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Chapter 1 An introduction to linear control theory
With this book we will introduce you to the basics ideas of control theory, and the setting will be that of single-input, single-output (SISO), ﬁnite-dimensional, time-invariant, linear systems. In this section we will begin to explore the meaning of this lingo, and look at some simple physical systems which ﬁt into this category. Traditional introductory texts in control may contain some of this material in more detail [see, for example Dorf and Bishop 2001, Franklin, Powell, and Emani-Naeini 1994]. However, our presentation here is intended to be more motivational than technical. For proper background in physics, one should look to suitable references. A very good summary reference for the various methods of deriving equations for physical systems is [Cannon, Jr. 1967].

Contents
1.1 1.2 1.3 Some control theoretic terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An introductory example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Mechanical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electro-mechanical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 7 7 10 11 12 13 14

Linearisation at equilibrium points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What you are expected to know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 Some control theoretic terminology
For this book, there should be from the outset a picture you have in mind of what you are trying to accomplish. The picture is essentially given in Figure 1.1. The idea is that you are given a plant, which is the basic system, which has an output y(t) that you’d like to do something with. For example, you may wish to track a reference trajectory r(t). One way to do this would be to use an open-loop control design. In this case, one would omit that part of the diagram in Figure 1.1 which is dashed, and use a controller to read the reference signal r(t) and use this to specify an input u(t) to the plant which should give the desired output. This open-loop control design may well work, but it has some inherent problems. If there is a disturbance d(t) which you do not know about, then this may well cause the output of the plant to deviate signiﬁcantly from the reference

2

1 An introduction to linear control theory
d(t) e(t) − s(t) u(t)

22/10/2004

r(t)

controller

plant

y(t)

sensor

Figure 1.1 A basic control system schematic

trajectory r(t). Another problem arises with plant uncertainties. One models the plant, typically via diﬀerential equations, but these are always an idealisation of the plant’s actual behaviour. The reason for the problems is that the open-loop control law has no idea what the output is doing, and it marches on as if everything is working according to an idealised model, a model which just might not be realistic. A good way to overcome these diﬃculties is to use feedback . Here the output is read by sensors, which may themselves be modelled by diﬀerential equations, which produce a signal s(t) which is subtracted from the reference trajectory to produce the error e(t). The controller then make its decisions based on the error signal, rather than just blindly considering the reference signal.

1.2 An introductory example
Let’s see how this all plays out in a simple example. Suppose we have a DC servo motor whose output is its angular velocity ω(t), the input is a voltage E(t), and there is a disturbance torque T (t) resulting from, for example, an unknown external load being applied to the output shaft of the motor. This external torque is something we cannot alter. A little later in this section we will see some justiﬁcation for the governing diﬀerential equations to be given by dω(t) 1 + τ ω(t) = kE E(t) + kT T (t). dt The schematic for the situation is shown in Figure 1.2. This schematic representation we
T (t)

kT u(t)

E(t)

kE

d 1 + dt τ

=u

ω(t)

Figure 1.2 DC motor open-loop control schematic

kE However. We then have the diﬀerential equation u(t) hΣ (t) dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 . what if there is a disturbance torque? Let us suppose this to be constant for the moment so T (t) = −T0 for some T0 > 0.D (t) as is reasonable. Let us provide a constant input torque E(t) = E0 and suppose that e3 (t) y(t) the disturbance torque T (t) = 0. i. dt and if we again suppose that ω(0) = 0 the initial value problem has solution ω(t) = (kE E0 − kT T0 )τ 1 − e−t/τ .1 PSfrag replacements Let us just try something na¨ and open-loop. The diﬀerential equation is then dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 − kT T0 . Well. hN. To get the desired output velocity ω0 after a suﬃciently long time. the worse we do—in . This constant desired output is then our reference motor at a speciﬁed e (t) trajectory. we say. we need only provide the input voltage E0 = τω0 . Re Im 1 We give a numerical plot for kE = 2.2 An introductory example 3 give here is one we shall use frequently.e.22/10/2004 1. 1N. that the motor starts with zero initial velocity. the solution to the initial value problem is φ (t) fj (t) ω(t) = kE E0 τ 1 − e−t/τ . there are decidedly problems lurking beneath the surface. E0 = 3.ω0 t ω0 ω(t) Figure 1. then we will undershoot our desired ﬁnal velocity E by ωerror = kT T0 τ . The objective is to be able to drive the ıve e(t) constant velocity ω0 . this all x1 2 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 10 ωζ. You1 (t) e2 decide to see what you might do by giving the motor some constant torques to see what happens. For example. In this event.3.3 Open-loop response of DC motor looks too easy.D (t) dt 1Σ (t) Supposing. If we follow our simple rule of letting the input voltage E0 be determined by the desired ﬁnal angular velocity by our rule E0 = kω0τ . and it is called a block diagram. and τ = 1 in Figure 1. the larger is the disturbance torque.. ω(0) = 0.

