AIMAntibiotics-good or bad for us?


Certificate of Authenticity
This is to certify that “Parvez Hassan Ansari” a student of class 12th has successfully completed the research product on the topic “antibiotics-good or bad for us?” under the guidance of Mrs. Neena Dhawan. This project is absolutely genuine and does not indulge in plagiarism of any kind. This reference taken in making this project has been declared at the end of this project.

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which have to obtain the observations and conclude the reports on a meaningful note. . I hope that it proves to be the best.Acknowledge ment I feel proud to present my investigatory project in Biology on the “antibiotics-good or bad for us?” This project would not have been feasible without the proper rigorous guidance of biology teacher Mrs.Neena Dhawan.Neena Dhawan for guiding me on a systematic basis and ensuring that in completed all my research with ease. I would like to thanks Mrs. I hope that this project will prove to be a breeding ground for the next generation of students and will guide them in every possible way. Rigorous hard work has put in this project to ensure that it proves to be the best. Who guided me throughout this project in every possible way? An investigatory project involves various difficult lab experiments. Thereby.

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[2] This original definition excluded naturally occurring substances that kill bacteria but are not produced by microorganisms (such as gastric juice and hydrogen peroxide) and also excluded synthetic antibacterial compounds such as the sulfonamides . The term "antibiotic" was coined by Selman Waksman in 1942 to describe any substance produced by a microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution.Introduction In common usage. "life") is a substance or compound that kills bacteria or inhibits their growth. or transformation. 4 . "against". it is called multiresistant or. Antibiotic resistance is a type of drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic. and βίος – bios . If a bacterium carries several resistance genes. used to treat infections caused by microorganisms. an antibiotic (from the Ancient Greek: ἀντί – anti . Antibiotics belong to the broader group of antimicrobial compounds. transduction . including fungi and protozoa.[1] Antibacterial is an alternative name. Thus a gene for antibiotic resistance which had evolved via natural selection may be shared. Evolutionary stress such as exposure to antibiotics then selects for the antibiotic resistant trait. a superbug or super bacteria. Many antibiotics are relatively small molecules with a molecular weight less than 2000 atomic mass units. informally. facilitating their transfer. The primary cause of antibiotic resistance is antibiotic use both within medicine and veterinary medicine. Many antibiotic resistance genes reside on plasmids. Genes can be transferred between bacteria in a horizontal fashion by conjugation. The greater the duration of exposure the greater the risk of the development of resistance irrespective of the severity of the need for antibiotics.

the quinolones. "if we could intervene in the antagonism 5 . and βίος – bios. History of antibiotics Many treatments for infections prior to the beginning of the twentieth century were based on medicinal folklore.First we have to study antibioticsAntibiotic n common usage. Many antibiotics are relatively small molecules with a molecular weight less than 2000 atomic mass units. Many ancient cultures. including fungi and protozoa. Antibiotics belong to the broader group of antimicrobial compounds. The discovery of the natural antibiotics produced by microorganisms stemmed from earlier work on the observation of antibiosis between micro-organisms. and the oxazolidinones. used to treat infections caused by microorganisms. antibiotics may be divided into two broad groups according to their effect on microorganisms: Those that kill bacteria are bactericidal agents. Antibacterial is an alternative name. "against". semi synthetic. Treatments for infection in many ancient cultures using concoctions with antimicrobial properties were described over 2000 years ago. most antibiotics are now semi synthetic— modified chemically from original compounds found in nature. as is the case with betalactase (which include the penicillin’s. Louis Pasteur observed that. and others have been created through purely synthetic means: the sulfonamides. such as the amino glycosides. whereas those that only impair bacterial growth are known as bacteriostatic agents. In addition to this origin-based classification into natural. and synthetic. the cephalosporin’s. an antibiotic (from the Ancient Greek: ἀντί – anti. "life") is a substance or compound that kills bacteria or inhibits their growth. The term "antibiotic" was coined by Selman Waksman in 1942 to describe any substance produced by a microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution. This original definition excluded naturally occurring substances that kill bacteria but are not produced by microorganisms (such as gastric juice and hydrogen peroxide) and also excluded synthetic antibacterial compounds such as the sulfonamides. and the carbapenems). With advances in medicinal chemistry. including the ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks used molds and plants to treat infections. Some antibiotics are still produced and isolated from living organisms. produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium.

