ aɖabaƒoƒǒ kpɔ́ núkú.– 225 – scent (to) school school building school days school mate schooling sculptor sea seat seated (to be) second (of a minute) see (to) seed sell something (to) send someone (to) separate (to) servant serve serve a drink (to) set a date/day (to) set a fire (to) set off on a journey (to) seven set/send one on a journey/errand (to) seventeen seventy shape share (to) sharpen (to) shed tears of joy (to) sheep sheep pen ship shoe ̌ se ʋẽʋẽ.

– 226 – shoot (to) shop shopkeeper shore short shorts (a pair of) shoulder shout (to) show interest in someone (to) sick (to be) sick person sickness.) abɔ́ta̍ tsɔ́ ɖě le̍ éme̍ ná ame ̍ ́ lãme̍ gblẽ.. dɔléá dɔlélé núkpɔ́kpɔ́ ̌ vɔ̃. bɔ̍bɔ̍e ̍ (adj. disease sight sin since then sing (to) six sixteen sixty slaughter (to) sleep (to) sling on the neck (to) slipper smell small.). adj. dɔnɔ. víé ʋeʋẽ́ ʋẽ nú se ́ ʋeʋẽse̍se̍ ̍ zrɔ̃ (v. ƒu̍nu̍ kpu̍i ̍ (v. zɔ̍zrɔ̃e ̍ (pred.. nuvɔ̃́ tsó ɣe̍ má ɣi ̍ dzi ha a̍dé wúíade blǎadé ̍ dɔ̌ alɔ̃ aƒéme̍fɔ̍kpa̍ ku kɔ. few smell (to) smelling smooth snake so socks soft soldier smile (to) da tú fi ́áséme̍nɔ̍lá ƒu̍ta̍. adj.) álé afɔ̍wu̍i ̍ asráfo̍ bɔbɔ (v.).). adj.) da ko a̍lɔ́gbɔ́núi ́ . lé dɔ léḿ. ví. dze dɔ dɔlélá. tsɔ́ ku kɔ tso dó ɣli atákpu̍i ̍ fíásé sɔ̍e ̍ (v.

te̍ti ̍ ko vévé dziƒô dzi ́e̍hě kɔ́ gbe dzǐ ɣe̍á ɖéwó ɣi ̍ ƒo nu̍ akplɔ̍ tɔ̍xɛ̍ gaŋ̍kúi ́ gbɔgbɔ nyó ta gblẽ́ gatsí srɔ̃ tɔ́ ɖí. nya̍tótó . ɖě. tɔ́ te ɣle̍ti ́vi ́ fi fi tsí tre. speak louder (to) speak (to) spear special spectacles spirit splendid spoil (to) spoiled spoon spouse spread over (to) stand still (to) stand up (to) star stay (to) steal still á … ɖéwó. ɖewó náné viŋútsu̍vi ́ fífíá. ƒome kpé zikpuǐ fíásé tɔ́ fi ́áséme̍nɔ̍lá ahoḿ ŋúti ́nya̍. tsó nɔ (only in Past) gaka̍ka̍ ɖé gbégblẽ́ stomach stone stool stop (to) store storekeeper storm story dɔme. éte̍ƒé médidi o.– 227 – some something sometimes son soon sour south space speak out/up.