1 . you will see that the thing in the blocks are not diﬀerential equations in the time-domain.4 Re Im x1 1 An introduction to linear control theory x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 ωζ. after being appropriately scaled by a factor ks . dt We shall see how to systematically obtain equations such as this. The tachometer takes the angular velocity and returns a voltage. For example. The schematic now becomes that depicted in Figure 1. it might be some other value τ . the actual ˜ diﬀerential equation governing behaviour in the absence of disturbances will be dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 . The eﬀect is illustrated in Figure 1. ˜ dt which gives the solution to the initial value problem as τ ω(t) = kE E0 τ 1 − e−t/˜ . The error we multiply by some constant K. In this case.4 Open-loop response of DC motor with disturbance fact. to get the actual voltage input to the system. is then compared to the voltage needed to generate the desired velocity by feeding it back to our reference signal by subtracting it to get the error. let us measure the output velocity of the motor’s shaft with a tachometer. To take all this into account.ω0 t ω0 ω(t) 22/10/2004 10 Figure 1. This voltage. but in the Laplace transform domain. so do not worry if you think it in nontrivial to get these equations. called the gain for the controller. ˜ ˜ The ﬁnal value will then be in error by the factor τ . we may not know the time-constant τ as accurately as we’d like. It simply does not account for the inevitable imperfections we will have in our knowledge of the system and of the environment in which it works. This situation is shown in Figure 1.6. ˜ Okay. While we estimate it to be τ . Note that the input to the system is.4 with kT = 1 and T0 = 2. Another problem arises when we have imperfect knowledge of the motor’s physical characteristics.5 τ 5 1 for τ = 8 . in some When we come to use block diagrams for real. we can do pretty darn bad if the disturbance torque is large. I hope now that you can see the problem with our open-loop control strategy. The diﬀerential equations governing this system are dω 1 + ( τ + kE kS K)ω = kE Kωref + kT T.

we wish to achieve a ﬁnal velocity of ω0 = E0 τ kE as t → ∞.6 DC motor closed-loop control schematic sense.e. the same velocity as we had attained with our open-loop strategy. i. but the reference signal ωref . Let us suppose again a constant disturbance torque T (t) = −T0 and a constant reference voltage ωref = ω0 . is then ω(t) = 1 kE Kω0 − kT T0 1 − e−( τ +kE kS K)t . As previously. 1 + kE kS K τ Let us now investigate this closed-loop control law. again supposing ω(0) = 0.Re Im 22/10/2004 x1 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ ω(t) ωζ.5 Open-loop response of DC motor with “actual” motor time-constant T (t) plant kT u(t) controller ωref − E kE K d 1 + dt τ =u ω(t) sensor kS Figure 1.2 An introductory example 5 2 4 t 6 8 10 Figure 1. The solution to the diﬀerential equation.7 where we have chosen kS = 1 and K = 5.. We see the results of this in Figure 1. In this case. let us ﬁrst look at the case when T0 = 0 and where we suppose perfect knowledge of our physical constants and our model. no longer the voltage.ω0 ω0 1. we have improved the response time for the system . Notice that the motor no longer achieves the desired ﬁnal speed! However.

