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Termpaper-Applications of Eigen Values-math

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# LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

PHAGWARA(PB.)

TERM PAPER
Sub. :- Mathematics (MTH-141)
Topic :- Application of Eigen values

Submitted to, Submitted by,
Mr Vinay sir, Omkar Kumar Jha
RH-4901-A12
10902923
MECHANICAL ENGG. (III rd TERM)

Application of Eigen values:
How to find Eigen value:-
- A
x
= λ
x
matrix Eigen value problem.
- A value of λ for which
x
( 0 = ) is a solution
Eigen value (also known as characteristic
Value).
- Solution
x
( 0 = ) corresponding to a λ called
Eigenvectors.
- The set of Eigenvectors is called the
spectrum of A.
- Largest of absolute value of Eigen value is
Determination of Eigen values and Eigen
vectors:-
- A
x
= λ
x
= λ I
x
(where I is the identity
matrix).
- (A- λ I)
x
=
0
,homogeneous linear
system with non-trivial solution
- (
x
=
0
) if and only if D(λ)=det (A- λ I)=0
-------------------------------------------------------
Q. An elastic membrane in the
x
1 -
x
2 plane
with boundary circle
x
2
1
+
x
2
2
=1 is stretched so
that a point P: (
x
1 ,
x
2 ) goes over into the
point Q: (
y
1
,
y
2
) given by y=
(
(
¸
(

¸

y
y
2
1
= A
x
=
(
¸
(

¸

5 3
3 5
(
¸
(

¸

x
x
2
1
.
Find the principal directions, that is, the
directions of the position vector X of P for which
the direction of the position vector y is the same
or exactly opposite. What shape does the
boundary circle take under this deformation?
Ans.
An elastic membrane in the
x
1 -
x
2 , plane
with boundary circle
x
2
1
+
x
2
2
=1 is stretched so
that points p: (
x
1 ,
x
2 ) goes over into point
Q:(
y
1
,
y
2
); given by
y
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

y
y
2
1
=A
x
=
(
¸
(

¸

5 3
3 5
(
¸
(

¸

x
x
2
1
; in components
So,
y
1
= 5
x
1 + 3
x
2

y
2
=3
x
1 + 5
x
2
Here vectors (
x
) such that
y

x
since
y
=A
x
,
This gives A
x
= λ
x

Then the equation is;
5
x
1 + 3
x
2 =
X1
3
x
1 + 5
x
2 =
X2
Or,
(5 - λ)
x
1 + 3
x
2 =0 ---------- (1)
3
x
1 + (5 - λ)
x
2 =0 ---------- (2)
Now,
The values may be written as,
ì
ì
÷
÷
5 3
3 5
= ) 5 (
2
ì ÷ -9 = 0
25+
ì
2
-10-9=0
And,
ì
2
-10+16 = 0
( ) 8 ÷ ì ( ) 2 ÷ ì
= 0
So,
ì
1
=8 and
ì
2
=2 (Eigen values of the
system)
So now eigen vectors are (after putting the
values into the equation (1) and (2) we get;
if
ì
1
=8 ; then
-3
x
1 +3
x
2 = 0
Or,
x
1 =
x
2 = 1;
If
ì
2
=2 ; then
3
x
1 +3
x
2 = 0
x
1 = -
x
2
Or,
x
1 = 1 ;
x
2 = -1
So the Eigen vectors are,
A1
=
(
¸
(

¸

1
1
;
A
2
= (
¸
(

¸

÷1
1

These vectors makes
0
45
and
0
135
angles with
the positive
x
1
- direction. The Eigen values
show that the member is stretched by factors 8
and 2 in the principle direction.
If we choose the principle direction of a new
Cartesian
u
1

u
2
-coordinates system, say, with
the positive
u
1
and the positive
u
2
-semi-axis in the second
x
1 -
x
2 system, and if we set
u
1
=
( ) | cos r
,
u
2
=
( ) | sin r
, then a boundary point
of unstretched circular member has
coordinates
( ) | | sin , cos
hence, after the stretch
we have,
z1
= 8
| cos
(
ì
in terms of cartesian)
z2
= 2
| sin

Since
1
cos sin
2 2
= + | |
, this shows that the
deformed boundary is an ellipse;
So, the equation of ellipse becomes:-
8
2
2
1 z
+
2
2
2
2 z
= 1

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