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Cyclic Quadrilaterals

Po-Shen Loh June 24, 2003

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**All You Need To Know (sort of )
**

• A quadrilateral is cyclic if and only if the sum of a pair of opposite angles is 180. • A quadrilateral is cyclic if and only if it satisﬁes power of a point; that is, if you let the diagonals intersect at X, then (AX)(CX) = (BX)(DX). Also, if AB ∩ CD = X, then (AX)(BX) = (CX)(DX). • A quadrilateral is cyclic if the problem says it is. • But if the problem doesn’t say a quadrilateral is cyclic, it might still be cyclic. • And even if the problem doesn’t seem to have any quadrilaterals at all, there might be a cyclic one. • (Almost) all of these problems involve cyclic quadrilaterals.

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Warm-Ups

1. Squat for 5 minutes straight. (note: this does not involve cyclic quadrilaterals) 2. Prove that if either of the above power-of-a-point relations hold, then the quadrilateral is cyclic.

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Problems

1. (USAMO90) An acute-angled triangle ABC is given in the plane. The circle with diameter AB intersects altitude CC and its extension at points M and N , and the circle with diameter AC intersects altitude BB and its extensions at P and Q. Prove that the points M , N , P , Q lie on a common circle. Solution: Angle chasing. B M C = B BN = 2B BA since H reﬂects onto N over AB (previous problem). But B BA = C CA by cyclic quads, and again that’s half of C CQ, and last cyclic quad sends us into B P C , which solves the problem. 2. (Razvan97) In triangle ABC, AB = AC. A circle tangent to the circumcircle is also tangent to AB and AC in P and Q. Prove that the midpoint M of P Q is the incenter of triangle ABC. 3. (Razvan98) Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral with AC ⊥ BD. Prove that the area of quadrilaterals AOCD and AOCB are equal, where O is the circumcenter. Solution: Use Brutal Force, shifting the horizontal or the vertical. 4. (Razvan97) In a circle, AB and CD are orthogonal diameters. A variable line passing through CC intersects AB in M and the circle in N . Find the locus of the intersection of the parallel to CD through M with the tangent in N . 5. (Razvan97) Let B and C be the endpoints, and A the midpoint, of a semicircle. Let M be a point on the side AC and P, Q ∈ BM , with AP ⊥ BM and CQ ⊥ BM . Prove that BP = P Q + QC.

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Let EF be a chord of ω2 passing through O. intersecting at A and B. let AB ∩ BC = E. and prove that ADGH is cyclic. (Razvan97) In an inscribed quadrilateral ABCD. (Razvan97) Let O be the circumcenter of triangle ABC. Solution: MOP98/IMO2/3 2 . (MOP98) Let D be an internal point on the side BC of a triangle ABC. (USAMOxx) Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral whose diagonals are orthogonal. and EP are concurrent. DG ⊥ AD. and AD the height. 7. G ∈ CB such tat CF ⊥ CB. and let γ be the circle with diameter XD. Prove that the line P Q is tangent to γ if and only if AB = AC. Prove that M and the circumcenters of M AB. Project points B and C on AO in E and F . (MOP98) Let ω1 and ω2 be two circles of the same radius.6. 2. C be collinear and M ∈ AB. and let the segment EF meet ω1 at Q. Solution: MOP98/12/3 4. CQ. and let P be the intersection of the diagonals. they are symmedians. The line AD meets the circumcircle of ABC again at X. 4 Harder Problems 1. B. respectively. and let CF ∩ DG = I. 3. DF ∩ AB = H. Prove that the four points that are symmetric to P with respect to the sides form a cyclic quadrilateral. Solution: Use isogonal conjucacy. Let P and Q be the feet of the perpendiculars from X to AB and AC. Prove that AB. Let F ∈ AB. and M AC lie on a circle. Let CD be a chord of ω1 passing through O. (Razvan97) Let A. Let O be the midpoint of AB. Prove that EI ⊥ AB. (Tucker’s Circle) Prove that the six endpoints of 3 equal segments inscribed in the angles of a triangle and antiparallel with the sides lie on a circle. M BC. Let DE ∩ AC = G. and let the segment CD meet ω2 at P . 8.

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