T TT TheCreedof heCreedof heCreedof heCreedofAl Al Al Al- -- -ѡ ѡѡ ѡa aa aК КК Кāw āw āw āwī īī ī

TranslationWithAddedCommentary TranslationWithAddedCommentary TranslationWithAddedCommentary TranslationWithAddedCommentary
1

by by by byShaykhAbū ShaykhAbū ShaykhAbū ShaykhAbūĀ ĀĀ Ādamal damal damal damal- -- -Narūj Narūj Narūj Narūjī īī ī
2

Releasedbywww.marifah.net1428H

ª,و'=='ا ة-,-·'ا ح¸-
TheencyclopedicscholarAbuJa’farAl-ѡaКāwīsaid:

'ا ل'· قار,'ا ¸-·= ,-أ م`-`ا ª== ª-`·
-ا ª-=ر ¸--- يو'=='ا :
{This is a detailed remembrance of the belief of the {This is a detailed remembrance of the belief of the {This is a detailed remembrance of the belief of the {This is a detailed remembrance of the belief of the
People of} People of} People of} People of} alliance to {the Sunnah} {the Sunnah} {the Sunnah} {the Sunnah} -what was
narrated of sayings, deeds and confirmations from the
Prophet - {and} {and} {and} {and} following { {{ {the Jam the Jam the Jam the Jamā āā ā’ ’’ ’ah} ah} ah} ah} the
companions of the Prophet. It is {according to the {according to the {according to the {according to the
method of the jurisprudents of this religion, Abu method of the jurisprudents of this religion, Abu method of the jurisprudents of this religion, Abu method of the jurisprudents of this religion, Abu
Й ЙЙ Йan an an anī īī īfah Al fah Al fah Al fah Al- -- -Nu Nu Nu Nu’ ’’ ’m mm mā āā ān ibn T n ibn T n ibn T n ibn Th hh hā āā ābit Al bit Al bit Al bit Al- -- -K KK Kū ūū ūf ff fī īī ī, Abu Y , Abu Y , Abu Y , Abu Yū ūū ūsuf suf suf suf
Ya Ya Ya Ya’ ’’ ’q qq qū ūū ūb ibn Ibr b ibn Ibr b ibn Ibr b ibn Ibrā āā āh hh hī īī īm Al m Al m Al m Al- -- -An An An Anј јј јā āā ār rr rī īī ī, and Abu , and Abu , and Abu , and Abu ‘ ‘‘ ‘Abdu Abdu Abdu Abdull ll ll llā āā āh h h h
Muhammad ibn Al Muhammad ibn Al Muhammad ibn Al Muhammad ibn Al- -- -Й ЙЙ Йasan Al asan Al asan Al asan Al- -- -S SS Sh hh hayb ayb ayb aybā āā ān nn nī īī ī, may , may , may , may Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
rewardthem rewardthem rewardthem rewardthemall,andwhattheybelievedintermsofthe all,andwhattheybelievedintermsofthe all,andwhattheybelievedintermsofthe all,andwhattheybelievedintermsofthe
basicsofthereligion,andtookastheirreligionforthe basicsofthereligion,andtookastheirreligionforthe basicsofthereligion,andtookastheirreligionforthe basicsofthereligion,andtookastheirreligionforthe
sakeoftheOnethathasLordshipovertheWorlds.} sakeoftheOnethathasLordshipovertheWorlds.} sakeoftheOnethathasLordshipovertheWorlds.} sakeoftheOnethathasLordshipovertheWorlds.}

ª='-='او ª--'ا .هأ ة-,-= ن',- ¸آذ ا-ه
ª'-'ا ء'+-· -ه-- _'= : ن'-·-'ا ª-,-= ¸-أ
¸-أو ،¸·,´'ا --'` ¸- ¸- ب,-·, --,,
¸- --=- -ا --= ¸-أو ،ير'--`ا »,ها¸-إ
،¸,·-=أ »+,'= -ا نا,-ر ¸-'-,-'ا ¸-='ا
ª- ن,-,-,و ،¸,-'ا ل,-أ ¸- نو---·, '-و
' ¸,-''·'ا ´ ب¸ .
{We say with regards to the belief in the Oneness of {We say with regards to the belief in the Oneness of {We say with regards to the belief in the Oneness of {We say with regards to the belief in the Oneness of
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh,asbelievers,bythesuccessthat ,asbelievers,bythesuccessthat ,asbelievers,bythesuccessthat ,asbelievers,bythesuccessthatAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāhgrants grants grants grants:} :} :} :}

-ا -,=,- ¸· ل,-- -ا ¸,·,-- ¸,---·- :

1
Thetranslationoftheoriginaltextisin{ {{ {bold} bold} bold} bold}
2
ShaykhAbūĀdamal-NarūjīconvertedfromchristianitytoIslāmwhilelivinginChina.Hehassincestudiedand
receivedIjāzahsinvariousworksofЙanafīfiqhandAsh‘ari‘aqīdahfromtheMashāyekhofDamascusandKuwait,
including:al-ShaykhMuhammadTāhiral-Afghānī(AbulЙasan),al-ShaykhMustafāChebaro(astudentofMawlānā
al-Shaykh‘AbdulRazzāqal-Йalabī),al-ShaykhImādNahlāwī,al-ShaykhAКmadal-Shāmī(ShihābuddīnAbū‘Amr),
al-ShaykhAКmadHajīal-KurdīandShaykhMuhammadJumu‘ah(oneoftheprominentstudentsofMawlānāal-
Shaykh‘AbdulRazzāqal-Halabī).

{ {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh is One,} is One,} is One,} is One,} in the absolute sense. Therefore, {He {He {He {He
doesnothaveapartner} doesnothaveapartner} doesnothaveapartner} doesnothaveapartner}orapart.
1 . ª' =,¸- ` -=او -ا نإ .
{NothingresemblesHim} {NothingresemblesHim} {NothingresemblesHim} {NothingresemblesHim}

2 . ª'`- ء¸- `و
{NothingcanpreventHimfromhavingHisWill.} {NothingcanpreventHimfromhavingHisWill.} {NothingcanpreventHimfromhavingHisWill.} {NothingcanpreventHimfromhavingHisWill.}

3 . ¸- `و -¸=·, ء
{ThereisnotruegodotherthanHim.} {ThereisnotruegodotherthanHim.} {ThereisnotruegodotherthanHim.} {ThereisnotruegodotherthanHim.}

4 . -¸,= ª'إ `و
Heis{Eternal {Eternal {Eternal {Eternal– –– –withoutanybeginning.} withoutanybeginning.} withoutanybeginning.} withoutanybeginning.}

5 . ءا---ا `- »,-· .
Heis{Everlastingwithoutanyend.} {Everlastingwithoutanyend.} {Everlastingwithoutanyend.} {Everlastingwithoutanyend.}

6 . ء'+--ا `- »-اد .
{Hedoesnotbecomeannihilatedorgotoruin.} {Hedoesnotbecomeannihilatedorgotoruin.} {Hedoesnotbecomeannihilatedorgotoruin.} {Hedoesnotbecomeannihilatedorgotoruin.}

7 . -,-, `و _--, `
{Nothinge {Nothinge {Nothinge {NothingexistsexceptwhatHehaswilled.} xistsexceptwhatHehaswilled.} xistsexceptwhatHehaswilled.} xistsexceptwhatHehaswilled.}

8 . -,¸, '- `إ ن,´, `و .
{What enters the realm of ideas does not grasp Him} {What enters the realm of ideas does not grasp Him} {What enters the realm of ideas does not grasp Him} {What enters the realm of ideas does not grasp Him}
i.e. the reality of His self or His attributes. This is
because He does not have a limit, boundary, shape or
form – as the author says explicitly below – and ideas
arealwayslimited,astheythemselvesarecreations.

9 . م'هو`ا ª·'-- `
{Intellects do not reach comprehension of Him} {Intellects do not reach comprehension of Him} {Intellects do not reach comprehension of Him} {Intellects do not reach comprehension of Him}
because all understanding is created and therefore
limited,andAllāhisnotlimited.

10 . م'+·`ا ªآر-- `و
{Humans do n {Humans do n {Humans do n {Humans do not resemble Him.} ot resemble Him.} ot resemble Him.} ot resemble Him.} Thus He does not
haveabody,limbs,placeordirection.

11 . م'-`ا ª--, `و
{AttributedwithLife,notdying.Hecontrolsallthings {AttributedwithLife,notdying.Hecontrolsallthings {AttributedwithLife,notdying.Hecontrolsallthings {AttributedwithLife,notdying.Hecontrolsallthings
anddoesnotsleep.} anddoesnotsleep.} anddoesnotsleep.} anddoesnotsleep.}

12 . م'-, ` م,,· ،ت,-, ` ¸=
Heis{acreatorwithoutanyneed.} {acreatorwithoutanyneed.} {acreatorwithoutanyneed.} {acreatorwithoutanyneed.}

13 . ª='= `- ¸''=
{He pr {He pr {He pr {He provides creation} ovides creation} ovides creation} ovides creation} with the provisions they get
14 . `- -,-- ،ª-,- `- قزار
{without burden, creates death without fear of {without burden, creates death without fear of {without burden, creates death without fear of {without burden, creates death without fear of
anything,resurrectswithoutdifficulty.} anything,resurrectswithoutdifficulty.} anything,resurrectswithoutdifficulty.} anything,resurrectswithoutdifficulty.}

ª--- `- -='- ،ª·'=-
{He is now as He always was, eternally with His {He is now as He always was, eternally with His {He is now as He always was, eternally with His {He is now as He always was, eternally with His
attributes,beforeHiscr attributes,beforeHiscr attributes,beforeHiscr attributes,beforeHiscreationcameintobeing.} eationcameintobeing.} eationcameintobeing.} eationcameintobeing.}Heis
therefore not influenced by anything or anyone, and
fearsnoone.

15 . .-· '-,-· ª-'--- لاز '-
ª-'=
{Nothing was added to His attributes through their {Nothing was added to His attributes through their {Nothing was added to His attributes through their {Nothing was added to His attributes through their
existence, that He was not attributed with before.} existence, that He was not attributed with before.} existence, that He was not attributed with before.} existence, that He was not attributed with before.}
Thatis,Allāhdoesnotchangebytheexistenceofnew
things, or changes in creation. He is not affected or
influenced by anything, because He has no beginning
andnoneeds.

16 . ¸´, »' '-,- »+-,´- دد¸, »'
ª--- ¸- »+'-·
{JustasHewaseternallyattributedwithHisattributes, {JustasHewaseternallyattributedwithHisattributes, {JustasHewaseternallyattributedwithHisattributes, {JustasHewaseternallyattributedwithHisattributes,
Hewi Hewi Hewi Hewillneverceasetobeattributedwiththem.} llneverceasetobeattributedwiththem.} llneverceasetobeattributedwiththem.} llneverceasetobeattributedwiththem.}

17 . ','زأ ª-'--- ن'آ '-آو
',--أ '+,'= لا¸, ` ='-آ
{He did not gain the name {He did not gain the name {He did not gain the name {He did not gain the name “ ““ “Creator Creator Creator Creator” ”” ” after creating, after creating, after creating, after creating,
and not by bringing creation into existence the name and not by bringing creation into existence the name and not by bringing creation into existence the name and not by bringing creation into existence the name
Al Al Al Al- -- -B BB Bā āā ār rr rī īī ī,} ,} ,} ,} which means that He is the “Originator of
Creation.”

18 . د'---ا ¸'='ا ¸'= -·- ¸,'
»-ا د'---ا ª,¸-'ا ثا-='- `و ،¸''='ا »-ا
ير'-'ا
{He has the attribute of Lordship,} {He has the attribute of Lordship,} {He has the attribute of Lordship,} {He has the attribute of Lordship,} which is the
absolute ownership of everything {not depending on {not depending on {not depending on {not depending on
theexistenceofsubjects.} theexistenceofsubjects.} theexistenceofsubjects.} theexistenceofsubjects.}

19 . `و ª,-,-¸'ا _-·- ª'
ب,-¸-
{He has the attrib {He has the attrib {He has the attrib {He has the attribute of being the Creator, not ute of being the Creator, not ute of being the Creator, not ute of being the Creator, not
dependingontheexistenceofacreation.} dependingontheexistenceofacreation.} dependingontheexistenceofacreation.} dependingontheexistenceofacreation.}

20 . ق,'=- `و ¸''='ا _-·-و
{Just as He is attributed with giving life both before {Just as He is attributed with giving life both before {Just as He is attributed with giving life both before {Just as He is attributed with giving life both before
and after He gives it, He is attributed with being and after He gives it, He is attributed with being and after He gives it, He is attributed with being and after He gives it, He is attributed with being
Creatorbeforegivingexistence.} Creatorbeforegivingexistence.} Creatorbeforegivingexistence.} Creatorbeforegivingexistence.}

21 . 'ا ¸,=- ª-أ '-آو -·- _-,-
،»+-',=إ .-· »-`ا ا-ه ¸=--ا ،',=أ '-
»+-'--إ .-· ¸''='ا »-ا ¸=--ا ='-آ
{ThisisbecauseHehasthePowertocreateanything} {ThisisbecauseHehasthePowertocreateanything} {ThisisbecauseHehasthePowertocreateanything} {ThisisbecauseHehasthePowertocreateanything}
22 . ء¸- .آ _'= ª-'- ='ذ
that could exist, {and everything needs Him, and that {and everything needs Him, and that {and everything needs Him, and that {and everything needs Him, and that
nothingisdifficultforHim.} nothingisdifficultforHim.} nothingisdifficultforHim.} nothingisdifficultforHim.}
إ ء¸- .آو ،¸,-· ª,'= ¸-أ .آو ،¸,-· ª,'
¸,-, .
{Hedoesnotneedanything. {Hedoesnotneedanything. {Hedoesnotneedanything. {Hedoesnotneedanything.
“,-~--ا ¿--~-ا ;هو ء¸~ ª---آ Q--”]
Meaning: “He absolutely does not resemble anything
at all in any way, and He is Al-Hearing, All-Seeing.”
(Al-Shūrā,11)

23 . ء¸- _'إ ج'-=, ` ) ¸,'
_,--'ا ,هو ء¸- ª'`-آ ¸,--'ا (
{He created creation} {He created creation} {He created creation} {He created creation} and He is eternally attributed
{with} {with} {with} {with} having infinite {Knowledge} {Knowledge} {Knowledge} {Knowledge} of all creation,
bothbeforeandafteritsexistence.

24 . ،ª-'·- ¸'='ا ¸'=
{He predestined for them their fates} {He predestined for them their fates} {He predestined for them their fates} {He predestined for them their fates} in exact details
in terms of good, evil, obedience, disobedience,
livelihood,happiness,unhappiness,andeverythingelse
related. {He appointed the times of their endings} {He appointed the times of their endings} {He appointed the times of their endings} {He appointed the times of their endings}
whichareabsoluteandnotsubjecttochange.

25 . ب¸-و ،ارا-·أ »+' ر-·و
،`'=' »+'
{NothingishiddenfromHimbeforeHecreatest {NothingishiddenfromHimbeforeHecreatest {NothingishiddenfromHimbeforeHecreatest {NothingishiddenfromHimbeforeHecreatesthem, hem, hem, hem,
and He knows what they will do before He creates and He knows what they will do before He creates and He knows what they will do before He creates and He knows what they will do before He creates
them.} them.} them.} them.}

26 . نأ .-· ء¸- ª,'= -=, »'و
»+-'=, نأ .-· ن,'-'= »ه '- »'=و ،»+-'=, .
{He ordered them to obey Him, and prohibited them {He ordered them to obey Him, and prohibited them {He ordered them to obey Him, and prohibited them {He ordered them to obey Him, and prohibited them
fromdisobeyingHim.} fromdisobeyingHim.} fromdisobeyingHim.} fromdisobeyingHim.}

27 . »ه'+-و ،ª-='=- »ه¸-أ
،ª-,-·- ¸=
{Everything happens {Everything happens {Everything happens {Everything happens according to His predestination according to His predestination according to His predestination according to His predestination
andWill.HisWillhappens} andWill.HisWillhappens} andWill.HisWillhappens} andWill.HisWillhappens}absolutely. {Hiscreations {Hiscreations {Hiscreations {Hiscreations
donothaveawillexceptwhatHehaswilledforthem; donothaveawillexceptwhatHehaswilledforthem; donothaveawillexceptwhatHehaswilledforthem; donothaveawillexceptwhatHehaswilledforthem;
whateverHehaswilledhappens,andwhateverHehas whateverHehaswilledhappens,andwhateverHehas whateverHehaswilledhappens,andwhateverHehas whateverHehaswilledhappens,andwhateverHehas
not willed does not happen}. not willed does not happen}. not willed does not happen}. not willed does not happen}. That is, when a creation
willssomething,itisbecauseHehascreatedthatwillin
it.AllāhsaidintheQur’ān(Al-Takwīr),
” َ ¸,ِ -َ ''َ ·ْ 'ا ´ بَ ر ُ ª´ ''ا َ ء'َ -َ , ْنَ أ ّ `ِ إ َ نوُ ء'َ -َ- 'َ -َ و “
“YoudonotwillanythingunlessAllāhhaswilledit.He
has the Absolute Ownership of the worlds of jinn-,
28 . ¸,---- ي¸=, ء¸- .آو -
`إ د'-·'' ª-,-- ` ،---- ª--,--و ،ª--,--و
¸´, »' '-, »' '-و ن'آ ء'- '-· ،»+' ء'- '- .
human-andangel-kind.”

{He guides whomsoever He wills, and He protects} {He guides whomsoever He wills, and He protects} {He guides whomsoever He wills, and He protects} {He guides whomsoever He wills, and He protects}
from disobedience and {defends created beings} {defends created beings} {defends created beings} {defends created beings} from
misguidance and loss {as a grace.} {as a grace.} {as a grace.} {as a grace.} Not because He is
obligedto.

{Hecreates disobediencetoHim in whoeverHe wills, {Hecreates disobediencetoHim in whoeverHe wills, {Hecreates disobediencetoHim in whoeverHe wills, {Hecreates disobediencetoHim in whoeverHe wills,
and leaves defenseless} and leaves defenseless} and leaves defenseless} and leaves defenseless} from sin or other loss {and {and {and {and
afflicts}, afflicts}, afflicts}, afflicts},andthisisall{withjustice} {withjustice} {withjustice} {withjustice}fromHim.Thisis
alljust,evenifHetorturedacreaturethathadnosins,
because Allāh is the true and absolute owner of all
things; He created it all from non-existence. {All {All {All {All
creations alternate by His Will } creations alternate by His Will } creations alternate by His Will } creations alternate by His Will } in terms of what
happens to them and what they believe, think, speak
andact{between} {between} {between} {between}thesetwo:{HisGrace} {HisGrace} {HisGrace} {HisGrace}ifHeguides
and defends, {and Justice,} {and Justice,} {and Justice,} {and Justice,} if He creates misguidance
andloss.

MuslimnarratedthefollowingКadīth(No.2577)
3
:
“Whoever finds a good act in himself, let him praise
Allāh for having granted it to him, and whoever finds
otherthanthat,lethimnotblameanyonebuthimself.”
This is because Allāh is not unjust for not having
granted him good deeds instead. If someone objects
against Allāh for this, then he has fallen out of Islām,
just like Iblīs. Iblīs objected to Allāh’s order to
prostrate to Adam, and for this Allāh cursed him for
havingcommittedunbelief.

29 . ¸- ي-+, »-·,و ،ء'-,
ل-=,و ء'-, ¸- .-,و ،`-· ¸·'·,و
¸,- ،ª--,-- ¸· ن,-'--- »+'آو ،`-= ¸'--,و
ª'-=و ª'-· .
{He is clear of and above} {He is clear of and above} {He is clear of and above} {He is clear of and above} the status {of having a {of having a {of having a {of having a
matchoranequal.} matchoranequal.} matchoranequal.} matchoranequal.}

30 . دا--`ا ¸= ل'·-- ,هو
دا--`او
{NooneandnothingcanpreventHisdecree} {NooneandnothingcanpreventHisdecree} {NooneandnothingcanpreventHisdecree} {NooneandnothingcanpreventHisdecree}interms
31 . ` - `و ª-'--' ´ دار --·

3 ج »'-- _,=- 4 / ص 1994 : َ -َ و َ ª´ ''ا ْ-َ -ْ =َ ,ْ 'َ · اً ¸ْ ,َ = َ -َ =َ و ْ¸َ -َ · ُ ªَ -ْ -َ - `إ ´ ¸َ -,ُ 'َ , `· ='ذ ¸,= َ -َ =َ و ْ¸
of what He has predestined, {or delay His rulings, or {or delay His rulings, or {or delay His rulings, or {or delay His rulings, or
have any control over what He has willed to be. We have any control over what He has willed to be. We have any control over what He has willed to be. We have any control over what He has willed to be. We
believeinallofthis,and arecertainthatallofit} believeinallofthis,and arecertainthatallofit} believeinallofthis,and arecertainthatallofit} believeinallofthis,and arecertainthatallofit}that
is, all that happens {is} {is} {is} {is} by His Will and in this sense
{fromHim.} {fromHim.} {fromHim.} {fromHim.}
'´ --,أو ª'آ ='-- '--' ،-¸-` -''= `و ª-´='
---= ¸- `آ نأ
{And} {And} {And} {And} we believe {that Mu {that Mu {that Mu {that MuК КК Кammad is his absolute ammad is his absolute ammad is his absolute ammad is his absolute
slaveandchosenoneandHisselectedprophetandHis slaveandchosenoneandHisselectedprophetandHis slaveandchosenoneandHisselectedprophetandHis slaveandchosenoneandHisselectedprophetandHis
approvedmessenger.} approvedmessenger.} approvedmessenger.} approvedmessenger.}

32 . _-=--'ا ---= ا--=- نأو
_--¸-'ا ª',-رو _--=-'ا ª,--و
{And} {And} {And} {And} we believe {thathe isthelastprophet} {thathe isthelastprophet} {thathe isthelastprophet} {thathe isthelastprophet} sent by
Allāh, so there is no prophet after him. As for Jesus
,hewassentpriortoMuКammadandwillruleby
MuКammad’s Islamic Sharī’ah law when he returns to
Earth.Allofthisisabsolutelytrue,{and} {and} {and} {and}itisalsotrue
thatheis{theleader} {theleader} {theleader} {theleader},andthebest,{ofthosethatfear {ofthosethatfear {ofthosethatfear {ofthosethatfear
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh,} ,} ,} ,} by avoiding His prohibitions and performing
His obligations {and the Master of all messengers, {and the Master of all messengers, {and the Master of all messengers, {and the Master of all messengers,
and} and} and} and} in the sense of highly preferred and honored or
the like
4
, he is also {the {the {the {the Й ЙЙ Йab ab ab abī īī īb of th b of th b of th b of the One Who is the e One Who is the e One Who is the e One Who is the
LordoftheWorlds} LordoftheWorlds} LordoftheWorlds} LordoftheWorlds}, literally: “the Beloved of Allāh.”
This is not in the sense of emotion, since Allāh is not
influenced,drivenoraffectedbyanything.

Muslim narrated that the Prophet said: “I am the
master of the children of Adam on the Day of
Judgment.”

33 . م'-إو ،ء',--`ا »-'= ª-أو
ء',--`ا . بر -,-=و ،¸,'-¸-'ا -,-و
¸,-''·'ا .
{Any claim of prophethood after him is a deviation {Any claim of prophethood after him is a deviation {Any claim of prophethood after him is a deviation {Any claim of prophethood after him is a deviation
and} and} and} and}from{perversedesires.Heissenttoalljinnkind} {perversedesires.Heissenttoalljinnkind} {perversedesires.Heissenttoalljinnkind} {perversedesires.Heissenttoalljinnkind}
whicharebeingsinvisibletousthatAllāhcreatedfrom
fire {and humankind with truth, guidance, light and {and humankind with truth, guidance, light and {and humankind with truth, guidance, light and {and humankind with truth, guidance, light and
enlightenment.} enlightenment.} enlightenment.} enlightenment.}

34 . ¸·· --·- ة,--'ا ى,=د .آو
ª·'آو ¸='ا ª-'= _'إ ث,·--'ا ,هو ى,هو
ء',-'او ر,-''-و ،ى-+'او ¸=''- ،ىر,'ا .

4 InterpretationfromFayЂal-QadīrV.5,P.331.
ج ¸,--'ا ¸,· 5 / ص 331 : -'او ª='-, '- _'إ ----, '-= ª·¸-,و ª-,-, -ا -,-= ¸-,
Al-ѡaКāwī now mentions the belief of Ahlu-s-Sunnah
regarding Allāh’s attribute of Speech. To understand
him correctly it is necessary to know that the word
Qur’ān in Arabic is an utterance that has two
meanings.OneisAllāh’sattributeofSpeech,whichis
not letters, words, sounds, language, sequential
meanings, starting, stopping or anything else that has
anysenseofhavinganykindofbeginning.Thismustbe
true of Allāh’s Speech, because anything that has a
beginningneedsacreatorandisthereforecreated.For
example, the word “bi” in “bi-smillāh” contains the
sounds “b” and “i” one after another. Both have a
beginning and are therefore created. Since Allāh’s
Speech is not created, we know for sure that His
attribute of Speech is not letters, sounds, language, or
sequencesofmeaningsoneafteranother.

It is this Speech, the one that is not letters or sounds,
that Mūsā heard as mentioned in the Qur’ān. It was
narrated in Йilyat al-Awlīyā
5
from ‘Alī ibn Abī ѡālib
thathesaidtoagroupofjews:

“AllāhspoketoMoseswithoutlimbsorinstrumentsor
lipsoruvulas....HewhoclaimsthatourGodislimited,
isignorantoftheCreatorWhoisworshiped.”

The other meaning of the word “Qur’ān” is the
composition of Arabic utterances that is written in
books. They are calledAllāh’s Speech, as they refer to
His attribute of beginning-less and endless Speech.
35 . -ا م`آ ن'¸-'ا نإو

5 Йilyat al-Awlīyā is a book written by Abū Nu’aym Al-‘Aјbahānī 336h/948ad - 430h/1038ad was the greatest Кadīth
scholar of his time. Al-Dhahabī said about him, “the imām, the Кāfi҂, the trustworthy and encyclopedic scholar, the
ShaykhofIslām...TheAuthoroftheЙilyah...”
They are expressions communicating what could be
understood from Allāh’s eternal Speech
6
, the one that
isnotletters,soundsorsequencesofmeanings.

{The Qur {The Qur {The Qur {The Qur’ ’’ ’ā āā ān is n is n is n is Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s Speech.} s Speech.} s Speech.} s Speech.} That is, His eternal
and everlasting attribute of speech, not composed of
utterances.

