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MCT Book - Chapter 1|Views: 2|Likes: 0

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12/20/2012

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**Chapter 1 An introduction to linear control theory
**

With this book we will introduce you to the basics ideas of control theory, and the setting will be that of single-input, single-output (SISO), ﬁnite-dimensional, time-invariant, linear systems. In this section we will begin to explore the meaning of this lingo, and look at some simple physical systems which ﬁt into this category. Traditional introductory texts in control may contain some of this material in more detail [see, for example Dorf and Bishop 2001, Franklin, Powell, and Emani-Naeini 1994]. However, our presentation here is intended to be more motivational than technical. For proper background in physics, one should look to suitable references. A very good summary reference for the various methods of deriving equations for physical systems is [Cannon, Jr. 1967].

Contents

1.1 1.2 1.3 Some control theoretic terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An introductory example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Mechanical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electro-mechanical gadgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 7 7 10 11 12 13 14

Linearisation at equilibrium points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What you are expected to know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

**1.1 Some control theoretic terminology
**

For this book, there should be from the outset a picture you have in mind of what you are trying to accomplish. The picture is essentially given in Figure 1.1. The idea is that you are given a plant, which is the basic system, which has an output y(t) that you’d like to do something with. For example, you may wish to track a reference trajectory r(t). One way to do this would be to use an open-loop control design. In this case, one would omit that part of the diagram in Figure 1.1 which is dashed, and use a controller to read the reference signal r(t) and use this to specify an input u(t) to the plant which should give the desired output. This open-loop control design may well work, but it has some inherent problems. If there is a disturbance d(t) which you do not know about, then this may well cause the output of the plant to deviate signiﬁcantly from the reference

2

**1 An introduction to linear control theory
**

d(t) e(t) − s(t) u(t)

22/10/2004

r(t)

controller

plant

y(t)

sensor

Figure 1.1 A basic control system schematic

trajectory r(t). Another problem arises with plant uncertainties. One models the plant, typically via diﬀerential equations, but these are always an idealisation of the plant’s actual behaviour. The reason for the problems is that the open-loop control law has no idea what the output is doing, and it marches on as if everything is working according to an idealised model, a model which just might not be realistic. A good way to overcome these diﬃculties is to use feedback . Here the output is read by sensors, which may themselves be modelled by diﬀerential equations, which produce a signal s(t) which is subtracted from the reference trajectory to produce the error e(t). The controller then make its decisions based on the error signal, rather than just blindly considering the reference signal.

1.2 An introductory example

Let’s see how this all plays out in a simple example. Suppose we have a DC servo motor whose output is its angular velocity ω(t), the input is a voltage E(t), and there is a disturbance torque T (t) resulting from, for example, an unknown external load being applied to the output shaft of the motor. This external torque is something we cannot alter. A little later in this section we will see some justiﬁcation for the governing diﬀerential equations to be given by dω(t) 1 + τ ω(t) = kE E(t) + kT T (t). dt The schematic for the situation is shown in Figure 1.2. This schematic representation we

T (t)

kT u(t)

E(t)

kE

d 1 + dt τ

=u

ω(t)