animal. He then extended the idea that it might b e possible to make ce rtain dyes or chemicals that would act as a m agic bullet or selectiv e drug that would bi nd to and kill bacteria while not harming the human host. while others did no t. Prontosil. Salva rsan. Ehrlich noted that certain dye s would bin d to and c olor human. Prontosil had a relatively broad e ffect again st Gram-po sitive cocc i but not a gainst ent erobacteria. as antibiosis." was introduced b y the French bacteriologist Vuillemin as a des criptive na me of the phenomeno n exhibited by these drugs. the first commercially available antibacterial antibiotic. he disco vered a me dicinally useful drug. Scientific endeavour s to under stand the science behind caused these of diseases. These d rugs were later renamed antibiotics by Sel man Waks man. Synthetic antib iotic chemotherapy a s a science and the st ory of antib iotic development began in Germa ny with Pa ul Ehrlich.(Antib iosis was first described in 1877 in bacteria when Louis Pasteur a nd Robert Koch obse rved that an airborne b acillus could inhibit the growth of Bacillus anthracis. Fleming postulated th at the effect was mediated by a yet-unidentified antibiotic-like compound that could be explo ited. Originally known The term an tibiosis. an American microbiologist in 1942. wh ich means "against life. In th e meantim e. a German medical scientist in th e late what 1880s. screening hundreds of dyes against vario us organism s.The significance to antibiotic discovery was not realize d until the work of Eh rlich on synth etic antibi otic chemotherapy. Aft er much experimenta tion. the development of synthetic antibiotic chemotherapy. were first described i n England by John Tyndall in 1875. another synthetic antibacteri al antibioti c Prontosil was developed and man ufactured for comme rcial use by Domagk i n 1932. was developed by a research team le d by Gerhard Domagk (who received the 193 9 Nobel Pri ze for Med icine for his efforts) a t the Bayer Laboratories of the IG Farben conglomerate in Germany . . discover y by Rene Dubos of the first n aturally der ived antibi otic-like s ubstance n amed gramici din from B. The disco very and development o f this first sulfonamide drug op ened the era of antibiotics. Bacterial antagonism of Penicillium spp. he did not purs ue its development.). Although he initially characterized some of its antib iotic prope rties. wh ich marked the birth of the antibiotic revolu tion.observe d between some bacteria. brevis. In 1928 Flem ing made an impo rtant observa tion concerning the antibiosis by penicillin. It was one of the first c ommercially manufactured antibiotics in use d uring Wo rld War II to prove highly effective in tr eating wounds and ulcers. the isolation the natural a ntibiotics marked milestones in antibiotic development. it would off er ‘perhap s the grea test hopes for therapeu tics’". or bacterial cells. antibiotics were dr ugs which acted against bacteria. In 1 939. t he man-made antibi otic.

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The purified antibiotic displayed antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria. which revived Florey's research in penicillin. unlike the synthetic antibiotic class available at the time. Intrinsic resistance may naturally occur as a result of the bacteria's genetic makeup. The emergence of antibiotic resistance is an evolutionary process that is based on selection for organisms that have enhanced ability to survive doses of antibiotics that would have previously been lethal. Antibiotic-producing bacteria have evolved resistance mechanisms 7 . its activity was not inhibited by biological constituents such as pus. Acquired resistance results from a mutation in the bacterial chromosome or the acquisition of extrachromosomal DNA. Antibiotic selection of pre-existing antibiotic resistant mutants within bacterial populations was demonstrated in 1943 by the experiment. Antibiotic resistance SEM depicting methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It also had low toxicity and could be taken without causing adverse effects. Survival of bacteria often results from an inheritable resistance. however. Spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may be hampered by reduced fitness associated with the resistance. systematically searching for antibacterial compounds. Additional mutations.Florey and Chain succeeded in purifying penicillin. Howard Florey and Alexander Fleming shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Antibiotics themselves act as a selective pressure that allows the growth of resistant bacteria within a population and inhibits susceptible bacteria. Any antibiotic resistance may impose a biological cost. which used to be one-time miracle cures are now less effective because bacteria have become more resistant. may compensate for this fitness cost and aids the survival of these bacteria. the sulfonamides. Furthermore. Antibiotics like Penicillin and Erythromycin. Such a methodology had led to the discovery of gramicidin. The discovery of such a powerful antibiotic was unprecedented. which is disadvantageous for survival of the bacteria when antibiotic is not present. The development of penicillin led to renewed interest in the search for antibiotic compounds with similar capabilities.Because of their discovery of penicillin Ernst Chain. Florey credited Dubos with pioneering the approach of deliberately. The underlying molecular mechanisms leading to antibiotic resistance can vary. The bacterial chromosome may fail to encode a protein that the antibiotic targets.

