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Lewin’s Force Field Analysis Model Developed by Kurt Lewin Driving forces • Push organizations toward change • External forces or leader’s vision Restraining Forces Restraining forces • Resistance to change -.employee behaviors that block the change process Driving Forces 15-2 .
communication systems 15-3 .Why People Resist Change Direct costs • Losing something of value due to change Saving face • Not invented here syndrome Fear of the unknown • Risk of personal loss • Concern about being unable to adjust Breaking routines • Cost of moving away from our “comfort zones” • Requires time/effort to learn new routines Incongruent team dynamics • Norms contrary to the desired change Incongruent organizational systems • Systems/structures reinforce status quo • Career. power. reward.
Creating an Urgency for Change Inform employees about driving forces Most difficult when organization is doing well Customer-driven change • Adverse consequences for firm • Human element energizes employees Sometimes need to create urgency to change without external drivers • Requires persuasive influence • Use positive vision rather than threats 15-4 .
time consuming and costly 2. Learning • Provides new knowledge/skills • Includes coaching and other forms of learning • Helps break old routines and adopt new roles • Problems -. Communication • Highest priority and first strategy for change • Generates urgency to change • Reduces uncertainty (fear of unknown) • Problems -.potentially time consuming and costly 15-5 .Minimizing Resistance to Change 1.
learning. potential conflict 4. Involvement • • • • Employees participate in change process Helps saving face and reducing fear of unknown Includes task forces. and involvement are not enough to minimize stress • Potential benefits -. Stress Management • When communication. expensive.Minimizing Resistance to Change 3. fewer direct costs • Problems -. doesn’t help everyone 15-6 . future search events Problems -.time-consuming.more motivation to change.time-consuming. less fear of unknown.
Negotiation • Influence by exchange -.reduces direct costs • May be necessary when people clearly lose something and won’t otherwise support change • Problems - Expensive Gains compliance.Minimizing Resistance to Change 5. • • • • Coercion When all else fails Assertive influence Radical form of “unlearning” Problems - Reduces trust May create more subtle resistance Encourage politics to protect job 15-7 . not commitment 6.
anyone who possesses enough knowledge and power to guide and facilitate the change effort Involves transformational leadership • Develop the change vision • Communicate the vision • Model the vision • Build commitment to the vision 15-8 .Change Agents Change agent -.
Social Networks and Viral Change Change agents need a guiding coalition • Representative across the firm • Influence leaders – respected Viral change • Information seeded to a few people is transmitted to others based on patterns of friendship • Relies on social networks -. referent power • Change also occurs through behavior observation 15-9 .high trust.
Diffusion of Change Begin change as pilot projects Effective diffusion considers MARS model • Motivation – Pilot project employees rewarded. motivate others to adopt pilot project • Ability – Train employees to adopt pilot project • Role perceptions – Translate pilot project to new situations • Situational factors – Provide resources to implement pilot project elsewhere 15-10 .
Action Research Approach Action orientation and research orientation • Action – to achieve the goal of change • Research – testing application of concepts Action research principles 1. Highly participative process 3. problem-oriented process 15-11 . Data-driven. Open systems perspective 2.
2. rather than traditional problem focus. not problems Constructionist principle – conversations shape reality Simultaneity principle – inquiry and change are simultaneous Poetic principle – we can choose how to perceive events and situations Anticipatory principle – people are motivated by desirable visions of the future 15-12 .Appreciative Inquiry Approach Frames change around positive and possible future. 3. 4. Positive principle – focus on opportunities. 5. 1.
Four-D Model of Appreciative Inquiry Discovery Dreaming Designing Delivering Discovering the best of “what is Forming ideas about “what might be” Engaging in dialogue about “what should be” Developing objectives about “what will be” 15-13 .
open space.Large Group Interventions Future search. and other interventions that involve “the whole system” • Large group sessions • May last a few days • High involvement with minimal structure Limitations of large group interventions • • • • Limited opportunity to contribute Risk that a few people will dominate Focus on common ground may hide differences Generates high expectations about ideal future 15-14 .
Parallel Learning Structure Approach Highly participative social structures Members representative across the formal hierarchy Sufficiently free from firm’s constraints Develop solutions for organizational change which are then applied back into the larger organization 15-15 .