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Termpaper-Applications of Eigen Values-math|Views: 2|Likes: 1

Published by Omkar Kumar Jha

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/117375938/Termpaper-Applications-of-Eigen-Values-math

01/02/2013

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PHAGWARA(PB.)

TERM PAPER

Sub. :- Mathematics (MTH-141)

Topic :- Application of Eigen values

Submitted to, Submitted by,

Mr Vinay sir, Omkar Kumar Jha

RH-4901-A12

10902923

MECHANICAL ENGG. (III rd TERM)

Application of Eigen values:

How to find Eigen value:-

- A

x

= λ

x

matrix Eigen value problem.

- A value of λ for which

x

( 0 = ) is a solution

Eigen value (also known as characteristic

Value).

- Solution

x

( 0 = ) corresponding to a λ called

Eigenvectors.

- The set of Eigenvectors is called the

spectrum of A.

- Largest of absolute value of Eigen value is

spectral radius of A.

Determination of Eigen values and Eigen

vectors:-

- A

x

= λ

x

= λ I

x

(where I is the identity

matrix).

- (A- λ I)

x

=

0

,homogeneous linear

system with non-trivial solution

- (

x

=

0

) if and only if D(λ)=det (A- λ I)=0

-------------------------------------------------------

Q. An elastic membrane in the

x

1 -

x

2 plane

with boundary circle

x

2

1

+

x

2

2

=1 is stretched so

that a point P: (

x

1 ,

x

2 ) goes over into the

point Q: (

y

1

,

y

2

) given by y=

(

(

¸

(

¸

y

y

2

1

= A

x

=

(

¸

(

¸

5 3

3 5

(

¸

(

¸

x

x

2

1

.

Find the principal directions, that is, the

directions of the position vector X of P for which

the direction of the position vector y is the same

or exactly opposite. What shape does the

boundary circle take under this deformation?

Ans.

An elastic membrane in the

x

1 -

x

2 , plane

with boundary circle

x

2

1

+

x

2

2

=1 is stretched so

that points p: (

x

1 ,

x

2 ) goes over into point

Q:(

y

1

,

y

2

); given by

y

=

(

(

¸

(

¸

y

y

2

1

=A

x

=

(

¸

(

¸

5 3

3 5

(

¸

(

¸

x

x

2

1

; in components

So,

y

1

= 5

x

1 + 3

x

2

y

2

=3

x

1 + 5

x

2

Here vectors (

x

) such that

y

=λ

x

since

y

=A

x

,

This gives A

x

= λ

x

Then the equation is;

5

x

1 + 3

x

2 =

X1

3

x

1 + 5

x

2 =

X2

Or,

(5 - λ)

x

1 + 3

x

2 =0 ---------- (1)

3

x

1 + (5 - λ)

x

2 =0 ---------- (2)

Now,

The values may be written as,

ì

ì

÷

÷

5 3

3 5

= ) 5 (

2

ì ÷ -9 = 0

25+

ì

2

-10-9=0

And,

ì

2

-10+16 = 0

( ) 8 ÷ ì ( ) 2 ÷ ì

= 0

So,

ì

1

=8 and

ì

2

=2 (Eigen values of the

system)

So now eigen vectors are (after putting the

values into the equation (1) and (2) we get;

if

ì

1

=8 ; then

-3

x

1 +3

x

2 = 0

Or,

x

1 =

x

2 = 1;

If

ì

2

=2 ; then

3

x

1 +3

x

2 = 0

x

1 = -

x

2

Or,

x

1 = 1 ;

x

2 = -1

So the Eigen vectors are,

A1

=

(

¸

(

¸

1

1

;

A

2

= (

¸

(

¸

÷1

1

These vectors makes

0

45

and

0

135

angles with

the positive

x

1

- direction. The Eigen values

show that the member is stretched by factors 8

and 2 in the principle direction.

If we choose the principle direction of a new

Cartesian

u

1

u

2

-coordinates system, say, with

the positive

u

1

-semi-axis in the first quadrant

and the positive

u

2

-semi-axis in the second

quadrant of the

x

1 -

x

2 system, and if we set

u

1

=

( ) | cos r

,

u

2

=

( ) | sin r

, then a boundary point

of unstretched circular member has

coordinates

( ) | | sin , cos

hence, after the stretch

we have,

z1

= 8

| cos

(

ì

in terms of cartesian)

z2

= 2

| sin

Since

1

cos sin

2 2

= + | |

, this shows that the

deformed boundary is an ellipse;

So, the equation of ellipse becomes:-

8

2

2

1 z

+

2

2

2

2 z

= 1

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