8 . and may have been transferred to. sometimes referred to as "superbugs". These plasmids can carry different genes with diverse resistance mechanisms to unrelated antibiotics but because they are located on the same plasmid multiple antibiotic resistances to more than one antibiotic is transferred. On the other hand. or transformation. a superbug or super bacteria." Antibiotic resistance is a type of drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic. Evolutionary stress such as exposure to antibiotics then selects for the antibiotic resistant trait. The primary cause of antibiotic resistance is antibiotic use both within medicine and veterinary medicine. antibioticresistant strains. Every year.that have been shown to be similar to. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes. Antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. it is called multiresistant or. The greater the duration of exposure the greater the risk of the development of resistance irrespective of the severity of the need for antibiotics. informally. For example. cross-resistance to other antibiotics within the bacteria results when the same resistance mechanism is responsible for resistance to more than one antibiotic is selected for. facilitating their transfer. transduction. nearly half a million new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are estimated to occur worldwide. Genes can be transferred between bacteria in a horizontal fashion by conjugation. United Kingdom Health Protection Agency has stated that "most isolates with NDM-1 enzyme are resistant to all standard intravenous antibiotics for treatment of severe infections. cases of tuberculosis (TB) that are resistant to traditionally effective treatments remain a cause of great concern to health professionals. The spread of antibiotic resistance mechanisms occurs through vertical transmission of inherited mutations from previous generations and genetic recombination of DNA by horizontal genetic exchange. NDM-1 is a newly-identified enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. Thus a gene for antibiotic resistance which had evolved via natural selection may be shared. Antibiotic resistance is exchanged between different bacteria by plasmids that carry genes that encode antibiotic resistance that may result in co-resistance to multiple antibiotics. may contribute to the re-emergence of diseases which are currently well-controlled. Many antibiotic resistance genes reside on plasmids.

A single dose of antibiotics leads to a greater risk of resistant organisms to that antibiotic in the person for up to a year. The risk for colonisation increases if there is a lack of sensitivity (resistance) of the superbugs to the antibiotic used and high tissue penetration as well as broad spectrum activity against "good bacteria". 9 . In medicine The volume of antibiotic prescribed is the major factor in increasing rates of bacterial resistance rather than compliance with antibiotics.Causes The widespread use of antibiotics both inside and outside of medicine is playing a significant role in the emergence of resistant bacteria. Compliance with once daily antibiotics is better than with twice daily antibiotics. increased rates of MRSA infections are seen with glycopeptides. In the case of colonisation with C difficile the high risk antibiotics include cephalosporins and in particular quinolones and clindamycin. Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics has been attributed to a number of causes including: people who insist on antibiotics. Sub optimum antibiotic concentrations in critically ill people increase the frequency of antibiotic resistance organisms While taking antibiotics doses less than those recommended may increase rates of resistance. is also discouraged (as not being effective at infection control). cephalosporins and especially quinolones. Other practices contributing towards resistance include the addition of antibiotics to the feed of livestock. shortening the course of antibiotics may actually decrease rates of resistance. In some countries antibiotics are sold over the counter without a prescription which also leads to the creation of resistant strains. A third of people for example believe that antibiotics are effective for the common cold and 22% of people do not finish a course of antibiotics primarily due to that fact that they feel better (varying from 10% to 44% depending on the country). In the case of MRSA. In supposedly wellregulated human medicine the major problem of the emergence of resistant bacteria is due to misuse and overuse of antibiotics by doctors as well as patients. Household use of antibacterials in soaps and other products. Antibiotics are often used in rearing animals for food and this use among others leads to the creation of resistant strains of bacteria. physicians who do not know when to prescribe antibiotics or else are overly cautious for medical legal reasons. physicians simply prescribe them as they feel they do not have time to explain why they are not necessary. Certain antibiotic classes are highly associated with colonisation with superbugs compared to other antibiotic classes. although not clearly contributing to resistance. Also unsound practices in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry can contribute towards the likelihood of creating antibiotic resistant strains.

milk. consumer concern about using antibiotics in animal feed has led to a niche market of "antibiotic-free" animal products.S. In 1998.S. pigs and cattle) in the absence of disease. such as cows. farm animals. chickens. are believed to be able to infect people with MRSA. For example. The final decision to ban fluoroquinolones from use in poultry production was not made until five years later because of challenges from the food animal and pharmaceutical industries. Growing U. In 2001. and these drugs can affect the safety of the meat. Role of other animals Drugs are used in animals that are used as human food.Poor hand hygiene by hospital staff has been associated with the spread of resistant organismsand an increase in hand washing compliance results in decreased rates of these organisms. Today. Regulation banning the use of antibiotics in European feed. In Scandinavia. with the exception of two antibiotics in poultry feeds. animal feed—along with other ingredients which have safety concerns. there is evidence that the ban has led to a lower prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in (non-hazardous) animal bacterial populations. In the USA federal agencies do not collect data on antibiotic use in animals but animal to human spread of drug resistant organisms has been demonstrated in research studies. chickens. the Union of Concerned Scientists estimated that greater than 70% of the antibiotics used in the US are given to food animals (e. European Union health ministers voted to ban four antibiotics widely used to promote animal growth (despite their scientific panel's recommendations). fish. In 2000 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced their intention to revoke approval of fluoroquinolone use in poultry production because of substantial evidence linking it to the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistant campylobacter infections in humans. particularly pigs. etc. or through the environment. The resistant bacteria in animals due to antibiotic exposure can be transmitted to humans via three pathways. became effective in 2006..g. Antibiotics are still used in U. The World Health Organization concluded that antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds should be prohibited (in the absence of risk assessments). those being through the consumption of meat. 962) aimed at phasing out "non-therapeutic" antibiotics in US food animal producti 10 . there are two federal bills (S. and eggs produced from those animals and can be the source of superbugs. 549 and H. but this small market is unlikely to change entrenched industry-wide practices. from close or direct contact with animals. pigs.R.