ŋú. núsrɔ̃lá. su̍kûde̍lá nútáƒé dzi ̌dze̍dze̍kpɔ́kpɔ́ kásíá síklí a̍me̍ɖóku̍i ̍wu̍wu̍ sámá sáma̍ ŋ̍dɔ̍. a̍ma̍kɔ́e. -ƒo wú kplɔ nú víví ƒu tsi mi nú kpɔ́ dzi ̌dze̍dze̍.– 228 – stranger street strike (to) strong struggle (to) student studio (of an artist) succeed (to) success sugar suicide summon (to) summons sun Sunday sunshine sure (to be) surely surface surpass (to) swallow something (to) sweep something (to) sweet swim (to) swimmer swimming pool swimming swine suddenly a̍me̍dzró ablɔ̌ ƒo ́ sẽ. ŋútí. Kɔ̍si ́ɖá ŋ̍dɔ̍ʋu̍ʋu̍ kã́ ɖé nú dzí tútúútú ŋgɔ. ɣe Kwa̍si ́ɖá. ŋ̍kúme. sésẽ́ ́ su̍kûví. table table (on which one works) tablet dɔ̌wɔ̍kplɔ̃̍ ɖǔfa̍. ati ́ke̍kóe. dze édzí ná ame ʋli tsi ̍ƒúƒé tsi ̍ƒúƒú gběha̍ tsi ̍ƒúlá T. ati ́ke̍ƒo̍ƒo̍e ̍ ́ ́ kplɔ̃̍ .

). gblɔ e̍wó dǒ … kpɔ́ akpé má béná lá. bɔ́ nya. fi ̍a̍fi ̍tɔ́. -á fi kemɛ dá akpé kpɔ́ nú dzi ́ nu̍ƒo̍ƒo̍ le tsi éya̍ta̍ si ̍a̍wó fi ̍a̍fi ̍.– 229 – take (to) take to (to) take a bath (to) take a receipt (on a debt) (to) take a receipt take a walk (to) take care of something taking a bath talk tall tasteless teach (someone) (to) teacher teaching tediousness. ti ̍tri ̍ (adj. tete . fi ̍fi ̍lá bu ta̍ me. súsú nú tri (v. tedium tell (to) ten test (to) thank (to) thanks that (demonstrative) that (conjunction) that yonder the theft then there therefore these thick thief thing think (to) talk (to) tsɔ́ tsɔ́ … yi ̍ ná xɔ agbalẽ ɖé fe̍ dzi ́ xɔ fe̍dzi ́gba̍lẽ̍ ɖi tsa le tsi ̍ le̍ḿ ƒo nu̍ kɔ́. kɔ́kɔ́ yaa fíá nú (ame) núfíálá núfíáfíá ɖeɖitéame̍ŋú ̍ bɔ́.) afímá éke̍má.

thought thirst thirsty (to be) thirteen thirty this those those yonder though thought thousand three through someone Thursday tie (to) till time times of joy/enyoyment times of suffering tinned meat or fish tired (to be) tiredness today together too ta̍me̍bu̍bu̍ tsi ̍kɔ́ wu ame blǎetɔ̃ ̍ si ̍a̍ máwó kemɛwó tógbɔ́ bé wúíetɔ̃ ts̍ikɔ́wu̍ame̍ ̍ susú. etsɔ si gbɔna ákpá ta̍. ta̍me̍bu̍bu̍ akpé etɔ̃ tó a̍me̍ dzi ́ Yáwo̍ɖa̍ blá váséɖé ɣe̍yi ́ɣi ̍ dzidzɔ̌ɣi ̍wó fu̍kpéɣi ̍wó gomelã̌ ɖeɖi té (a̍me̍) ŋú ɖeɖitéame̍ŋú ̍ égbe ƒo ƒú tomorrow top touring car towards town trader train travel travel (to) etsɔ.– 230 – thinking. dzí lɔƒɔ asi ̍tsa̍lá mɔ́zɔ̍zɔ̍ zɔ mɔ́ kétéke du tsa̍ɖi ̍ʋú .