The expression that refers to {it appeared} {it appeared} {it appeared} {it appeared} as a
revelation, {from Him without its appearance as a {from Him without its appearance as a {from Him without its appearance as a {from Him without its appearance as a
saying} saying} saying} saying} in exact Arabic wording {having a mode, way {having a mode, way {having a mode, way {having a mode, way
or manner at all.} or manner at all.} or manner at all.} or manner at all.} Allāh Himself does not speak with
sounds and words, because His Speech is not like that
of creation. Again, anything that has a beginning is a
creation,becauseitmustbebroughtintoexistence.

36 . `,· ª,-,آ `- ا-- ª--
{ {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh made it descend down to His Messenger as a made it descend down to His Messenger as a made it descend down to His Messenger as a made it descend down to His Messenger as a
revelation.} revelation.} revelation.} revelation.}Thatis,thebookthatreferstoHiseternal
Speech was brought first from the Preserved Tablets
under Al-’Arsh, to the Sky of this world. After that,
JibrīldescendedtoEarthtonarrateittotheProphet
asarevelationbitbybitoversometwentyyears
7
.

37 . ',=و ª',-ر _'= ª'¸-أو

6 Thatthelettersandsoundsinabookisnotthespeechofthespeakeritselfistrueevenforhumanspeech,becausethat
speechissomethingattributedtothespeakerhimself,andcannotbeseparatedfromhim.Forexample,whenweread
thetranscriptofthespeechofsomepublicperson,suchasthepresidentoftheUnitedStates,thenthattranscriptisnot
thespeechitself,butawrittendocumentthatconveyswhathesaid.Despitethis,wecallthistranscript“thepresident’s
speech,” because this is how we refer to such documents. It is just that the speech referred to by such a transcript is a
speechwithlettersandsounds.ThewritinginthebookoftheQur’ān,however,referstoaspeechthatisnotlettersor
sounds. It is called “Allāh’s Speech,” because it conveys what could be understood from His eternal Speech - the one
thatdoesnothaveabeginningoranend,doesnotchange,andisnotlanguage.
7 This was indicated by the companion of the Prophet, and his cousin, Ibn ‘Abbās, and narrated with a sound chain of
narration.Source:Nūral-DīnAl-Haythamī.Majma’al-Zawā’id.10vols.Beirut/Kairo:DārAl-KitābAl-Arabi/DārAl-
RayānLial-Turāth,1986/7.
ج --او¸'ا _-=- 7 / ص 140 : ء'--'ا ¸· ة¸·'ا -,- ¸· _-و _-= ة-=او ª'-= ن'¸-'ا ل¸-أ ل'· ر--'ا ª',' ¸· -'-'¸-أ '-إ ª',· ¸· س'-= ¸-ا ¸=و
ا ل'=ر را¸-'ا ل'=رو ر'--='- را¸-'او ¸-ا¸-='ا -اور »+''-=أو د'-·'ا م`آ با,=- »'-و ª,'= -ا _'- --=- _'= .,¸-= ª'¸-و ',--'ا د'--إ ¸·و _,=-'
-ا¸-='ا -,·- ,هو ر'-·'ا--= ¸- و¸-= ¸
{Thebelieversdeemedhimtruthfulandweresurethat {Thebelieversdeemedhimtruthfulandweresurethat {Thebelieversdeemedhimtruthfulandweresurethat {Thebelieversdeemedhimtruthfulandweresurethat
it was really it was really it was really it was really Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s Speech, and not} s Speech, and not} s Speech, and not} s Speech, and not} referring to {a {a {a {a
createdspeech,likethespeechofcreatedthings.} createdspeech,likethespeechofcreatedthings.} createdspeech,likethespeechofcreatedthings.} createdspeech,likethespeechofcreatedthings.}

38 . ='ذ _'= ن,--,-'ا ª·--و
·- -ا م`آ ª-أ ا,--,أو ،'-= ،ª-,-=''- _''
ª,¸-'ا م`´آ ق,'=-- ¸,'
{So the one that heard it and claimed that it is the {So the one that heard it and claimed that it is the {So the one that heard it and claimed that it is the {So the one that heard it and claimed that it is the
speech of a human has committed blasphemy. speech of a human has committed blasphemy. speech of a human has committed blasphemy. speech of a human has committed blasphemy. Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
blamed,reproachedandthreatenedsuchapersonwith blamed,reproachedandthreatenedsuchapersonwith blamed,reproachedandthreatenedsuchapersonwith blamed,reproachedandthreatenedsuchapersonwith
Hellfire,whenHesaid: Hellfire,whenHesaid: Hellfire,whenHesaid: Hellfire,whenHesaid:
] ” َ ,َ -َ ~ ِ ª-ِ -ْ ~ُ 'َ ~ ] ,----ا / 26 ¡ “
which means: “I will burn him in Hellfire.” {Since {Since {Since {Since
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh threatened with Hellfire the one who says: threatened with Hellfire the one who says: threatened with Hellfire the one who says: threatened with Hellfire the one who says: “ ““ “this this this this
is only the speech of a human is only the speech of a human is only the speech of a human is only the speech of a human” ”” ” we know and are sure we know and are sure we know and are sure we know and are sure
that it is the saying of the Creator of humankind, and that it is the saying of the Creator of humankind, and that it is the saying of the Creator of humankind, and that it is the saying of the Creator of humankind, and
that it} that it} that it} that it} is an expression that refers to Allāh’s Eternal
Speech which {does not resemble human speech,} {does not resemble human speech,} {does not resemble human speech,} {does not resemble human speech,}
because it is not language, words, sounds, letters or
sequencesofmeanings.

39 . م`آ ª-أ »=¸· ª·-- ¸-·
--=وأو ª-'=و -ا ª-ذ -·و ،¸-آ --· ¸--'ا
_''·- ل'· -,= ،¸--- ) ¸-- ª,'-'- ( '-'·
¸-' ¸--- -ا -=وأ ل'· ) ل,· `إ ا-ه نإ
¸--'ا ( `و ،¸--'ا ¸''= ل,· ª-أ '--,أو '--'=
¸--'ا ل,· ª--,
{Whoever attributed to {Whoever attributed to {Whoever attributed to {Whoever attributed to Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh an attribute that has a an attribute that has a an attribute that has a an attribute that has a
meaning among the meanings that apply to humans meaning among the meanings that apply to humans meaning among the meanings that apply to humans meaning among the meanings that apply to humans
hascommittedblasphemy.} hascommittedblasphemy.} hascommittedblasphemy.} hascommittedblasphemy.}

The fact that Al-ѡaКāwī mentions this verdict of
blasphemy as a part of the belief of Sunnis, is
something that should be pondered carefully by those
whothinkthatsuchverdictsarefringeissuesofIslamic
Law,notrequiredknowledge,orofconcernforjudges
only. They base this on spurious quotes found in
various scholarly books and letters, without solid
authentication or any viable proof other than appeals
toemotion.

Notethecategoricalsenseof“ameaning,”whichtells
us that this is true for any meaning that applies to
humans, not just some. For example, sequential
40 . ¸- _-·-- -ا --و ¸-و
· ¸--'ا ¸-'·- ¸-آ --
speech,havingadirection,abody,changingorthelike.

Note also that he states “meaning”, and not “word,”
because the important thing is the meaning of the
word,nottheworditself.Becauseofthis,scholarsmay
differ in their verdict of blasphemy based on what a
personliterallysaysorwrites,butnotintermsofwhat
he means by the words. After all, the meanings and
connotations of a word differ from time to time and
from place to place. That is also why if a person says
something about Allāh that has only one meaning in
hislanguage,heismadeaccountableforthatmeaning,
as what the meaning meant will be clear. If the
meaningisthatofahumanattribute,thentheonewho
saysit willbejudgedas ablasphemer.Itwillnotmake
a difference if the one who said it claimed that he did
notmeanthatmeaning,orwasnotserious,becausehe
has in this case shown scorn towards Allāh. Al-
Bazdawī, the leading scholar of belief and foundations
of jurisprudence, said in Uјūl Al-Bazdawī: “Not being
serious in <saying what is> blasphemy is blasphemy.
Not because of believing the words he said while not
serious,butbytheactofnotbeingserious…becauseit
isdisrespectfulofthereligion.”

{Whoever senses this will ponder carefully,} {Whoever senses this will ponder carefully,} {Whoever senses this will ponder carefully,} {Whoever senses this will ponder carefully,} to know
the difference between the Creator and the created
{and will stay clear of sayings like those of the {and will stay clear of sayings like those of the {and will stay clear of sayings like those of the {and will stay clear of sayings like those of the
blasphemers.} blasphemers.} blasphemers.} blasphemers.}SuchasthosewhoblatantlysaythatHis
attributeofSpeechiscreated,ornecessarilyimplyitby
saying that it consists of letters, sounds or sequence.
The first sect is the Mu’tazilah and the second the
Йashawīyah (anthropomorphists - those who liken
Allāh to His creation.) It is hard to decide which of
themismoredeeplyinblasphemy.IsittheMu’tazilah
41 . ¸=و ،¸--=ا ا-ه ¸--أ ¸-·
ª-'--- ª-أ »'=و ،¸=¸-ا ر'-´'ا ل,· .`-
¸--''آ ¸,'
fordenyingthatAllāhhaseternalSpeech,andonlyhas
created speech? Or is it the Йashawīyah for denying
(implicitly or explicitly) that anything with a beginning
must be a creation, and claiming that Allāh’s eternal
Speechislikethatofcreation,withsoundsandletters?

{HewillalsoknowthatHisattributesisnotlikethose {HewillalsoknowthatHisattributesisnotlikethose {HewillalsoknowthatHisattributesisnotlikethose {HewillalsoknowthatHisattributesisnotlikethose
of humans.} of humans.} of humans.} of humans.} The simplest way to understanding this is
tounderstandthatanythingthathasabeginning,even
ifitisaneventinsomethingthatalreadyexists,mustbe
created.Thisisclear,becausethefactthatthisthingor
event became existent, tells us that it must have been
broughtintoexistence,andbringingintoexistenceisto
create.Consequently,anythingthathasabeginningisa
creation. It is therefore absurd to say that something
hasabeginning,butisnotacreation.

Since Allāh’s attributes are not created, and are
therefore eternal, we know that His attributes do not
have any beginning of any kind, such as changes or
sequences. After all, change is nothing but a series of
eventswithbeginnings.

Createdattributes,ontheotherhand,haveabeginning
in every sense and every aspect, because there is
nothing eternal about them. Therefore, anything that
resembles a creation must be a creation itself,because
resemblance between two things can only be in some
senseorsomeaspect.

Accordingly, it is not possible for a creation to know
the full reality of any of Allāh’s attributes, because a
creation’s knowledge is limited by having a beginning,
whileAllāh’sattributesarenot.

For example, I know that Allāh sees everything. I can
understand this in the sense that everything that
knowledge applies to is known to Allāh. I am not able
toknowmoreabouttherealityofthisattribute.WhatI
can know, however, is more about what Allāh’s
knowledge is not. All I have to do is look at the
knowledge of creation, and say “Allāh’s knowledge is
notlikethat.”Forexample,myknowledgeisinabody,
it increases and decreases, it is incomplete, it is
sometimes inaccurate, it is gained through the senses
orreasoning,etc.IknowthatAllāh’sknowledgeisnot
likeanyofthat.

From this we can better understand the statement of
Ibn‘Abbās:“DonotponderabouttheselfofAllāh,but
ponder instead about creation.” One wisdom in this
adviceisthatbyobservingcreatedthings,youcanlearn
about what Allāh is not, since He does not resemble
anyoftheminanysense.Thisisclear,becausethereis
nothingaboutthemthatdoesnothaveabeginning.

{The} {The} {The} {The} people’s {seeing of {seeing of {seeing of {seeing of Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh} }} } but not in the sense
that created things are seen {is true for the People {is true for the People {is true for the People {is true for the People in in in in
Paradise.} Paradise.} Paradise.} Paradise.} This seeing is {without} {without} {without} {without} any of the
meanings of {surrounding} {surrounding} {surrounding} {surrounding} because Allāh is not
something limited, and He is neither a whole nor a
part. Seeing Allāh does not have these meanings {or} {or} {or} {or}
any meaning of {modality.} {modality.} {modality.} {modality.} That is shape, size, place,
distance, direction, light, color, darkness , reflection,
contact,orfacing.Thisisbecauseanythingseen inthe
waysnegatedabovemustbeacreation,astheyrequire
attributesthathaveacertainspecificationoutofmany
possibilities. For example, in what direction? At what
distance?Whatkindofreflection?Andsoon.

42 . ª-='ا .ه` ¸= ª,ؤ¸'او
ª,-,آ `و ª='=إ ¸,·-
Inotherwords,Allāhwillcreateaspecialabilityinthe
eyes of people in Paradise to see Him. This enables
them to see Him without Him being in a place, at a
distance,orhavingaform.

{This is as stated in the book of the {This is as stated in the book of the {This is as stated in the book of the {This is as stated in the book of the One Who is Our One Who is Our One Who is Our One Who is Our
Lord: Lord: Lord: Lord:
] ٌةَ ,ِ ='َ - 'َ ) -َ ر _َ -ِ إ ٌةَ ,ِ ~'َ - ٍ -ِ -َ -ْ;َ - ٌ-;ُ =ُ و
Meaning: “Faces of shining beauty are seeing Allāh
(withoutHimbeinginaplace,atadistanceorhavinga
form)onthatday.”(Al-Qīyāmah,22-23)

{Its explanation is what {Its explanation is what {Its explanation is what {Its explanation is what Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh willed and knows. All willed and knows. All willed and knows. All willed and knows. All
thathasbeennarratedtousofsound thathasbeennarratedtousofsound thathasbeennarratedtousofsound thathasbeennarratedtousofsoundК КК Кad ad ad adī īī īt tt th hh hsregarding sregarding sregarding sregarding
this from the Messenger of this from the Messenger of this from the Messenger of this from the Messenger of Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh is as he said, and is as he said, and is as he said, and is as he said, and
the meaning is as he meant. We do not get into this the meaning is as he meant. We do not get into this the meaning is as he meant. We do not get into this the meaning is as he meant. We do not get into this
with figurative explanations based on subjective with figurative explanations based on subjective with figurative explanations based on subjective with figurative explanations based on subjective
opinion, and we d opinion, and we d opinion, and we d opinion, and we do not imagine according to our o not imagine according to our o not imagine according to our o not imagine according to our
whims.Forindeed,nooneissafeinhisreligionexcept whims.Forindeed,nooneissafeinhisreligionexcept whims.Forindeed,nooneissafeinhisreligionexcept whims.Forindeed,nooneissafeinhisreligionexcept
the one that surrenders the meaning of what he does the one that surrenders the meaning of what he does the one that surrenders the meaning of what he does the one that surrenders the meaning of what he does
notknowto notknowto notknowto notknowto Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh࣑andHisMessenger andHisMessenger andHisMessenger andHisMessenger andreturns andreturns andreturns andreturns
theknowledgeofwhatisuncleartohimtotheonethat theknowledgeofwhatisuncleartohimtotheonethat theknowledgeofwhatisuncleartohimtotheonethat theknowledgeofwhatisuncleartohimtotheonethat
knows it knows it knows it knows it.} .} .} .} Just as an honest person returns a package
thatdoesnotbelongtohimtotherightfulowner.

43 . '--ر ب'-آ ª- ¸=- '-آ
) ة¸='- '+-ر _'إ ة¸-'- ---,, -,=و (
،ª-'=و _''·- -ا -دارأ '- _'= -¸,---و
_,=-'ا -,-='ا ¸- ='ذ ¸· ء'= '- .آو
»'-و ª,'= -ا _'- ل,-¸'ا ¸= '-آ ,+·
='ذ ¸· .=-- ` ،دارأ '- _'= -'-·-و ،ل'·
ª-'· ،'--ا,ه'- ¸,-ه,-- `و '--ار'- ¸,'و'--
.=و ¸= - »ّ '- ¸- `إ ª-,د ¸· »'- '-
'- »'= درو ،»'-و ª,'= -ا _'- ª',-¸'و
ª-''= _'إ ª,'= ª---ا
{NofootstaysfirmlyinIslamexceptontheplatformof {NofootstaysfirmlyinIslamexceptontheplatformof {NofootstaysfirmlyinIslamexceptontheplatformof {NofootstaysfirmlyinIslamexceptontheplatformof
surrende surrende surrende surrender and submission} r and submission} r and submission} r and submission} to Allāh, by accepting His
ordersandprohibitions,andbyonlyattributingtoHim
attributesthatsurelybefitHim.{Sowhoeversoughtto {Sowhoeversoughtto {Sowhoeversoughtto {Sowhoeversoughtto
know what he has been prevented from knowing, and know what he has been prevented from knowing, and know what he has been prevented from knowing, and know what he has been prevented from knowing, and
wasnotsatisfiedtoleaveittotheonewhoknow wasnotsatisfiedtoleaveittotheonewhoknow wasnotsatisfiedtoleaveittotheonewhoknow wasnotsatisfiedtoleaveittotheonewhoknowsit;his sit;his sit;his sit;his
search will restrain the sincerity of his belief in the search will restrain the sincerity of his belief in the search will restrain the sincerity of his belief in the search will restrain the sincerity of his belief in the
Onenessof Onenessof Onenessof OnenessofAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāh} } } }fornotsurrenderingthisknowledge
toHim {andthepurityofhisknowledge} {andthepurityofhisknowledge} {andthepurityofhisknowledge} {andthepurityofhisknowledge}foritwillbe
mixed with confusion {and} {and} {and} {and} also his {soundness of {soundness of {soundness of {soundness of
44 . `إ م`-`ا م-· --`- `و
او »,'--'ا ¸+= _'= »'= مار ¸-· ،م`---`
،ª-+· »,'--''- _--, »'و ،ª-'= ª-= ¸== '-
¸·'-و ،-,=,-'ا ¸''= ¸= ª-ا¸- ª-==
¸,- ب----,· ،ن'-,`ا _,=-و ،ª·¸·-'ا
،-,-´-'او ¸,---'او ،ن'-,`او ¸-´'ا
` 'آ'- ،'+-'- '-,-,- ،ر'´-`او را¸·`او
'--´- ا-='= `و '·--- '--,- .
faith.Sohewilldanglebetwe faith.Sohewilldanglebetwe faith.Sohewilldanglebetwe faith.Sohewilldanglebetweenblasphemyandbelief, enblasphemyandbelief, enblasphemyandbelief, enblasphemyandbelief,
declaring true and declaring false, affirming and declaring true and declaring false, affirming and declaring true and declaring false, affirming and declaring true and declaring false, affirming and
denying}. denying}. denying}. denying}.Hewillbe {obsessedwithanxietiesandlost. {obsessedwithanxietiesandlost. {obsessedwithanxietiesandlost. {obsessedwithanxietiesandlost.
Doubting} Doubting} Doubting} Doubting}always,hewill{not} {not} {not} {not}be{believingfullyand {believingfullyand {believingfullyand {believingfullyand
notstubbornlydenying.} notstubbornlydenying.} notstubbornlydenying.} notstubbornlydenying.}

{Beliefin these {Beliefin these {Beliefin these {Beliefin theseeing} eing} eing} eing} of Allāh without Him being in a
place, direction or at a distance {for the people in {for the people in {for the people in {for the people in
Paradise is not sound if one considers it to be Paradise is not sound if one considers it to be Paradise is not sound if one considers it to be Paradise is not sound if one considers it to be
according to ideas that enter the heart} according to ideas that enter the heart} according to ideas that enter the heart} according to ideas that enter the heart} for such ideas
of seeing, will be seeing of what has modality. That is,
involving rays, distance, direction and so on. It is
incorrect then, if one considers the seeing in this way,
{or interprets it according to what agrees with one or interprets it according to what agrees with one or interprets it according to what agrees with one or interprets it according to what agrees with one’ ’’ ’s s s s
understanding}, understanding}, understanding}, understanding}, and not according to what is
established by the Qur’ān, Йadīths, or what sound
reason tells us absolutely must be true (such as
1+1=2).{Thisisbecauseinterpretationofthisseeing, {Thisisbecauseinterpretationofthisseeing, {Thisisbecauseinterpretationofthisseeing, {Thisisbecauseinterpretationofthisseeing,
oranymeaning thatisascribedto godhoodis doneby oranymeaning thatisascribedto godhoodis doneby oranymeaning thatisascribedto godhoodis doneby oranymeaning thatisascribedto godhoodis doneby
abandoninginterpretation,andadheringtounreserved abandoninginterpretation,andadheringtounreserved abandoninginterpretation,andadheringtounreserved abandoninginterpretation,andadheringtounreserved
submission} submission} submission} submission}tothetruthfulnessofsuchmeanings,even
if one does not understand them. {This is the religion {This is the religion {This is the religion {This is the religion
oftheMuslims.Whoeverdoesnotguardhimselffrom oftheMuslims.Whoeverdoesnotguardhimselffrom oftheMuslims.Whoeverdoesnotguardhimselffrom oftheMuslims.Whoeverdoesnotguardhimselffrom
denial} denial} denial} denial} of meanings ascribed to Allāh {or likening} {or likening} {or likening} {or likening}
them to the meanings that are ascribed to created
things {will deviate, and will not be declaring {will deviate, and will not be declaring {will deviate, and will not be declaring {will deviate, and will not be declaring Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
clear of imperfection. For verily the One Who is Our clear of imperfection. For verily the One Who is Our clear of imperfection. For verily the One Who is Our clear of imperfection. For verily the One Who is Our
Lord Lord Lord Lord – –– – He is great and glorious He is great and glorious He is great and glorious He is great and glorious- -- - is attributed with is attributed with is attributed with is attributed with
attributes of} attributes of} attributes of} attributes of} absolute {On {On {On {Oneness and ascribed to Him eness and ascribed to Him eness and ascribed to Him eness and ascribed to Him
are attributes of} are attributes of} are attributes of} are attributes of} absolute {Uniqueness} {Uniqueness} {Uniqueness} {Uniqueness} in the sense
thatnooneelsehastheseattributes.{Nocreationhas} {Nocreationhas} {Nocreationhas} {Nocreationhas}
attributeswiththemeaningof{Hisattributes.} {Hisattributes.} {Hisattributes.} {Hisattributes.}

Although the words used to refer to Allāh’s attributes
may be the same as the words used to refer to
45 . ª,ؤ¸''- ن'-,`ا _-, `و
وأ ،»ه,- »+-- 'ه¸--=ا ¸-' م`-'ا راد .ه`
.آ .,و'-و ª,ؤ¸'ا .,و'- ن'آ ذإ ،»+-- '+'و'-
.,و'-'ا ك¸-- ª,-,-¸'ا _'إ ف'-, _-·-
ª,'=و ،»,'--'ا مو¸'و »' ¸-و ،¸,-'--'ا ¸,د
،ª,¸--'ا --, »'و ّ لز ،ª,---'او ¸--'ا ق,-,
ت'--- ف,-,- `=و .= '--ر ن'·
¸· ¸,' ،ª,-اد¸-'ا ت,·-- ت,·-- ،ª,-ا-=,'ا
ª,¸-'ا ¸- -=أ -'-·-
attributes of creation, the meaning of these words are
completely different. For example, the meaning of the
statement“Allāhsees”,mustbeunderstoodtohaveno
resemblanceinmeaningwith“creationsoandsosees.”
This is because all aspects and all senses of the
attributes of creation have a beginning and are
therefore created. This is obvious, as these attributes
didnotexisteternally,butcameintoexistenceatsome
point in time. Allāh’s attributes, however, do not have
any beginning in any sense at all; they are eternal
withoutabeginningoranend.

{ {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāhisabove} isabove} isabove} isabove}thestatusof{havinglimits,extremes, {havinglimits,extremes, {havinglimits,extremes, {havinglimits,extremes,
corners, limbs or instruments}. corners, limbs or instruments}. corners, limbs or instruments}. corners, limbs or instruments}. It would have been
enough to say limits, for denying that Allāh has any
limits necessarily entails denying the other elements
mentioned. Al-ѡaКāwī wanted, however, to make it
absolutely clear that Allāh is not something that is
attributedwithphysicalattributes,suchassize,volume,
weight,composition,place,orabeginningoranendof
any kind, because these all have limits in space or
amount.

By his categorical denial of any limit to Allāh, he also
wantedtomakeitclearthatAllāhisnotattributedwith
limits related to time, such as a beginning or an end,
starting or stopping, changes or sequences. He also
meant that Allāh does not have a limit in any of His
attributes,suchasHisPowerorKnowledge.

46 . دو-='ا ¸= -ا _''·-و
اود`او ء'-=`او ن'آر`او ت','·'او ت
{The six directions} {The six directions} {The six directions} {The six directions} up, down, front, back, left and
right {do not contain Him} {do not contain Him} {do not contain Him} {do not contain Him} because that would make
Him {like all created things} {like all created things} {like all created things} {like all created things} as they are either bodies
in a place or something that exists in a body. This
statement details even further the denial of limits to
47 . --'ا ت'+='ا ª,,=- `
ت'=----'ا ¸-'-آ
Allāh,forbeinginadirectionnecessarilyentailshaving
atleastalowerlimit.Attributingthephysicaldirection
up to Allāh then, is an attribution of flaw to the
Creator, and is therefore blasphemy that makes one a
non-Muslim.Al-ѡaКāwīherebymadetheblasphemyof
this belief explicit, because he said earlier: “Whoever
attributedtoAllāhanattributethathasameaningthat
applies to humans has committed blasphemy,” and
then stated here that having a direction applies to “all
createdthings.”

{TheMi {TheMi {TheMi {TheMi’ ’’ ’r rr rā āā āj} j} j} j}ascendancyoftheProphettotheSkies
{is true. And the Prophet {is true. And the Prophet {is true. And the Prophet {is true. And the Prophet was taken on a night was taken on a night was taken on a night was taken on a night
journeyinperson,} journeyinperson,} journeyinperson,} journeyinperson,}notjustinvision, {whileawake,to {whileawake,to {whileawake,to {whileawake,to
theSky theSky theSky theSky
8 88 8
,} ,} ,} ,}asestablishedbyfamousКadīthsacceptedby
all {andthento where {andthento where {andthento where {andthento where Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāhwilledofhigh places,} willedofhigh places,} willedofhigh places,} willedofhigh places,} as
statedinvarioussingularlynarratedКadīthsthatdonot
reach the status of being famous, {and {and {and {and Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh honored honored honored honored
him with whatever He willed, and revealed to him him with whatever He willed, and revealed to him him with whatever He willed, and revealed to him him with whatever He willed, and revealed to him
whateverHerevealed: whateverHerevealed: whateverHerevealed: whateverHerevealed:
ب-آ '- ىأر '- دا;--ا
(Al-Najm,11)Meaning:TheProphet’sheartdidnot
denyhissightofJibrīlinoriginalform
9
.