It is possible to remove the ﬁnal f (t) error by doing jsomething more sophisticated with the error than multiplying it by K. In this case the closed-loop ˜ 8 2 response is shown in Figure 1. Now let’s see what happens when we Im x1 add a constant disturbance by setting T0 = 2.Re Im 6 x1 1 An introduction to linear control theory x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 PSfrag replacements 6 φm ζ e(t) 4 e1yos (t) ζ e2 (t) 2 tos(t) ω0 e3 ζ y(t) 2 4 6 8 ωζ. Figure 1. We x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 10 ωζ.4). The result is displayed in Figure 1. although we have incurred a largish ﬁnal error in the ﬁnal velocity.7 Closed-loop response of DC motor 1N.D (t) 1Σ (t) Figure 1.5). Figure 1. as this is the major deﬁciency of our very basic controller “designed” above. Figure 1. although we still (unsurprisingly) cannot reach the desired ﬁnal velocity. Again. but Re we will get to that only as the course progresses.ω0 t ω0 Figure 1. the performance is somewhat better than that of the open-loop controller (cf. I hope this helps to convince you that feedback is a good thing! As mentioned above.D (t) ω(t) 22/10/2004 10 φ (t) signiﬁcantly from the open-loop controller (cf.8. This simple example. We 1 again consider having τ = 5 rather than the guessed value of 1 .9.3).ω0 u(t) t ω0 hΣ (t) hN. however. we shall see that it is possible to design a controller so that the steady-state error is zero.8 Closed-loop response of DC motor with disturbance see that the closed-loop controller reacts much better to the disturbance (cf. does demonstrate that one can achieve improvements in some areas (response time ω(t) . Finally we look at the situation when we have imperfect knowledge of the physical constants for the plant.

3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 7 2 4 t 6 8 10 Figure 1.9 Closed-loop response of DC motor with “actual” motor time-constant in this case).1 Mechanical gadgets In Figure 1. 1. the controller.3.Re Im 22/10/2004 x1 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ ω(t) ωζ. build a controller for a given plant is something we will not be giving terribly much consideration to. “Isaac. If we ask Isaac Newton. We also suppose there to be an externally applied force F (t).ω0 ω0 1. then supplies a restoring force Fk = −ky and the dashpot supplies a force Fd = −dy. 1. say. We suppose that at y = 0 the mass m is in equilibrium. although sometimes at the expense of deterioration in others (steady-state error in this case).10 is a really feeble idealisation of a car suspension system.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices We will be considering control systems where the plant. as we F (t) m y(t) k d Figure 1. The spring. The problem of how to assemble such devices to. and the sensors are all modelled by linear diﬀerential equations. ˙ d where “ ˙ ” means dt . For this reason it makes sense to provide some examples of devices whose behaviour is reasonably well-governed by such equations. what are the equations governing the behaviour of this system?” .10 Simpliﬁed automobile suspension know.

8 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 he would reply. “I thought on it. the governing equations are linear diﬀerential equations. The same sort of thing happens with rotary devices. Now note that sin θ0 = 0 if θ0 ∈ {0. We write the solution near the equilibrium as θ(t) = θ0 + ξ(t) where ξ(t) is small. Keeping 3! 5! This is in reference to the story. let us linearise the equations near these points. θ) = (θ0 . he replied. then one must consider not the angular velocity ω(t) as the dependent variable. we are often interested in the ˙ behaviour of the system near the equilibrium points which are (θ. . We then have ¨ ¨ ¨ θ + g sin θ = ξ + g sin(θ0 + ξ) = ξ + g sin θ0 cos ξ + g cos θ0 sin ξ.” 2 . Now this equation. π}. and cos θ0 = 1 if θ0 = 0 and cos θ0 = −1 if θ0 = π. Viscous dissipation may be modelled with a force ω(t) Figure 1. but rather the angular displacement θ(t) = θ0 + ωt. So. F = ma.11 Rotor on a shaft proportional to the angular velocity: Fd = −dω. y ˙ This is a second-order linear diﬀerential equation with constant coeﬃcients and with inhomogeneous term F (t).12). be it true or false.”2 After doing so you’d arrive at m¨(t) = F (t) − ky(t) − dy(t) y ˙ =⇒ m¨(t) + dy(t) + ky(t) = F (t). In Figure 1. . . In either case. is nonlinear. However. you will notice. If one wishes to include a rotary spring. now go think on it. and see what we get. In the presence of an external torque τ (t). the governing diﬀerential equation is J ω(t) + dω(t) = τ (t) ˙ where J is the moment of inertia of the rotor about its point of rotation. Let’s look at a simple pendulum (see Figure 1. π}. If we sum moments about the pivot we get ¨ ¨ m 2 θ = −mg sin θ =⇒ θ + g sin θ = 0. “Well. 0) where θ0 ∈ {0. 3 5 We also use the Taylor expansion for sin x around x = 0: sin x = x − x + x + .11 is a rotor ﬁxed to a shaft moving with angular velocity ω. that when Newton was asked how he’d arrived at the inverse square law for gravity.