Figure 1.2 DC motor open-loop control schematic

. The diﬀerential equation is then dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 − kT T0 . then we will undershoot our desired ﬁnal velocity E by ωerror = kT T0 τ . the worse we do—in .ω0 t ω0 ω(t) Figure 1.1 PSfrag replacements Let us just try something na¨ and open-loop. there are decidedly problems lurking beneath the surface. The objective is to be able to drive the ıve e(t) constant velocity ω0 . and τ = 1 in Figure 1. Well. dt and if we again suppose that ω(0) = 0 the initial value problem has solution ω(t) = (kE E0 − kT T0 )τ 1 − e−t/τ . i. Re Im 1 We give a numerical plot for kE = 2. ω(0) = 0. kE However. hN. the solution to the initial value problem is φ (t) fj (t) ω(t) = kE E0 τ 1 − e−t/τ .2 An introductory example 3 give here is one we shall use frequently. To get the desired output velocity ω0 after a suﬃciently long time.D (t) as is reasonable. 1N. This constant desired output is then our reference motor at a speciﬁed e (t) trajectory. we need only provide the input voltage E0 = τω0 . E0 = 3. the larger is the disturbance torque. You1 (t) e2 decide to see what you might do by giving the motor some constant torques to see what happens. what if there is a disturbance torque? Let us suppose this to be constant for the moment so T (t) = −T0 for some T0 > 0.3 Open-loop response of DC motor looks too easy. and it is called a block diagram. we say.22/10/2004 1.e.D (t) dt 1Σ (t) Supposing. We then have the diﬀerential equation u(t) hΣ (t) dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 . If we follow our simple rule of letting the input voltage E0 be determined by the desired ﬁnal angular velocity by our rule E0 = kω0τ . Let us provide a constant input torque E(t) = E0 and suppose that e3 (t) y(t) the disturbance torque T (t) = 0. this all x1 2 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 10 ωζ.3. that the motor starts with zero initial velocity. For example. In this event.

you will see that the thing in the blocks are not diﬀerential equations in the time-domain. The diﬀerential equations governing this system are dω 1 + ( τ + kE kS K)ω = kE Kωref + kT T. but in the Laplace transform domain. The error we multiply by some constant K. To take all this into account.4 Re Im x1 1 An introduction to linear control theory x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 ωζ. The eﬀect is illustrated in Figure 1. called the gain for the controller. dt We shall see how to systematically obtain equations such as this. is then compared to the voltage needed to generate the desired velocity by feeding it back to our reference signal by subtracting it to get the error. While we estimate it to be τ .5 τ 5 1 for τ = 8 . 1 . ˜ ˜ The ﬁnal value will then be in error by the factor τ . For example.6. This situation is shown in Figure 1. ˜ dt which gives the solution to the initial value problem as τ ω(t) = kE E0 τ 1 − e−t/˜ .ω0 t ω0 ω(t) 22/10/2004 10 Figure 1. The schematic now becomes that depicted in Figure 1. it might be some other value τ . This voltage. Another problem arises when we have imperfect knowledge of the motor’s physical characteristics. I hope now that you can see the problem with our open-loop control strategy. It simply does not account for the inevitable imperfections we will have in our knowledge of the system and of the environment in which it works. Note that the input to the system is. In this case. The tachometer takes the angular velocity and returns a voltage. in some When we come to use block diagrams for real. the actual ˜ diﬀerential equation governing behaviour in the absence of disturbances will be dω 1 + τ ω = kE E0 . we can do pretty darn bad if the disturbance torque is large. after being appropriately scaled by a factor ks .4 with kT = 1 and T0 = 2. ˜ Okay. let us measure the output velocity of the motor’s shaft with a tachometer.4 Open-loop response of DC motor with disturbance fact. so do not worry if you think it in nontrivial to get these equations. to get the actual voltage input to the system. we may not know the time-constant τ as accurately as we’d like.

We see the results of this in Figure 1.7 where we have chosen kS = 1 and K = 5. In this case. the same velocity as we had attained with our open-loop strategy. no longer the voltage.5 Open-loop response of DC motor with “actual” motor time-constant T (t) plant kT u(t) controller ωref − E kE K d 1 + dt τ =u ω(t) sensor kS Figure 1. we have improved the response time for the system .. again supposing ω(0) = 0. Let us suppose again a constant disturbance torque T (t) = −T0 and a constant reference voltage ωref = ω0 . As previously. we wish to achieve a ﬁnal velocity of ω0 = E0 τ kE as t → ∞.2 An introductory example 5 2 4 t 6 8 10 Figure 1. 1 + kE kS K τ Let us now investigate this closed-loop control law.Re Im 22/10/2004 x1 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ ω(t) ωζ.ω0 ω0 1. Notice that the motor no longer achieves the desired ﬁnal speed! However.6 DC motor closed-loop control schematic sense. The solution to the diﬀerential equation. i.e. but the reference signal ωref . is then ω(t) = 1 kE Kω0 − kT T0 1 − e−( τ +kE kS K)t . let us ﬁrst look at the case when T0 = 0 and where we suppose perfect knowledge of our physical constants and our model.