ThisĀyahtellsofoneofthemajoreventsofthatnight.
A major revelation during that same night was the
prescriptionofthefivedailyprayers.

{Somay {Somay {Somay {SomayAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāhraisehisrank,andprotecthisnation raisehisrank,andprotecthisnation raisehisrank,andprotecthisnation raisehisrank,andprotecthisnation
fromwhathehatesforit,inthenextlifeandtheworld fromwhathehatesforit,inthenextlifeandtheworld fromwhathehatesforit,inthenextlifeandtheworld fromwhathehatesforit,inthenextlifeandtheworld
beforeit.} beforeit.} beforeit.} beforeit.}Thissupplicationisinsertedwithinthis
summaryofdoctrineassincereloveandaweforthe
48 . ي¸-ُ أ -·و ،¸= جا¸·-'او
¸· ª-=-- »'-و ª,'= -ا _'- ¸--''-
¸- -ا ء'- -,= _'إ »` ،ء'--'ا _'إ ª=-,'ا
'- ª,'إ _=وأو ،ء'- '-- -ا ª-¸آأو ،`·'ا
_=وأ ) ىأر '- دا,-'ا ب-آ '- ( -ا _'-·
_'و`او ة¸=`ا ¸· »'-و ª,'=

8 The Sky here refers to special places in creation in the direction of Paradise. It is not the sky that we can see with
oureyes.
9 Sources:Al-Jalālayn,Zādal-Masīr
ProphetoverwhelmsAl-ѡaКāwī–mayAllāhplease
him.

{And the Basin ( {And the Basin ( {And the Basin ( {And the Basin (Й ЙЙ Йaw aw aw awЂ ЂЂ Ђ) tha ) tha ) tha ) that t t t Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh honored him with honored him with honored him with honored him with
as a} as a} as a} as a} never ending {relief for his nation} {relief for his nation} {relief for his nation} {relief for his nation} from thirst,
afterdrinkingfromit,{istrue.} {istrue.} {istrue.} {istrue.}

49 . -ا ª-¸آأ ي-'ا ض,='او
¸= ª--` '`',= ª- _''·-
{And the Intercession} {And the Intercession} {And the Intercession} {And the Intercession} of the Prophet {that he {that he {that he {that he
savedforhisnation,aswasnarratedin savedforhisnation,aswasnarratedin savedforhisnation,aswasnarratedin savedforhisnation,aswasnarratedinК КК Кad ad ad adī īī īt tt th hh hs} s} s} s}isalso
true.

Authentic Кadīths tell that the Prophet was given a
supplicationthatwouldbefulfilled,justastheprophets
beforehim.Hedecidedtosavethissupplicationforhis
intercession for his nation on the Day of Judgment.
AКmadibnЙanbalnarrated(No.7068):“Itwassaidto
me, “Request! For verily every prophet has asked.”
ThenIpostponedmyrequesttotheDayofJudgment,
so it will be for you and for whoever bore testimony
that there is no god but Allāh.” Note that it is
understoodfromthisКadīththatonemustalsobelieve
in the prophets and their teachings to benefit from his
request, as made clear by other evidences. Allāh said
(Al-Fath,13):
” ِ ·َ - َ ¸,ِ ¸ِ ·'َ ´ْ 'ِ ' 'َ -ْ-َ -ْ =َ أ '´ -ِ 'َ · ِ ªِ ',ُ -َ رَ و ِ ª´ '''ِ - ْ¸ِ -ْ,ُ , ْ»َ ' ْ¸َ -َ و اً ¸, “ ,
Meaning:“WhoeverdidnotbelieveinAllāhorhasnot
combinedthiswiththebeliefinHisMessenger–Verily
Allāhhaspreparedfortheblasphemersafire
10
.”

50 . »+' 'ه¸=دا ¸-'ا ª='--'او
ر'-=`ا ¸· يور '-آ ،¸=
{The covenant that {The covenant that {The covenant that {The covenant that Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh took from Adam took from Adam took from Adam took from Adam and his and his and his and his
descendants} descendants} descendants} descendants} testifying to His Oneness {istrue.} {istrue.} {istrue.} {istrue.} As it
isstatedintheQur’ān(Al-’A’rāf,172):
_َ 'َ = ْ»ُ هَ -َ +ْ -َ أَ و ْ»ُ +َ -´ , رُ ذ ْ»ِ هِ ر,ُ +ُ = ْ¸ِ - َمَ دَ ' ¸ِ -َ - ْ¸ِ - َ =´ -َ ر َ -َ =َ أ ْذِ إَ و
'َ -ْ-ِ +َ - _َ 'َ - ا,ُ ''َ · ْ»ُ ´ -َ ¸ِ - ُ -ْ -َ 'َ أ ْ»ِ +ِ -ُ -ْ -َ أ '´ -ِ إ ِ ªَ -'َ ,ِ -ْ 'ا َ مْ,َ , ا,ُ ',ُ -َ - ْنَ أ
51 . -ا --=أ ي-'ا ق'`,-'او
¸= ª-,رذو مد' ¸- _''·-

10 TafsīrAl-Nasafī
َ ¸,ِ 'ِ ·'َ = اَ -َ ه ْ¸َ = '´ -ُ آ
Meaning: “and remind the People, O MuКammad,
about when the One Who is Your Lord extracted the
descendants of Adam from their backs (where the
essence of each descendant stems). He gave them
minds to reason, and they testified (verbally, or in the
sense of having witnessed the obvious signs of Allāh’s
Onenessincreation)thatHeistheirLordandtheonly
trueGod.”

{ {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh has known eter has known eter has known eter has known eternally the number of people nally the number of people nally the number of people nally the number of people
going to Paradise, and the number of those going to going to Paradise, and the number of those going to going to Paradise, and the number of those going to going to Paradise, and the number of those going to
Hell as a single total number. This number neither Hell as a single total number. This number neither Hell as a single total number. This number neither Hell as a single total number. This number neither
increasesnordecreases.} increasesnordecreases.} increasesnordecreases.} increasesnordecreases.}Obviously,becausenothingis
hidden from Allāh about the future, past or present.
{Likewise,} {Likewise,} {Likewise,} {Likewise,}Allāhhasknowneternally{theirdeedsin} {theirdeedsin} {theirdeedsin} {theirdeedsin}
termsof{whatHeknewfromthemthattheywoulddo. {whatHeknewfromthemthattheywoulddo. {whatHeknewfromthemthattheywoulddo. {whatHeknewfromthemthattheywoulddo.

52 . »' '-,· _''·- -ا »'= -·و
.=-, ¸- د-=و ،ª-='ا .=-, ¸- د-= ل¸,
`و د-·'ا ='ذ ¸· دا¸, `· ،ة-=او ª'-= ر'-'ا
ª-- ¸--, . نأ »+-- »'= '-,· »+''··أ ='-آو
-,'·-,
{All ha {All ha {All ha {All have in their nature, and are prepared for, what ve in their nature, and are prepared for, what ve in their nature, and are prepared for, what ve in their nature, and are prepared for, what
theyhavebeencreatedfor} theyhavebeencreatedfor} theyhavebeencreatedfor} theyhavebeencreatedfor}intermsofgoingtoHellor
Paradise.
53 . ª' ¸'= '-' ¸-,- .آو
{Deeds} {Deeds} {Deeds} {Deeds} of accountable people in their hearts and
bodies {are} {are} {are} {are} judged {according to} {according to} {according to} {according to} the state people
are in at {the} {the} {the} {the} moment of their lives’ {endings.} {endings.} {endings.} {endings.} That
is, some might spend their lives doing good deeds, but
turn to bad deeds at the end of their lives and go to
Hell. On the other hand, some might spend their lives
in bad deeds, but repent just before death and go to
Paradise.

Al-Bukhārī (No. 6221) narrated that the Prophet ࣢
said:
” َ 4ِ -َ ذ َ Jْ -ِ - ً ªَ -َ -َ - ;ُ - 'ً -ْ;َ - َ Q-ِ ·َ -ْرَ أ ِ ª -ُ أ ِ Qْ =َ - ¸ِ - ُ ¿َ -ْ =ُ - ْ;ُ آَ -َ =َ أ نِ إ
ٍ ¿َ -ْرَ 'ِ - ُ ,َ -ْ;ُ -َ - 'ً -َ -َ - ُ ª --ا ُ ~َ ·ْ -َ - ;ُ - َ 4ِ -َ ذ َ Jْ -ِ - ً ªَ ·ْ ~ُ - ُ ن;ُ -َ - ;ُ -
ِ ªِ -َ =َ أَ و ِ ªِ -ْزِ ,ِ - ُ Jَ -ْ ·َ - َ Jُ = ,-ا ْوَ أ ْ;ُ آَ -َ =َ أ نِ إ ِ ª --اَ ;َ - ٌ--ِ ·َ ~ ْوَ أ ¸ِ -َ ~َ و
ٍ عاَ رِ ذ ْوَ أ ٍ ع'َ - ُ ,ْ -َ - 'َ )َ -ْ -َ -َ و ُ ªَ -ْ -َ - ُ ن;ُ -َ - 'َ - _ -َ = ِ ر' --ا ِ Jْ هَ أ ِ Jَ -َ ·ِ -
54 . »,-ا,=''- ل'-=`او
نِ إَ و 'َ )ُ -ُ =ْ-َ -َ - ِ ª -َ =ْ -ا ِ Jْ هَ أ ِ Jَ -َ ·ِ - ُ Jَ -ْ ·َ -َ - ُ ب'َ -ِ -ْ -ا ِ ªْ -َ -َ - ُ _ِ -ْ ~َ -َ -
ُ ,ْ -َ - 'َ )َ -ْ -َ -َ و ُ ªَ -ْ -َ - ُ ن;ُ -َ - 'َ - _ -َ = ِ ª -َ =ْ -ا ِ Jْ هَ أ ِ Jَ -َ ·ِ - ُ Jَ -ْ ·َ -َ - َ Jُ = ,-ا
ِ ر' --ا ِ Jْ هَ أ ِ Jَ -َ ·ِ - ُ Jَ -ْ ·َ -َ - ُ ب'َ -ِ -ْ -ا ِ ªْ -َ -َ - ُ _ِ -ْ ~َ -َ - ِ Qْ -َ -اَ رِ ذ ْوَ أ ٍ عاَ رِ ذ
'َ )ُ -ُ =ْ-َ -َ -
11

“Verily one of you is gathered in his mothers stomach
for forty days, then he is a blood-clot for forty days,
thenapieceofmeatforfortydays,thenAllāhsendsan
angel ordered with four words: his provision, his end,
happy or miserable
12
. By Allāh, verily one of you may
becommittingthedeedsofthepeopleofHell,untilhe
is only an arm’s length away, when (it is as if) his
destined end overwhelms him
13
and he starts to
perform the works of the people of Paradise, and
entersit.Andverilyoneofyoumaybecommittingthe
deeds of the people of Paradise, until he is only an
arm’s length away, when (it is as if) his destined end
overwhelms him and he starts to perform the works of
thepeopleofHell,andentersit.”

This is why one should always ask Allāh to make one
dieasaMuslim.

{Thehappy} {Thehappy} {Thehappy} {Thehappy}intheHereafter{arethosethataremade {arethosethataremade {arethosethataremade {arethosethataremade
happy according to happy according to happy according to happy according to Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s predestination. The s predestination. The s predestination. The s predestination. The
miserable} miserable} miserable} miserable} in the Hereafter {are those that are made are those that are made are those that are made are those that are made
miserableaccordingto miserableaccordingto miserableaccordingto miserableaccordingtoAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’spredestination. spredestination. spredestination. spredestination.} }} }Forno
thought occurs, and no atom moves without His
55 . ء'--- -·- ¸- -,·-'او
-ا ء'--- ¸-- ¸- ¸--'او ،-ا

11 ِ ¸ْ =َ - ¸· ُ _َ -ْ =ُ , ْ»ُ آَ -َ =َ أ ´ نِ إ ُ ¸َ -ْ,ُ ,َ · 'ً ´َ 'َ - -ا ُ -َ ·ْ -َ , ´ »ُ ` ='ذ َ .ْ `ِ - ً ªَ ·ْ -ُ - ُ ن,ُ ´َ , ´ »ُ ` ='ذ َ .ْ `ِ - ً ªَ -َ 'َ = ´ »ُ ` 'ً -ْ,َ , َ ¸,ِ ·َ -ْرَ أ ِ ª -ُ أ ٌ-,ِ ·َ - وأ ´ ¸ِ -َ -َ و ِ ªِ 'َ =َ أَ و ِ ªِ ·ْزِ ¸ِ - ª·-ر'-
_-= ِ ر'´ -'ا ِ .ْ هَ أ ِ .َ -َ ·ِ - ُ .َ -ْ ·َ , َ .ُ =´ ¸'ا وأ ْ»ُ آَ -َ =َ أ ´ نِ إ ِ ª´ ''اَ ,َ · َ ,َ · ِ ª´ -َ =ْ 'ا ِ .ْ هَ أ ِ .َ -َ ·ِ - ُ .َ -ْ ·َ ,َ · ُ ب'َ -ِ ´ْ 'ا ª,'= ُ ¸ِ -ْ -َ ,َ · ٍ عاَ رِ ذ وأ ٍ ع'َ - ُ ¸ْ ,َ = 'َ +َ -ْ ,َ -َ و ُ ªَ -ْ ,َ - ُ ن,ُ ´َ , '- َ .ُ =´ ¸'ا ´ نِ إَ و 'َ +ُ 'ُ =ْ-
ِ ¸ْ ,َ =اَ رِ ذ وأ ٍ عاَ رِ ذ ُ ¸ْ ,َ = 'َ +َ -ْ ,َ -َ و ُ ªَ -ْ ,َ - ُ ن,ُ ´َ , '- _-= ِ ª´ -َ =ْ 'ا ِ .ْ هَ أ ِ .َ -َ ·ِ - ُ .َ -ْ ·َ ,َ ' ج ير'=-'ا _,=- 'َ +ُ 'ُ =ْ-َ ,َ · ِ ر'´ -'ا ِ .ْ هَ أ ِ .َ -َ·ِ - ُ .َ -ْ ·َ ,َ · ُ ب'َ -ِ ´ْ 'ا ª,'= ُ ¸ِ -ْ -َ ,َ · 6 ص 2433
# 6221
12 Somesaidthatitisfourmatters,andthatthefourthmatterisgender,butthatitiswellknownfromothernarrationsof
the same Кadīth, so it was left out in this one. Others said that the fourth matter is his actions, but that this is
understoodfromthecontext.(‘Umdatal-Qārī).
¸= ¸- ن'آو ª-و'-- وأ ª-د'·-- ¸'·-- ª-'آو ª'='- ¸'·-- ª-'آو ª·ز¸- ¸'·-- ª-'آ ت'-'آ _-رأ _-ر'- ¸-,,· ª',· ¸,--- ª-د'·- --´, ل'-, نأ ¸ه'='ا
,آ _-ا¸'ا ن'- -,=أو ª·-رأ ` ر,-أ ª``` --ه .,· -,·- وأ ¸--و ª'=أو ª·زر --´, ª-أ ,هو ª--´, '- ةر,-- ª,'´= ='ذ ¸= ل-·· ª-و'--و _`-أ وأ ا¸آذ ª-
ª-` -¸آ-, »' ª'·'و ¸'='ا ء-- ب'-آ لوأ ¸· م--- '-آ ª'-= وأ --·- ي-'ا -,-='ا ¸· ح¸- '-آ ت¸+- _'= اد'--=ا -¸--=ا وأ ر,آ--'ا ¸- م¸',
13 Everythingisalwaysaccordingtopredestination,noonecaneverdoagainstit,sothisisafigurativeexpression.
KnowledgeandWill.

{The reality of predestination is a secret of {The reality of predestination is a secret of {The reality of predestination is a secret of {The reality of predestination is a secret of Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
pertainingtoHiscreation.Neitherafavoredangel,nor pertainingtoHiscreation.Neitherafavoredangel,nor pertainingtoHiscreation.Neitherafavoredangel,nor pertainingtoHiscreation.Neitherafavoredangel,nor
a prophet sent has a prophet sent has a prophet sent has a prophet sent has ever been given knowledge of it.} ever been given knowledge of it.} ever been given knowledge of it.} ever been given knowledge of it.}
This is because predestination is not something
observable,andonlyAllāhhascompleteknowledgeof
whatisnotobservable.{Tobecomedeeplyabsolvedin {Tobecomedeeplyabsolvedin {Tobecomedeeplyabsolvedin {Tobecomedeeplyabsolvedin
and pondering about this} and pondering about this} and pondering about this} and pondering about this} matter of the reality of
predestination {is a means to failure} {is a means to failure} {is a means to failure} {is a means to failure} in religion, {a {a {a {a
ladder to deprivation and a staircase to transgression} ladder to deprivation and a staircase to transgression} ladder to deprivation and a staircase to transgression} ladder to deprivation and a staircase to transgression}
against what Allāh has prescribed. {So beware, {So beware, {So beware, {So beware,
beware} beware} beware} beware} and avoid this {by} {by} {by} {by} busying yourself with
{pondering, thinking and} {pondering, thinking and} {pondering, thinking and} {pondering, thinking and} even {random ideas,} {random ideas,} {random ideas,} {random ideas,}
concerning other matters, {forverily {forverily {forverily {forverily Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh hashidden hashidden hashidden hashidden
the knowledge of} the knowledge of} the knowledge of} the knowledge of} the reality of {predestination from {predestination from {predestination from {predestination from
mankind, and forbade them from seeking it. As} mankind, and forbade them from seeking it. As} mankind, and forbade them from seeking it. As} mankind, and forbade them from seeking it. As} a
warning against what one may become engaged in by
delving in the matter of predestination { {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh said in said in said in said in
hisbook: hisbook: hisbook: hisbook:
] َ ن;ُ -َ 'ْ ~ُ - ْ;ُ هَ و ُ Jَ ·ْ -َ - ' -َ - ُ لَ 'ْ ~ُ - 'َ - ] ء'---Vا / 23 ¡
(Al-’Anbīyā’, 23) Meaning: “Allāh is not questioned
about what He does, but the created beings are.” {So {So {So {So
whoever asked} whoever asked} whoever asked} whoever asked} in scorn or objection, { {{ {“ ““ “Why did He Why did He Why did He Why did He
do that? do that? do that? do that?” ”” ” has rejected the judgment has rejected the judgment has rejected the judgment has rejected the judgment of the Book} of the Book} of the Book} of the Book} of
the Qur’ān {and whoever rejects the judgment of the {and whoever rejects the judgment of the {and whoever rejects the judgment of the {and whoever rejects the judgment of the
Book has become a blasphemer.} Book has become a blasphemer.} Book has become a blasphemer.} Book has become a blasphemer.} That is, a non-
Muslim.

In brief, a Muslim must know what predestination
means,namelythatAllāhspecifieshowallthingsareto
be, and that everything happens by His Will.
Accordingly,itwasstatedearlierbyAl-ѡaКāwīhimself:
“His creatures do not have a will except what He has
willed for them; whatever He has willed happens, and
56 . _''·- -ا ¸- ر--'ا .-أو
`و ب¸-- ='- ='ذ _'= _'=, »' ،ª-'= ¸·
ª·,رذ ='ذ ¸· ¸=-'او ¸-·-'او ،.-¸- ¸--
،ن',·='ا ª=ردو ن'-¸='' »'-و ،ن`-=''
ا¸´·و ا¸=- ='ذ ¸- ر-='ا .آ ر-=''·
· ،ª-,-وو ¸= ر--'ا »'= ى,= _''·- -ا ن'
¸· _''·- ل'· '-آ ،ª-ا¸- ¸= »ه'+-و ،ª-'-أ
ª-'-آ ( ن,'َ 'ْ -ُ , ْ»ُ هَ و ُ .َ ·ْ -َ , '´ -َ = ُ لَ 'ْ -ُ , ` .) ¸-·
»´= ´ در ¸-و ب'-´'ا »´= ´ در --· .·· »' ل'-
¸,¸·'´'ا ¸- ن'آ ب'-´'ا
whateverHehasnotwilleddoesnothappen.”

What one must not do, however, is delve on this
meaning, for this is a path to the deviant beliefs of the
Qadarīyah or Jabrīyah sects. The first said that human
actions are not predestined, but created by the human
himself.Thisisplainblasphemybecauseitisabeliefin
more than one creator. When the great Imām Mālik
was asked about marrying one of them he responded
byreciting:
ْ»ُ ´َ -َ =ْ =َ أ ْ,َ 'َ و ٍ كِ ¸ْ -ُ - ْ¸ِ - ٌ¸ْ ,َ = ٌ¸ِ -ْ,ُ - ٌ-ْ -َ ·َ 'َ و | ة¸--'ا / 221 |
Meaning: “Verily a Muslim slave is better than an
idolater, even if he impresses you with his wealth,
beautyorsocialstatus.”(Al-Baqarah,221)
14

The Jabrīyah sect went to the other extreme, and said
that humans have no choice at all, not even a created
kind.Theysaidthathumansarelikeleavesinthewind.
This latter sect was never very large, for this belief of
theirscontradictsobservablereality.

{This is the amount of knowledge needed for the one {This is the amount of knowledge needed for the one {This is the amount of knowledge needed for the one {This is the amount of knowledge needed for the one
who who who who’ ’’ ’s s s s heart is enlightened,} heart is enlightened,} heart is enlightened,} heart is enlightened,} and is thereby {among} {among} {among} {among}
the highly upright Muslims called {the wal {the wal {the wal {the walī īī īs of s of s of s of Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh, , , ,
which} which} which} which} i.e. the title of walī {is} {is} {is} {is} for those who have
reached {the rank of being among the steadfast in {the rank of being among the steadfast in {the rank of being among the steadfast in {the rank of being among the steadfast in
knowledge.Thisisbecauseknowledge} knowledge.Thisisbecauseknowledge} knowledge.Thisisbecauseknowledge} knowledge.Thisisbecauseknowledge}inthesenseof
being without doubt {is} {is} {is} {is} of {two} {two} {two} {two} kinds: {knowledge {knowledge {knowledge {knowledge
thatisaccessibletocreation,andknowledgethatisnot thatisaccessibletocreation,andknowledgethatisnot thatisaccessibletocreation,andknowledgethatisnot thatisaccessibletocreation,andknowledgethatisnot
accessibletocreation.The} accessibletocreation.The} accessibletocreation.The} accessibletocreation.The}categorical{denialof} {denialof} {denialof} {denialof}the
certaintyofanyof{theknowledgethatisaccessible} {theknowledgethatisaccessible} {theknowledgethatisaccessible} {theknowledgethatisaccessible}to
creation{isblasphemy.} {isblasphemy.} {isblasphemy.} {isblasphemy.}

57 . ¸- ª,'إ ج'-=, '- ª'-= ا-+·
¸هو ،_''·- -ا ء','وأ ¸- ª-'· ر,-- ,ه
،ن'-'= »'·'ا ن` ،»'·'ا ¸· ¸,=-ا¸'ا ª=رد
¸'='ا ¸· »'=و ،د,=,- ¸'='ا ¸· »'=
د,--- . ء'=داو ،¸-آ د,=,-'ا »'·'ا ر'´-'·
`إ ن'-,`ا --`, `و ،¸-آ د,---'ا »'·'ا
»'·'ا -'= ك¸-و د,=,-'ا »'·'ا ل,---
ا د,---' .

14 V.1,P.385,‘AКkāmal-Qur’ān,IbnAl-’Arabī
ج ¸-¸·'ا ¸-` ن'¸-'ا م'´=أ 1 / ص 385 : ''- .-- -·و ة¸--'ا »´-==أ ,'و ك¸-- ¸- ¸,= ¸-,- --·'و _''·- -ا ل'· -· ل'-· ª,ر--'ا جو¸- .ه =
221
Certainty of knowledge can be gained by observation,
such as knowledge of ones own existence and that of
the world. It can also be gained by sound reasoning,
such as knowledge of Allāh’s existence and His non-
resemblance to anything that has a beginning. The
categorical denial that certainty of knowledge can be
gained in both of these ways is blasphemy, because it
necessarily entails doubting the essentials of the
Islamic belief. For example, doubting ones own
existenceisblasphemybecausethisentailsdoubtinany
belief.

{Moreover,toclaimtohavetheknowledgethatisnot {Moreover,toclaimtohavetheknowledgethatisnot {Moreover,toclaimtohavetheknowledgethatisnot {Moreover,toclaimtohavetheknowledgethatisnot
accessible} accessible} accessible} accessible} to creation, but is exclusive to Allāh {is} {is} {is} {is}
also {blasphemy.} {blasphemy.} {blasphemy.} {blasphemy.} For example, claiming that some
creation knows everything, or the time of the Day of
Judgment. {Belief is not established except by {Belief is not established except by {Belief is not established except by {Belief is not established except by
acceptingknowledgethatisaccessible} acceptingknowledgethatisaccessible} acceptingknowledgethatisaccessible} acceptingknowledgethatisaccessible}andestablished
to be necessarily true {and abandoning the search for {and abandoning the search for {and abandoning the search for {and abandoning the search for
knowledgethatisnot} knowledgethatisnot} knowledgethatisnot} knowledgethatisnot}accessibletocreations.

{AndwebelieveintheLaw {AndwebelieveintheLaw {AndwebelieveintheLaw {AndwebelieveintheLawК КК К} }} }sometimesreferredtoas
“tablet”or“book”,butwedonotknowtheexactform
of it. We believe in the existence of this LawК that is
locatedbythe‘ArshaboveParadise {andtheQalam}, {andtheQalam}, {andtheQalam}, {andtheQalam},
thePenthatwritesonit,{a {a {a {andallthatiswrittenonit.} ndallthatiswrittenonit.} ndallthatiswrittenonit.} ndallthatiswrittenonit.}
This includes all of the revealed books, such as the
Qur’ānofProphetMuКammadandtheInjīlofJesus
. It also includes all events, big or small until the
DayofJudgment.Allāhsaid(Al-Qamar,53):
ِ -َ آَ و ٍ ¸,ِ ·َ - ´ .ُ آَ و ٌ¸َ =َ -ْ -ُ - ٍ ¸, | ¸--'ا / 53 |
Meaning:“Allmatters,bigorsmall,arewrittendown.”