For each component determine all external forces and moments acting on it. We discuss linearisation properly in Section 1.1 Deriving equations for mechanical systems Given: an interconnection of point masses and rigid bodies.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 9 θ Figure 1. 6. particularly in control. we have a linear diﬀerential equation which governs the behaviour near the equilibrium. the sum of moments about a point that is either (a) the centre of mass of the component or (b) a point in the component that is stationary should equal the moment of inertia of the component about that point multiplied by the angular acceleration. This methodology has been applied to the examples above. 5. For each component. 0): ¨ ξ + g ξ = 0. θ0 = π. In each case. We refer to the exercises for examples that are somewhat more interesting. although they are too simple to be really representative.12 A simple pendulum only the lowest order terms gives the following equations which should approximate the behaviour of the system near the equilibrium (θ0 . 1967] for details on the method we outline. but linear approximations seem to work well. and other methods. 4. Thus each component should be either a single point mass or a single rigid body. θ0 = 0 ¨ ξ − g ξ = 0. Jr. For each component. Let us recall the basic rules for deriving the equations of motion for a mechanical system. 1. 1. Deﬁne a reference frame from which to measure distances. This technique of linearisation is ubiquitous since there really are no linear physical devices. The sum of forces in any direction on a component should equal the mass of the component times the component of acceleration of the component along the direction of the force. express the position of the centre of mass in terms of the chosen coordinates. Separate the system into its mechanical components. Choose a set of coordinates that determine the conﬁguration of the system. 3. see [Cannon. and often very well.4. 7. . Also.22/10/2004 1. 2.

14 A series RLC circuit must be zero which gives the governing equations 1 ˙ E(t) = RI(t) + LI(t) + C q(t) =⇒ 1 L¨(t) + Rq(t) + C q(t) = E(t) q ˙ where E(t) is an external voltage source.13 Electrical devices R is called the resistance of the resistor.10 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 1. Note that 1 the proportionality constant for the capacitor is not C but C . This may also be written as a current equation by merely diﬀerentiating: 1 ˙ ¨ ˙ LI(t) + RI(t) + C I(t) = E(t). and again one with constant coeﬃcients. The voltage drop around the circuit R + E − C L Figure 1. The current I is related to the charge q by I = dq . Kirchhoﬀ ’s voltage law states that the sum of voltage drops around a closed loop must be zero and Kirchhoﬀ ’s current law states that the sum of the currents entering a node must be zero. For a given tree. The quantity I(t) E = RI q(t) E= 1 Cq I(t) E = L dI dt Resistor Capacitor Inductor Figure 1. and a link is a branch not in the tree. 3 . We can then imagine assembling these electrical components in dt some conﬁguration and using Kirchhoﬀ’s laws3 to derive governing diﬀerential equations. A capacitor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the charge in the device. The three devices are typically given the symbols as in Figure 1. An inductor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the time rate of change of current through the device. The methodology relies on the notion of a tree which is a connected collection of branches containing no loops. In Figure 1.3. and the quantity L is called the inductance of the inductor. a tree branch is a branch in the tree. the quantity C is called the capacitance of the capacitor.2 Electrical gadgets A resistor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the current through the device.14 we have a particularly simple conﬁguration. In either case. Let us present a methodology for determining the diﬀerential equations for electric circuits.13. we have a linear equation.

