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Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Herbalism is also known as botanical medicine, medical herbalism,
herbal medicine, herbology, and phytotherapy. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and bee products, as well as minerals, shells and certain [1] animal parts . Many plants synthesize substances that are useful to the maintenance of health in humans and other animals. These include aromatic substances, most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins. Many are secondary metabolites, of which at least 12,000 have been isolated a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total. In many cases, these substances (particularly the alkaloids) serve as plant defense mechanisms against predation by microorganisms, insects, and herbivores. Many of [2][3] the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds.

Anthropology of herbalism
Further information: Zoopharmacognosy

People on all continents have used hundreds to thousands of indigenous plants for treatment of ailments since prehistoric times.The first generally accepted use of plants as healing agents was depicted in the cave paintings discovered in the Lascaux caves in France, which have been radiocarbon-dated to between 13,000-25,000 BC. Medicinal herbs were found in the personal effects of an "ice man", whose body was frozen in the Swiss Alps for more than 5,300 years. These herbs appear to have been used to treat the parasites found in his intestines. Anthropology or anthropologists theorize that animals evolved a tendency to seek out bitter plant parts in response to illness. Indigenous healers often claim to have learned by observing that sick animals change their food preferences to nibble at bitter herbs they would normally reject. Field biologists have provided corroborating evidence based on observation of diverse species, such as chimpanzees, chickens, sheep and butterflies. Lowland gorillas take 90% of their diet from the fruits of Aframomum melegueta, a relative of the ginger plant, that is a potent antimicrobial and apparently keeps shigellosis and similar infections at bay.[5] Researchers from Ohio Wesleyan University found that some birds select nesting material rich in antimicrobial agents which protect their young from harmful bacteria.
[7] [6] [4]

Sick animals tend to forage plants rich in secondary metabolites, such as tannins and alkaloids. Since these phytochemicals often have antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and [5] antihelminthic properties, a plausible case can be made for self-medication by animals in the wild. Some animals have digestive systems especially adapted to cope with certain plant toxins. For example, the koala can live on the leaves and shoots of the eucalyptus, a plant that is dangerous to most animals.[8] A plant that is harmless to a particular animal may not be safe for humans to ingest.[9] A reasonable conjecture is that these discoveries were traditionally collected by the medicine people of indigenous tribes, who then passed on safety information and cautions. The use of herbs and spices in cuisine developed in part as a response to the threat of food-born pathogens. Studies show that in tropical climates where pathogens are the most abundant, recipes are the most highly spiced. Further, the spices with the most potent antimicrobial activity tend to be selected.[10] In all cultures vegetables are spiced less than meat, presumably because they are more resistant to spoilage.[11]

Herbs in history

Borage from Project Gutenberg EBook of Culinary Herbs: Their Cultivation Harvesting Curing and Uses, by M. G. Kains In the written record, the study of herbs dates back over 5,000 years to the Sumerians, who described well-established medicinal uses for such plants as laurel, caraway, and thyme. Ancient Egyptian medicine of 1000 B.C. are known to have used garlic, opium, castor oil, coriander, mint, indigo, and other herbs for medicine and the Old Testament also mentions herb use and cultivation, including mandrake, vetch, caraway, wheat, barley, and rye. Indian Ayurveda medicine has been using herbs such as turmeric possibly as early as 1900 B.C.[12] Many other herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda were later described by ancient Indian herbalists such as Charaka and Sushruta during the 1st millenium BC. The Sushruta Samhita attributed to Sushruta in the 6th century BC describes 700 medicinal [13] plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources, and 57 preparations based on animal sources. The first Chinese herbal book, the Shennong Bencao Jing, compiled during the Han Dynasty but dating back to a much earlier date, possibly 2700 B.C., lists 365 medicinal plants and their uses - including ma-Huang, the shrub that introduced the drug ephedrine to modern medicine. Succeeding generations augmented on the Shennong Bencao Jing, as in the Yaoxing Lun (Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs), a 7th century Tang Dynasty treatise on herbal medicine. The ancient Greeks and Romans made medicinal use of plants. Greek and Roman medicinal practices, as preserved in the writings of Hippocrates and - especially - Galen, provided the patterns for later western medicine. Hippocrates advocated the use of a few simple herbal drugs - along with fresh air, rest, and proper diet. Galen, on the other hand, recommended large doses of drug mixtures - including plant, animal, and mineral ingredients. The Greek physician compiled the first European treatise on the properties and uses of medicinal plants, De Materia Medica. In the first century AD, Dioscorides wrote a compendium of more than 500 plants that remained an authoritative reference into the 17th century. Similarly important for herbalists and botanists of later centuries was the Greek book that founded the science of botany, Theophrastus Historia Plantarum, written in the fourth century B.C.