8 Closed-loop response of DC motor with disturbance see that the closed-loop controller reacts much better to the disturbance (cf. although we have incurred a largish ﬁnal error in the ﬁnal velocity. although we still (unsurprisingly) cannot reach the desired ﬁnal velocity. Figure 1.7 Closed-loop response of DC motor 1N. Finally we look at the situation when we have imperfect knowledge of the physical constants for the plant.D (t) ω(t) 22/10/2004 10 φ (t) signiﬁcantly from the open-loop controller (cf.8. we shall see that it is possible to design a controller so that the steady-state error is zero. Figure 1.5).Re Im 6 x1 1 An introduction to linear control theory x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 PSfrag replacements 6 φm ζ e(t) 4 e1yos (t) ζ e2 (t) 2 tos(t) ω0 e3 ζ y(t) 2 4 6 8 ωζ.ω0 u(t) t ω0 hΣ (t) hN. Figure 1.4). does demonstrate that one can achieve improvements in some areas (response time ω(t) . the performance is somewhat better than that of the open-loop controller (cf. but Re we will get to that only as the course progresses. We x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ 2 4 6 8 10 ωζ. Again.ω0 t ω0 Figure 1. however. In this case the closed-loop ˜ 8 2 response is shown in Figure 1. The result is displayed in Figure 1. This simple example. I hope this helps to convince you that feedback is a good thing! As mentioned above. It is possible to remove the ﬁnal f (t) error by doing jsomething more sophisticated with the error than multiplying it by K. We 1 again consider having τ = 5 rather than the guessed value of 1 . Now let’s see what happens when we Im x1 add a constant disturbance by setting T0 = 2.3).D (t) 1Σ (t) Figure 1.9. as this is the major deﬁciency of our very basic controller “designed” above.

If we ask Isaac Newton. The spring. We suppose that at y = 0 the mass m is in equilibrium.Re Im 22/10/2004 x1 x2 x1 ˆ x2 14 ˆ log ω 12 dB deg 10 u = ω0 ln ω ln coth(|u| /2) 8 α or α−1 6 φm ζ 4 yos ζ 2 tos ω0 ζ ω(t) ωζ.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 7 2 4 t 6 8 10 Figure 1. build a controller for a given plant is something we will not be giving terribly much consideration to. as we F (t) m y(t) k d Figure 1. although sometimes at the expense of deterioration in others (steady-state error in this case).ω0 ω0 1. The problem of how to assemble such devices to. ˙ d where “ ˙ ” means dt .9 Closed-loop response of DC motor with “actual” motor time-constant in this case).10 is a really feeble idealisation of a car suspension system. then supplies a restoring force Fk = −ky and the dashpot supplies a force Fd = −dy. We also suppose there to be an externally applied force F (t). the controller.10 Simpliﬁed automobile suspension know. 1. 1. “Isaac. say. For this reason it makes sense to provide some examples of devices whose behaviour is reasonably well-governed by such equations. and the sensors are all modelled by linear diﬀerential equations.3.1 Mechanical gadgets In Figure 1.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices We will be considering control systems where the plant. what are the equations governing the behaviour of this system?” .

