Aim Certificate Acknowledgement Apparatus Introduction Theory Conclusion Bibliography

AIM: To determine the faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction using a copper wire wound over an iron rod and a strong magnet .

CERTIFICAT E This is to certify that the PHYSICS project titled ‘ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION’ has been successfully completed by KARTHIK PREMANAND of Class XII ROSE in partial fulfillment of curriculum of CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION (CBSE) leading to the award of annual examination of the year 2012-2013. INTERNAL EXAMINER TEACHER IN-CHARGE .

SCHOOL SEAL PRINCIPAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost I thank my teacher Mrs. I would like to acknowledge the assistance provided to me by the library staff of BAL BHARATI PUBLIC SCHOOL. Karthik Premanand . My heartfelt gratitude to my classmates and for helping me to complete my work in time. VEMURI who has assigned me this term paper to bring out my creative capabilities. I express my gratitude to my parents for being a continuous source of encouragement for all their financial aid.

A strong magnet and 4.APPARATUS 1. A iron rod 3. Insulated copper wire 2. A light emitting diode (LED) .

and many types of electrical motors and generators. inductors.INTRODUCTION: F araday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF). . It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers.

Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831. but it also makes possible a host of technological innovations that define modern society. The ability to quantitatively describe physical phenomena not only allows us to gain a better understanding of our universe. Understanding Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction can be beneficial since so many aspects of our daily life function because of the principles behind Faraday’s Law. Faraday’s Law has a great impact on many aspects of our lives. From natural phenomena such as the light we receive from the sun. Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments. Faraday explained electromagnetic induction using a concept he called lines of force. however. These equations for electromagnetics are extremely important since they provide a means to precisely describe how many natural physical phenomena in our universe arise and behave. . to technologies that improve our quality of life such as electric power generation.

An important aspect of the equation that quantifies Faraday’s Law comes from the work of Heinrich Lenz. but Faraday is credited for the law since he published his work first . in 1834 (Institute of Chemistry). a Russian physicist who made his contribution to Faraday’s Law.Faraday’s Law is the result of the experiments of the English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday . The concept of electromagnetic induction was actually discovered simultaneously in 1831 by Faraday in London and Joseph Henry. an American scientist working in New York . . now known as Lenz’s Law.

Before expanding upon this description. by a changing magnetic field. or generated.Faraday’s law describes electromagnetic induction. as well as the related concept of potentials. 1831). it is necessary to develop an understanding of the concept of fields. he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer) to induce current . whereby an electric field is induced. Faraday's first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic induction (August 29.

Figure 1 Faraday's First Experiment Some physicists have remarked that Faraday's law is a single equation describing two different phenomena: the motional EMF generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire (see Lorentz force). In the latter half of part II of that paper. and the transformer EMF generated by an electric force due to a changing magnetic field (due to the Maxwell–Faraday equation). A reference . James Clerk Maxwell drew attention to this fact in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. Maxwell gives a separate physical explanation for each of the two phenomena.

to these two aspects of electromagnetic induction is made in some modern textbooks. .

THEORY: Magnetic flux: The magnetic flux (often denoted Φ or ΦB) through a surface is the component of the B field passing through that surface. which contains measuring . The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb) (in derived units: volt-seconds). Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter. and the CGS unit is the maxwell.

If the magnetic field is constant.coils and electronics that evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the magnetic flux. the magnetic flux passing through a surface of vector area S is where B is the magnitude of the magnetic field (the magnetic flux density) having the unit of Wb/m2 (Tesla). where we may consider the field to be constant : From the definition of the magnetic vector potential A and the fundamental theorem of the curl the magnetic flux may also be defined as: . and θ is the angle between the magnetic field lines and the normal (perpendicular) to S. we first consider the magnetic flux through an infinitesimal area element dS. For a varying magnetic field. S is the area of the surface.

which is denoted ∂S.where the line integral is taken over the boundary of the surface S. .

it is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit. Equivalently. This version of Faraday's law strictly holds only when the closed circuit is a loop of infinitely thin wire. and is invalid in other circumstances as discussed below. is valid in all circumstances. A different version. or both—Faraday's law of induction says that the wire loop acquires an EMF . . and attaching a voltmeter to the leads. the Maxwell–Faraday equation (discussed below). or because the wire loop is moved or deformed. defined as the energy available per unit charge that travels once around the wire loop (the unit of EMF is the volt).LAW: The most widespread version of Faraday's law states: The induced electromotive force in any closed circuit is equal to the negative of the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit. When the flux changes—because B changes.

The Maxwell–Faraday equation states that a time-varying magnetic field is always accompanied by a spatially-varying. B is the magnetic field (aka magnetic flux density. magnetic induction). non- .According to the Lorentz force law (in SI units). and the line integral is evaluated along the wire (along the curve the conincident with the shape of the wire). dℓ is an infinitesimal arc length along the wire. the EMF on a wire loop is: where E is the electric field.

t) is the magnetic field. The four Maxwell's equations (including the Maxwell–Faraday equation). and vice-versa. These fields can generally be functions of position r and time t. Faraday's law could be taken as the starting point and used to "prove" the Maxwell–Faraday equation and/or other laws. The Maxwell–Faraday equation is where is the curl operator and again E(r. are a sufficient foundation to derive everything inclassical electromagnetism.conservative electric field.) . Therefore it is possible to "prove" Faraday's law starting with these equations. along with the Lorentz force law. t) is the electric field and B(r.


CONCLUSION Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction. Although its mathematical representations are cryptic. first observed and published by Michael Faraday in the mid-nineteenth century. We can all appreciate the profound impact Faraday’s Law has on us. to electricity to power our homes. describes a very important electro-magnetic concept. to the convenience of mobile communications. . This concept has many far-reaching ramifications that touch our lives in many ways: from the shining of the sun. the essence of Faraday’s is not hard to grasp: it relates an induced electric potential or voltage to a dynamic magnetic field.



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