The fou r main mechanisms by which mic roorganism s exhibit resistance to antimicro bials are: 11 . The last section shows the distribu tion of resista nce in a new generation of bacteria. and also of unlinked point m utations in the pathoge n genome and a rate o f about 1 i n 108 per ch romosomal replication. which will result in a fully resistant colony. The an tibiotic action against the pathoge n can be se en as an en vironment al pressure. The legend ind icates the resistance levels of i ndividuals. They w ill then pas s this trait to their offspring. The middle se ction shows the population directly a fter exposure . Antibiotic resistanc e can be a result of ho rizontal gene transfer.Mechanis ms Schematic representation of how antibiotic r esistance evolves via natural selection. the phase i n which selec tion took place. those bacteria which have a mutation allow ing them to survive w ill live on to reprodu ce. The top section represents a popul ation of bacte ria before ex posure to an antibiotic.

Finally. Research has shown that the bacterial protein LexA may play a key role in the acquisition of bacterial mutations giving resistance to quinolones and rifampicin. Resistant pathogens 1. MRSA (methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was first detected in Britain in 1961 and is now "quite common" in hospitals. it is extremely adaptable to antibiotic pressure. Reduced drug accumulation: by decreasing drug permeability and/or increasing active efflux (pumping out) of the drugs across the cell surface. enzymatic deactivation of Penicillin G in some penicillin‐resistant bacteria through the production of β‐lactamases. Half of all S. up from 4% in 1991. There are three known mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance.g.1. but has since been replaced by oxacillin due to significant kidney toxicity. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus (colloquially known as "Staph aureus" or a Staph infection ) is one of the major resistant pathogens. plasmid-mediated resistance genes produce proteins that can bind to DNA gyrase. 4. MRSA was responsible for 37% of fatal cases of sepsis in the UK in 1999. It was one of the earlier bacteria in which penicillin resistance was found—in 1947. an important precursor for the synthesis of folic acid and nucleic acids in bacteria inhibited by sulfonamides. decreasing the drug's effectiveness. Alteration of metabolic pathway: e. Drug inactivation or modification: e. alteration of PBP—the binding target site of penicillins—in MRSA and other penicillin‐resistant bacteria. some sulfonamide‐ resistant bacteria do not require para‐aminobenzoic acid (PABA). aureus infections in . Alteration of target site: e. In gram-negative bacteria. 2. Instead. protecting it from the action of quinolones.g.g. Some types of efflux pumps can act to decrease intracellular quinolone concentration. Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced artificially into a microorganism through laboratory protocols. 3. they turn to utilizing preformed folic acid. just four years after the drug started being mass-produced. mutations at key sites in DNA gyrase or Topoisomerase IV can decrease their binding affinity to quinolones. Methicillin was then the antibiotic of choice. sometimes used as a selectable marker to examine the mechanisms of gene transfer or to identify individuals that absorbed a piece of DNA that included the resistance gene and another gene of interest. Found on the mucous membranes and the human skin of around a third of the population. like mammalian cells.

tetracycline and erythromycin. 12 .the US are resistant to penicillin. methicillin.

peritonitis and arthritis. supportive care in an intensive care unit may be needed. The epidemiology of infections caused by MRSA is rapidly changing. is comparable to vancomycin in effectiveness against MRSA. meningitis. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin and other beta-lactams is increasing worldwide. and use of beta-lactam antibiotics has been implicated as a risk factor for infection and colonization. often contain Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes and. 2. termed GISA (glycopeptide intermediate Staphylococcus aureus) or VISA (vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus). among athletic teams. Outbreaks of community-associated (CA)-MRSA infections have been reported in correctional facilities. ST1 lineage) and USA300. surgery often is needed to remove damaged tissue. 13 . pyogenes resistant to macrolide antibiotics have emerged. Selective pressure is thought to play an important role. linezolid. termed VRSA (Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) appeared in the United States in 2002. Linezolid-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was reported in 2003. Streptococcus and Enterococcus Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus: GAS) infections can usually be treated with many different antibiotics. and among men who have sex with men. infections caused by this organism have emerged in the community. however all strains remain uniformly sensitive to penicillin. began appearing in the late 1990s. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most frequently identified antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogen in US hospitals. in newborn nurseries. even the best medical care does not prevent death in every case. oxazolidinones. France and the US. The 2 MRSA clones in the United States most closely associated with community outbreaks. CA-MRSA infections now appear to be endemic in many urban regions and cause most CA-S. and strains have since been found in hospitals in England. The first identified case was in Japan in 1996. and the first commercially available oxazolidinone. However. have been associated with skin and soft tissue infections. However. became available in the 1990s. fatal diseases including necrotizing pneumonia. among military recruits.This left vancomycin as the only effective agent available at the time. Early treatment may reduce the risk of death from invasive group A streptococcal disease. The major mechanism of resistance involves the introduction of mutations in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins. The first documented strain with complete (>16 ug/ml) resistance to vancomycin. For those with very severe illness. otitis media. In the past 10 years. Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for pneumonia. CA-MRSA (Community-acquired MRSA) has now emerged as an epidemic that is responsible for rapidly progressive. more frequently. Strains of S. aureus infections. For persons with necrotizing fasciitis. A new class of antibiotics. sinusitis. USA400 (MW2 strain. bacteremia. strains with intermediate (4-8 ug/ml) levels of resistance. severe sepsis and necrotizing fasciitis.