F = ma. and cos θ0 = 1 if θ0 = 0 and cos θ0 = −1 if θ0 = π.”2 After doing so you’d arrive at m¨(t) = F (t) − ky(t) − dy(t) y ˙ =⇒ m¨(t) + dy(t) + ky(t) = F (t).11 Rotor on a shaft proportional to the angular velocity: Fd = −dω. but rather the angular displacement θ(t) = θ0 + ωt. “I thought on it. Keeping 3! 5! This is in reference to the story. 3 5 We also use the Taylor expansion for sin x around x = 0: sin x = x − x + x + . “Well. Now this equation. be it true or false. . now go think on it. π}. However.11 is a rotor ﬁxed to a shaft moving with angular velocity ω. .” 2 . π}. In the presence of an external torque τ (t). If one wishes to include a rotary spring. Let’s look at a simple pendulum (see Figure 1. let us linearise the equations near these points. In Figure 1. The same sort of thing happens with rotary devices. We write the solution near the equilibrium as θ(t) = θ0 + ξ(t) where ξ(t) is small. he replied. 0) where θ0 ∈ {0. then one must consider not the angular velocity ω(t) as the dependent variable. the governing diﬀerential equation is J ω(t) + dω(t) = τ (t) ˙ where J is the moment of inertia of the rotor about its point of rotation. the governing equations are linear diﬀerential equations. . and see what we get. you will notice. Now note that sin θ0 = 0 if θ0 ∈ {0. So. We then have ¨ ¨ ¨ θ + g sin θ = ξ + g sin(θ0 + ξ) = ξ + g sin θ0 cos ξ + g cos θ0 sin ξ. we are often interested in the ˙ behaviour of the system near the equilibrium points which are (θ. is nonlinear. If we sum moments about the pivot we get ¨ ¨ m 2 θ = −mg sin θ =⇒ θ + g sin θ = 0.8 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 he would reply. that when Newton was asked how he’d arrived at the inverse square law for gravity.12). θ) = (θ0 . Viscous dissipation may be modelled with a force ω(t) Figure 1. y ˙ This is a second-order linear diﬀerential equation with constant coeﬃcients and with inhomogeneous term F (t). In either case.

the sum of moments about a point that is either (a) the centre of mass of the component or (b) a point in the component that is stationary should equal the moment of inertia of the component about that point multiplied by the angular acceleration. θ0 = 0 ¨ ξ − g ξ = 0. 6. Separate the system into its mechanical components. For each component. and other methods. For each component determine all external forces and moments acting on it.22/10/2004 1. In each case. We discuss linearisation properly in Section 1. see [Cannon. For each component.4. Choose a set of coordinates that determine the conﬁguration of the system. Deﬁne a reference frame from which to measure distances.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 9 θ Figure 1. This methodology has been applied to the examples above. 7. and often very well.12 A simple pendulum only the lowest order terms gives the following equations which should approximate the behaviour of the system near the equilibrium (θ0 . . particularly in control. The sum of forces in any direction on a component should equal the mass of the component times the component of acceleration of the component along the direction of the force. 4. Let us recall the basic rules for deriving the equations of motion for a mechanical system. although they are too simple to be really representative. 1967] for details on the method we outline. We refer to the exercises for examples that are somewhat more interesting. 1. Thus each component should be either a single point mass or a single rigid body.1 Deriving equations for mechanical systems Given: an interconnection of point masses and rigid bodies. 2. Also. 3. we have a linear diﬀerential equation which governs the behaviour near the equilibrium. express the position of the centre of mass in terms of the chosen coordinates. 0): ¨ ξ + g ξ = 0. 5. 1. but linear approximations seem to work well. This technique of linearisation is ubiquitous since there really are no linear physical devices. Jr. θ0 = π.