{If all creation had gathered and agreed on making {If all creation had gathered and agreed on making {If all creation had gathered and agreed on making {If all creation had gathered and agreed on making
something happen that} something happen that} something happen that} something happen that} the Pen {had not been} {had not been} {had not been} {had not been}
58 . »'-'او ح,'''- ¸-,-و
=ا ,'· ،»·ر -· ª,· '- _,-=-و »+'آ ¸'='ا _--
-,'·=,' ª,· _''·- -ا ª--´, »' ء¸- _'=
¸-'آ ,ه '-- »'-'ا -= ،ª,'= اور--, »' '--'آ
¸´, »' --·'ا '==أ '-و ،ª-',-'ا م,, _'إ
ª-==,' ¸´, »' ª-'-أ '-و ،ª-,-,' .
ordered to have {written in it by {written in it by {written in it by {written in it by Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh_-'·-, then they , then they , then they , then they
would not able to would not able to would not able to would not able to do that. The Pen has dried up with do that. The Pen has dried up with do that. The Pen has dried up with do that. The Pen has dried up with
regards to what is to be until the Day of Judgment. regards to what is to be until the Day of Judgment. regards to what is to be until the Day of Judgment. regards to what is to be until the Day of Judgment.
Whateverdidnotbefallthecreatedbeingwas} Whateverdidnotbefallthecreatedbeingwas} Whateverdidnotbefallthecreatedbeingwas} Whateverdidnotbefallthecreatedbeingwas}written
{tomissit, andwhateverbefellitwasnot} {tomissit, andwhateverbefellitwasnot} {tomissit, andwhateverbefellitwasnot} {tomissit, andwhateverbefellitwasnot} written {to {to {to {to
miss.} miss.} miss.} miss.}

{The} {The} {The} {The} accountable among creation, that are called
absolute {slaves,} {slaves,} {slaves,} {slaves,} because Allāh is the absolute of
owner of all created things, {must know that {must know that {must know that {must know that Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
preceded in knowing all that is to be among His preceded in knowing all that is to be among His preceded in knowing all that is to be among His preceded in knowing all that is to be among His
creation.Hepredestineditfirmlyandsurely,without} creation.Hepredestineditfirmlyandsurely,without} creation.Hepredestineditfirmlyandsurely,without} creation.Hepredestineditfirmlyandsurely,without}
there being {any contradiction in it or} {any contradiction in it or} {any contradiction in it or} {any contradiction in it or} possibility of
{overruling} {overruling} {overruling} {overruling} against {Him, {Him, {Him, {Him, or anything that can cease or anything that can cease or anything that can cease or anything that can cease
or change it. There is nothing} or change it. There is nothing} or change it. There is nothing} or change it. There is nothing} other than Him {that {that {that {that
reduces or increases His creation in the Skies or the reduces or increases His creation in the Skies or the reduces or increases His creation in the Skies or the reduces or increases His creation in the Skies or the
Earth. This is all part} Earth. This is all part} Earth. This is all part} Earth. This is all part} of the act {of belief, the {of belief, the {of belief, the {of belief, the
fundamentalsoffaith,andadmittingtotheOnenessof fundamentalsoffaith,andadmittingtotheOnenessof fundamentalsoffaith,andadmittingtotheOnenessof fundamentalsoffaith,andadmittingtotheOnenessof
Allāh Allāh Allāh AllāhandHisa andHisa andHisa andHisabsoluteownershipofcreation.As bsoluteownershipofcreation.As bsoluteownershipofcreation.As bsoluteownershipofcreation.AsAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
saidintheQur saidintheQur saidintheQur saidintheQur’ ’’ ’ā āā ān: n: n: n:
] ” اً ,-ِ -ْ -َ - ُ -َ ر -َ -َ - ٍ ءْ¸َ ~ Jُ آ َ _َ -َ =َ و “
(Al-Furqān, 2) Meaning: “And He created everything
andpredestinedit.”{And {And {And {AndAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāhsaid: said: said: said:
] ” اً روُ -ْ -َ - اً رَ -َ - ِ ª --ا ُ ,ْ -َ أ َ ن'َ آَ و “
(Al-‘AКzāb, 38) Meaning: “All created beings are
predestinedbyAllāh.”

59 . -ا نأ »'·, نأ --·'ا _'=و
-· ª-'= ¸-- ر--· ،ª-'= ¸- ¸-'آ .آ ¸·
¸·'- ª,· ¸,' ،'-¸-- '-´=- ا¸,--- ='ذ
¸,·- `و .,¸- `و ،--·- `و . ¸·'- `و
،ª-رأو ª-او'-- ¸· ª-'= ¸- --از `و
-أو ن'-,`ا --= ¸- ='ذو ª·¸·-'ا ل,
'-آ ،ª-,-,-¸-و _''·- -ا -,=,-- فا¸-=`او
ª-'-آ ¸· _''·- ل'· ) -ر--· ء¸- .آ ¸'=و
ا¸,--- |( ن'·¸-'ا : 2 | _''·- ل'·و ، ) ¸-أ ن'آو
ارو--- ار-· -ا |( با¸=`ا : 38 .|
{Woe to the one that has become a disputant against {Woe to the one that has become a disputant against {Woe to the one that has become a disputant against {Woe to the one that has become a disputant against
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh with regard to predestination, and with regard to predestination, and with regard to predestination, and with regard to predestination, and prepared a prepared a prepared a prepared a
sick heart to ponder it} sick heart to ponder it} sick heart to ponder it} sick heart to ponder it} i.e. predestination. {He has {He has {He has {He has
sought with his delusions to investigate what is hidden sought with his delusions to investigate what is hidden sought with his delusions to investigate what is hidden sought with his delusions to investigate what is hidden
fromcreationasahiddensecret,andhasendedup,by fromcreationasahiddensecret,andhasendedup,by fromcreationasahiddensecret,andhasendedup,by fromcreationasahiddensecret,andhasendedup,by
what he said regarding it, a sinful liar,} what he said regarding it, a sinful liar,} what he said regarding it, a sinful liar,} what he said regarding it, a sinful liar,} because it is
hiddentohim,andcannotbeknown.Thiscouldbeby
opposing what Allāh has willed, or by claiming that
60 . _''·- - ر'- ¸-' .,,·
'-'· ª,· ¸=-'' ¸-=أو ،'-,-= ر--'ا ¸·
-,·'ا ¸=· ¸· ª-ه,- ¸--'ا --' ،'-,--
'-,`أ 'آ'·أ ª,· ل'· '-- د'=و ،'-,-آ ا¸-
somethingsarenotbyHiswill.

{The {The {The {The‘ ‘‘ ‘Ars Ars Ars Arsh hh handtheKurs andtheKurs andtheKurs andtheKursī īī ī} }} }literally:thethroneandthe
chair {are real.} {are real.} {are real.} {are real.} Their existence is well established by
irrefutable proofs. It was authentically narrated that
theProphetsaid:
” ّ ¸ِ ~ْ,ُ -ْ -ا َ ¿َ - ¿ْ - ~-ا تاَ و'َ - ~-ا 'َ - ّ Vِ إ ة>َ - ٍ ضْرَ 'ِ - ة'َ -ْ -ُ - ٍ ªَ -ْ -َ =َ آ
ْ,ُ -ْ -ا _َ -َ - شْ,َ ·ْ -ا Jْ ~َ -َ و ªَ -ْ -َ =ْ -ا _َ -َ - ة>َ -ْ -ا ِ Jْ ~َ -َ آ ّ ¸ِ ~ “
“The Seven Skies compared to the Kursī is like a ring
thrown on the ground in a desert, and the size of the
‘Arsh compared to the Kursī is like the size of the
desertcomparedtothering
15
.”

It is also known that the ‘Arsh is above the skies and
Paradise.ItwasnarratedthattheProphetsaid:
” ِ ضْرَ 'ْ -ا َ Qْ -َ - 'َ -َ آ ِ Qْ -َ -َ =َ رَ د Jُ آ َ Qْ -َ - 'َ- ٍ ªَ =َ رَ د ُ ªَ -'ِ - ِ ª -َ =ْ -ا ¸ِ -
-َ =ْ -ا ُ ر'َ )ْ -َ أ ُ , =َ -ُ - 'َ )ْ -ِ -َ و ً ªَ =َ رَ د 'َ ه'َ-ْ -َ أ ُ سْوَ دْ,ِ -ْ -اَ و ِ ء'َ - ~-اَ و ِ ª
ُ -;ُ -َ ~َ - َ ª --ا ُ ;ُ -ْ -َ 'َ ~ اَ ذِ 'َ - ُ شْ,َ ·ْ -ا ُ ن;ُ-َ - 'َ )ِ -ْ;َ - ْQِ -َ و ُ ªَ ·َ -ْرَ 'ْ -ا
َ سْوَ دْ,ِ -ْ -ا “
“InParadisethereareonehundredlevels,thedistance
betweeneachofthemis likethatbetweentheSkyand
the Earth, and the (one called) The Firdaws is the
highest level. From it springs the four rivers of
Paradise,andaboveitisthe‘Arsh,soifyouaskAllāh,
thenaskfortheFirdaws.
16

TheProphetalsotoldusthatitiscarriedbyAngels:
” ْ -ا ªَ -َ -َ = ْQِ - 4َ -َ - ْQَ - ث -َ =ُ أ ْنَ أ ¸ِ - َ نِ ذُ أ ªَ -ْ =َ ~ Qْ -َ - 'َ - شْ,َ ·
61 . ،¸= ¸-¸´'او ش¸·'او
=,=- ،ª-ود '-و ش¸·'ا ¸= ¸·--- ,هو
ª='=`ا ¸= ¸==أ -·و ،ª·,·و ء¸- .´-
ª-'= .

15FatКal-Bārī,16/p.411
¸== ¸-` ير'-'ا _-· - ) ج 13 / ص 411 :( ن'´ -ِ = ¸ْ -ِ ا ُ ªَ =´ =َ - يِ -´ 'ا .,ِ ,´ ='ا ّ رَ ذ ¸ِ -َ أ -,ِ -َ = ¸ِ ·َ و ” ª´ ''ا _´ 'َ - ª´ ''ا ل,ُ -َ ر ´ نَ أ 'َ -َ أ 'َ , َ ل'َ · َ »´ 'َ -َ و ِ ªْ ,َ 'َ =
ّ ¸ِ -ْ¸ُ ´ْ 'ا _َ 'َ = شْ¸َ ·ْ 'ا .ْ -َ ·َ و ة'َ 'َ · ٍ ضْرَ 'ِ - ة'َ -ْ 'ُ - ٍ ªَ -ْ 'َ =َ آ '´ 'ِ إ ّ ¸ِ -ْ¸ُ ´ْ 'ا َ _َ - _ْ -´ -'ا تاَ و'َ -´ -'ا 'َ - ّ رَ ذ ªَ -ْ 'َ =ْ 'ا _َ 'َ = ة'َ 'َ -ْ 'ا ِ .ْ -َ -َ آ ” ¸ْ - -,ِ ·َ - ُ ªَ =َ ¸ْ =َ أ -ِ ه'َ =ُ - ْ¸َ = -ِ ه'َ - ُ ªَ 'َ و
ُ -ْ -َ - ُ ªْ -َ = _,ِ =َ - ٍ -َ -َ -ِ - ¸,ِ -ْ -´ -'ا ¸ِ · ر, .
16 SunanAl-Tirmidhī4/675,No.2531.
ج ي--¸-'ا ¸-- 4 ص 675 : 2531 ةد'-= ¸= ر'-, ¸- ء'== ¸= »'-أ ¸- -,ز '-`-= م'-ه '-¸-=أ نور'ه ¸- -,¸, '-¸-=أ ¸-=¸'ا --= ¸- -ا --= '-`-=
ª,'= -ا _'- -ا ل,-ر نأ --'-'ا ¸- َ 'ْ =َ أ ُ سْوَ دْ¸ِ -ْ 'اَ و ِ ء'َ -´ -'اَ و ِ ضْرَ 'ْ 'ا َ ¸ْ ,َ - 'َ -َ آ ِ ¸ْ ,َ -َ =َ رَ د .ُ آ َ ¸ْ ,َ - 'َ - ٍ ªَ =َ رَ د ُ ªَ -'ِ- ِ ª´ -َ =ْ 'ا ¸ِ · »'-و ُ ر'َ +ْ -َ أ ُ ¸´ =َ -ُ - 'َ +ْ -ِ -َ و ً ªَ =َ رَ د 'َ ه'
َ ª´ ''ا ُ »ُ -ْ 'َ 'َ - اَ ذِ 'َ · ُ شْ¸َ ·ْ 'ا ُ ن,ُ ´َ , 'َ +ِ ·ْ,َ · ْ¸ِ -َ و ُ ªَ ·َ -ْرَ 'ْ 'ا ِ ª´ -َ =ْ 'ا -,=- »'-أ ¸- -,ز ¸= م'-ه '-`-= نور'ه ¸- -,¸, '-`-= _,-- ¸- --=أ '-`-= َ سْوَ دْ¸ِ -ْ 'ا ُ -,ُ 'َ -َ ·
م'َ - ِ ªَ -'ِ -·ْ -َ ~ ةَ ,-ِ ~َ - ª-ِ -'َ - _َ -ِ إ ª-ُ ذُ أ “
“I was permitted to speak of an Angel among the
carriersofthe‘Arsh.Thedistancebetweenhisearlobe
andhisneckissevenhundredyearsoftravel.
17

FakhrudDīn Al-Rāzī said, “The Muslims all agreed
that above the Sky, there is a great body called The
‘Arsh.
18

{ {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāhdoesnotneedthe doesnotneedthe doesnotneedthe doesnotneedthe‘ ‘‘ ‘Ars Ars Ars Arsh hh horwhatisbelowit.} orwhatisbelowit.} orwhatisbelowit.} orwhatisbelowit.}Al-
ѡaКāwī details further the fact that Allāh is not above
the ‘Arsh in place, in agreement with what he said
earlier: “Allāh is above having limits, extremes,
corners, limbs or instruments. He is not contained in
thesixdirections.”

AllāhsaidintheQur’ān(MuКammad,38):
” ´ _ِ -َ ·ْ 'ا ُ ª´ ''او “
Meaning: “Allāh is Al-Ghanī”, i.e. He has absolutely
no needs. This shows that He is not a body, because a
bodyneedsspace.ItalsomeansthatHedoesnotneed
placeoradirection,orothercreatedthings.

It is puzzling how some people agree to say that Allāh
doesnotneedplace,andatthesametimethatHeisin
it. This is as absurd as saying that He does not need
sleep,butsleeps;doesnotneedfood,buteats;doesnot
needason,buthasone.Allofthisisblasphemy,asAl-
ѡaКāwī clarified when he said: “Whoever attributed to
Allāh an attribute that has a meaning among the
meanings that apply to humans has committed

17 FatКal-Bārī,14/p.49
¸== ¸-` ير'-'ا _-· - ) ج 14 / ص 49 :( َ ل'َ · ¸ِ -'َ = -,ِ -َ = : َ »´ 'َ -َ و ِ ªْ ,َ 'َ = ª´ ''ا _´ 'َ - ª´ ''ا ل,ُ -َ ر َ ل'َ · ” -َ =ُ أ ْنَ أ ¸ِ ' َ نِ ذُ أ ¸ْ ,َ - 'َ - شْ¸َ ·ْ 'ا ªَ 'َ -َ = ْ¸ِ - =َ 'َ - ْ¸َ = ث
م'َ = ِ ªَ -'ِ -·ْ -َ - ةَ ¸,ِ -َ - ª-ِ -'َ = _َ 'ِ إ ª-ُ ذُ أ ªَ-ْ =َ - ” 'َ -ْ -ِ إَ و رِ -َ ´ْ -ُ -ْ 'ا ¸ْ - -´ -َ =ُ - ْ¸َ = َ ن'َ -ْ +َ = ¸ْ - »,ِ هاَ ¸ْ -ِ إ ªَ ,اَ وِ ر ْ¸ِ - »ِ -'َ = ¸ِ -َ أ ¸ْ -اَ و َ دُ واَ د ,ُ -َ أ ُ ªَ =َ ¸ْ =َ أ _,ِ =´ -'ا طْ¸َ - _َ 'َ = -د .
18 FayЂal-Qadīr,1/458.
ج ¸,--'ا ¸,· 1 ص 458 : يزا¸'ا م'-`ا ل'· : ش¸·'ا ,ه »,== »-= ء'--'ا ق,· نأ _'= ن,-'--'ا ¸--ا
blasphemy.”

{AndHe} {AndHe} {AndHe} {AndHe}hascompleteknowledgeandcontrolofHis
creation, so in this sense, not the sense of place or
direction, it is said in Arabic that Allāh { {{ {“ ““ “surrounds surrounds surrounds surrounds” ”” ”
allthings,and} allthings,and} allthings,and} allthings,and}it{is} {is} {is} {is}alsosaidthatHeis{aboveit} {aboveit} {aboveit} {aboveit}in
Powerandstatus.

{He made His creation unable to have encompassing {He made His creation unable to have encompassing {He made His creation unable to have encompassing {He made His creation unable to have encompassing
knowledge} knowledge} knowledge} knowledge}, and kept them from knowing some facts
such as the time of the Day of Judgment. When the
blasphemers asked about it, the Prophet was told
(Al-Mulk,26):
” ٌ¸,ِ -ُ - ٌ¸,ِ -َ - 'َ -َ أ 'َ -´ -ِ إَ و ِ ª´ ''ا َ -ْ -ِ = ُ »ْ 'ِ·ْ 'ا 'َ -´ -ِ إ ْ.ُ · | ='-'ا / 26 | “
Meaning: “Say: Only Allāh knows, and I am only
someone who warns with a clear warning.” Likewise is
the case for the number of Angels that Allāh created
(Al-Muddaththir,31):
” َ ,ُ ه ّ `ِ إ َ = -َ ر َ د,ُ -ُ = ُ »َ 'ْ ·َ , 'َ -َ و “
Meaning:“NooneknowsthenumberofAllāh’sangels
exceptHe.”

{Andwesaythat {Andwesaythat {Andwesaythat {AndwesaythatAllāh Allāh Allāh AllāhtookIbr tookIbr tookIbr tookIbrā āā āh hh hī īī īmasak masak masak masakh hh hal al al alī īī īl} l} l} l}i.e.as
highlyfavoredbyHisgrace.ThisisfromtheQur’ān
(Al-Nisā’,125):
َ `,ِ 'َ = َ »,ِ هاَ ¸ْ -ِ إ ُ ª´ ''ا َ -َ =´ -اَ و | ء'--'ا / 125 |
Meaning:“AllāhhonoredIbrāhīmbyselectinghimto
benamedasHiskhalīl.”

Totranslatekhalīlas“friend”orthelikeistotranslate
literally in a way that can be misunderstood. Such
translation is sinful, even if the word may be
62 . »,ها¸-إ -=-ا -ا نإ ل,--و
'-,---و '-'-,إ ،'-,'´- _-,- »'آو `,'=
'-,'--و .
misunderstoodintheoriginalArabicalso,asagreedon
bythescholars
19
.

ItmustnotbeunderstoodfromAllāhtakinga“khalīl”,
asHimhavingemotionsorfeelingsofloveoranything
else, because emotions change, and can therefore only
be created, as discussed earlier. Emotions are among
the meanings ascribed to humans, and it is therefore
blasphemoustobeascribethemtoAllāh.

In his commentary on the Qur’ān, Fakhr al-Dīn Al-
Rāzī
20
explained what the difference is between
someonesayingAllāh’sson,asawayofhonoringJesus
, and Allāh’s khalīl (which’s apparent meaning is
“friend”) as a way of honoring Ibrāhīm . He
explained that “khalīl” only gives the idea of being
highly honored and said: “as for the word “son”, it
givestheideaofbeingfromthesamekind.”

In Mufradāt Al-Qur’ān, Al-Rāghib Al-’Aјfahanī
explained the term “the khalīl of Allāh” and said that
he (Ibrāhīm) was in a state where his intentions,
thoughts, and actions were all overwhelmed by his
complete and utter need of Allāh. A person in such a
stated is called “khalīl”, because the root meaning of
thiswordis“need.”

{And} {And} {And} {And} we also say {that {that {that {that Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh spoke to M spoke to M spoke to M spoke to Mū ūū ūs ss sā āā ā.} .} .} .} with

19 For all these details, see P. 33-36, SharК Asmā’ Allāh Al-Йusnā, Al-Fakhr Al-Rāzī, Al-Maktabah Al-Azharīyah li Al-
Turāth,Egypt,2000.ThishasbeenexplainedindetailonmycommentaryontheSanūsīyah.
20 Fakhr al-Dīn Al-Rāzī (544-606 Hijri calendar) is by many regarded as the greatest scholar of his time, and the sixth
renewerofthereligion,forthebeginningoftheseventhcenturyaftertheHijrah.HeistheImāmofthescholarsofthe
beliefsciences.Hedevastatedthedeviantsectswithhisarguments.Theanthropomorphistsmadeittheirhabittoleave
notesfor himcontainingvariousinsults.Onetimeanote saidthathiswife wasan adulteress.Hereadthenotetothe
crowdandthensaid,“allofthisispossible,butatleastIdonotbelievethatAllāhisinaplace.”(Al-Ziriklī6/313;Tājal-
DīnAl-Subkī8/81-82;Al-Șafadī4/176).
His speech that is not letters, not sound, and not
sequential. {We say all of this in faith, belief and} {We say all of this in faith, belief and} {We say all of this in faith, belief and} {We say all of this in faith, belief and}
unquestioning{submission.} {submission.} {submission.} {submission.}

{Andwebelieveintheangels,} {Andwebelieveintheangels,} {Andwebelieveintheangels,} {Andwebelieveintheangels,}whoarespiritual,light-
bodied,genderlessandinfalliblecreatures,indulgedin
worship and obedience, that Allāh created from light.
Webelieveinthem,eveniftheyareinvisibletous,and
also in {the prophets,} {the prophets,} {the prophets,} {the prophets,} who are males that Allāh
selected from birth to have a revelation from Him,
ordering to teach people Islām. We believe in them,
{andthebooksthatwererevealedtothemessengers,} {andthebooksthatwererevealedtothemessengers,} {andthebooksthatwererevealedtothemessengers,} {andthebooksthatwererevealedtothemessengers,}
whoareprophetsthatbringchangestotheteachingof
previous prophets, such as our Prophet MuКammad’s
ordertoprayfivetimesdaily,insteadofthetwodaily
prayers of Jesus . We affirm our belief in all true
prophetsandmessengers,boththoseweknowfromthe
Qur’ānandauthenticКadīths,butalsothosethatwedo
notknowtheidentityof,{andwetestifythattheywe andwetestifythattheywe andwetestifythattheywe andwetestifythattheywere re re re
on} on} on} on}thepathof{obvioustruth.} {obvioustruth.} {obvioustruth.} {obvioustruth.}

Thesearebasicsofthenarrational
21
beliefsofMuslims.
Allāhsaid(Al-Baqarah,285):
ِ ª´ '''ِ - َ ¸َ -َ ' ´ .ُ آ َ ن,ُ -ِ -ْ,ُ -ْ 'اَ و ِ ª -َ ر ْ¸ِ - ِ ªْ ,َ'ِ إ َ لِ ¸ْ -ُ أ 'َ -ِ - ُ ل,ُ -´ ¸'ا َ ¸َ -َ '
ِ ªِ 'ُ -ُ رَ و ِ ªِ -ُ -ُ آَ و ِ ªِ -َ ´ِ -'َ 'َ -َ و ِ ªِ 'ُ -ُ ر ْ¸ِ - ٍ -َ =َ أ َ ¸ْ ,َ - ُ ق ¸َ -ُ - 'َ '
Meaning: “The Messenger of Allāh, MuКammad ࣢
believesinwhathasbeenrevealedtohimoftheQur’ān
by Allāh, as do all the Believers (i.e. Muslims). All of
them believe in Allāh and His Angels, Books, and
Messengers, and they do not distinguish between the
messengers.” I.e. in a derogatory manner. They
respectandbelieveinallofthem.
22

63 . و ª´-`-''- ¸-,-و ¸,,--'ا
»+-أ -+--و ،¸,'-¸-'ا _'= ª'¸--'ا --´'او
¸,--'ا ¸='ا _'= ا,-'آ .

21 AnarrationalbeliefiswhatisestablishedastruebynarrationoftheQur’ānortheteachingsoftheProphet,andcannot
beknownbyreasonalone.
22 Tafsīral-Jalālayn.

{AndwecallthepeopleofourQibl {AndwecallthepeopleofourQibl {AndwecallthepeopleofourQibl {AndwecallthepeopleofourQiblah} ah} ah} ah}i.e.theKa’bah
as a prayer direction { {{ {“ ““ “Muslims Muslims Muslims Muslims” ”” ”and and and and “ ““ “Believers Believers Believers Believers” ”” ” as as as as
long as they admit to be true whatever Mu long as they admit to be true whatever Mu long as they admit to be true whatever Mu long as they admit to be true whatever MuК КК Кammad ammad ammad ammad
brought} brought} brought} brought} of knowledge {and believe in, and do not {and believe in, and do not {and believe in, and do not {and believe in, and do not
deny,anyofwhathesaid.} deny,anyofwhathesaid.} deny,anyofwhathesaid.} deny,anyofwhathesaid.}Inotherwords,whatisless
sinful than that, such as drinking wine does not make
oneanon-Muslim.Thisisprovidedthatonebelievesit
to be wrong, and one does not deny or have scorn
towardsitsprohibition.

This clarifies what Al-Al-’arī and other scholars mean
when they say, “I do not say that any of the People of
the Qiblah is a non-Muslim.” The purpose of this
expressionoftheirsistodenythatasinfulMuslimfalls
outofIslāmaslongashebelievesandadmitsthatwhat
he is doing is sinful. It is a statement meant to refute
the saying of the Khawārij sect, which says that
committing sins, such as drinking wine, makes one a
non-Muslim,evenifonebelievesitisasin.Itdoesnot
mean that anyone who prays towards the Qiblah is a
Muslim, regardless of anything he believes, says or
does.