aeruginosa strains producing chronic infections. Besides intrinsic resistance.g. and Linezolid-Resistant Enterococcus (LRE) in the late 1990s. Geographically dispersed outbreaks of C. were also reported in North America in 2005. or by the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants. and Streptococci. difficile strains resistant to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in 1987. 4. aeruginosa consists in its low antibiotic susceptibility.) and the low permeability of the bacterial cellular envelopes. aeruginosa populations to antibiotics treatment. Development of multidrug resistance by P. Campylobacter. aeruginosa easily develop acquired resistance either by mutation in chromosomallyencoded genes. was first detected in 1967. Hypermutation favours the selection of mutation-driven antibiotic resistance in P. 3.Penicillin-resistant pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (commonly known as pneumococcus). P. Penicillin-Resistant Enterococcus was seen in 1983. Clindamycin-resistant C. This low susceptibility is attributable to a concerted action of multidrug efflux pumps with chromosomally-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (e. aureus. Florida and Massachusetts between 1989 and 1992. as was penicillin-resistant gonorrhea. By 1993 Escherichia coli was resistant to five fluoroquinolone variants. One of the most worrisome characteristics of P. Enterococcus faecium is another superbug found in hospitals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is commonly resistant to isoniazid and rifampin and sometimes universally resistant to the common treatments. difficile was reported as the causative agent of large outbreaks of diarrheal disease in hospitals in New York. Other pathogens showing some resistance include Salmonella. mexAB-oprM. 14 . mexXY etc. whereas the clustering of several different antibiotic resistance genes in integrons favours the concerted acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants. Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen that causes diarrheal disease in hospitals world wide. Some recent studies have shown that phenotypic resistance associated to biofilm formation or to the emergence of small-colony-variants may be important in the response of P. Resistance to penicillin substitutes is also known as beyond S. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly prevalent opportunistic pathogen. aeruginosa isolates requires several different genetic events that include acquisition of different mutations and/or horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. Arizona. such as Cipro (ciprofloxacin) and Levaquin (levofloxacin).

6. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported an increasing number of Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections in patients at military medical facilities in which service members injured in the Iraq/Kuwait region during Operation Iraqi Freedom and in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom were treated. 2004. while an antibiotic operates separately from the body's normal defenses. When both bacterium are spread. because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species. coli. with a few isolates resistant to all drugs tested. anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown limited efficacy. Salmonella was first found in humans in the 1970s and in some cases is resistant to as many as nine different antibiotics (“HSUS Fact Sheet”). Nevertheless. serious health conditions arise. and a major cause of death. Acinetobacter baumannii On November 5. There is clinical evidence that topical dermatological preparations containing tea tree oil and thyme oil may be effective in preventing transmittal of CA-MRSA. In one study the use of fluoroquinolones are clearly associated with Clostridium difficile infection. which is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States.5. new strains may evolve that escape immunity induced by vaccines. and some die as a result. eighty percent of the bacteria are resistant to one or more drugs made. and the limited 15 . Vaccines do not suffer the problem of resistance because a vaccine enhances the body's natural defenses. Many people are hospitalized each year after becoming infected. worldwide. Most of these showed multidrug resistance (MRAB). coli Escherichia coli and Salmonella come directly from contaminated food. it causes bladder infections that are resistant to antibiotics (“HSUS Fact Sheet”). for example an update Influenza vaccine is needed each year. Alternatives Prevention Rational use of antibiotics may reduce the chances of development of opportunistic infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to dysbacteriosis. While theoretically promising. Of the meat that is contaminated with E. Salmonella and E.