The three devices are typically given the symbols as in Figure 1. This may also be written as a current equation by merely diﬀerentiating: 1 ˙ ¨ ˙ LI(t) + RI(t) + C I(t) = E(t). Note that 1 the proportionality constant for the capacitor is not C but C .2 Electrical gadgets A resistor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the current through the device. Kirchhoﬀ ’s voltage law states that the sum of voltage drops around a closed loop must be zero and Kirchhoﬀ ’s current law states that the sum of the currents entering a node must be zero. A capacitor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the charge in the device. An inductor is a device across which the voltage drop is proportional to the time rate of change of current through the device. and again one with constant coeﬃcients. a tree branch is a branch in the tree.14 A series RLC circuit must be zero which gives the governing equations 1 ˙ E(t) = RI(t) + LI(t) + C q(t) =⇒ 1 L¨(t) + Rq(t) + C q(t) = E(t) q ˙ where E(t) is an external voltage source.13. For a given tree.13 Electrical devices R is called the resistance of the resistor. The current I is related to the charge q by I = dq .14 we have a particularly simple conﬁguration. 3 . and the quantity L is called the inductance of the inductor. and a link is a branch not in the tree. we have a linear equation. In either case. the quantity C is called the capacitance of the capacitor. In Figure 1.10 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 1. We can then imagine assembling these electrical components in dt some conﬁguration and using Kirchhoﬀ’s laws3 to derive governing diﬀerential equations.3. The methodology relies on the notion of a tree which is a connected collection of branches containing no loops. Let us present a methodology for determining the diﬀerential equations for electric circuits. The voltage drop around the circuit R + E − C L Figure 1. The quantity I(t) E = RI q(t) E= 1 Cq I(t) E = L dI dt Resistor Capacitor Inductor Figure 1.

For example.3 Electro-mechanical gadgets If you really want to learn how electric motors work. For example. Em = Ke θ where Em is the voltage drop across the motor. 2. the induced magnetic ﬁeld induces the rotor to turn. resistors. capacitors. 1967]. along with voltage and current sources. and θ is the angular position of the shaft. if the circuit has resistance R and inductance L then we have L dI ˙ + RI = E − Ke θ dt with E being the voltage supplied to the circuit. Now we suppose that the rotor has inertia J and that shaft friction is viscous and so the ˙ friction force is given by −dθ. Add elements in the following order of preference: voltage sources.3 Linear diﬀerential equations for physical devices 11 1. Write the Kirchhoﬀ Voltage Law and the Kirchhoﬀ Current Law for every loop and every node corresponding to a branch assigned a state variable. capacitors. then apparently Ke = Kt . inductors. I is the current through the coil. The states of the system are taken to be the voltages across capacitors in the tree branches for the tree of part 1 and the currents through inductors in the links for the tree from part 1. see [Cannon.” The voltage drop across the motor is proportional ˙ to the motor’s velocity. then read a book on the subject. Jr. 3.22/10/2004 1.2 Deriving equations for electric circuits Given: an interconnection of ideal resistors. A DC servo motor works by running current through a rotary toroidal coil which sits in a stationary magnetic ﬁeld. Jr. and Kt is the “torque constant. and inductors. Use Kirchhoﬀ’s Laws to derive equations for the voltage and current in every tree branch in terms of the state variables. We also refer to [Cannon. If one is using a set of consistent units with velocity measured in rads/sec. This ˙ is provided by the relation Em = Ke θ and the dynamics of the circuit which supplies current to the motor. This gives us coupled equations ¨ ˙ J θ + dθ = Kt I dI ˙ L + RI = E − Ke θ dt which we can write in ﬁrst-order system form as ˙ 0 1 0 θ 0 θ Kt vθ = 0 − d vθ + 0 E ˙ J J 1 ˙ I 0 − Ke − R I L L L .3. 1. one adds these elements in sequence until one gets the largest possible tree. and current sources. Thus the motor will be governed by Newton’s equations: ¨ ˙ J θ = −dθ + Kt I =⇒ ¨ ˙ J θ + dθ = Kt I. The torque developed is proportional to the current through the coil: T = Kt I where T is the torque supplied to the shaft. The exercises contain a few examples that can be used to test one’s understanding of the above method. As current is run through the coil. 1. To complete the equations. That is to say. 4. Deﬁne a tree by collecting together a maximal number of branches to form a tree. Ke is a constant. one need to know the relationship between current and θ. 1967] for further discussion of the equations governing electrical networks.