Thyme from Project Gutenberg EBook of Culinary Herbs: Their Cultivation Harvesting Curing and Uses, by M. G. Kains

Middle Ages
The uses of plants for medicine and other purposes changed little in early medieval Europe. Many Greek and Roman writings on medicine, as on other subjects, were preserved by hand copying of manuscripts in monasteries. The monasteries thus tended to become local centers of medical knowledge, and their herb gardens provided the raw materials for simple treatment of common disorders. At the same time, folk medicine in the home and village continues uninterrupted, supporting numerous wandering and settled herbalists. Among these were the wise-women, who prescribed herbal remedies often along with spells and enchantments. It was not until the late Middle Ages that women who were knowledgeable in herb lore became the targets of the witch hysteria. One of the most famous women in the herbal tradition was Hildegard of Bingen. A twelfth century Benedictine nun, she wrote a medical text called Causes and Cures. Medical schools known as Bimaristan began to appear from the 9th century in the medieval Islamic world, which was generally more advanced than medieval Europe at the [14] time. The Arabs venerated Greco-Roman culture and learning, and translated tens of thousands of texts into Arabic for further study. As a trading culture, the Arab travellers [15] had access to plant material from distant places such as China and India. Herbals, medical texts and translations of the classics of antiquity filtered in from east and west. Muslim botanists and Muslim physicians significantly expanded on the earlier knowledge of materia medica. For example, al-Dinawari described more than 637 plant drugs in [16] [17] the 9th century, and Ibn al-Baitar described more than 1,400 different plants, foods and drugs, over 300 of which were his own original discoveries, in the 13th century. The experimental scientific method was introduced into the field of materia medica in the 13th century by the Andalusian-Arab botanist Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, the teacher of Ibn al-Baitar. Al-Nabati introduced empirical techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and he separated unverified reports from those [18] supported by actual tests and observations. This allowed the study of materia medica to evolve into the science of pharmacology.

and lists 800 tested drugs. including nutmeg. myrrh. The two best-known herbals in English were The Herball or General History of Plants (1597) by John Gerard and The English Physician Enlarged (1653) by Nicholas Culpeper. and folklore was ridiculed by the physicians of his day yet his book . while Ibn al-Baitar (1197-1248) of Malaga authored the Corpus of Simples. an important source for later European herbals. Culpeper s blend of traditional medicine with astrology. G. cinammon. Book Two is devoted to a discussion of [14] the healing properties of herbs. magic. rhubarb. senna. The origins of clinical pharmacology also date back to the Middle Ages in Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine. folk medicine continued to thrive. Gerard s text was basically a pirated translation of a book by the Belgian herbalist Dodoens and his illustrations came from a German botanical work. The original edition contained many errors due to faulty matching of the two parts. plants and minerals. . Other pharmacopoeia books include that written by Abu-Rayhan Biruni in the 11th century and Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century (and printed in 1491). The Age of Exploration and the Columbian Exchange introduced new medicinal plants to Europe. aconite. In particular. the Canon introduced clinical trials.Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine (1025) is considered the first pharmacopoeia. by M.enjoyed phenomenal popularity. The continuing importance of herbs for the centuries following the Middle Ages is indicated by the hundreds of herbals published after the invention of printing in the fifteenth century. as was Al-Andalus between 800 and 1400. Theophrastus Historia Plantarum was one of the first books to be printed. and seventeenth centuries were the great age of herbals. and John of St Amand's [24] [25] [26][27] [28][29] Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas. Avicenna's Canon of Medicine and Avenzoar's pharmacopoeia were not far behind. randomized controlled trials. The Badianus Manuscript was an illustrated Aztec herbal translated into Latin in the 16th century. and nux [14][22] [20] [23] vomica. Baghdad was an important center for Arab herbalism. many of them available for the first time in English and other languages rather than Latin or Greek. Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac. The first herbal to be published in English was the anonymous Grete Herball of 1526. Kains Modern era The fifteenth. Alongside the university system.like Gerard s and other herbals . but Dioscorides De Materia Medica. sixteenth. [19][20] [21] Marjoram from Project Gutenberg EBook of Culinary Herbs: Their Cultivation Harvesting Curing and Uses. the most complete Arab herbal which introduced 200 new healing herbs. Abulcasis (936-1013) of Cordoba authored The Book of Simples. sandalwood. and rosewater. and efficacy tests. including tamarind.