Furthermore. Phage therapy Phage therapy. in the case of lytic phages. Pseudomonas spp and Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriophages or "phages" are viruses that invade bacterial cells and. The success rate found in these studies was 80–95% with few gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way. has been working on two alternatives. 16 . disrupt bacterial metabolism and cause the bacterium to lyse. The Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization ( CSIRO). Phage therapy may prove as an important alternative to antibiotics for treating multidrug resistant pathogens. British studies also demonstrated significant efficacy of phages against Escherichia coli. especially in the Soviet Union. orally or systemically in Polish and Soviet studies.duration of effectiveness of the antibodies produced. studies on using cytokines have shown that they also enhance the growth of animals like the antibiotics now used. Acinetobacter spp. A review of studies that dealt with the therapeutic use of phages from 1966–1996 and few latest ongoing phage therapy projects via internet showed: phages were used topically. Additionally. US studies dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Cytokines have the potential to achieve the animal growth rates traditionally sought by the use of antibiotics without the contribution of antibiotic resistance associated with the widespread non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics currently utilized in the food animal production industries. is an alternative that might help with the problem of resistance. but without the drawbacks of nontherapeutic antibiotic use. Bacteriophage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of multidrug resistant pathogens. an approach that has been extensively researched and utilized as a therapeutic agent for over 60 years. in the early 1940s.. Phage therapy is the therapeutic use of lytic bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. realizing the need for the reduction of antibiotic use. These proteins are made in the animal body "naturally" after a disease and are not antibiotics so they do not contribute to the antibiotic resistance problem. Phage therapy was widely used in the United States until the discovery of antibiotics. CSIRO is working on vaccines for diseases. One alternative is to prevent diseases by adding cytokines instead of antibiotics to animal feed.

Research New medications Until recently. of which at least 12. suggesting that cross-resistance with agents already in use may be minimal. The 17 . RNA polymerase.000 have been isolated. Wilson Hot Springs. Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds including those having antibacterial activity. The myxopyronin binds to and inhibits the crucial bacterial enzyme. and herbivores. In research published on October 17. The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to current antibiotics. a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total . 2008 in Cell. Archaeocins is the name given to a new class of potentially useful antibiotics that are derived from the Archaea group of organisms. The prevalence of archaeocins is unknown simply because no one has looked for them. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions. This has been shown for Staphylococcus aureus. preliminary analysis of 75 isolates showed that 48 were archaeal and 27 were bacterial. For example the combination of 5'-methoxyhydnocarpine and berberine in herbs like Hydrastis canadensis and Berberis vulgaris can block the MDR-pumps that cause multidrug resistance. Most are secondary metabolites. For example. One of the possible strategies towards this objective is the rational localization of bioactive phytochemicals. research and development (R&D) efforts have provided new drugs in time to treat bacteria that became resistant to older antibiotics. Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances. samples from a novel hypersaline field site. and why that attack is successful. That is no longer the case. these substances serve as plant defense mechanisms against predation by microorganisms.A number of these agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are distinct from those of the antibiotics in current use. a team of scientists pinpointed the place on bacteria where the antibiotic myxopyronin launches its attack.In many cases. insects. but hundreds of archaeocins are believed to exist. The pipeline of new antibiotics is drying up. The discovery of new archaeocins hinges on recovery and cultivation of archaeal organisms from the environment.[citation needed] The potential crisis at hand is the result of a marked decrease in industry R&D. Major pharmaceutical companies are losing interest in the antibiotics market because these drugs may not be as profitable as drugs that treat chronic (long-term) conditions and lifestyle issues. and the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria. Eight archaeocins have been partially or fully characterized. recovered 350 halophilic organisms. most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins. Infectious disease physicians are alarmed by the prospect that effective antibiotics may not be available to treat seriously ill patients in the near future. especially within the haloarchaea. Many of these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity and a large number of plant products have been shown to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria.

inhibiting its function of reading and transmitting DNA code. One of the major causes of antibiotic resistance is the decrease of effective drug concentrations at their target place. the use of auxotrophic bacterial strains (and function-replacement plasmids) is preferred. The most commonly used antibiotics in genetic engineering are generally "older" antibiotics which have largely fallen out of use in clinical practice. Since ABC transporter blockers can be used in combination with current drugs to increase their effective intracellular concentration. Urinary infections and infections in other parts of the body. Applications Antibiotic resistance is an important tool for genetic engineering. only the copies which carry along the plasmid survive. ABC transporter blockers that may be useful to increase the efficacy of current drugs have entered clinical trials and are available to be used in therapeutic regimes. a researcher can ensure that when bacteria replicate. This ensures that the gene being manipulated passes along when the bacteria replicates.myxopyronin changes the structure of the switch-2 segment of the enzyme. due to the increased action of ABC transporters. These cause pneumonia. This prevents RNA polymerase from delivering genetic information to the ribosomes. ユ What are superbugs? These are normal bacteria which have crossed the limits of treatment by antibiotics. By constructing a plasmid which contains an antibiotic resistance gene as well as the gene being engineered or expressed. the possible impact of ABC transporter inhibitors is of great clinical interest. . causing the bacteria to die. Instead. These include: ユ ἀ ἀ ἀ ampicillin kanamycin tetracycline chloramphenicol Industrially the use of antibiotic resistance is disfavored since maintaining bacterial cultures would require feeding them large quantities of antibiotics.