e. . . . . . (1. . the equations we obtained were nonlinear. . then this gives E = Ke θ + RI and so the equations reduce to K ˙ ¨ J θ + d + KtR e θ = Kt E. xn ) and f (x) = (f1 (x). . . . This is what we saw in our introductory example. . then we could content ourselves with linearising the equations. . xn = fn (x1 . . xn ) ˙ x2 = f2 (x1 . . xn ) are known smooth functions. An equilibrium point is a point x0 ∈ Rn for which f (x0 ) = 0. Let’s see how this goes with our pendulum example. The diﬀerential equation can then be written as ˙ x = f (x). If the response of the circuit is much faster ˙ than that of the motor. For an equilibrium point x0 deﬁne an n × n matrix Df (x0 ) by ∂f1 ∂f ∂f1 (x0 ) ∂x1 (x0 ) · · · ∂xn (x0 ) ∂x1 2 ∂f2 (x0 ) ∂f2 (x0 ) · · · ∂f2 (x0 ) ∂x2 ∂xn Df (x0 ) = ∂x1 . . The linearisation of (1.. Let’s see how to do this methodically. . ∂fn (x0 ) ∂x1 ∂fn (x0 ) ∂x2 ··· ∂fn (x0 ) ∂xn This matrix is often called the Jacobian of f at x0 . .1) It really only makes sense to linearise about an equilibrium point. xn ) ˙ . fn (x)).3 Example The nonlinear diﬀerential equation we derived was ¨ θ + g sin θ = 0. . . . 1.g. . Let us denote x = (x1 .12 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 ˙ where we deﬁne the dependent variable vθ = θ.1) about an equilibrium point x0 is then the linear diﬀerential equation ˙ ξ = Df (x0 )ξ. . if the inductance is small. . . . . fn ) of the n variables (x1 . We then decided that if we were only interested in looking at what is going on near an equilibrium point. . 1. . . . . . Note that the constant function x(t) = x0 is a solution to the diﬀerential equation if x0 is an equilibrium point.4 Linearisation at equilibrium points When we derived the equations of motion for the pendulum. . . . . . . Hopefully this gives you a feeling that there are a large number of physical systems which are modelled by linear diﬀerential equations. We suppose that we have vector diﬀerential equations of the form x1 = f1 (x1 . xn ). We then did this in a sort of hacky way. ˙ The n functions (f1 .. . . . . R Thus the dynamics of a DC motor can be roughly described by a ﬁrst-order linear diﬀerential equation in the angular velocity. and it is these to which we will be restricting our attention.

transform theory. π) we thus have Df (x1 ) = 0 1 . linear algebra. Note that at an equilibrium point we must have x2 = 0. We must also have sin x1 = 0 which means that x1 ∈ {0. 3. we may write the linearised equations at each equilibrium point. basic complex analysis. so there should be no need for anything but rapid review in class. and 5. The equations can then be written ˙ x1 = θ = x2 ˙ ¨ x2 = θ = − g sin θ = − g sin x1 . Many of the systems we will look at in the exercises require in their analysis straightforward.5 What you are expected to know 13 This is not in the form of (1. But we can put this into ˙ ﬁrst-order form by introducing the variables x1 = θ and x2 = θ. Appendices review each of these in a cursory manner. ˙ Thus f1 (x1 . including the matrix exponential. 2. Df (x) = g − cos x1 0 At the equilibrium point x1 = (0.5 What you are expected to know There are ﬁve essential areas of background that are assumed of a student using this text. basic facts about polynomials. especially Fourier and Laplace transforms. x2 ) = x2 . but tedious. 4. g 0 With these matrices at hand. g f2 (x1 . 1. although you should try to make sure you are asking the computer to do something which you in principle understand how to do yourself. π}. For an arbitrary point x = (x1 . −g 0 and at the equilibrium point x2 = (0. These are 1.22/10/2004 1. This makes sense as it means that the pendulum should not be moving. ordinary diﬀerential equations. You will be well served by learning to use a computer package for doing such routine calculations. This is what we determined previously. Now let us linearise about each of these equilibrium points. x2 ) = − sin x1 . calculations. 0) we thus have Df (x1 ) = 0 1 . .1) since it is a second-order equation. x2 ) we compute 0 1 . It should not be the point of the book to make you go through such tedious calculations. Students are expected to have seen this material in detail in previous courses.