64 . -· .هأ ¸---و ¸,-'-- '--'
ª,'= ¸--'ا ª- ء'= '-- ا,-اد '- ¸,--,-
ل'· '- .´- ª'و ،¸,·¸-·- م`-'او ة`-'ا
¸,--´- ¸,= ¸,·--- ¸-=أو
{We do not get into pondering about the self of {We do not get into pondering about the self of {We do not get into pondering about the self of {We do not get into pondering about the self of
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh} }} }, because He does not resemble His creation,
andcannotbeimagined.PonderingaboutHisselfthen
leads to confusion and deviation by likening Him to
His creation, which makes one fall out of Islām. {And {And {And {And
we do not cast doubts about religious matters,} we do not cast doubts about religious matters,} we do not cast doubts about religious matters,} we do not cast doubts about religious matters,} by
arguing against established Sunni beliefs, or by raising
questions about them. On the other hand, it is
praiseworthy and necessary that some Muslims learn
BeliefScienceinordertorefutedeviants.Thisisapart
of Jihād to defend Islām, and it is an obligation that
65 . `و ،-ا ¸· ض,=- `و
¸· لد'=- `و ،_''·- -ا ¸,د ¸· ير'--
ª- ل¸- ،¸,-''·'ا بر م`آ ª-أ »'·-و ن'¸-'ا
ا--=- ¸,'-¸-'ا -,- ª-'·· ¸,-`ا حو¸'ا
-ا _'- ،¸,·-=أ ª-=-و ª'' _'=و ª,'=
enoughMuslimsengageinthisatalltimes.

{Andwedonotargueaboutthe {Andwedonotargueaboutthe {Andwedonotargueaboutthe {AndwedonotargueabouttheQur Qur Qur Qur’ ’’ ’ā āā ān,andweknow n,andweknow n,andweknow n,andweknow
thatitis} thatitis} thatitis} thatitis}anexpressionthatrefersto{ {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s} s} s} s}eternal
{Speech.Thetrustedspirit} {Speech.Thetrustedspirit} {Speech.Thetrustedspirit} {Speech.Thetrustedspirit}Jibrīl {descendedwithit} {descendedwithit} {descendedwithit} {descendedwithit}
from the LawК were he first went to find it, and then
from the sky in intervals. {Then he taught it to the {Then he taught it to the {Then he taught it to the {Then he taught it to the
Master of the Master of the Master of the Master of the Messengers, Mu Messengers, Mu Messengers, Mu Messengers, MuК КК Кammad, may ammad, may ammad, may ammad, may Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
raisehisrank,andhavemercyuponallofhisfollowers raisehisrank,andhavemercyuponallofhisfollowers raisehisrank,andhavemercyuponallofhisfollowers raisehisrank,andhavemercyuponallofhisfollowers
andcompanions.} andcompanions.} andcompanions.} andcompanions.}

{Nothing of created speech is like {Nothing of created speech is like {Nothing of created speech is like {Nothing of created speech is like Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s Speech} s Speech} s Speech} s Speech}, as
explained earlier, because it is not letters, sounds or
voice.

{WedonotsaythattheQur {WedonotsaythattheQur {WedonotsaythattheQur {WedonotsaythattheQur’ ’’ ’ā āā āniscreated.} niscreated.} niscreated.} niscreated.}becauseit
referstoAllāh’sSpeechwhichiswithoutabeginningor
an end. One cannot say that the Qur’ān is created
meaning the book, because it is not respectful. To
illustrate:ifaMuslimuttersthenameofAllāh,thenhe
is referring to Allāh with this utterance. He is not
worshipingtheutterance,buttheoneitrefersto.Even
so, if someone said “Allāh is created,” and then said
that he meant the utterance, not Allāh Himself, he
would still be considered a blasphemer. This is for
havingwillfullysaidsomethingthatugly.Similarly,one
does not say that the “Qur’ān is created” and then “I
meanthebook.”Thisisjusttoillustrate,forsayingthis
abouttheQur’ānisnotasuglyassayingitaboutAllāh.

{And we do not deviate from the Muslim group} {And we do not deviate from the Muslim group} {And we do not deviate from the Muslim group} {And we do not deviate from the Muslim group}, by
disagreeing with what all mujtahids of a generation
agreedupon.Allāhsaid(Al-Nisā’,115):
” َ ¸ْ ,َ = ْ_ِ -´ -َ ,َ و ىَ -ُ +ْ 'ا ُ ªَ ' َ ¸´ ,َ -َ - 'َ - ِ -ْ ·َ - ْ¸ِ - َ ل,ُ -´ ¸'ا ِ ¸ِ ·'َ -ُ , ْ¸َ -َ و
اً ¸,ِ -َ - ْتَ ء'َ -َ و َ »´ -َ +َ = ِ ªِ 'ْ -ُ -َ و _´ 'َ ,َ - 'َ - ِ ª 'َ ,ُ - َ ¸,ِ -ِ -ْ,ُ -ْ 'ا ِ .,ِ -َ - “
66 . ª,و'-, ` _''·- -ا م`آو
¸'=- ل,-- `و ¸,·,'=-'ا م`آ ¸- ء¸-
=- `و ن'¸-'ا ¸,-'--'ا ª='-= -'' .
Meaning: “whoever follows the path of other than the
Muslim Believers; Allāh leaves him to do so in this
world,butwillhavehimthrownintotheHellfireinthe
next.”Itisknownbythisthatfollowingthepathofthe
MuslimBelieversisanobligation,soifallthequalified
mujtahid scholars of an era agree on something, one
knows that theirs must be the right opinion. One also
knowsthatnotacceptingitwillbetofollowthepathof
“otherthantheMuslimBelievers.”

{Wedonotsaythatcommittingsinsdonotharmifone {Wedonotsaythatcommittingsinsdonotharmifone {Wedonotsaythatcommittingsinsdonotharmifone {Wedonotsaythatcommittingsinsdonotharmifone
believes in Isl believes in Isl believes in Isl believes in Islā āā ām} m} m} m}, in contrast with the blasphemous
Murji’ahsect.TheydeniedthatsinfulMuslimsmaybe
punishedforsometimeinHell.

67 . _- ¸-, ` ل,-- `و
ª'-= ¸-' --ذ م`-`ا
{We hope that those who do good deeds among the {We hope that those who do good deeds among the {We hope that those who do good deeds among the {We hope that those who do good deeds among the
Believers} Believers} Believers} Believers}inIslām,{willbeforgivenby {willbeforgivenby {willbeforgivenby {willbeforgivenbyAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāh,andthat ,andthat ,andthat ,andthat
He will make them enter Paradise by His Mercy, but He will make them enter Paradise by His Mercy, but He will make them enter Paradise by His Mercy, but He will make them enter Paradise by His Mercy, but
wedonotfeelconfidentaboutthembeingsafe,anddo wedonotfeelconfidentaboutthembeingsafe,anddo wedonotfeelconfidentaboutthembeingsafe,anddo wedonotfeelconfidentaboutthembeingsafe,anddo
not testify that they will enter Paradise not testify that they will enter Paradise not testify that they will enter Paradise not testify that they will enter Paradise} }} }, since only
Allāhknowstheirrealstateandwhattheirendwillbe.
Exempted are those we know from narrations will
enterParadise,suchasanyProphetandthosethatthe
MessengerofAllāhsaidaregoing,suchasAbuBakr
and ‘Umar . {We ask} {We ask} {We ask} {We ask} Allāh {for forgiveness for {for forgiveness for {for forgiveness for {for forgiveness for
thosethatcommitsinsamongthem,andfearforthem, thosethatcommitsinsamongthem,andfearforthem, thosethatcommitsinsamongthem,andfearforthem, thosethatcommitsinsamongthem,andfearforthem,
andwedonotmakethemlosehope}. andwedonotmakethemlosehope}. andwedonotmakethemlosehope}. andwedonotmakethemlosehope}.
68 . ¸- ¸,--=-'' ,=¸-و
¸,--,-'ا ª-='ا »+'=-,و »+-= ,-·, نأ
»+,'= ¸-'- `و ª--=¸- , »+' -+-- `و
`و »+,'= ف'=-و »+-,--' ¸-·---و ª-=''-
ْ»ُ +ُ = -َ -ُ - .
{Safety} {Safety} {Safety} {Safety} in the sense of believing that one will surely
not be punished for one’s sins, and will be forgiven by
Allāh,{ordespair} {ordespair} {ordespair} {ordespair},inthesenseofbelievingthatAllāh
will surely not forgive one’s sins {makes one a non {makes one a non {makes one a non {makes one a non- -- -
Muslim. The correct path} Muslim. The correct path} Muslim. The correct path} Muslim. The correct path}, which is to be {between {between {between {between
these two} these two} these two} these two}, is to both hope for forgiveness and fear
punishment. This path {belongs to the People of the {belongs to the People of the {belongs to the People of the {belongs to the People of the
Qiblah} Qiblah} Qiblah} Qiblah},i.e.theMuslims.
69 . ¸= ن`--, س',`او ¸-`او
ª'--'ا .ه` '-+-,- ¸='ا .,--و ،ª'-'ا
{The slave} {The slave} {The slave} {The slave} i.e. any created being, as all creation is
owned by Allāh, {does not exit from} {does not exit from} {does not exit from} {does not exit from} the fold of the
Islamic {belief except by denial of what made him it {belief except by denial of what made him it {belief except by denial of what made him it {belief except by denial of what made him it
it,} it,} it,} it,} which is the doubt-free and submissive belief that
Allāh is attributed with Absolute Oneness and that
Muhammad is His Prophet and Messenger and that
allhisteachingsaretrue.

70 . ن'-,`ا ¸- --·'ا ج¸=, `و
ª,· ª'=دأ '- د,==- `إ
{Belief} {Belief} {Belief} {Belief} in Islam, {is to affirm by the tongue} {is to affirm by the tongue} {is to affirm by the tongue} {is to affirm by the tongue} that
there is no god but Allāh and MuКammad is His
prophet and messenger, {and} {and} {and} {and} to simultaneously
{accept {accept {accept {accept} }} }thisstatement,withoutanydisdaintowardsit,
{astrueinonesheart.} {astrueinonesheart.} {astrueinonesheart.} {astrueinonesheart.}

This is the saying of Abū Йanīfah and a number
of ِAsh’arī scholars, such as Al-QāЂī ‘IyāЂ. Some
scholars, however, were of the opinion that the
submissive and scorn-free acceptance as true in the
heart is belief in Islam, provided that one has the
intention of uttering the creedal statement if one is
requested to do so. The view of Abu Йanīfah is much
closer to apparent proofs, such as the Prophet’s
sayingnarratedbyAl-Bukhārīandothers:

“Ihavebeenorderedtofightpeopleuntiltheyprofess
that there is no god but God, and MuКammad is his
Messenger.”

71 . را¸·`ا ,ه ن'-,`او
¸,---'او ن'-'''- ن'-َ =''-
{And all that has been soundly narrated from the {And all that has been soundly narrated from the {And all that has been soundly narrated from the {And all that has been soundly narrated from the
Prophet Prophet Prophet Prophet of Islamic laws, of Islamic laws, of Islamic laws, of Islamic laws, rules and practices and rules and practices and rules and practices and rules and practices and
clarificationsistrue.} clarificationsistrue.} clarificationsistrue.} clarificationsistrue.}

72 . ¸--'ا ¸= _- '- _,-=و
ª'آ ن',-'او ع¸-'ا ¸- »'-و ª,'= -ا _'-
¸= .
{The Belief in Islam is one, and its people} {The Belief in Islam is one, and its people} {The Belief in Islam is one, and its people} {The Belief in Islam is one, and its people} which are
the Muslims {arein itsessence the same} {arein itsessence the same} {arein itsessence the same} {arein itsessence the same}because the
essenceofbeliefistoacceptitastrueintheheart.Any
73 . ¸· ª'هأو -=او ن'-,`او
ى,--''- »+-,- .-'--'او ، ءا,- ª'-أ
ª-''=-و ى,+'ا -و _'و`ا ª-ز` .
decrease in this meaning means either doubt or
disdain, which would be blasphemy. This is what Abu
Йanīfah meant when he said that belief neither
increases nor decreases. {The difference between {The difference between {The difference between {The difference between
them} them} them} them}, in terms of their rank as Muslims in Allāh’s
judgment, {isbyfearing {isbyfearing {isbyfearing {isbyfearingAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāh} }} }andthusmakingeffort
to avoid His punishment, {and by doing contrary to {and by doing contrary to {and by doing contrary to {and by doing contrary to
sinfulinclinationsandaccordingtowhatisbest}. sinfulinclinationsandaccordingtowhatisbest}. sinfulinclinationsandaccordingtowhatisbest}. sinfulinclinationsandaccordingtowhatisbest}.

{The} {The} {The} {The} Muslim {Believers are all {Believers are all {Believers are all {Believers are all ‘ ‘‘ ‘awli awli awli awliy yy yā āā ā’ ’’ ’ of of of of Al Al Al Al- -- -
Ra Ra Ra RaК КК Кm mm mā āā ān} n} n} n},i.e.undertheprotectionoftheOneWhois
Attributed with Mercy. That is, protected from the
eternaltorturethatisreservedforblasphemers.Inthis
sense all Muslims are called ‘awlīyā’ of Al-RaКmān,
{and the most honorable of them are those most {and the most honorable of them are those most {and the most honorable of them are those most {and the most honorable of them are those most
obedient and compliant to} obedient and compliant to} obedient and compliant to} obedient and compliant to} the teachings of {the {the {the {the
Qur Qur Qur Qur’ ’’ ’ā āā ān.} n.} n.} n.}

74 . ء','وأ »+'آ ن,--,-'او
،¸-=¸'ا »+-¸آأو »+·--أو »+=,=أ -ا --=
ن'¸-''
{And the Islamic Belief is the belief in {And the Islamic Belief is the belief in {And the Islamic Belief is the belief in {And the Islamic Belief is the belief in Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh, and His , and His , and His , and His
ang ang ang angels,books,andmessengers;and} els,books,andmessengers;and} els,books,andmessengers;and} els,books,andmessengers;and}tobelievein {the {the {the {the
Day of Judgment, resurrection after death, and} Day of Judgment, resurrection after death, and} Day of Judgment, resurrection after death, and} Day of Judgment, resurrection after death, and} to
believe that the {predestination of} {predestination of} {predestination of} {predestination of} all things and
events,{goodandbad,sweetandbitter,isfrom {goodandbad,sweetandbitter,isfrom {goodandbad,sweetandbitter,isfrom {goodandbad,sweetandbitter,isfromAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāh– –– –
whoisaboveanyimperfection.} whoisaboveanyimperfection.} whoisaboveanyimperfection.} whoisaboveanyimperfection.}

75 . ,ه ن'-,`او -'- ن'-,`ا
-·-'او ¸=`ا م,,'او ª'-رو ª--آو ª-´-`-و
ر--'او ت,-'ا -·- و ِ - ¸َ -و -ِ ¸,= ِ -ِ ,'ُ = ِ - ¸ُ -و
_''·- -ا ¸- .
{We believe in all of that, and we do not distinguish} {We believe in all of that, and we do not distinguish} {We believe in all of that, and we do not distinguish} {We believe in all of that, and we do not distinguish},
in a derogatory manner, {between any of His {between any of His {between any of His {between any of His
messengers; we believe in all of messengers; we believe in all of messengers; we believe in all of messengers; we believe in all of them and what they them and what they them and what they them and what they
brought} brought} brought} brought}ofteachings.

76 . ،ª'آ ='-- ن,--,- ¸=-و
»+'آ »+·---و ،ª'-ر ¸- -=أ ¸,- ق¸-- `و
ª- اوء'= '- _'= .
{The people of great sins from the nation of the {The people of great sins from the nation of the {The people of great sins from the nation of the {The people of great sins from the nation of the
followers of Mu followers of Mu followers of Mu followers of MuК КК Кammad in the Hellfire are not left ammad in the Hellfire are not left ammad in the Hellfire are not left ammad in the Hellfire are not left
there forever if they died as bel there forever if they died as bel there forever if they died as bel there forever if they died as believers in ievers in ievers in ievers in Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s s s s
Oneness, even if they were not repenting. This is as Oneness, even if they were not repenting. This is as Oneness, even if they were not repenting. This is as Oneness, even if they were not repenting. This is as
longastheymeet} longastheymeet} longastheymeet} longastheymeet}theirpointofdeath,aspredestined
77 . --=- ª-أ ¸- ¸-'-´'ا .هأو
r نو-=,- »هو ا,-'- اذإ نو-'=, ` ر'-'ا ¸·
¸,·ر'= -ا ا,-' نأ -·- ،¸,--'- ا,-,´, »' نإو
ء'- نإ ª-´=و -ا ª-,-- ¸· »هو ،¸,--,-
_''·- -ا ل'· '-آ ª'--- »+-= '-=و »+' ¸-=
¸,¸·'ا ª-'-آ ¸· ( ª- ك¸-, نأ ¸-·, ` -ا نإ
by { {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh while knowing} while knowing} while knowing} while knowing} the Absolute Oneness of
Allāh {and believing} {and believing} {and believing} {and believing} in Islām. {They} {They} {They} {They}, the Muslims
that died having committed great sins, {will be subject {will be subject {will be subject {will be subject
to what to what to what to what Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh has willed and judged. He will forgive has willed and judged. He will forgive has willed and judged. He will forgive has willed and judged. He will forgive
and pardon them if He wills as a grace, as He said in and pardon them if He wills as a grace, as He said in and pardon them if He wills as a grace, as He said in and pardon them if He wills as a grace, as He said in
HisNoblebook:} HisNoblebook:} HisNoblebook:} HisNoblebook:}
” ُ ء'َ -َ , ْ¸َ -ِ ' َ =ِ 'َ ذ َ نوُ د 'َ - ُ ¸ِ -ْ ·َ ,َ و ِ ªِ - َ كَ ¸ْ-ُ , ْنَ أ ُ ¸ِ -ْ ·َ , ` َ ª´ ''ا ´ نِ إ “
Meaning: Verily Allāh does not forgive associating
partners with Him. This is if one dies without having
repented from it, by entering Islām. He forgives
anything less than that, even without repentance, for
whomsoever He wills
23
.” (Al-Nisā’, 48) Associating
partners with Allāh, or shirk, here means any
blasphemy,forAllāhalsosaid(Al-AКzāb,64-65):
” اً -َ -َ أ 'َ +,ِ · َ ¸,ِ -ِ ''َ = اً ¸,ِ ·َ - ْ»ُ +َ ' ´ -َ =َ أَ و َ ¸,ِ ¸ِ ·'َ ´ْ 'ا َ ¸َ ·َ ' َ ª´ ''ا ´ نِ إ “
Meaning: “Verily Allāh cursed the blasphemers, and
preparedforthemafirethattheywillbeinforever.”

{If He wills He will torture them by His Justice {If He wills He will torture them by His Justice {If He wills He will torture them by His Justice {If He wills He will torture them by His Justice
accordingtotheircrime.Afterthat,Hetakesthemout accordingtotheircrime.Afterthat,Hetakesthemout accordingtotheircrime.Afterthat,Hetakesthemout accordingtotheircrime.Afterthat,Hetakesthemout
of it by His Mercy, and the intercession of the of it by His Mercy, and the intercession of the of it by His Mercy, and the intercession of the of it by His Mercy, and the intercession of the
intercessors from the people of obedience. Then He intercessors from the people of obedience. Then He intercessors from the people of obedience. Then He intercessors from the people of obedience. Then He
sendsthemtoHisParadise, sendsthemtoHisParadise, sendsthemtoHisParadise, sendsthemtoHisParadise,forHeprotectsthosewho forHeprotectsthosewho forHeprotectsthosewho forHeprotectsthosewho
know} know} know} know}andbelievein{Him,anddidnotmakethemin {Him,anddidnotmakethemin {Him,anddidnotmakethemin {Him,anddidnotmakethemin
the two abodes}, the two abodes}, the two abodes}, the two abodes}, this world and the next, {like those {like those {like those {like those
who disbelieve in Him who disbelieve in Him who disbelieve in Him who disbelieve in Him – –– – those who did not obtain His those who did not obtain His those who did not obtain His those who did not obtain His
guidance,anddidnotgetHisprotection.} guidance,anddidnotgetHisprotection.} guidance,anddidnotgetHisprotection.} guidance,anddidnotgetHisprotection.}

»+--= ء'- نإو ء'-, ¸-' ='ذ نود '- ¸-·,و
ر--- '+-- »+=¸=, »` ،ª'-·- »+-,'-=
،ª-='= .هأ ¸- ¸,··'-'ا ª='--و ª--=¸-
.هأ _',- -ا ن'- ='ذو ،ª--= _'إ ª`·-, »`
،ª-¸´- .ه'آ ¸,را-'ا ¸· »+'·=, »'و ª-·¸·-
¸- ا,-'= ¸,-'ا ª-,ا-ه ª-,`و ¸- ا,''-, »'و
{O {O {O {O Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh, O the One Who Protects Isl , O the One Who Protects Isl , O the One Who Protects Isl , O the One Who Protects Islā āā ām and Its m and Its m and Its m and Its
People, make u People, make u People, make u People, make us steadfast in Isl s steadfast in Isl s steadfast in Isl s steadfast in Islā āā ām until we meet} m until we meet} m until we meet} m until we meet} the
timeofdeaththat {You} {You} {You} {You}havewilled,whilestillfirmly
{inIslam.} {inIslam.} {inIslam.} {inIslam.}

78 . م`-`ا ´ ¸'و ', »+''ا ªِ 'هأو
'-´ -َ - ِ م`-`'- ª- ك'-'- _-=
{Weholdtheviewthatprayerisvalidbehindanypious {Weholdtheviewthatprayerisvalidbehindanypious {Weholdtheviewthatprayerisvalidbehindanypious {Weholdtheviewthatprayerisvalidbehindanypious
79 . ¸- .آ -'= ة`-'ا ى¸-و

23 TafsīrAl-Nāsafī.
or sinful person among the or sinful person among the or sinful person among the or sinful person among the people of the Qiblah,} people of the Qiblah,} people of the Qiblah,} people of the Qiblah,} i.e.
the Muslims, as explained earlier. {We pray for {We pray for {We pray for {We pray for
whomsoeverdied among them.We donot affirm with whomsoeverdied among them.We donot affirm with whomsoeverdied among them.We donot affirm with whomsoeverdied among them.We donot affirm with
certitudeforanyspecificpersonamongthemthatheis certitudeforanyspecificpersonamongthemthatheis certitudeforanyspecificpersonamongthemthatheis certitudeforanyspecificpersonamongthemthatheis
going to Paradise or Hell,} going to Paradise or Hell,} going to Paradise or Hell,} going to Paradise or Hell,} unless stated by the
ProphetorintheQur’ān. {Wedonotsayaboutany {Wedonotsayaboutany {Wedonotsayaboutany {Wedonotsayaboutany
ofthemthatheisinthestateofblasphemy,} ofthemthatheisinthestateofblasphemy,} ofthemthatheisinthestateofblasphemy,} ofthemthatheisinthestateofblasphemy,}i.e.heisa
non-Muslim, {or {or {or {or shirk shirk shirk shirk} }} }, which is a specific kind of
blasphemy,{orhypocrisy} {orhypocrisy} {orhypocrisy} {orhypocrisy}whichistobeablasphemer,
but pretending to be a Muslim. This is {if he did not {if he did not {if he did not {if he did not
showan showan showan showanyofthat.} yofthat.} yofthat.} yofthat.}

One cannot accuse a Muslim of unbelief unless they
haveshownit,becausesuchaseriousaccusationneeds
a proof. To accuse a Muslim of blasphemy for no
reasonisinitselfblasphemy,fortheProphetsaid:“
', ِ ª,ِ =َ 'ِ ' ُ .ُ =´ ¸'ا ل'· اذإ 'َ -ُ هُ -َ =َ أ ِ ªِ - َ ء'َ - ْ-َ -َ · ُ ¸ِ ·'َ آ
“Ifamansaidtohisbrother“Oblasphemer!”thenone
of them has become one.” This is because if he was
rightinwhathesaid,thentheonehesaidittoistrulya
blasphemer. If he said it without a reason, however,
thenhehasnamedthisman’sapparentlycorrectbelief
in Islām blasphemous. Al-KhaѢѢābī said that this is not
the case if he made the accusation for a plausible
reason,suchasifthismanhadideasthatdisagreewith
those of the Sunni Muslims, but not to the extent of
actuallybeingblasphemy
24
.

ت'- ¸- _'= ¸'--و ،ª'--'ا .هأ ¸- ¸='·و
`و ،ار'- `و ª-= »+-- ا-=أ ل¸-- `و ،»+--
»' '- ق'-- `و ك¸- `و ¸-´- »+,'= -+--
»ه¸-ا¸- ر--و ،ء¸- ='ذ ¸- »+-- ¸+=,
_''·- -ا _'إ .
{We do not hold {We do not hold {We do not hold {We do not hold the view that anyone of the Prophet the view that anyone of the Prophet the view that anyone of the Prophet the view that anyone of the Prophet
Mu Mu Mu MuК КК Кammad ammad ammad ammad’ ’’ ’s ss s nation should be killed unless he nation should be killed unless he nation should be killed unless he nation should be killed unless he
80 . -=أ _'= -,-'ا ى¸- `و
--=- ª-أ ¸- -,-'ا ª,'= -=و ¸- `إ

24 ‘Umdatal-Qārī,22/157.
ج ير'-'ا ة--= 22 / ص 157 : د'- ن'آ نإ ª-` '-ه-=أ ª- _=ر يأ '-ه-=أ ª- ء'- --· ª',· ¸·'آ .-'-''· ً '-ذ'آ ن'آ نإو ¸·'آ ª' ل,--''· ¸-`ا ¸-- ¸· ً '·
,·و ='-' .=---'ا _'= -,'-= »+-'- -,=أو ل,-'ا ا-+- ا-´· ª,-·-''- »'--'ا ¸-´, ` .,· ¸-آ ن'-,`ا وأ ً ا¸·'آ ¸-,-'ا ن,´- »´= ª-` ª,'= _=ر -'-·- .
='ا ل'·و ª'`- ,ه ¸- ¸-آ ª-` ª--- ¸-آ ª-'آ ذإ ¸,-´-'ا رزو _=ر يأ ¸-´''- ª,=` ª,-ر »`'- ء'- ¸-·, ل'=- ¸-ا ل'·و .,و'- ª' ¸´, »' اذإ .-'-'ا ª- ء'- ¸-'=
و'-- ª-` ª--- ¸,-´- -¸,-´- ¸- م¸',· ¸,-'ا ¸· ª'`- ,+· ً ا¸·'آ ¸´, »' اذإ ª-` ¸-´'ا »`إ ª,'= _=¸, .,·و ً'-ذ'آ ن'آ نإ ª,'= ='ذ ,ه '- ن'آ ن'· ن'-,`ا ¸· ª,
¸-آ ª,· -,¸- ¸-'·-'ا ن` ¸-´'ا _'إ ª- لو,, ª-أ -'-·- .,·و ً '-,أ ¸-ا¸'ا ¸=--,· ً ا¸-آ ='-- ª- ¸-¸-'ا ¸=--ا ن'آ نإو ='ذ ª,· ً '-,أ ,+· ً ا ف'=,و ¸-´'ا
ª,'إ ¸,--'ا '+-,- ª-·'= ن,´- نأ '+-- ¸`´-'ا _'=
deserves it.} deserves it.} deserves it.} deserves it.} Al-Bukhārī narrated that the Prophet
MuКammadsaid:
” َ .ِ -'َ ·ُ أ ْنَ أ ُ تْ¸ِ -ُ أ َ س'-'ا ´ نَ أَ و -ا `إ َ ªَ 'ِ إ ` ْنَ أ اوُ -َ +ْ -َ , _-=
َ و ِ ª´ ''ا ل,-ر اً -´ -َ =ُ - ='ذ ا,ُ 'َ ·َ · اذ'· َ ة'َ آ´ ¸'ا ا,ُ -ْ,ُ ,َ و َ ة`´ -'ا ا,ُ -,ِ -ُ ,
_'= ْ»ُ +ُ -'َ -ِ =َ و ِ م`ْ -ِ 'ْ 'ا ¸َ =ِ - `إ ْ»ُ +َ 'اَ ,ْ -َأَ و ْ»ُ هَ ء'َ -ِ د ¸ -ِ - ا,ُ -َ -َ =
ِ ª´ ''ا “
“Ihavebeenorderedtofightpeopleuntiltheyprofess:
‘there is no god but God, and that MuКammad is the
prophet and messenger of God;’ and they perform the
specialprayerofIslām,anditsspecialalmspayment.If
theydothat,thentheyhaveprotectedtheirbloodfrom
being spilled by me, and their properties from being
takenbyme-exceptifIslāmprescribesotherwise-and
the accounting for their deeds is submitted to Allāh.”
(ȘaКīКAl-BukhārīNo.25,1/17).