ʋɔnu atádi ̍di ̍. umbrella uncle (maternal) uncle (paternal) under. underneath underwear untie (to) untie a load (to) nyrɔ̍e ̍ tɔ́ɖi ̍ (younger brother of father) tɔ́gã (elder brother of father) té. xɔ a̍me̍ dzi ́ se nya̍te̍ƒe̍ nya̍te̍ƒétɔ̍e ̍ dze agbagbá. (ɣe̍xí) .– 231 – travel by a vehicle as a passenger (to) travel through (to) treat a sickness (to) tree trek trial trousers (a pair of) truck truly trust in someone (to) truth truthfully try (to) try about something (to) try for someone (to) Tuesday turn (to) turn to/towards (to) twelve twenty twinkle of an eye (in a second) two type of ɖó ʋǔ zɔ mɔ́ tó. ɖome tú tú agba a̍wu̍téwu̍i ̍ xe̍xi ́. da gbě le̍ agbatsɔ́ʋú nya̍te̍ƒétɔ̍e ̍ dó dzi ɖé a̍me̍ ŋú. da dɔ ná ame. atáwu̍ wɔ ati ́ke̍ ná ame. so̍wu̍i ̍ɛ̍. tó a̍me̍ ŋú mɔ́zɔ̍zɔ̍ atí ́ ʋɔnudɔ́drɔ̃. te nú kpɔ́ dze agbagbá le nú ŋú dze agbagbá ná a̍me̍ ̌ Brãɖá trɔ́ trɔ́ ɖé wúíeve bláeve aɖabaƒoƒǒ ɖeká eve ƒo̍me̍vi ́ U. gɔme.

duví. du sɔě kpɔ́ a̍me̍ ɖá gbe ̍ Amu̍tá bali ̍ Amu̍ tɔsísí.– 232 – until up to upper usually utter something (to) váséɖé ta̍ gódóo lá ke nu váséɖé V. valley vehicle vehicle which carries goods very vicinity of village visit someone (to) voice Volta Lake Volta River ʋǔ agbatsɔ́ʋú ŋ́útɔ́ lɔƒo kɔ́ƒé. waist walk (to) wall wander about (to) want to (to) wares wash (to) water way wealthy person Wednesday week weed a farm (to) ali gli tsa adzɔnúwó nya nú tsi lě ŋkú ɖé nú ŋú dí zɔ watch (to) mɔ́ ke̍si ̍nɔ̍tɔ́ Kuɖa ŋlɔ agble kwasiɖa. kɔsiɖa . Amu W.

).) ̍ asi. srɔ̃nyɔ́nu̍. fu ye̍vú a̍me̍ka̍ amési.– 233 – weep (to) weep bitterly (to) weight west western one what when where which white white man/person who (interrogative pronoun) who (relative pronoun) whole why wide wife wild pig window wise (to be) wish wish (to) with wish for strongly wither (to) without exception without sin witness woman women’s dress/wear word word of advice work work (to) fa avǐ kpekpeme ɣe̍tóɖóƒé núka̍ afi ́ka̍ ési. si. si ́ kátã.). bli ́bo̍ núka̍ta̍ keke (v. ke̍ke̍ (adj. kaé ɣí (attr. ɣíé (pred. né núsi. srɔ̃ gběha̍ fésre̍ didí dí dí vévíé nyá nú ɣe̍tóɖóƒétɔ̍ fa avi vévíé kplé yrɔ kɔ síá nyɔ́nu nyɔ́nu̍wó ƒé núdódó/ƒé áwu nya dɔ̌ wɔ dɔ̌ ̍ ̍ núxlɔ̃ame̍nya̍ ɖasefó .).

lad. núgbégblẽ́ wɔ fu a̍me̍ɖóku̍i ̍ Y. núvɔ̃ɖi ̍. a young man yearn for (to) te dí vévíé ẽ̍ etsɔ (si va yi) ɖe vǐ ̍ Ana̍gónyi ́gbá. Yóru̍banyígbá ɖekákpu̍i ̍ ɖetugbuǐ tsɛ̍ ƒo̍e ̍ ɖekákpu̍i ̍.– 234 – worker world worry oneself (to) worship worshiper write something (to) wrong dɔ̌wɔ̍lá xéxéme súbɔ́ súbɔ́lá ŋlɔ nú ̌ ̌ vɔ̃. yam year yes yesterday yield profit (to) Yorubaland young man young woman/girl younger brother younger one younger sister youth. ɖetugbuǐ ɖevítɔ̍ ƒe .

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