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and Intra abdominal infections. The researchers found a new Bacteria called New Delhi metallobeta-lactamase (NDM-1) Bacteria. in patients of Asia and Britain. According to an international team of scientists People who traveled to India and Pakistan to get medical treatment risk picking up and spreading a new Superbug Bacteria. resulting in treatment failures with substantial increases in health-care costs Symptoms of Super bug NDM-1 Bacteria. Prevention and Experts Suggestions The Superbug NDM1which stands for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase is started to spread in the world. 0• Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common gram‐negative bacteria seen worldwide. 0• Klebsiella pneumoniae symptoms include sudden Onset. 0• NDM‐1 makes bacteria highly resistant to almost all antibiotics. 0• It is also causing Urinary Tract Infections. . Klebsiella Pneumoniae and E. Coli Symptoms 0• Klebsiella bacteria contains the superbug NDM‐1. a class of the drugs generally reserved for emergency use and to treat caused by other multi‐resistant bacteria such as MRSA and C‐Difficile.Superbug NDM1 Bacteria | Symptoms. Experiments. including the most powerful class called carbapenems. 0• Most worryingly. How NDM-1 effects Human Body 0• Multi drug‐resistant bacteria are already a growing problem in hospitals across the world. sooner or later the medical community could be confronted with carbapenem-resistant (bacteria) that cause common infections. 0• The scientists said. Effects. marked by the rise of “superbug” infections like methicillin‐resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA). NDM‐1‐producing bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics including carbapenems. Nosocomial Pneumonia. Johann Pitout from the University of Calgary in Canada expressed: If this emerging public health threat is ignored. of High Fever and Hemoptysis .

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37 in Britain.They found 44 NDM‐1‐ positive bacteria in Chennai. 0• E. and Pakistan. India. since it is working on Resistance of Human body. Experts commenting on Walsh’s findings said it was important to be alert to the new bug and start screening for it early. Chennai and Haryana. India. Experiments with Superbug NDM-1 Bacteria Walsh and his international team collected bacteria samples from hospital patients in two places in India. Coli bacteria may be the cause of Urinary Tract Infections. the researchers found that NDM‐1 is becoming more common in Bangladesh.0• NDM‐1 which is found in the E. Coli is Antibiotic‐resistant. . 0• E. Hospitals and doctors are under advise to stay on top of the cleanliness issue. It seems to be more dangerous than Swine flu. Countries where Superbug NDM1 Bacteria is spreading In a study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal. Coli is also responsible for cases of Fatal Pneumonia and other infections. and from patients referred to Britain’s national reference laboratory between 2007 and 2009. 0• E. and 73 in other sites in Bangladesh. and Pakistan and is starting to be imported back to Britain in patients returning from these countries. 26 in Haryana. Coli is the leading cause of urinary tract infections outside of hospitals. Doctors advise to provide adequate cleaning and sanitizing of all areas is the best means of preventing further spread of the superbug bacteria. Preventing the Spread of Superbug NDM-1 Bacteria To prevent spread of Superbug NDM‐1 Bacteria.

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“It’s a false alarm. claim UK scientists Sanchita Sharma. Hindustan Times New Delhi. A study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. India. and Pakistan and is being imported back to Britain through patients returning after treatment.35. claim British scientists.Articles on superbug in news papers Delhi superbug threatening world. as compared to $30.550) in a corporate hospital in India.000)to $50. British scientists report NDM-1 is becoming more common in Bangladesh.000 (R 23.03. A heart bypass surgery costs $6.200-crore medical tourism industry that they have chosen to provocatively name the newly-identified gene that causes the drug resistance as the New Delhi metallo-betalactamase (NDM-1). refutes its linkage 0• Some interpretations made without my knowledge: Superbug author According to CII estimates. August 12. I track infection and have not seen a single case in my hospital. Hospital-acquired infections are far more common in Britain and the West than 21 . 2010 First Published: 00:54 IST(12/8/2010) Last Updated: 01:38 IST(12/8/2010) A new hospital-acquired superbug that cannot be treated using existing drugs is spreading from India to the rest of the world.500 (R 3.000) in the US. 1.1 million foreigners travel to India each year for cheaper treatments and surgeries.000 (R 14.01. Indian surgeons rubbish the claim saying it’s just another attempt to stop thousands of pounds from leaving the floundering British economy to related stories 0• Linking India to superbug unfair and wrong. says India 0• Govt condemns naming of superbug. Healthcare experts in India say the British are just worried because they are losing patients to hospitals here. So convinced are British scientists about the superbug infection being fuelled by India’s Rs 1.