{Wedonotholdtheviewthatoneshouldrebelagainst {Wedonotholdtheviewthatoneshouldrebelagainst {Wedonotholdtheviewthatoneshouldrebelagainst {Wedonotholdtheviewthatoneshouldrebelagainst
theIm theIm theIm theImā āā āms} ms} ms} ms}i.e.thekhalīfahs,thesinglesupremerulers
ofallMuslimsatdifferenttimes{and} {and} {and} {and}the{guardians} {guardians} {guardians} {guardians}
whoareundertheircommand,suchasgovernors,{and {and {and {and
we do not supplicate against them and we do not we do not supplicate against them and we do not we do not supplicate against them and we do not we do not supplicate against them and we do not
disobeythem.Rather,weholdthatobediencetothem disobeythem.Rather,weholdthatobediencetothem disobeythem.Rather,weholdthatobediencetothem disobeythem.Rather,weholdthatobediencetothem
isanobligatio isanobligatio isanobligatio isanobligation,aslongaswhattheyorderisnotasin, n,aslongaswhattheyorderisnotasin, n,aslongaswhattheyorderisnotasin, n,aslongaswhattheyorderisnotasin,
and we ask and we ask and we ask and we ask Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh to mend their ways and protect to mend their ways and protect to mend their ways and protect to mend their ways and protect
them} them} them} them}fromdisobeyingHim.

81 . _'= جو¸='ا ى¸- `و
,=-- `و اور'= نإو '-ر,-أ ة`وو '----أ
»+-='= ¸- ا-, ع¸-- `و ،»+-- -=أ _'=
»' '- ª-,¸· ª='= ¸- »+-='= ى¸-و
-- او¸-', ح`-''- »+' ,=--و ª,-·
ة'·'·-'او
{We adhere to} {We adhere to} {We adhere to} {We adhere to} the People of {the Sunnah and the {the Sunnah and the {the Sunnah and the {the Sunnah and the
Jam Jam Jam Jamā āā ā’ ’’ ’ah and avoid deviations, disagreement and ah and avoid deviations, disagreement and ah and avoid deviations, disagreement and ah and avoid deviations, disagreement and
division.} division.} division.} division.}Thatis,wedonotdeviatefromijmā’,andwe
do not disagree on issues that have different possible
answerinawaythatinvolvesdivisionandenmity.

82 . ª='-='او ª--'ا _---و
ª·¸-'او ف`='او ذو--'ا ---=-و
{Welovethepeopleofjustice} {Welovethepeopleofjustice} {Welovethepeopleofjustice} {Welovethepeopleofjustice}whichistoobeyAllāh
{and trustworthiness, and we hate the people of {and trustworthiness, and we hate the people of {and trustworthiness, and we hate the people of {and trustworthiness, and we hate the people of
injustice and treachery,} injustice and treachery,} injustice and treachery,} injustice and treachery,} not just their deeds and
beliefs, as some absurdly claim, but the people
83 . ª-'-`او ل-·'ا .هأ -=-و
ª-',='او ر,='ا .هأ ¸·--و
themselves. After all, Allāh punishes perpetrators, not
perpetrations.

{Wesaywhensomethingisuncleartous: {Wesaywhensomethingisuncleartous: {Wesaywhensomethingisuncleartous: {Wesaywhensomethingisuncleartous:Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāhknows knows knows knows
best, best, best, best,” ”” ”} }} } for only He has complete knowledge of all
things.

84 . ª---ا '-,· »'=أ -ا ل,--و
ª-'= '-,'=
{Weholdthatitisvalid} {Weholdthatitisvalid} {Weholdthatitisvalid} {Weholdthatitisvalid}inwuЂū’{towetleathersocks {towetleathersocks {towetleathersocks {towetleathersocks
by wiping them} by wiping them} by wiping them} by wiping them} instead of washing the feet {during {during {during {during
bothtravelandnon bothtravelandnon bothtravelandnon bothtravelandnon- -- -travel,aswasnarratedin travel,aswasnarratedin travel,aswasnarratedin travel,aswasnarratedinК КК Кad ad ad adī īī īt tt th hh hs.} s.} s.} s.}
Ahmad ibn Йanbal said, “There is no doubts in my
heart regarding the matter of wiping at all. There are
40КadīthsonitfromthecompanionsoftheProphet–
may Allāh raise his rank.
25
“ Due to this magnitude of
Кadīths narrated, Abu Йanīfah said: “I did not hold
that wiping is valid until evidences as clear as daylight
came to me, so that denying it would be to reject the
viewofthegreatestofthecompanions,andtosaythat
they made a mistake, and that would have been a
deviantinnovation.
26

Note that Al-ѡaКāwī specifies socks made of leather,
and did not specify details regarding how to wipe,
because beyond that Sunnis disagree on the details on
whatandhowonecanwipe.

85 . ¸,-='ا _'= _--'ا ى¸-و
¸``ا ¸· ء'= '-آ ،¸-='او ¸--'ا ¸·
{We hold that {We hold that {We hold that {We hold that Й ЙЙ Йajj Pilgrimage and Jih ajj Pilgrimage and Jih ajj Pilgrimage and Jih ajj Pilgrimage and Jihā āā ād are d are d are d are
continuous oblig continuous oblig continuous oblig continuous obligations with the rulers that are im ations with the rulers that are im ations with the rulers that are im ations with the rulers that are imā āā āms ms ms ms
oftheMuslims,} oftheMuslims,} oftheMuslims,} oftheMuslims,}i.e.havestatusofKhalīfahbymeeting
its requisites, {both the pious of them and the sinful. {both the pious of them and the sinful. {both the pious of them and the sinful. {both the pious of them and the sinful.
Nothing abolishes these two obligations, and nothing Nothing abolishes these two obligations, and nothing Nothing abolishes these two obligations, and nothing Nothing abolishes these two obligations, and nothing
86 . ن'-¸· د'+='او _='او
¸,-'--'ا ª--أ ¸- ¸-`ا ¸'وأ _- ن',-'-
`و ء¸- '-+'=-, ` »ه¸='·و »ه¸-
'-+---,

25 Al-Mughnī,1/174.
ج ¸-·-'ا 1 / ص 174 : ء¸- _--'ا ¸- ¸-'· ¸· ¸,' --=أ ل'· ا,-·و '-و ¸--'ا _'إ ا,··ر '- »'-و ª,'= -ا _'- -ا ل,-ر ب'=-أ ¸= '`,-= ن,·-رأ ª,·و
.-·
26 Badā’i’al-Șanā’i’,1/7.
ج _-'--'ا _-ا-- 1 / ص 7 : ِ ªَ -'َ =´ -'ا ِ ر'َ -ِ آ _'= ا´ دَ ر ُ د,ُ =ُ =ْ 'ا َ ن'َ ´َ · ِ ر'َ +´ -'ا ِ ءْ,َ - ُ .ْ `ِ - ª,· ¸ِ -َ ء'َ = _-= ِ _ْ -َ -ْ ''ِ - -'· '- ل'· ً ªَ =ْ-ِ - َ ن'َ ´َ · ِ 'َ =َ =ْ 'ا _َ 'إ ْ»ُ ه'´ ,إ َ ªَ -ْ -ِ -َ و
invalidates them.} invalidates them.} invalidates them.} invalidates them.} This is because the primary
functions of the imām is to unite all Muslims and to
defendthemandtheirreligion.

{And we believe in the Noble Scribes,} {And we believe in the Noble Scribes,} {And we believe in the Noble Scribes,} {And we believe in the Noble Scribes,} which are the
angels that record peoples’ deeds, {and that {and that {and that {and that Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh has has has has
madetowatchoverthem}. madetowatchoverthem}. madetowatchoverthem}. madetowatchoverthem}.

Allāhsaid(Al-InfiѢār,10-12):
َ ¸,ِ =ِ ·'َ =َ ' ْ»ُ ´ْ ,َ 'َ = ´ نِ إَ و ) 10 ( َ ¸,ِ -ِ -'َ آ 'ً -اَ ¸ِ آ ) 11 ( 'َ - َ ن,ُ -َ 'ْ ·َ ,
َ ن,ُ 'َ ·ْ -َ - ) 12 (
Meaning:“Verilythereareangelsthatwatchoveryour
deedsandtheyhaveanoblerankinAllāh’sJudgment.
Theyrecordyourdeedsinwriting,andknowwhatyou
doofgoodandevil.”
27

87 . نأو ¸,--'´'ا ما¸´''- ¸-,-و
¸,=·'= »+'·= -· -ا
{And we believe in the Angel of Death appointed to {And we believe in the Angel of Death appointed to {And we believe in the Angel of Death appointed to {And we believe in the Angel of Death appointed to
take the souls of angels, humans and jin take the souls of angels, humans and jin take the souls of angels, humans and jin take the souls of angels, humans and jinn.} n.} n.} n.} Allāh said
(Al-Sajdah,11):
َ ن,ُ ·َ =ْ¸ُ - ْ»ُ ´ -َ ر _َ 'ِ إ ´ »ُ ` ْ»ُ ´ِ - َ . آُ و يِ -´ 'ا ِ تْ,َ -ْ 'ا ُ =َ 'َ - ْ»ُ آ'´ ·َ ,َ -َ , ْ.ُ ·
Meaning: “The Angel of death makes you die through
takingyoursouls,andhedoesthisasorderedbyAllāh
(thecreatorofthisangel’sactionsandtheactionsofall
creation.) Then after that you are resurrected for the
accountingofdeedsandpunishmentorreward
28
.”

88 . .آ,-'ا ت,-'ا ='-- ¸-,-و
¸,-''·'ا حاورأ ¸---
{Webelieveinthetortureofthegraveforwhomsoever {Webelieveinthetortureofthegraveforwhomsoever {Webelieveinthetortureofthegraveforwhomsoever {Webelieveinthetortureofthegraveforwhomsoever
deservesit,} deservesit,} deservesit,} deservesit,}andAllāhdidnotforgive,{andinMunkar {andinMunkar {andinMunkar {andinMunkar
andNak andNak andNak andNakī īī īr rr r’ ’’ ’squestioningofthedeadpersoninhisgrave squestioningofthedeadpersoninhisgrave squestioningofthedeadpersoninhisgrave squestioningofthedeadpersoninhisgrave
aboutwhohisLordisandhisreligionandhisprophet, aboutwhohisLordisandhisreligionandhisprophet, aboutwhohisLordisandhisreligionandhisprophet, aboutwhohisLordisandhisreligionandhisprophet,
accordingto accordingto accordingto accordingto К КК Кad ad ad adī īī īt tt th hh hsnarratedfromtheProphet snarratedfromtheProphet snarratedfromtheProphet snarratedfromtheProphetand and and and
hiscompanions hiscompanions hiscompanions hiscompanionsã.} .} .} .}

89 . ª' ن'آ ¸-' ¸--'ا با-·-و
`هأ ¸= -¸-· ¸· -,-'' ¸,´-و ¸´-- لا,--و
ر'-=`ا ª- تء'= '- _'= ،ª,--و ª-,دو ª-ر
-ا ¸-ر ª-'=-'ا ¸=و -ا ل,-ر ¸=
¸,·-=أ »+-=

27 TafsīrAl-Nasafī
28 TafsīrAl-Nasafī
{ThegraveisagardenofthegardensofParadise,ora {ThegraveisagardenofthegardensofParadise,ora {ThegraveisagardenofthegardensofParadise,ora {ThegraveisagardenofthegardensofParadise,ora
pitofthepitsofHell.} pitofthepitsofHell.} pitofthepitsofHell.} pitofthepitsofHell.}

90 . ض',ر ¸- ª-ور ¸--'او
ر'-'ا ¸-= ¸- ة¸-= وأ ª-='ا
{A {A {A {Andwebelieveintheresurrectionofthedead,} ndwebelieveintheresurrectionofthedead,} ndwebelieveintheresurrectionofthedead,} ndwebelieveintheresurrectionofthedead,}body
andsoultogether, {andinrecompenseforone {andinrecompenseforone {andinrecompenseforone {andinrecompenseforone’ ’’ ’sdeeds sdeeds sdeeds sdeeds
ontheDayofJudgment,andthepresentationofone ontheDayofJudgment,andthepresentationofone ontheDayofJudgment,andthepresentationofone ontheDayofJudgment,andthepresentationofone’ ’’ ’s s s s
deeds, the accounting of the deeds, the reading of the deeds, the accounting of the deeds, the reading of the deeds, the accounting of the deeds, the reading of the deeds, the accounting of the deeds, the reading of the
book of one book of one book of one book of one’ ’’ ’s deeds, reward, punishment s deeds, reward, punishment s deeds, reward, punishment s deeds, reward, punishment and the and the and the and the
bridge} bridge} bridge} bridge}extendingoverHelltoParadise.

91 . ءا¸=-و -·-''- ¸-,-و
ب'-='او ض¸·'او ،ª-',-'ا م,, ل'-=`ا
طا¸-'او ب'-·'او با,`'او ب'-´'ا ةءا¸·و
{The deeds of the Muslims; good, evil, obedience and {The deeds of the Muslims; good, evil, obedience and {The deeds of the Muslims; good, evil, obedience and {The deeds of the Muslims; good, evil, obedience and
disobedienceareweighedbytheweighingscales.} disobedienceareweighedbytheweighingscales.} disobedienceareweighedbytheweighingscales.} disobedienceareweighedbytheweighingscales.}

92 . ¸,-'او ل'-=أ ª- نز,, نا
ª='='او ¸-'او ¸,='ا ¸- ¸,--,-'ا
ª,-·-'او
{Paradise and Hell are both creations} {Paradise and Hell are both creations} {Paradise and Hell are both creations} {Paradise and Hell are both creations} and thus both
haveabeginning,but{theydonotendorperish.} {theydonotendorperish.} {theydonotendorperish.} {theydonotendorperish.}
ThisisbecauseAllāhhasnotwilledforthemtoend.
93 . ` ن'-·,'=- ر'-'او ª-='او
`و ن',--, نا-,-,
{And verily {And verily {And verily {And verily Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh created Paradise and Hell and created Paradise and Hell and created Paradise and Hell and created Paradise and Hell and
created for them people,} created for them people,} created for them people,} created for them people,} to go there in the next life
{then whomsoever He willed Paradise for will be put {then whomsoever He willed Paradise for will be put {then whomsoever He willed Paradise for will be put {then whomsoever He willed Paradise for will be put
there as a Grace from Him,} there as a Grace from Him,} there as a Grace from Him,} there as a Grace from Him,} not as a requirement,
since they did good deeds only because He created
thosedeedsinthem.

Al-Bukhārī narrated through Abū Hurayrah that the
Prophet said: “Your deeds will not put you in
Paradise.” They asked: “Not even for you, O
MessengerofAllāh?”Heanswered:“No,notevenfor
me, except that Allāh will cover me with grace and
mercy.Sospendeffortindoingwhatisright,andtryto
get close to it. And do not wish for death, for you will
eitherbesomeonewhodoesgoodthings,soyoumight
domoregood;oryouwillbeanevildoer,soyoumight
seek pardon.” (ȘaКīК Al-Bukhārī No 5349, 5/2147;
‘Umdatal-Qārī21/227)

94 . ر'-'او ª-='ا ¸'= -ا نإو
ª'=دأ ª-='ا _'إ ء'- ¸-· ،`هأ '-+' ¸'=و
ª'=دأ ر'-'ا _'إ »+-- ء'- ¸-و ª-- `-·
ª-- `-= . '-و ª-- غ¸· -· '-' .-·, .آو ¸-
ª' ¸'= '- _'إ
{andwhosoeverHewilledHellfireforwillbeputthere {andwhosoeverHewilledHellfireforwillbeputthere {andwhosoeverHewilledHellfireforwillbeputthere {andwhosoeverHewilledHellfireforwillbeputthere
as a justice from Him} as a justice from Him} as a justice from Him} as a justice from Him}, because He has merely put
whatHehasabsoluteownershipover,intheplacethat
Hehaschosen.

{Alldodeedsacc {Alldodeedsacc {Alldodeedsacc {Alldodeedsaccordingtowhathasbeenrecordedby ordingtowhathasbeenrecordedby ordingtowhathasbeenrecordedby ordingtowhathasbeenrecordedby
thePenontheTablets,andproceedtowardswhatthey thePenontheTablets,andproceedtowardswhatthey thePenontheTablets,andproceedtowardswhatthey thePenontheTablets,andproceedtowardswhatthey
havebeencreatedfor.} havebeencreatedfor.} havebeencreatedfor.} havebeencreatedfor.}

{Good and evil} {Good and evil} {Good and evil} {Good and evil} choices and deeds {have been {have been {have been {have been
predestinedforcreations.} predestinedforcreations.} predestinedforcreations.} predestinedforcreations.}

95 . _'= نار--- ¸-'او ¸,='او
د'-·'ا .
{Andtheabilitywhichdeedsoccurby,issimultaneous {Andtheabilitywhichdeedsoccurby,issimultaneous {Andtheabilitywhichdeedsoccurby,issimultaneous {Andtheabilitywhichdeedsoccurby,issimultaneous
with the deeds. This ability is the one depending on with the deeds. This ability is the one depending on with the deeds. This ability is the one depending on with the deeds. This ability is the one depending on
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s creation of t s creation of t s creation of t s creation of the ability to do good, which is he ability to do good, which is he ability to do good, which is he ability to do good, which is
forbiddentoascribetocreation.Asfortheabilitythat forbiddentoascribetocreation.Asfortheabilitythat forbiddentoascribetocreation.Asfortheabilitythat forbiddentoascribetocreation.Asfortheabilitythat
is associated with health, capability, mastery} is associated with health, capability, mastery} is associated with health, capability, mastery} is associated with health, capability, mastery} of
knowledge or skill, {and defect free instruments; this} {and defect free instruments; this} {and defect free instruments; this} {and defect free instruments; this}
ability {is before the deed, and this is the ability that {is before the deed, and this is the ability that {is before the deed, and this is the ability that {is before the deed, and this is the ability that
a aa accountability relates to. This ability is as ccountability relates to. This ability is as ccountability relates to. This ability is as ccountability relates to. This ability is as Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh said said said said
(Al (Al (Al (Al- -- -Baqarah,286): Baqarah,286): Baqarah,286): Baqarah,286):
] ” 'ً ~ْ -َ - ُ ª --ا ُ ~ -َ -ُ - V ّ Vِ إ 'َ )َ ·ْ ~ُ و “ ] ة,---ا / 286 ¡
Meaning: “Allāh does not obligate someone to do
something unless it is within his apparent physical and
intellectual ability.” This is supposed ability, whereas
the ability that occurs with human action is realized
ability. This realized ability is only the ability to do
what was actually done, and nothing else. It is the
abilitytodotheactthathasbeenpredestinedbyAllāh.

96 . '+- -=, ¸-'ا ª='=--`او
نأ ز,=, ` ي-'ا ¸,·,-'ا ,=- ¸- .·-'ا
'-أو ،.·-'ا _- ¸+· ª- ق,'=-'ا --,,
¸´--'او _-,'او ª=-'ا ª+= ¸- ª='=--`ا
¸'·-, '+-و .·-'ا .-· ¸+· ت``ا ª-`-و
_''·- -ا ل'· '-آ ,هو ب'=='ا ) -'´, `
'+·-و `إ '--- -ا .(
{And the deeds {And the deeds {And the deeds {And the deeds of creation are created by of creation are created by of creation are created by of creation are created by Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh and and and and
acquiredbycreation.} acquiredbycreation.} acquiredbycreation.} acquiredbycreation.}

With regard to deeds of creation being created by
Allāh,Hesaid:(Al-Șāffāt.96)
97 . د'-·'ا ل'··أو - ¸'=
د'-·'ا ¸- --آو
َ ن,ُ 'َ -ْ ·َ - 'َ -َ و ْ»ُ ´َ -َ 'َ = ُ ª´ ''اَ و | ت'·'-'ا / 96 |
Meaning:“Allāhcreatedyouandwhatyoudo.”

Allāhalsosaid(Al-Baqarah,286):
ْ-َ -َ -َ -ْ آا 'َ - 'َ +ْ ,َ 'َ =َ و ْ-َ -َ -َ آ 'َ - 'َ +َ ' | ة¸--'ا / 286 |
Meaning:“Thepersongetsforhimselfthegooddeeds
hehasgainedbyhisefforts,andagainsthimselfthebad
deedsthathehasgatheredbyhisshortcomings.”

{ {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh does not make creations accountable for other does not make creations accountable for other does not make creations accountable for other does not make creations accountable for other
than what they are capable of, and they are not than what they are capable of, and they are not than what they are capable of, and they are not than what they are capable of, and they are not
obligated to do other than what He has made them obligated to do other than what He has made them obligated to do other than what He has made them obligated to do other than what He has made them
accountable for. This is the explanation of the accountable for. This is the explanation of the accountable for. This is the explanation of the accountable for. This is the explanation of the
expression: expression: expression: expression:
] - Vإ ة;- Vو ل;= V ='
Translation:“Thereisnocapabilityorpowerexceptby
theWillofAllāh.”

{We say that no one has a trick, or a movement or a {We say that no one has a trick, or a movement or a {We say that no one has a trick, or a movement or a {We say that no one has a trick, or a movement or a
shiftawayfromdisobeying shiftawayfromdisobeying shiftawayfromdisobeying shiftawayfromdisobeyingAllāh Allāh Allāh AllāhunlessHehelps.And unlessHehelps.And unlessHehelps.And unlessHehelps.And
there is no ability for any creation to perform acts of there is no ability for any creation to perform acts of there is no ability for any creation to perform acts of there is no ability for any creation to perform acts of
obedience to obedience to obedience to obedience to Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh, and stick to them, unless , and stick to them, unless , and stick to them, unless , and stick to them, unless Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
createsforittheabilitytogood.} createsforittheabilitytogood.} createsforittheabilitytogood.} createsforittheabilitytogood.}

98 . '- `إ _''·- -ا »+-'´, »'و
`و ن,-,=, ن,-´ ,=ُ , ,هو ،»+-'آ '- `إ
¸,--- ” -'- `إ ة,· `و ل,= ` “ ` ل,--
¸= -=` ل,=- `و ªآ¸= `و -=` ª',=
`و ،-ا ª-,·-- `إ -ا ª,-·- -=` ة,·
`إ '+,'= ت'-`'او -ا ª='= ª-'·إ _'=
-ا ¸,·,-- .
{Everything proceeds according to {Everything proceeds according to {Everything proceeds according to {Everything proceeds according to Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s Will, s Will, s Will, s Will,
Knowledge, Action, and Predestination. His Will Knowledge, Action, and Predestination. His Will Knowledge, Action, and Predestination. His Will Knowledge, Action, and Predestination. His Will
controlsthewillofanythingelse.HisActionoverrules controlsthewillofanythingelse.HisActionoverrules controlsthewillofanythingelse.HisActionoverrules controlsthewillofanythingelse.HisActionoverrules
all tricks, strategies and plans. He does all tricks, strategies and plans. He does all tricks, strategies and plans. He does all tricks, strategies and plans. He does what He wills, what He wills, what He wills, what He wills,
and is never unjust. He Himself is absolutely clear of and is never unjust. He Himself is absolutely clear of and is never unjust. He Himself is absolutely clear of and is never unjust. He Himself is absolutely clear of
any kind of defect or ruin, and is free of any flaw or any kind of defect or ruin, and is free of any flaw or any kind of defect or ruin, and is free of any flaw or any kind of defect or ruin, and is free of any flaw or
blemish. blemish. blemish. blemish.
] َ ن;ُ -َ 'ْ ~ُ - ْ;ُ هَ و ُ Jَ ·ْ -َ - ' -َ - ُ لَ 'ْ ~ُ - 'َ - ] ء'---Vا / 23 ¡
(Al-’Anbīyā’, 23) Meaning: “Allāh is not questioned
aboutwhatHedoes,butthecreatedbeingsare.”

99 . ª-,--- ي¸=, ء¸- .آو
--'= ،-ر-·و ª-'-·و ª-'=و _''·- -ا
.,='ا -ؤ'-· -'=و ،'+'آ ت'-,--'ا ª--,--
س--- ا--أ »''= ¸,= ,هو ء'-, '- .·-, ،'+'آ
-,= .آ ¸= -¸--و ،ٍ ¸ْ ,َ =و ء,- .آ ¸=
¸,-و )( ن,''-, »هو .·-, '-= ل'-, ` .(
{In {In {In {Inthesupplicationsandcharitiestothepoormadeby thesupplicationsandcharitiestothepoormadeby thesupplicationsandcharitiestothepoormadeby thesupplicationsandcharitiestothepoormadeby
100 . ء',=`ا ء'=د ¸·و
those alive, there is benefit for the dead.} those alive, there is benefit for the dead.} those alive, there is benefit for the dead.} those alive, there is benefit for the dead.} That is, if
one supplicates for a dead person, or gives charity to
the poor intending the reward for it to go to a dead
person.

This extent is agreed upon. As for other types of
worship; this is a detailed discussion in the books of
fiqh,withsomedisagreementinvolved.