1. Matlab® has a control toolbox. See http://mast. and make sure you know what you are doing and that you are not going too far into black box mode. and is the most commonly used tool for control systems. We wrapped up the chapter with a quick summary of the background required to proceed with reading these notes. Also available are Maple® and Matlab® .6 Summary Our objective in this chapter has been to introduce you to some basic control theoretic ideas.14 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 I have used Mathematica® to do all the plotting in the book since it is what I am familiar with. perhaps after linearisation about a desired operating point. 4 . In the remainder of these notes we look at linear systems. and to motivate such an investigation we presented some physical devices whose behaviour is representable by linear diﬀerential equations.ca/~math332/. Just make sure you let us know that you are doing so. Make sure you are familiar with everything discussed here. especially through the use of feedback in the DC motor example.queensu.4 You are encouraged to use symbolic manipulation packages for doing problems in this book. Mathematica® and Maple® packages have been made available on the world wide web for doing things such as are done in this book.

2 Consider the DC servo motor example which we worked with in Section 1.1. Thus. perhaps roughly. E1. Does your system have feedback? Are there disturbances? E1. However. output. we can assume that α can be exactly speciﬁed by the designer. A number of single ampliﬁer stages is available and the gain of any single stage may drift anywhere between 25 and 75. so that the ﬁnal ampliﬁer design meets the speciﬁcation noted above. sensor.1 A multistage feedback ampliﬁer and unknown gain variation (in this case the gain variation is at most 50). 1) and. by a schematic like that of Figure 1. Thus the gain in the forward path is K1 K2 · · · KN where N is the number of ampliﬁer stages and where Ki ∈ [25. In each of the blocks we get to insert an ampliﬁer stage with the large Vin − K1 K2 KN Vout α Figure E1.2. How do the equations change if viscous dissipation is added between each mass and the ground? (Suppose that both masses are subject to the same dissipative force. for that value of α. You may neglect the disturbance torque. Since the computations can be a bit involved—certainly they ought to be done with a symbolic manipulation package—it is advisable to do the computations in an organised manner so that they may be used for future calculations.1 Probe your life for occurrences of things which can be described.Exercises for Chapter 1 15 Exercises E1. etc. E1. Nmin . Identify the components in your system which are the plant. input. Determine conditions on the controller gain K so that the voltage E0 required to obtain a desired steady-state velocity is greater for the closed-loop system than it is for the openloop system.3 An ampliﬁer is to be designed with an overall ampliﬁcation factor of 2500 ± 50. (b) Based on this information ﬁnd a value of α in the interval (0. do not use the numerical values used in the notes—leave everything general. . (a) For N ampliﬁer stages and a given value for α determine the relationship between Vin and Vout . and assume that the motor model is accurate. The feedback gain α is known precisely since it is much easier to design a circuit which provides accurate voltage division (as opposed to ampliﬁcation). 75]. The element in the feedback path is a constant 0 < α < 1.1. controller. The conﬁguration of the ﬁnal ampliﬁer is given in Figure E1.2. the minimal required number of ampliﬁer stages.) The following two exercises will recur as exercises in succeeding chapters.4 Derive the diﬀerential equations governing the behaviour of the coupled masses in Figure E1.