” For the study.” said Dr Yatin Mehta. Several — not all — British NDM-1 positive patients had recently traveled to India or Pakistan for hospital treatment. Medanta – The Medicity. 37 in Britain. have national and international accreditations. the Indian Council of Medical Research has alleged a bias in the . a class of the drugs reserved to treat infections caused by other multi-resistant bugs like MRSA and C-Difficile." scientists reported in The Lancet Infectious Diseases Journal on Wednesday. including carbapenem. What’s particularly India. who send auditors to track quality — including infections — four times a year. and 73 in other sites in Bangladesh. 26 in Haryana. enters the blood stream and may cause multiple organ failure leading to death. and Pakistan. including cosmetic surgery. Dr Ashok Seth. “Most hospitals in India. While the study has the medical world turning its focus on infection control policies in Indian hospitals. institute of critical care and anaesthesia. They’re definitely safer than Britain’s National Health Service. writes Walsh. author Timothy Walsh from Cardiff University and his team collected bacteria samples from patients admitted in hospitals in Tamil Nadu and Haryana. They found 44 NDM-1-positive bacteria in Chennai.. " India also provides cosmetic surgery for Europeans and Americans. Drugresistant 'superbug' traced to India ‐The Times of India CHENNAI: Scientists have tracked down a drug‐resistant superbug that infects patients and causes multiple organ failure to Indian hospitals but doctors here see in it the germ of a move to damage the country's booming medical tourism industry. and it is likely the bacteria will spread worldwide.” he added. including Escorts. chairman and chief interventionist. and from patients referred to Britain’s national reference laboratory between 2007 and 2009. it is a gene carried by bacteria that causes gastric problems. “We offer better surgical outcomes at one-fifth the cost. The audits show that corporate hospitals here are safer than the West. chairman. is that the bacteria is resistant to all antibiotics. India. Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre said. The 'superbug' resistant to almost all known antibiotics has been found in UK patients treated in Indian hospitals.. Named after the Indian capital.

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infection and biochemistry. as the superbug NDM‐1 ( New Delhi metallo‐ beta‐lactamase) is named after the national capital. "Two in every five patients admitted to hospitals acquire infections. Since then there have been several cases reported in the UK and in 2009. "We found the superbug in 44 patients in Chennai. "Such infections can flow in from any part of the world. as the country does not have a registry of such hospital‐acquired infections. it can be turn more dangerous." he said." said ICMR director Dr VM Katoch. "We have found that the superbug has the potential to get copied and transferred between bacteria. What makes the superbug more dangerous is its ability to jump across different bacterial species. Katoch has reasons to fume. ESBL enzymes are most commonly produced by two bacteria ‐ E coli and K pneumoniae. So far. Cardiff University researchers sought to examine whether NDM‐ 1 producing bacteria was prevalent in South Asia and Britain. "We saw them in most of the hospitals in Chennai and Haryana. For a long time. By the ICMR director's own admission. head of the department of internal medicine. the health protection agency in the UK issued an alert on the 'gram negative' bacterial infection that is resistant to even the most powerful and reserved class antibiotics called carbapenems. In a joint study led by Chennai‐based Karthikeyan Kumarasamy. India cannot scientifically fight back allegations of being the source of such superbugs." Kumarasamy said. besides 37 in the UK and 73 in other places across India. Christian Medical College. India has been seeing Extended Spectrum Beta‐ Lactamase (ESBL)." said Dr Dilip Mathai. It's unfair to say it originated from India.5%. allowing it to spread rapidly. pursuing his PhD at University of Madras and UK‐based Timothy Walsh from department of immunity. which are enzymes that have developed a resistance to antibiotics like penicillin. This extends the patient's stay in the hospital. department of medicine. We estimate that the prevalence of this infection would be as high as 1. increases the expenses and causes side‐effects. Senior doctors working in infection control said India lacks policies on antibiotics. it has been found in two commonly seen bacteria. the two bacteria in which the new . infection control and registries for hospital‐acquired and said it is an attempt to hurt medical tourism in the country that is taking away huge custom from hospitals in the West." Kumarasamy told TOI. Pakistan and Bangaladesh. and 26 in Haryana. where a Swedish patient was reportedly infected after undergoing a surgery in 2008. Vellore. E coli and K pneumoniae. If it spreads to an already hard‐ to‐treat bacterial infection.

"These were treated by a reserved class of antibiotics called carbapenems." he said.superbug has been found. We have seen at least 3% of people infected with this do not react to these reserved drugs. Public health experts say globalisation has allowed bacteria to spread rapidly across the world 23 .

agrees. An different thing is also observe that Gene responsible for drugresistant superbug found 24 . should be geared for the challenge." he said. Katoch.and India. We are now in the process of forming a cell that will activate a registry and issue guidelines for an integrated surveillance system. as a medical hub. There are neither rules for hospitals nor a registry to record hospital‐acquired infections. department of medical research. "At present. who is also the secretary. we don't have any system in place.

ConclusionOn the basis of above information we can say that antibiotics has to be take in low amount otherwise it effect is worst than its advantage. 09Deaths of people increases with time due to antibiotic resitance. Result09Antibiotics are good but within limited value. Therefore antibiotics are good but within limited value. 09Its disadvantage dominates to is advantage. 25 .

Bibliography newpapers-The Times of India -Hindustan times -navbharat times 26 .

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