then apparently Ke = Kt . Jr. That is to say. and current sources. The states of the system are taken to be the voltages across capacitors in the tree branches for the tree of part 1 and the currents through inductors in the links for the tree from part 1. along with voltage and current sources.3.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 11 1. We also refer to [Cannon.” The voltage drop across the motor is proportional ˙ to the motor’s velocity. Jr. 3. This ˙ is provided by the relation Em = Ke θ and the dynamics of the circuit which supplies current to the motor. the induced magnetic ﬁeld induces the rotor to turn. see [Cannon. if the circuit has resistance R and inductance L then we have L dI ˙ + RI = E − Ke θ dt with E being the voltage supplied to the circuit. 4. The exercises contain a few examples that can be used to test one’s understanding of the above method. and θ is the angular position of the shaft. resistors. Now we suppose that the rotor has inertia J and that shaft friction is viscous and so the ˙ friction force is given by −dθ.2 Deriving equations for electric circuits Given: an interconnection of ideal resistors. capacitors. As current is run through the coil. I is the current through the coil. For example. Add elements in the following order of preference: voltage sources. 1. 1967].22/10/2004 1. and Kt is the “torque constant. and inductors. 2. Em = Ke θ where Em is the voltage drop across the motor. Thus the motor will be governed by Newton’s equations: ¨ ˙ J θ = −dθ + Kt I =⇒ ¨ ˙ J θ + dθ = Kt I. then read a book on the subject. For example. Write the Kirchhoﬀ Voltage Law and the Kirchhoﬀ Current Law for every loop and every node corresponding to a branch assigned a state variable.3 Electro-mechanical gadgets If you really want to learn how electric motors work. To complete the equations. The torque developed is proportional to the current through the coil: T = Kt I where T is the torque supplied to the shaft. one adds these elements in sequence until one gets the largest possible tree. one need to know the relationship between current and θ. If one is using a set of consistent units with velocity measured in rads/sec. Use Kirchhoﬀ’s Laws to derive equations for the voltage and current in every tree branch in terms of the state variables. This gives us coupled equations ¨ ˙ J θ + dθ = Kt I dI ˙ L + RI = E − Ke θ dt which we can write in ﬁrst-order system form as        ˙ 0 1 0 θ 0 θ Kt    vθ  = 0 − d vθ +  0  E ˙ J J 1 ˙ I 0 − Ke − R I L L L . A DC servo motor works by running current through a rotary toroidal coil which sits in a stationary magnetic ﬁeld. Deﬁne a tree by collecting together a maximal number of branches to form a tree. Ke is a constant. capacitors. 1. inductors. 1967] for further discussion of the equations governing electrical networks.

. . . An equilibrium point is a point x0 ∈ Rn for which f (x0 ) = 0. . e.   . xn ). . and it is these to which we will be restricting our attention. . (1. . . The diﬀerential equation can then be written as ˙ x = f (x).g. R Thus the dynamics of a DC motor can be roughly described by a ﬁrst-order linear diﬀerential equation in the angular velocity. . . . We then did this in a sort of hacky way. Let us denote x = (x1 . If the response of the circuit is much faster ˙ than that of the motor. 1. We then decided that if we were only interested in looking at what is going on near an equilibrium point. ∂fn (x0 ) ∂x1 ∂fn (x0 ) ∂x2 ··· ∂fn (x0 ) ∂xn This matrix is often called the Jacobian of f at x0 . . . Hopefully this gives you a feeling that there are a large number of physical systems which are modelled by linear diﬀerential equations. . Note that the constant function x(t) = x0 is a solution to the diﬀerential equation if x0 is an equilibrium point. Let’s see how to do this methodically. . .3 Example The nonlinear diﬀerential equation we derived was ¨ θ + g sin θ = 0. xn = fn (x1 . . . . . . . For an equilibrium point x0 deﬁne an n × n matrix Df (x0 ) by   ∂f1 ∂f ∂f1 (x0 ) ∂x1 (x0 ) · · · ∂xn (x0 ) ∂x1 2  ∂f2 (x0 ) ∂f2 (x0 ) · · · ∂f2 (x0 )   ∂x2 ∂xn Df (x0 ) =  ∂x1 . . . xn ) are known smooth functions. fn ) of the n variables (x1 . .1) It really only makes sense to linearise about an equilibrium point. . The linearisation of (1.12 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 ˙ where we deﬁne the dependent variable vθ = θ. Let’s see how this goes with our pendulum example. We suppose that we have vector diﬀerential equations of the form x1 = f1 (x1 . . . xn ) ˙ x2 = f2 (x1 . . . . fn (x)).1) about an equilibrium point x0 is then the linear diﬀerential equation ˙ ξ = Df (x0 )ξ. . . . then this gives E = Ke θ + RI and so the equations reduce to K ˙ ¨ J θ + d + KtR e θ = Kt E. . xn ) and f (x) = (f1 (x). . then we could content ourselves with linearising the equations. .. . if the inductance is small. .4 Linearisation at equilibrium points When we derived the equations of motion for the pendulum. . the equations we obtained were nonlinear. ˙ The n functions (f1 . This is what we saw in our introductory example. . xn ) ˙ .. 1.