2 Coupled masses x θ Figure E1. the one connected to ground) has length 1 and mass θ1 θ2 Figure E1. E1. x. 0. 0. Linearise the equations about the points (x. and the second link has length 2 and mass m2 . 0). You may assume that there is no friction in the system. You may assume that . θ) = (x0 . ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ where x0 is arbitrary. The length of the pendulum arm is .3 Pendulum on a cart E1. θ. Derive the full equations which govern the motion of the system using coordinates (x..4 Double pendulum m1 . θ. so their centres of mass are located at their midpoint.e.6 Determine the full equations of motion for the double pendulum depicted in Figure E1. 0) and (x. θ) = (x0 . The links have a uniform mass density. x.16 1 An introduction to linear control theory x1 x2 22/10/2004 k m k m k Figure E1. θ) as in the ﬁgure.3. π. 0. The ﬁrst link (i.5 Consider the pendulum on a cart pictured in Figure E1. Here M is the mass of the cart and m is the mass of the pendulum.4.

8 For the circuit of Figure E1. derive a ﬁrst-order system of equations in two variables governing the behaviour of the system. As dependent variable for the circuit. E1.5 Electric circuit need to select two system variables. E1. the current through the inductor.5.6. the current through the capacitor.Exercises for Chapter 1 17 there is no friction in the system. E1. .6 Another electric circuit the resistor R1 in terms of the voltage E(t). Derive diﬀerential equations for the system as a ﬁrst-order system with two variables. To write equations for this system we R + E − C L Figure E1. use the volt- RL + E − L RC C Figure E1. determine a diﬀerential equation for the current through R1 + E − R2 C Figure E1.7 Yet another electric circuit age across the capacitor and the current through the inductor.7 Consider the electric circuit of Figure E1. Using IC . What are the equilibrium points for the double pendulum (there are four)? Linearise the equations about each of the equilibria.9 For the circuit of Figure E1. and IL .7.

then the velocity ﬂowing from a small √ nozzle at the bottom of the tank will be given by v = 2gh. Denote the water levels in the tanks by h1 and h2 . you must deﬁne the necessary variables yourself.9. and g. and h2 . Suppose that the system is in equilibrium (i.8 Coupled water tanks are not necessarily identical).2 in terms of a1 . where g is the gravitational acceleration. as well as the dependent variables h1 and h2 . Suppose that two tanks are conﬁgured as in Figure E1. Let us denote α = α1α1 2 .2 in terms of Fin and α. E1. give an expression for the volume ﬂow rates Fout. and that the cross-sectional areas of the tanks are A1 and A2 . a1 . This says that if a tank of uniform cross-section has ﬂuid level h. provide two coupled diﬀerential equations for the heights h1 and h2 in the tanks. In the next exercise we will consider a more complex and realistic model of ﬂow in coupled tanks. +α (a) Give an expression for the volume ﬂow rates Fin. The equations should be in terms of Fin . the heights in the tanks are constant) with the equilibrium height in tank 1 being δ1 . A2 .1 and Fout.11 Consider the coupled tanks shown in Figure E1.10 The mass ﬂow rate from a tank of water with a uniform cross-section can be roughly modelled as being proportional to the height of water in the tank which lies above the exit nozzle. h1 . α. Here we will use the Bernoulli equation for ﬂow from small oriﬁces. (c) Using mass balance (assume that the ﬂuid is incompressible so that mass and volume balance are equivalent). Now suppose that the areas of the output nozzles for the tanks are a1 and a2 .18 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 E1. the input is the volume ﬂow rate Fin which gets divided between the two tanks proportionally to the areas α1 and α2 of the two tubes. (b) Using the Bernoulli equation above.e. Determine the equations of motion which give the mass ﬂow rate from the bottom tank given the mass ﬂow rate into the top tank. a2 . a2 .1 and Fin.8 (the tanks Figure E1. In this problem.. (d) What is the equilibrium input ﬂow rate ν? (e) What is the height δ2 of ﬂuid in tank 2? . In this scenario. A1 .

1 A1 a1 Fout.2 A2 a2 Fout.2 α2 Figure E1.Exercises for Chapter 1 19 Fin α1 Fin.9 Another coupled tank scenario .1 Fin.

20 1 An introduction to linear control theory 22/10/2004 .

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