تا,-`' ª·--- »+-'·--و
{And {And {And {And Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh} }} } is the One that {answers supplications, {answers supplications, {answers supplications, {answers supplications,
andfulfillsneeds.} andfulfillsneeds.} andfulfillsneeds.} andfulfillsneeds.}Thatis,asHewills.

AsforthestatementintheQur’ān:
ْ»ُ ´َ ' ْ-ِ =َ -ْ -َ أ ¸ِ -,ُ =ْدا ُ »ُ ´´ -َ ر َ ل'َ ·َ و | ¸·'= / 60 |
ApparentMeaning:“Allāhsaid:supplicatetomeandI
will answer your supplication.” It does not mean that
any supplication is answered exactly as asked. Many
scholarssaidthattheĀyahmeans:“Allāhsaid:worship
MeandIwillrewardyou.”

In light of the apparent meaning being the correct
interpretation, the Prophet clarified its meaning
when he said: “There is no Muslim on Earth that
supplicates without Allāh giving it to him, or fending
off something bad from him.” in similar Кadīths this
meaning is constricted by “sooner or later,” and “as
long as he is not asking for something sinful or cutting
off close relatives
29
.” Moreover, the Prophet once
mentioned a man on a long journey. Unkempt and
dusty this man stretches his hands to the sky and says,
101 . او -,=--, _''·- -
،ت'='='ا ¸--,و ،تا,=-'ا

29 FatКal-Bārī,11/95.
ج ير'-'ا _-· 11 / ص 95 : ªَ -'َ =ِ 'ْ 'ا ع´ ,َ -َ -َ - ْ¸ِ ´َ ' ، ُ ªَ ' ب'َ =َ -ْ -ُ , ٍ عاَ د ّ .ُ آ : ِ -َ ,ِ ·ِ - ةَ ر'َ -َ و ، ِ ªِ - 'َ =َ د 'َ - ِ ¸ْ ,َ ·ِ - _َ -َ - ةَ ر'َ -َ · ِ ª . _,ِ =َ - -,ِ -َ = َ =ِ 'َ ذ ¸ِ · َ دَ رَ و ْ-َ ·َ و
ªَ ·َ ·َ ر -ِ -'´ -'ا ¸ْ -ِ ا َ ةَ د'َ -ُ = -,ِ -َ = ْ¸ِ - »ِ آ'َ=ْ 'اَ و ّ يِ -ِ -ْ¸ -'ا ُ ªَ =َ ¸ْ =َ أ ” 'َ +'ْ `ِ - ء,´ -'ا ْ¸ِ - ُ ªْ -َ = َ فَ ¸َ - ْوَ أ ، 'َ ه'´ ,ِ إ ª´ ''ا ُ -'َ -' '´ 'ِ إ ٍ ةَ ,ْ =َ -ِ - ,ُ =ْ-َ , »ِ 'ْ -ُ - ضْرَ'ْ 'ا _َ 'َ = 'َ - ” َ 'ِ 'َ و -َ -ْ =
ةَ ¸ْ ,َ ¸ُ ه ¸ِ -َ أ -,ِ -َ = ْ¸ِ - ” ُ ªَ ' 'َ ه¸ِ =´ -َ , ْنَ أ '´ -ِ إَ و ، ُ ªَ ' 'َ +' =َ ·ُ , ْنَأ '´ -ِ إ ” ªَ ·َ ·َ ر -,ِ ·َ - ¸ِ -َ أ -,ِ -َ = ¸ِ · ُ ªَ 'َ و ” '´ 'ِ إ »ِ =َ ر ªَ ·,ِ =َ · 'َ 'َ و »ْ `ِ إ 'َ +,ِ · َ ¸ْ ,َ ' ٍ ةَ,ْ =َ -ِ - ,ُ =ْ-َ , »ِ 'ْ -ُ - ْ¸ِ - 'َ -
ىَ -ْ =ِ إ 'َ +ِ - ª´ ''ا ُ -'َ =ْ =َ أ ث'َ 'َ ` : ء,´ -'ا ْ¸ِ - ُ ªْ -َ = فِ ¸ْ -َ , ْنَ أ '´ -ِ إَ و ، ةَ ¸ِ ='ْ 'ا ¸ِ · ُ ªَ ' 'َ ه¸ِ =´ -َ , ْنَ أ '´ -ِ إَ و ، ª-ْ,َ =َ د ُ ªَ ' . =َ ·ُ , ْنَ أ '´ -ِ إ 'َ +'ْ `ِ - ” »ِ آ'َ =ْ 'ا ُ ªَ =´ =َ -َ و . ٍ ن'َ ` طْ¸َ - اَ -َ هَ و
- ,َ = ن,ُ ´َ , ْنَ أ 'َ +ْ -ِ - ىَ ¸ْ =ُ أ طوُ ¸ُ - 'َ +َ 'َ و ، ِ ªَ -'َ =ِ 'ْ 'ِ ' ِ -,ِ -َ =ِ ' ¸َ -ْ 'َ -ْ 'اَ و »َ ·ْ =َ -ْ 'ا ” َ =ِ 'َ -ِ ' ب'َ =َ -ْ -ُ , _´ -َ 'َ · ” '´ 'َ أ 'َ +ْ -ِ -َ و ، ةَ ¸ْ ,َ ¸ُ ه ¸ِ -َ أ -,ِ -َ = ْ¸ِ - 'ً -'َ - َ ¸,ِ ¸ْ -ِ = -ْ ·َ - ¸ِ -ْ'َ ,َ -َ و
ِ -,ِ -َ =ِ ' .ِ =ْ ·َ -ْ -َ , ن,ُ ´َ , ” ¸ِ ' ْ-ِ =َ -ْ -َ , ْ»َ 'َ · تْ,َ =َ د ْ.ُ -َ , ْ»َ ' 'َ - ْ»ُ آِ -َ =َ 'ِ ' ب'َ =َ -ْ -ُ , ” ْ =َ أ =ِ ''َ - ُ ªَ =َ ¸ .
“O My Lord, O My Lord,” but his food, drink and
clothing is from forbidden sources. The Prophet
said: “So how would one expect his supplication to be
answered
30
?”

{He owns everything} {He owns everything} {He owns everything} {He owns everything} in the absolute sense, {and {and {and {and
nothingownsHim.Nooneandnothingiswithout} nothingownsHim.Nooneandnothingiswithout} nothingownsHim.Nooneandnothingiswithout} nothingownsHim.Nooneandnothingiswithout}the
absolute {needforHim} {needforHim} {needforHim} {needforHim},ineverysense, {foreventhe {foreventhe {foreventhe {foreventhe
blink of an eye. Whoever thinks himself without need blink of an eye. Whoever thinks himself without need blink of an eye. Whoever thinks himself without need blink of an eye. Whoever thinks himself without need
for for for for Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh for the blink of an eye has blasphemed and for the blink of an eye has blasphemed and for the blink of an eye has blasphemed and for the blink of an eye has blasphemed and
becomeoneofthepeopleheadedforruin.} becomeoneofthepeopleheadedforruin.} becomeoneofthepeopleheadedforruin.} becomeoneofthepeopleheadedforruin.}

102 . ª´'-, `و ء¸- .آ ='-,و
،¸,= ª·¸= _''·- -ا ¸= _-= `و ،ء¸-
¸-آ --· ¸,= ª·¸= -ا ¸= _-·--ا ¸-و
ِ ¸ْ ,َ ='ا .هأ ¸- ر'-و
{And {And {And {And Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh has G has G has G has Gh hh ha aa aЂ ЂЂ Ђab} ab} ab} ab} which refers to His Will to
punish someone, and should not be translated as
“anger”, {and Ri {and Ri {and Ri {and RiЂ ЂЂ Ђā āā ā} }} } which refers to His Will to
reward someone, and should not be translated as
“pleasure”. These are ascribed to Him, but their
meaning is {not like} {not like} {not like} {not like} their meaning when ascribed to
{a {a {a {anycreation.} nycreation.} nycreation.} nycreation.}

These two attributes are ascribed to Allāh, and are
often translated misleadingly as “anger” and
“pleasure”. This is misleading, because these two
Englishwordshavethe apparentmeaningsofemotion
and reaction, and these are meanings that apply to
humans. Fakhr al-Dīn Al-Rāzī stated that words that
have both a meaning that does not befit Allāh, and a
meaning that does befit Him, cannot be ascribed to
Him. Then he said, “Unless it is mentioned in the text
of the Qur’ān or a Кadīth. In such a case one can use
103 . ` ،_-¸,و --·, -او
ىر,'ا ¸- -='آ

30 Muslim,2/703,No.1015.
ج »'-- _,=- 2 / ص 703 : 1015 ¸-أ ¸= ٍ -ِ -'َ ` ¸- ´ يِ -َ = ¸-`-= ٍ قوُ زْ¸َ - ¸- ُ .ْ ,َ -ُ · '-`-= َ ªَ -'َ -ُ أ ,-أ '-`-= ِ ء'َ 'َ ·ْ 'ا ¸- --=- ٍ -ْ,َ ¸ُ آ ,-أ ¸-`-=و
»'-و ª,'= -ا _'- ِ ª´ ''ا ل,-ر ل'· ل'· َ ةَ ¸ْ ,َ ¸ُ ه ¸-أ ¸= ٍ مِ ز'َ = ْ¸ُ -ْ 'ا ِ ªِ - َ ¸َ -َ أ 'َ -ِ - َ ¸,ِ -ِ -ْ,ُ -ْ 'ا َ ¸َ -َ أ َ ª´''ا ´ نِ إَ و 'ً - ,َ = `إ ُ .َ -ْ -َ , 'َ ' ٌ- ,َ = َ ª´ ''ا ´ نِ إ س'-'ا 'َ +´ ,َ أ 'َ +´ ,َ أ ', ل'-· َ ¸,ِ 'َ -
´ 'ا 'َ +´ ,َ أ ', ل'·و ٌ»,ِ 'َ = َ ن,ُ 'َ -ْ ·َ - 'َ -ِ - ¸-إ 'ً =ِ ''َ - ا,ُ 'َ -ْ =اَ و ِ ت'َ - ,´ ='ا ¸- ا,ُ 'ُ آ ُ .ُ -´ ¸'ا ´ -ُ -َ , َ ¸َ -ْ =َ أ َ -َ ·ْ -َ أ َ ¸َ -´ -'ا ُ .,ِ =ُ , َ .ُ =´ ¸'ا َ ¸َ آَ ذ ´ »ُ ` ْ»ُ آ'َ -ْ ·َ زَ ر '- ِ ت'َ - ,َ = ¸- ا,ُ 'ُ آ ا,ُ -َ -' َ ¸,ِ -
ِ ماَ ¸َ =ْ ''ِ - َ يِ -ُ =َ و ٌماَ ¸َ = ُ ªُ -َ -ْ 'َ -َ و ٌماَ ¸َ = ُ ªُ -َ ¸ْ -َ -َ و ٌماَ ¸َ = ُ ªُ -َ ·ْ =َ -َ و بَ ر ', بَ ر ', ِء'َ -´ -'ا _'إ ِ ªْ ,َ -َ , _´ -َ 'َ · َ =ِ 'َ -ِ ' ُ ب'َ =َ -ْ -ُ ,
the word exactly as narrated only, and not any other
wordderivedfromit
31
.”

We love the companions of the Messenger of We love the companions of the Messenger of We love the companions of the Messenger of We love the companions of the Messenger of Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh ࣢
we do not reach excesses for love of any of them,} we do not reach excesses for love of any of them,} we do not reach excesses for love of any of them,} we do not reach excesses for love of any of them,} to
the extent of saying what is not true about them, {and {and {and {and
we do not disavow any of them. And we hate anyone we do not disavow any of them. And we hate anyone we do not disavow any of them. And we hate anyone we do not disavow any of them. And we hate anyone
whohatesthem,andmentionsbadaboutthem.Wedo whohatesthem,andmentionsbadaboutthem.Wedo whohatesthem,andmentionsbadaboutthem.Wedo whohatesthem,andmentionsbadaboutthem.Wedo
notmentionexceptgoodaboutthem.} notmentionexceptgoodaboutthem.} notmentionexceptgoodaboutthem.} notmentionexceptgoodaboutthem.}Anexceptionis
mentioning,forteachingpurposes,what someof them
did.Forexample,someКadīthsincludestoriesabouta
fewofthemcommittingsins.{Lovingthemis} {Lovingthemis} {Lovingthemis} {Lovingthemis}apartof
{religion,belief and pureobedience.Hatingthem} religion,belief and pureobedience.Hatingthem} religion,belief and pureobedience.Hatingthem} religion,belief and pureobedience.Hatingthem} all
{is blasphemy and hypocrisy and injustice} {is blasphemy and hypocrisy and injustice} {is blasphemy and hypocrisy and injustice} {is blasphemy and hypocrisy and injustice} because
they are the one’s that transferred the religion on to
latergenerations.Hatingthemallthen,implieshatred
ofthereligion.

104 . -ا ل,-ر ب'=-أ -=-و
`و ،»'-و ¸'= -ا _'- ط¸-- -=أ -= ¸·
¸- ¸·--و ،»+-- -=أ ¸- أ¸--- `و ،»+--
»ه¸آ-, ¸,='ا ¸,·-و ،»+-·-, »ه¸آ-- `و ،
ن'-=إو ن'-,إو ¸,د »+-=و ¸,=- `إ
¸-آ »+-·-و ن',·=و ق'--و
{It is confirmed that the k {It is confirmed that the k {It is confirmed that the k {It is confirmed that the kh hh hil il il ilā āā āfah} fah} fah} fah}, the greater
imamate, which is the rulership of all Muslims, {after {after {after {after
the Prophet the Prophet the Prophet the Prophet first went to Ab first went to Ab first went to Ab first went to Abū ūū ū Bakr Bakr Bakr Bakr Al Al Al Al- -- -Șidd Șidd Șidd Șiddī īī īq q q q in in in in
preference} preference} preference} preference}ofhimasthebestofthecompanions,{and {and {and {and
to give him precedence over th to give him precedence over th to give him precedence over th to give him precedence over the entire nation of the e entire nation of the e entire nation of the e entire nation of the
Prophet. Then it went to Prophet. Then it went to Prophet. Then it went to Prophet. Then it went to ‘ ‘‘ ‘Umar ibn Al Umar ibn Al Umar ibn Al Umar ibn Al- -- -K KK Kh hh ha aa aѢѢ ѢѢ ѢѢ ѢѢā āā āb b b b , , , ,
then to then to then to then to ‘ ‘‘ ‘Ut Ut Ut Uth hh hm mm mā āā ān ibn n ibn n ibn n ibn ‘ ‘‘ ‘Aff Aff Aff Affā āā ān n n n , then to , then to , then to , then to ‘ ‘‘ ‘Al Al Al Alī īī ī ibn Ab ibn Ab ibn Ab ibn Abī īī ī
ѡ ѡѡ ѡā āā ālib lib lib lib . They are the righteous k . They are the righteous k . They are the righteous k . They are the righteous kh hh hal al al alī īī īfahs and the fahs and the fahs and the fahs and the
rightly guided im rightly guided im rightly guided im rightly guided imā āā āms.} ms.} ms.} ms.} There are two imamates in
Islām: that of rulership and that of leading the prayer.
Thefirstiscalledthegreaterimamate,andthesecond
iscalledthelesserimamate.

105 . ل,-ر -·- ª·`='ا --`-و
¸´- ¸-` `وأ »'-و ª,'= -ا _'- -ا
'-,---و ª' `,--- ª-= -ا ¸-ر ¸,--'ا
ب'=='ا ¸- ¸-·' »` ،ª-`ا _,-= _'=
،ª-= -ا ¸-ر ¸-ر ن'-= ¸- ن'-`·' »`
-ا ¸-ر -''= ¸-أ ¸- ¸'·' »` ،ª-= -ا
ª--`او نو--ا¸'ا ء'-'='ا »هو ،ª-=
ن,,-+-'ا .
{We testify that the ten people that the Messenger of {We testify that the ten people that the Messenger of {We testify that the ten people that the Messenger of {We testify that the ten people that the Messenger of
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh told us will go to Paradise, are actually going told us will go to Paradise, are actually going told us will go to Paradise, are actually going told us will go to Paradise, are actually going
106 . »ه'-- ¸,-'ا ة¸-·'ا نأو
-ا _'- -ا ل,-ر »ه¸--و »'-و ª,'=
»+' -+- '- _'= ª-=''- »+' -+-- ª-=''-

31 P.35,SharКAsmā’AllāhAl-Йusnā,Al-FakhrAl-Rāzī,Al-MaktabahAl-AzharīyahliAl-Turāth,Egypt,2000.
there, just as the Messenger of there, just as the Messenger of there, just as the Messenger of there, just as the Messenger of Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh testified. His testified. His testified. His testified. His
saying is the truth. They are Ab saying is the truth. They are Ab saying is the truth. They are Ab saying is the truth. They are Abū ūū ū Bakr,} Bakr,} Bakr,} Bakr,} the first
khalīfah, { {{ {‘ ‘‘ ‘Umar,} Umar,} Umar,} Umar,} the second khalīfah, { {{ {‘ ‘‘ ‘Ut Ut Ut Uth hh hm mm mā āā ān,} n,} n,} n,}
thethirdkhalīfah,{ {{ {‘ ‘‘ ‘Al Al Al Alī īī ī,} ,} ,} ,}thefourthkhalīfah { {{ {ѡ ѡѡ ѡal al al alК КК Кah} ah} ah} ah}
ibn ‘Ubaydillāh - the Prophet called him “ѡalКah of
Generosity”, { {{ {Al Al Al Al- -- -Zubayr} Zubayr} Zubayr} Zubayr} ibn Al-’Awwām ibn
Khuwaylid - the son of the Prophet’s aunt on the
father’sside,{Sa {Sa {Sa {Sa’ ’’ ’d} d} d} d}ibnAbīWaqqāј,{Sa {Sa {Sa {Sa’ ’’ ’ī īī īd} d} d} d}ibnZayd
ibn ‘Amr, { {{ {‘ ‘‘ ‘AbdurRa AbdurRa AbdurRa AbdurRaК КК Кm mm mā āā ān ibn n ibn n ibn n ibn ‘ ‘‘ ‘Awf} Awf} Awf} Awf} who’s name was
originally ‘Abd al-Ka’bah, literally: the slave of the
Ka’bah, but the Prophet renamed him
‘AbdurRaКmān, {and Ab {and Ab {and Ab {and Abū ūū ū ‘ ‘‘ ‘Ubaydah ibn Al Ubaydah ibn Al Ubaydah ibn Al Ubaydah ibn Al- -- -Jarr Jarr Jarr Jarrā āā āК КК К - -- -
andheisthetrustworthyoneofthisnation,may andheisthetrustworthyoneofthisnation,may andheisthetrustworthyoneofthisnation,may andheisthetrustworthyoneofthisnation,mayAllāh Allāh Allāh Allāh
pleasethemall.} pleasethemall.} pleasethemall.} pleasethemall.}

Al-Tirmidhī narrated that the Prophet said, “Abu
BakrisinParadise,‘UmarisinParadise,‘Uthmānisin
Paradise, ‘Alī is in Paradise, ѡalКah is in Paradise, Al-
Zubayr is in Paradise, ‘AbdurRaКmān ibn ‘Awf is in
Paradise,Sa’dibnAbīWaqqāјisinParadise,Sa’īdibn
ZaydisinParadise,andAbu‘UbaydahibnAl-JarrāКis
inParadise.”

Muslim narrated that when the christian delegation
from Najrān in Yemen wanted to leave Al-Madīnah,
they asked the Prophet to send with them a
trustworthyperson.HetoldAbū‘Ubaydahtostandup
andsaid,“Thisisthetrustworthyoneofthisnation.”

¸='ا ª',·و ،»'-و ª,'= -ا _'- -ا ل,-ر
»هو : ª='=و ¸'=و ن'-`=و ¸-=و ،¸´- ,-أ
¸- ¸-=¸'ا --=و -,·-و ،-·-و ¸,-¸'او
--ه ¸,-أ ,هو حا¸='ا ¸- ة-,-= ,-أو ،ف,=
¸,·-=أ »+-= -ا ¸-ر ،ª-`ا .
{The one who sp {The one who sp {The one who sp {The one who speaks well of the companions of the eaks well of the companions of the eaks well of the companions of the eaks well of the companions of the
Messengerof Messengerof Messengerof Messengerof Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh ,hiswives ,hiswives ,hiswives ,hiswives – –– –whoareclearofall whoareclearofall whoareclearofall whoareclearofall
filthiness, and his descendants filthiness, and his descendants filthiness, and his descendants filthiness, and his descendants - -- - who are free of all who are free of all who are free of all who are free of all
disgrace,hasbeenclearedofhypocrisy.} disgrace,hasbeenclearedofhypocrisy.} disgrace,hasbeenclearedofhypocrisy.} disgrace,hasbeenclearedofhypocrisy.}

MuslimnarratedthattheProphetsaid:
107 . ¸· َ ل,-'ا َ ¸َ -ْ =َ أ ْ¸َ -و
»'-و ª,'= -ا _'- -ا ل,-ر ب'=-أ
ª-',رذو ،¸-د .آ ¸- تا¸ه'='ا ª=اوزأو
¸,----'ا ق'--'ا ¸- ئ¸- --· ،¸=ر .آ ¸- .
” ¸ِ · َ ª´ ''ا ْ»ُ آُ ¸ آَ ذُ أ ْ»ُ آُ ¸ آَ ذُ أ ¸ِ -ْ ,َ - ِ .ْ هَ أ ¸ِ · َ ª´ ''ا ْ»ُ آُ ¸ آَ ذُ أ ¸ِ-ْ ,َ - ِ .ْ هَ أ
¸ِ -ْ ,َ - ِ .ْ هَ أ ¸ِ · َ ª´ ''ا “
“IremindyouofAllāhwithregardtothePeopleofMy
House.”Similarly,AbūBakrsaid:
” ِ .ْ هَ أ ¸ِ · َ »´ 'َ -َ و ِ ªْ ,َ 'َ = ُ ª´ ''ا _´ 'َ - اً -´ -َ =ُ - ا,ُ -ُ ·ْرا ِ ªِ -ْ ,َ - “
“Respect MuКammad through the People of His
House.”

{Thescholarsofthefirstthreecenturieswhoareof {Thescholarsofthefirstthreecenturieswhoareof {Thescholarsofthefirstthreecenturieswhoareof {Thescholarsofthefirstthreecenturieswhoareofthe the the the
first generation,} first generation,} first generation,} first generation,} i.e. the companions - those who saw
the Prophet and died as Muslims, {and those after {and those after {and those after {and those after
them of the t them of the t them of the t them of the tā āā ābi bi bi bi’ ’’ ’ī īī ī generation} generation} generation} generation} i.e. those who met at
least one of the companions, {that are among the {that are among the {that are among the {that are among the
people of good deeds and people of good deeds and people of good deeds and people of good deeds and К КК Кad ad ad adī īī īt tt th hh h narration; narration; narration; narration;
jurisprudence and insight; these people are not jurisprudence and insight; these people are not jurisprudence and insight; these people are not jurisprudence and insight; these people are not
mentionedexceptina good way,and whoever speaks mentionedexceptina good way,and whoever speaks mentionedexceptina good way,and whoever speaks mentionedexceptina good way,and whoever speaks
illofthemisnotonthe} illofthemisnotonthe} illofthemisnotonthe} illofthemisnotonthe}sound{path.} {path.} {path.} {path.}

ThisisbecauseMuslimsshouldprotectoneanotherin
loyalty based on their common belief. Allāh said (Al-
Tawbah,71):
ٍ ¸ْ ·َ - ُ ء'َ ,ِ 'ْوَ أ ْ»ُ +ُ -ْ ·َ - ُ ت'َ -ِ -ْ,ُ -ْ 'اَ و َ ن,ُ -ِ-ْ,ُ -ْ 'اَ و | ª-,-'ا / 71 |
Meaning: “the Muslim Believers are united as
protectors of one another, ordering good and
prohibitingevil
32
.”

Moreover, these Muslims of the first generations are
the flagships of Islām. Al-Bukhārī narrated that the
Prophetsaid:
” ْ»ُ +َ -,ُ 'َ , َ ¸,ِ -´ 'ا ´ »ُ ` ْ»ُ +َ -,ُ 'َ , َ ¸,ِ -´ 'ا ´ »ُ ` ¸ِ -ْ¸َ · ¸ِ -´ -ُ أ ُ ¸ْ ,َ = “
“The best of my nation are those in my generation,
thenthosethatcomeafterthem,thenthosethatcome
after them (again).” Then he said, as narrated soundly
byAl-Tirmidhī:“afterthat,lyingspreads.”

108 . ¸,--'-'ا ¸- -'-'ا ء'-'=و
،¸``او ¸,='ا .هأ ¸,·-'-'ا ¸- »ه-·- ¸-و
.,-=''- `إ َ نوُ ¸َ آْ-ُ , ` ¸=-'او ª--'ا .هأو
.,--'ا ¸,= _'= ,+· ء,-- »ه¸آذ ¸-و .

32 Zādal-Masīr
{We do not prefer {We do not prefer {We do not prefer {We do not prefer any wal any wal any wal any walī īī ī over any prophet over any prophet over any prophet over any prophet – –– – may may may may
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh perfect their peace} perfect their peace} perfect their peace} perfect their peace}, for a walī only reached his
rankbecauseoffollowingaprophet,sohowcan hebe
better? Even the extraordinary events that happen at
thehandsofsomeofthemaremerelyextensionsofthe
miraclesoftheirprophet.Moreover,prophetshaveall
the characteristics that a walī has, plus the added
nobility of prophethood. {And we say that a single {And we say that a single {And we say that a single {And we say that a single
prophet is better than all wal prophet is better than all wal prophet is better than all wal prophet is better than all walī īī īs together} s together} s together} s together}, due to the
greathonorprophetshavebyreceivingrevelationsand
havingmiracles.