−g 0 and at the equilibrium point x2 = (0.1) since it is a second-order equation. We must also have sin x1 = 0 which means that x1 ∈ {0. π) we thus have Df (x1 ) = 0 1 . It should not be the point of the book to make you go through such tedious calculations. 0) we thus have Df (x1 ) = 0 1 .5 What you are expected to know 13 This is not in the form of (1. This makes sense as it means that the pendulum should not be moving. Many of the systems we will look at in the exercises require in their analysis straightforward. . especially Fourier and Laplace transforms. 3. Now let us linearise about each of these equilibrium points. 4. These are 1. basic complex analysis. This is what we determined previously. 2. basic facts about polynomials. although you should try to make sure you are asking the computer to do something which you in principle understand how to do yourself. ˙ Thus f1 (x1 . calculations. so there should be no need for anything but rapid review in class. Df (x) = g − cos x1 0 At the equilibrium point x1 = (0. But we can put this into ˙ ﬁrst-order form by introducing the variables x1 = θ and x2 = θ. 1. we may write the linearised equations at each equilibrium point. and 5. x2 ) = − sin x1 . including the matrix exponential. linear algebra. The equations can then be written ˙ x1 = θ = x2 ˙ ¨ x2 = θ = − g sin θ = − g sin x1 . Students are expected to have seen this material in detail in previous courses. For an arbitrary point x = (x1 . ordinary diﬀerential equations. g f2 (x1 . g 0 With these matrices at hand. π}. but tedious. You will be well served by learning to use a computer package for doing such routine calculations. Note that at an equilibrium point we must have x2 = 0. x2 ) we compute 0 1 .22/10/2004 1. transform theory. x2 ) = x2 . Appendices review each of these in a cursory manner.5 What you are expected to know There are ﬁve essential areas of background that are assumed of a student using this text.

Matlab® has a control toolbox. Make sure you are familiar with everything discussed here. 1.queensu.ca/~math332/.4 You are encouraged to use symbolic manipulation packages for doing problems in this book. 4 . and is the most commonly used tool for control systems. See http://mast. Mathematica® and Maple® packages have been made available on the world wide web for doing things such as are done in this book. Also available are Maple® and Matlab® . and make sure you know what you are doing and that you are not going too far into black box mode. We wrapped up the chapter with a quick summary of the background required to proceed with reading these notes.6 Summary Our objective in this chapter has been to introduce you to some basic control theoretic ideas. perhaps after linearisation about a desired operating point. Just make sure you let us know that you are doing so.14 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 I have used Mathematica® to do all the plotting in the book since it is what I am familiar with. and to motivate such an investigation we presented some physical devices whose behaviour is representable by linear diﬀerential equations. especially through the use of feedback in the DC motor example. In the remainder of these notes we look at linear systems.

(a) For N ampliﬁer stages and a given value for α determine the relationship between Vin and Vout . Does your system have feedback? Are there disturbances? E1. 1) and. Nmin .1. so that the ﬁnal ampliﬁer design meets the speciﬁcation noted above. E1. How do the equations change if viscous dissipation is added between each mass and the ground? (Suppose that both masses are subject to the same dissipative force. perhaps roughly.1 A multistage feedback ampliﬁer and unknown gain variation (in this case the gain variation is at most 50). In each of the blocks we get to insert an ampliﬁer stage with the large Vin − K1 K2 KN Vout α Figure E1. output. and assume that the motor model is accurate. for that value of α. E1. The feedback gain α is known precisely since it is much easier to design a circuit which provides accurate voltage division (as opposed to ampliﬁcation). do not use the numerical values used in the notes—leave everything general.2. Identify the components in your system which are the plant. .1. Thus. 75]. (b) Based on this information ﬁnd a value of α in the interval (0. the minimal required number of ampliﬁer stages. by a schematic like that of Figure 1.Exercises for Chapter 1 15 Exercises E1.) The following two exercises will recur as exercises in succeeding chapters. sensor. Since the computations can be a bit involved—certainly they ought to be done with a symbolic manipulation package—it is advisable to do the computations in an organised manner so that they may be used for future calculations. The conﬁguration of the ﬁnal ampliﬁer is given in Figure E1. The element in the feedback path is a constant 0 < α < 1. You may neglect the disturbance torque. input. controller.4 Derive the diﬀerential equations governing the behaviour of the coupled masses in Figure E1.2 Consider the DC servo motor example which we worked with in Section 1. Thus the gain in the forward path is K1 K2 · · · KN where N is the number of ampliﬁer stages and where Ki ∈ [25.3 An ampliﬁer is to be designed with an overall ampliﬁcation factor of 2500 ± 50.1 Probe your life for occurrences of things which can be described. etc. However. Determine conditions on the controller gain K so that the voltage E0 required to obtain a desired steady-state velocity is greater for the closed-loop system than it is for the openloop system.2. we can assume that α can be exactly speciﬁed by the designer. A number of single ampliﬁer stages is available and the gain of any single stage may drift anywhere between 25 and 75.

5 Consider the pendulum on a cart pictured in Figure E1.3. The links have a uniform mass density. 0) and (x.3 Pendulum on a cart E1. so their centres of mass are located at their midpoint. θ. The ﬁrst link (i. 0). You may assume that there is no friction in the system. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ where x0 is arbitrary. Derive the full equations which govern the motion of the system using coordinates (x.6 Determine the full equations of motion for the double pendulum depicted in Figure E1. The length of the pendulum arm is . π. Linearise the equations about the points (x. Here M is the mass of the cart and m is the mass of the pendulum. 0.4. θ) = (x0 . the one connected to ground) has length 1 and mass θ1 θ2 Figure E1.16 1 An introduction to linear control theory x1 x2 22/10/2004 k m k m k Figure E1. You may assume that . x.. E1. x. 0.2 Coupled masses x θ Figure E1. and the second link has length 2 and mass m2 . 0. θ) = (x0 . θ) as in the ﬁgure. θ.4 Double pendulum m1 .e.

derive a ﬁrst-order system of equations in two variables governing the behaviour of the system. E1. determine a diﬀerential equation for the current through R1 + E − R2 C Figure E1.6. E1.7.7 Yet another electric circuit age across the capacitor and the current through the inductor.5. As dependent variable for the circuit.Exercises for Chapter 1 17 there is no friction in the system. E1. use the volt- RL + E − L RC C Figure E1.7 Consider the electric circuit of Figure E1.6 Another electric circuit the resistor R1 in terms of the voltage E(t). Derive diﬀerential equations for the system as a ﬁrst-order system with two variables. . Using IC . the current through the capacitor.9 For the circuit of Figure E1. What are the equilibrium points for the double pendulum (there are four)? Linearise the equations about each of the equilibria. To write equations for this system we R + E − C L Figure E1.8 For the circuit of Figure E1. and IL .5 Electric circuit need to select two system variables. the current through the inductor.

In this scenario. and g. and h2 . h1 . A1 . Determine the equations of motion which give the mass ﬂow rate from the bottom tank given the mass ﬂow rate into the top tank. and that the cross-sectional areas of the tanks are A1 and A2 . Now suppose that the areas of the output nozzles for the tanks are a1 and a2 . a1 . In the next exercise we will consider a more complex and realistic model of ﬂow in coupled tanks. (c) Using mass balance (assume that the ﬂuid is incompressible so that mass and volume balance are equivalent). Let us denote α = α1α1 2 . provide two coupled diﬀerential equations for the heights h1 and h2 in the tanks. give an expression for the volume ﬂow rates Fout. Denote the water levels in the tanks by h1 and h2 .1 and Fout. the input is the volume ﬂow rate Fin which gets divided between the two tanks proportionally to the areas α1 and α2 of the two tubes.11 Consider the coupled tanks shown in Figure E1.e. (b) Using the Bernoulli equation above. This says that if a tank of uniform cross-section has ﬂuid level h.1 and Fin. E1.9. where g is the gravitational acceleration. then the velocity ﬂowing from a small √ nozzle at the bottom of the tank will be given by v = 2gh. +α (a) Give an expression for the volume ﬂow rates Fin. Suppose that the system is in equilibrium (i. the heights in the tanks are constant) with the equilibrium height in tank 1 being δ1 . you must deﬁne the necessary variables yourself. In this problem.2 in terms of a1 . A2 . a2 .18 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 E1. a2 . α..2 in terms of Fin and α.8 (the tanks Figure E1. as well as the dependent variables h1 and h2 .10 The mass ﬂow rate from a tank of water with a uniform cross-section can be roughly modelled as being proportional to the height of water in the tank which lies above the exit nozzle. (d) What is the equilibrium input ﬂow rate ν? (e) What is the height δ2 of ﬂuid in tank 2? . Suppose that two tanks are conﬁgured as in Figure E1. The equations should be in terms of Fin . Here we will use the Bernoulli equation for ﬂow from small oriﬁces.8 Coupled water tanks are not necessarily identical).

Exercises for Chapter 1 19 Fin α1 Fin.1 Fin.9 Another coupled tank scenario .2 A2 a2 Fout.1 A1 a1 Fout.2 α2 Figure E1.

20 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 .

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