109 . ء','و`ا ¸- ا-=أ .--- `و
ل,--و ،م`-'ا »+,'= ء',--`ا ¸- -=أ _'=
ء','و`ا _,-= ¸- .-·أ -=او ¸-- .
{We believe in what is told of their kar {We believe in what is told of their kar {We believe in what is told of their kar {We believe in what is told of their karā āā āmahs} mahs} mahs} mahs}, which
aretheextraordinaryeventsthathappentowalīs,{and {and {and {and
wassoundlynarratedt wassoundlynarratedt wassoundlynarratedt wassoundlynarratedthroughtrustworthynarrators.} hroughtrustworthynarrators.} hroughtrustworthynarrators.} hroughtrustworthynarrators.}

110 . ¸- ء'= '-- ¸-,-و
»+-',اور ¸- ت'-`'ا ¸= _-و »+-'-ا¸آ .
{We believe in the prerequisites of the last hour, such {We believe in the prerequisites of the last hour, such {We believe in the prerequisites of the last hour, such {We believe in the prerequisites of the last hour, such
asthecomingof asthecomingof asthecomingof asthecomingofAl Al Al Al- -- -Dajj Dajj Dajj Dajjā āā āl,} l,} l,} l,}whoisahumanbeingthat
claimstobeGodandhasextraordinaryeventsoccurat
his hands, {andthedescentofJesus {andthedescentofJesus {andthedescentofJesus {andthedescentofJesus fromthesky} fromthesky} fromthesky} fromthesky}
inhisreturntoEarth.ItwasdeclaredauthenticbyAl-
ЙākimandverifiedbyAl-DhahabīthattheProphet
saidaboutJesus:
” 'ً -َ ´َ = »َ ,ْ¸َ - ¸ْ -ا _َ -,ِ = ´ ¸َ =ِ -ْ +َ ,َ ' ً `ْ-َ = َ ,َ 'َ و 'ً =ِ -ْ -ُ - 'ً -'َ -ِ إَ و ´ ¸َ ´ُ 'ْ -
¸'= » 'َ -ُ , _´ -َ = يِ ¸ْ -َ · ´ ¸َ ,ِ -ْ'َ ,َ 'َ و '-ِ +ِ -´ ,ِ -ِ- وأ اً ¸ِ -َ -ْ ·ُ - ْوَ أ '´ ='َ = 'ً ='َ =ِ ·
ِ ªْ ,َ 'َ = ´ ن´ دُ رَ 'َ 'َ و “ ,
“Jesus, the son of Mary will descend (from the sky
where he is alive today) to be a just ruler and an
equitableimām.HewillgottoperformЙajjor‘Umrah
pilgrimage or both together and he will come to my
grave in order to give his salām greeting to me, and I
111 . ¸- ª='-'ا طا¸-'- ¸-,-و
ª,'= »,¸- ¸-ا _-,= لو¸-و ل'=-'ا جو¸=
ء'--'ا ¸- م`-'ا
33
¸--'ا ع,'=- ¸-,-و ،
¸- ضر`ا ª-اد جو¸=و '+-¸·- ¸-
'+·-,-

33 Al-Mustadrak,2/651,No.4162.
ج ¸,=,=-'ا _'= كر----'ا 2 / ص 651 4162 `-= ي¸,='ا --=أ ¸- --=- -,='ا ,-أ ¸-¸-=أ ¸- --=- '-`-= -,-= ¸- _'·, '-`-= ب'ه,'ا --= ¸- --=- '-
-,= ¸=-+,' »'-و ª,'= -ا _'- -ا ل,-ر ل'· ل,-, ة¸,¸ه '-أ -·-- ل'· ª-,-= مأ _',- ء'== ¸= ي¸---'ا -,·- ¸-أ ¸- -,·- ¸= ق'=-إ »,¸- ¸- _
-','و '-+-,-- وأ ا¸--·- وأ '='= '=· ¸´'-,'و '=--- '-'-إو `-= '-´= ا,',-· -,--,أر نإ ¸=أ ¸-- يأ ة¸,¸ه ,-أ ل,-, ª,'= ندر`و ¸'= »'-, _-= ي¸-· ¸,
ª·',-'ا --+- -'=¸=, »'و د'--`ا _,=- -,-= ا-ه م`-'ا =-¸-, ة¸,¸ه ,-أ . ¸,--'ا ¸,· - »آ'='ا ل'· : ¸-ه-'ا ل'·و ª-- -,-= ¸- _'·, ª·-- _,=- : -د'--إ
-,¸= ,هو _''- .
willanswerhim”(Al-Mustadrak,2/561).

{Andwebelieveintherisingofthesunfromthewest, {Andwebelieveintherisingofthesunfromthewest, {Andwebelieveintherisingofthesunfromthewest, {Andwebelieveintherisingofthesunfromthewest,
and the coming of the and the coming of the and the coming of the and the coming of the animal of the earth from its animal of the earth from its animal of the earth from its animal of the earth from its
place.} place.} place.} place.} Muslim narrated from Abū Hurayrah that the
Prophetsaid:
” ْوَ أ ُ .ْ -َ · ْ¸ِ - ْ-َ -َ -' ْ¸ُ ´َ - ْ»َ ' 'َ +ُ -'َ -,ِ إ 'ً -ْ-َ - ُ _َ -ْ -َ , 'َ ' َ ¸ْ =َ ¸َ = اَ ذِ إ ٌث`َ `
'َ +ِ -ِ ¸ْ ·َ - ْ¸ِ - ِ ¸ْ -´ -'ا ُ ع,ُ 'ُ = اً ¸ْ ,َ = 'َ +ِ -'َ -,ِ إ ¸ِ· ْ-َ -َ -َ آ ُ ل'´ =´ -'اَ و
ِ ضْرَ `ا ُ ª´ -اَ دَ و “
“There are three things that if they come, then the
belief of a blasphemer in Islām, or repentance of a
sinner are no longer accepted: the rising of the sun
fromthewest,thecomingofAl-Dajjāl,andthecoming
oftheanimaloftheearth.”

{We do not believe any fortuneteller or clairvoyant,} {We do not believe any fortuneteller or clairvoyant,} {We do not believe any fortuneteller or clairvoyant,} {We do not believe any fortuneteller or clairvoyant,}
or anyone who claims to have knowledge of the
unknowable by special ability or supernatural powers.
AКmadibnЙanbalnarratedthattheProphetsaid:
” َ لِ ¸ْ -ُ أ 'َ -ِ - َ ¸َ -َ آ ْ-َ -َ · ُ ل,ُ -َ , 'َ -ِ - ُ ªَ ·´ -َ -َ · 'ً ·ا´ ¸َ = ْوَ أ 'ً -ِ ه'َ آ _َ -َ أ ْ¸َ -
ٍ -´ -َ =ُ - _َ 'َ = “
“Whoevercomestoasomeonewhoclaimstoknowthe
futureortohavepsychicknowledgeandbelievedwhat
he said to be true, has blasphemed against what has
beenrevealedtoMuКammad.”

We do not believe in such people, {or whomsoever {or whomsoever {or whomsoever {or whomsoever
makes a claim contrary to what is in the Qur makes a claim contrary to what is in the Qur makes a claim contrary to what is in the Qur makes a claim contrary to what is in the Qur’ ’’ ’ā āā ān,} n,} n,} n,}
flawless{ {{ {К КК Кad ad ad adī īī īt tt th hh hs,orijm s,orijm s,orijm s,orijmā āā ā’ ’’ ’consensus.} consensus.} consensus.} consensus.}
112 . `و '-ه'آ ق--- `و
'·ا¸=
34
ب'-´'ا -''=, '-,- ¸=-, ¸- `و ،
ª-`ا ع'-=إو ª--'او .

34 FatКal-Bārī10/216,SharКal-Nawawī2/298,Mashāriqal-Anwār2/145.
¸== ¸-` ير'-'ا _-· 10/216 : ªَ -'َ +َ ´ْ 'اَ و - 'َ ه¸ْ -َ آ ز,ُ =َ ,َ و ف'َ ´ْ 'ا ِ _ْ -َ -ِ - - فا´ ¸َ ·ْ 'اَ و -َ -َ - _َ 'ِ إ د'َ -ِ -ْ -'ِ 'ا َ _َ - ضْرَ 'ْ 'ا ¸ِ · ُ _َ -َ ,َ - 'َ -ِ - ِ ر'َ -ْ =ِ 'ْ ''َ آ -ْ ,َ ·ْ 'ا »ْ 'ِ = ء'َ = دِ ا
ا ِ _ْ -َ -ِ - لْ,َ · ْوَ أ .ْ ·ِ · ْ¸ِ - ٍ بْ¸َ -ِ - ت'َ -,ِ ·َ -ْ 'ا _َ 'َ = ف,ُ ·ُ ,ْ 'ا جِ ¸ْ =َ -ْ -َ , ْ¸َ - ءا´ ¸'ا -,ِ -ْ -َ -َ و ªَ 'َ -ْ +ُ -ْ ' . ر'``ا ح'=- _'= را,-`ا قر'-- - ) ج 2 / ص 145 ( ¸- ª',·و
¸=''- ر,-`ا -=', ي-'ا فا¸·'او '·ا¸= ¸ه'آ .آ ¸,' ن'+´'ا ¸- ع,- »هو '-ه'آ _-أ ¸- يأ '·ا¸= _-أ ¸- --,' ¸=أ ب'--أو ق¸='او »=-'او ¸,-=-'او
.-----'ا -,·''- ¸-=, ي-'ا ¸ه'´'او د,=,- ,ه '-- _-=أ '-- ¸-=, ي-'ا فا¸·'ا .,·و -,·'ا ª·¸·- _=-, ª-'آ ¸='ا ª+= . »'-- _'= يو,-'ا ح¸- - ) ج 2
/ ص 298 :( -,ِ -َ = ¸ِ · 'ً -ْ ,َ أ ّ ¸ِ -'´ =َ =ْ 'ا َ ل'َ ·َ و ) َ · 'ً -ِ ه'َ آ _َ -َ أ ْ¸َ - َ ل'َ · ، َ »´ 'َ -َ و ِ ªْ ,َ 'َ = ª´ ''ا _´ 'َ - -´ -َ =ُ - _َ 'َ= ª´ ''ا َ لَ ¸ْ -َ أ '´ -ِ - َ ئِ ¸َ - ْ-َ -َ · ل,ُ -َ , 'َ -ِ - ُªَ ·´ -َ - : بَ ¸َ ·ْ 'ا ¸ِ · َ ن'َ آ
ّ ¸ِ =ْ 'ا ْ¸ِ - 'ً ,ْ -ِ ر ُ ªَ ' ´ نَ أ »ُ =ْ¸َ , ْ¸َ - ْ»ُ +ْ -ِ - ، ر,ُ -ُ 'ْ 'ا ْ¸ِ - اً ¸,ِ `َ آ َ ن,ُ ·ِ ¸ْ ·َ , ْ»ُ +´ -َ أ َ ن,ُ =´ -َ , ªَ -َ +َ آ ْ¸َ - ْ»ُ +ْ -ِ -َ و ، ª,ِ =ْ =ُ أ ٍ »ْ +َ -ِ - َ =ِ 'َ ذ كاَ رْ-ِ -ْ -ِ ا ¸ِ =´ -َ , ْ¸َ - ْ»ُ +ْ -ِ -َ و ، ر'َ -ْ =َ 'ْ 'ا ِ ªْ ,َ 'ِإ ¸ِ -ْ 'ُ ,
_´ -َ -ُ , : ´ -'ا َ قَ ¸َ - ْ¸َ - ِ ªَ ·ِ ¸ْ ·َ -َ آ ، 'َ +ِ - ´ لَ -َ -ْ -ِ ا ب'َ -ْ -َ أ ِ ت'َ - -َ -ُ -ِ - ر,ُ -ُ 'ْ 'ا ªَ ·ِ ¸ْ ·َ - »ُ =ْ¸َ , يِ-´ 'ا َ ,ُ هَ و 'ً ·ا´ ¸َ = ءْ¸ ْ»ُ +ْ -ِ -َ و ، َ =ِ 'َ ذ ,ْ =َ -َ و ، ةَ أْ¸َ -ْ 'ا ِ ªِ - »َ +´-ُ , ْ¸َ - ªَ ·ِ ¸ْ ·َ -َ و ، ّ ¸ِ -'َ 'ُ -ْ 'ا
َ ل'َ · ، 'ً -ِ ه'َ آ » =َ -ُ -ْ 'ا ¸ -َ -ُ , ْ¸َ - : ´ -َ , 'َ -,ِ · ْ»+-,ِ -ْ -َ -َ و ْ»+'ْ,َ · _َ 'ِ إ ع,ُ =´ ¸'اَ و ، ْ»+ّ 'ُ آ ِ ء'َ 'ُ ,َ ه ن'َ ,ْ -ِ إ ْ¸َ = ¸ْ +´ -'ا _َ 'َ = .ِ-َ -ْ -َ , -,ِ -َ =ْ 'اَ و ُ ªَ -,ُ = . ¸,ِ -َ - َ ,ُ هَ و ّ ¸ِ -'´ =َ =ْ 'ا م'َ 'َ آ اَ -َ ه
. --=أ ---- - _´ 'َ - ¸ِ -´ -'ا ْ¸َ = ِ ¸َ -َ =ْ 'اَ و َ ةَ ¸ْ ,َ ¸ُ ه ¸ِ -َ أ ْ¸َ = ٌس'َ 'ِ = 'َ -َ `´ -َ = َ ل'َ · ٍ فْ,َ = ْ¸َ = ٍ -,ِ ·َ - ُ ¸ْ - _َ ,ْ =َ , 'َ -َ `´ -َ = ً ·ا´ ¸َ = ْوَ أ 'ً -ِ ه'َ آ _َ -َ أ ْ¸َ - َ ل'َ · َ »´ 'َ -َ و ِ ªْ,َ 'َ = ُ ª´ ''ا 'َ -ِ - ُ ªَ ·´ -َ -َ · '
َ »´ 'َ -َ و ِ ªْ ,َ 'َ = ُ ª´ ''ا _´ 'َ - ٍ -´ -َ =ُ - _َ 'َ = َ لِ ¸ْ-ُ أ 'َ -ِ - َ ¸َ -َ آ ْ-َ -َ · ُ ل,ُ -َ ,

{We see the jam {We see the jam {We see the jam {We see the jamā āā ā’ ’’ ’ah} ah} ah} ah} the ijmā’ consensus of the
mujtahidscholars,andunityunderasinglekhalīfah{as {as {as {as
true and correct, and division as devia true and correct, and division as devia true and correct, and division as devia true and correct, and division as deviation and tion and tion and tion and
torture} torture} torture} torture}, whether this division be in the sense of
breakingijmā’orbysplittingintogroups.

Allāhsaid(Āl‘Imrān,103):
” ا,ُ ·´ ¸َ -َ - `َ و “ | نا¸-= ل' / 103 |
Meaning:“Donotsplitapart.”

Al-Bukhārī narrated that one time in the army of the
Prophet , an immigrant to Al-Madīnah kicked the
rear of another man from Al-Madīnah. The latter
started calling the people of his home city while the
other called other fellow immigrants for help. When
theProphetheardtheircries,hesaid:
” َ د ُ ل'َ - 'َ - ْ¸ِ - ٌ.ُ =َ ر َ _َ -َ آ ِ ª´ ''ا َ ل,ُ -َ ر 'َ , ا,ُ ''َ · ِ ª´ ,ِ'ِ ه'َ =ْ 'ا ىَ ,ْ =
ٌ ªَ -ِ -ْ -ُ - 'َ +´ -ِ 'َ · 'َ ه,ُ =َ د َ ل'َ -َ · ِ ر'َ -ْ -َ 'ْ 'ا ْ¸ِ - 'ً 'ُ =َ ر َ ¸,ِ ¸ِ ='َ +ُ -ْ 'ا “
“What is it with the cry of the non-Islamic era?” That
is, separate groups up against each other instead of
brotherhood. They told him what had happened, and
hesaid,“Leavethiscry,foritisrotten.”

113 . '-= ª='-='ا ى¸-و
'-ا-=و '·,ز ª·¸ُ -'او '-ا,-و
35

{ {{ {Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s religion on earth and in the sky is only one, s religion on earth and in the sky is only one, s religion on earth and in the sky is only one, s religion on earth and in the sky is only one,
anditisIsl anditisIsl anditisIsl anditisIslā āā ām. m. m. m.Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāhsaid( said( said( said(Ā ĀĀ Āl l l l‘ ‘‘ ‘Imr Imr Imr Imrā āā ān,19): n,19): n,19): n,19):
] -ا نِ إ ُ م>ْ ~ِ 'ْ -ا ِ ª --ا َ -ْ -ِ - َ Q- - ] نا,-- ل' / 19 ¡
Meaning:”Verily the one and only religion that Allāh
acceptsisIslām.”

{AndHe {AndHe {AndHe {AndHe_-'·-said(Al said(Al said(Al said(Al- -- -M MM Mā āā ā’ ’’ ’idah,3): idah,3): idah,3): idah,3):
] 'ً --ِ د َ م'َ -ْ ~ِ 'ْ -ا ُ ;ُ -َ - ُ ~-ِ ~َ رَ و ] ة--'--ا / 3 ¡
Meaning:“AllāhacceptsIslāmasareligionforyou.”
114 . ضر`ا ¸· -ا ¸,دو
-ا ل'· ،م`-`ا ¸,د ,هو ،-=او ء'--'او
_''·- ) م`-`ا -ا --= ¸,-'ا نإ ( ل'·و
_''·- ) '-,د م`-`ا »´' -,-رو (

35 FatКal-Bārī8/649.
¸== ¸-` ير'-'ا _-· 8/649 - َ ¸,ِ ¸ِ ='َ +ُ -ْ 'ا ْ¸ِ - ٌ.ُ =َ ر َ _َ -َ ´َ · ٍ ¸ْ ,َ = ¸ِ · ً `ُ =َ ر ´ يِ ر'َ -ْ -َ 'ْ 'ا َ ل'َ -َ · ِ ر'َ -ْ -َ 'ْ 'ا ْ¸ِ - َ ¸,ِ ¸ِ ='َ +ُ -ْ 'َ ' 'َ , ´ يِ ¸ِ ='َ +ُ -ْ 'ا َ ل'َ ·َ و ِ ر'َ -ْ-َ 'ْ 'َ ' 'َ ,
,ُ -َ ر 'َ , ا,ُ ''َ · ِ ª´ ,ِ 'ِ ه'َ =ْ 'ا ىَ ,ْ =َ د ُ ل'َ - 'َ - َ ل'َ -َ · َ »´ 'َ -َ و ِ ªْ ,َ 'َ = ُ ª´ ''ا _´ 'َ - ِ ª´ ''ا ُ ل,ُ -َ ر َ =ِ 'َ ذ َ _ِ -َ -َ · َ -ْ -َ 'ْ 'ا ْ¸ِ - 'ً 'ُ =َ ر َ ¸,ِ ¸ِ ='َ +ُ -ْ 'ا ْ¸ِ - ٌ.ُ =َ ر َ _َ -َ آ ِ ª´ ''ا َ ل ٌ ªَ -ِ -ْ -ُ - 'َ +´ -ِ 'َ · 'َ ه,ُ =َ د َ ل'َ -َ · ِ ر'

{Isl {Isl {Isl {Islā āā āmisbetweenextremism} misbetweenextremism} misbetweenextremism} misbetweenextremism}byexceedingthebounds
of what Allāh has allowed, {and shortcoming} {and shortcoming} {and shortcoming} {and shortcoming} by not
performing obligations that Allāh has prescribed {; {; {; {;
between likening between likening between likening between likening Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’s attributes to those of His s attributes to those of His s attributes to those of His s attributes to those of His
creation} creation} creation} creation} by ascribing to them meanings that apply to
creation,suchasalimit, {andrejectingthem;between {andrejectingthem;between {andrejectingthem;between {andrejectingthem;between
denying choice all together and saying that humans denying choice all together and saying that humans denying choice all together and saying that humans denying choice all together and saying that humans
create t create t create t create their own acts; and between feeling safe from heir own acts; and between feeling safe from heir own acts; and between feeling safe from heir own acts; and between feeling safe from
Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh’ ’’ ’spunishment,anddespairofHisforgiveness.} spunishment,anddespairofHisforgiveness.} spunishment,anddespairofHisforgiveness.} spunishment,anddespairofHisforgiveness.}

115 . ،¸,---'او ,'·'ا ¸,- ,هو
،ر--'او ¸-='ا ¸,-و ،.,=·-'او ª,---'ا ¸,-و
س','او ¸-`ا ¸,-و
{So this is our religion and belief, both outward and {So this is our religion and belief, both outward and {So this is our religion and belief, both outward and {So this is our religion and belief, both outward and
inward, and we dec inward, and we dec inward, and we dec inward, and we declare to lare to lare to lare to Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh that we disavow that we disavow that we disavow that we disavow
whomsoever disagrees with what we have mentioned whomsoever disagrees with what we have mentioned whomsoever disagrees with what we have mentioned whomsoever disagrees with what we have mentioned
andexplained.} andexplained.} andexplained.} andexplained.}

116 . ا¸ه'= '-د'--=او '--,د ا-+·
¸- .آ ¸- -ا _'إ ءاء¸- ¸=-و ،'-='-و
-'-,-و -'-¸آذ ي-'ا -''= .
{We ask {We ask {We ask {We ask Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāh _-'·- to make us firm in the Islamic to make us firm in the Islamic to make us firm in the Islamic to make us firm in the Islamic
belief, and to end belief, and to end belief, and to end belief, and to end our lives while we are in that state, our lives while we are in that state, our lives while we are in that state, our lives while we are in that state,
and to protect us from the various kinds of deviant and to protect us from the various kinds of deviant and to protect us from the various kinds of deviant and to protect us from the various kinds of deviant
inclinations,anddivisiveopinions,andlowlydoctrines, inclinations,anddivisiveopinions,andlowlydoctrines, inclinations,anddivisiveopinions,andlowlydoctrines, inclinations,anddivisiveopinions,andlowlydoctrines,
such as that of the mus such as that of the mus such as that of the mus such as that of the mush hh habbihah,} abbihah,} abbihah,} abbihah,} who liken Allāh to
His creation; {the Mu {the Mu {the Mu {the Mu’ ’’ ’tazilah,} tazilah,} tazilah,} tazilah,} who deny Allāh’s
attributes; {the Jahm {the Jahm {the Jahm {the Jahmīya īya īya īyah,} h,} h,} h,} who claimed that Allāh is
literally everywhere, not in the sense that He knows
everything,andclaimedthatParadiseandHellcometo
an end; {the Jabr {the Jabr {the Jabr {the Jabrīya īya īya īyah,} h,} h,} h,} who denied that humans have
anychoiceatall,evenacreatedone;{theQada {theQada {theQada {theQadar rr rīya īya īya īyah,} h,} h,} h,}
who claimed that humans create their own actions,
{and others among those that disagreed with the {and others among those that disagreed with the {and others among those that disagreed with the {and others among those that disagreed with the
sunnah and the jam sunnah and the jam sunnah and the jam sunnah and the jamā āā ā’ ’’ ’ah, and pledged allegiance to ah, and pledged allegiance to ah, and pledged allegiance to ah, and pledged allegiance to
deviation.Weareclearofthem,andtheyaredeviants deviation.Weareclearofthem,andtheyaredeviants deviation.Weareclearofthem,andtheyaredeviants deviation.Weareclearofthem,andtheyaredeviants
andlowlyinourview.} andlowlyinourview.} andlowlyinourview.} andlowlyinourview.}

Al-Ghazālīsaid:“TheSalafgenerationofthenationof
Prophet MuКammad’s followers agreed to blame
117 . نأ _''·- -ا ل'--و '-َ - -َ `ُ ,
¸- '---·,و ،ª- '-' »-=,و ،ن'-,`ا _'=
ا ءار`او ،ª-'-=-'ا ءا,ه`ا ،ª·¸---'
ª'¸-·-'او ª+---'ا .`- ª,د¸'ا -ها--'او
¸- »ه¸,=و ª,ر--'او ª,¸-='او ª,-+='او
ا,-''=و ،ª='-='او ª--'ا ا,-''= ¸,-'ا
'---= »هو ءاء¸- »+-- ¸=-و ،ª'`-'ا
لّ `ُ - ¸,·,-'او ª--·'ا -'-و ،ء',درأو .
those with deviant ideas, and to abandon them, and to
cut relations with them, and to be hard in rebuking
them,buttonotbehardondifferentviewsindetailsof
jurisprudence.
36
“ The same was stated by ‘Alā’ al-Dīn
Al-Bukhārī
37
.

{By {By {By {By Allāh Allāh Allāh Allāhaloneistheprotectionfrombadbeliefsand aloneistheprotectionfrombadbeliefsand aloneistheprotectionfrombadbeliefsand aloneistheprotectionfrombadbeliefsand
Healonecreatestheabilitytodogood.} Healonecreatestheabilitytodogood.} Healonecreatestheabilitytodogood.} Healonecreatestheabilitytodogood.}

36 AbūЙāmidAl-Ghazālī.ِ Al-MustaјfāFī‘Ilmal-‘Uјūl.Beirut,Lebanon:DarAl-KotobAl-ilmīyah,1413.
ج _-----'ا 1 / ص 350 : 'ا ك¸- _- »+,'= ر'´-`ا -,---و »+·- ª-=-'ا _=·و »+-¸='+-و ª=----'ا مذ _'= ª-`ا -'- ق'--او _'= -,---
ª--'ا عو¸·و ¸-ا¸-'ا .-'-- ¸· ¸,-'-=-'ا
37 ‘Alā’al-DīnAl-Bukhārī.Kashfal-Asrār.4vols.Beirut,Lebanon:DarAl-KotobAl-ilmīyah,1418/1997.
ج را¸-`ا --آ 4 / ص 25 : ¸-آ ¸,-'' .,,· او¸-آ ¸,-'ا ¸= ='ذ _''·- ª',-آ _-=, ` '-- ا-ه _'= ª'ا-'ا ت',`او »---= ي-'ا »´-= »´'ذو او
-'او ب'-´'ا ¸- ¸-=-, ` '-- ر'-´'ا ¸- ¸,--´-'ا مذ ª'-='ا _'=و ض¸- »+-,'· ¸· ء¸- _'= »+-أ ن,--=,و ن,-=, `إ »ه نإ »آادرأ »´-¸- ª-إ »+',·و ª-
-·-و ª'د`ا ¸- ---و .-·'ا ¸- »+·زر '-- ¸='ا ª-'-إ _'= »هر-·أ ª-` --'· _-,'ا ¸· ¸,' '- -,'´- ل,-·'ا ا,+-- ¸,-'ا تا¸=·-''- ¸,-,,-'ا .-¸'ا ¸-
'ا مذ _'= ¸,-''=-'ا ثو-= .-· ª-`ا -'- ع'-='- .=-, ي¸--·'ا ª''· '-و .-¸'ا -·- ª== -ا _'= -=` ¸-, »' _-= ¸=-'ا ¸=اود ا,آ¸=و ª=----
¸,-'-=-'ا _'= -,---'ا ك¸- _- »+,'= ر'´-`ا -,---و »+·- ª-=-'ا _=·و »+-¸='+-و عو¸-'ا .-'-- ¸· .

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