chemical medicine .S. and sulfur). of the twentieth century: [30] A number of traditions came to dominate the practice of herbal medicine at the end y y y y y The "classical" herbal medicine system. Role of herbal medicine in modern human society Botánicas. however. Ayurvedic. herbal medicines can be grown from seed or gathered from nature for little or no cost. Herbal medicine is a major component in all traditional medicine systems. In comparison. led increasingly to the dominance of chemotherapy . per day. naturopathic. This began with the introduction of the physician. The World Health [31] Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the world's population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. copper sulfate. digitalis. half of which lives on less than $2 U. iron. The use of herbs to treat disease is almost universal among non-industrialized societies. and quinine. based on Greek and Roman sources The Siddha and Ayurvedic medicine systems from various South Asian Countries Chinese herbal medicine (Chinese herbology) (zh ngyào) Unani-Tibb medicine Shamanic herbalism: a catch-all phrase for information mostly supplied from South America and the Himalayas Many of the pharmaceuticals currently available to physicians have a long history of use as herbal remedies. candles decorated with prayers. and Native American medicine. followed by the rapid development of chemistry and the other physical sciences.as the orthodox system of the twentieth century. mercury. . homeopathic. the introduction of active chemical drugs (like arsenic. and a common element in Siddha. Massachusetts. lucky bamboo. such as this one in Jamaica Plain. Pharmaceuticals are [32][33][34][35] prohibitively expensive for most of the world's population.The second millennium. aspirin. including opium. traditional Chinese medicine. cater to the Latino community and sell herbal cures and folk medicine alongside statues of saints. and other items. also saw the beginning of a slow erosion of the pre-eminent position held by plants as sources of therapeutic effects.

Pharmacologists. and search for. and naturalproducts chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and leads that could be developed for treatment of various diseases. More than two thirds of the world's plant species . botanists. In fact.come from the developing countries. yellow and orange shades. . according to the World Health Organisation. The carotenoids in primrose produce bright red.000 of which are estimated to have medicinal value .The use of. 80 percent show a positive correlation [38] between their modern therapeutic use and the traditional use of the plants from which they are derived. violet and blue shades. approximately 25% of modern drugs used in the United States have been derived from plants. microbiologists.000 medical compounds in the modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plants [39] Biological background The anthocyanins in sweet violets produce deep red.at least 35.[verification needed] At least 7. drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years.[37][verification Among the 120 active compounds currently isolated from the higher plants and widely used in modern medicine today.[36] y y y y Three quarters of plants that provide active ingredients for prescription drugs came to the attention of researchers because of their use in traditional needed] medicine.

and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. The anthocyanins that give grapes their purple color. when it was isolated from a plant known as meadowsweet. Plants synthesize a bewildering variety of phytochemicals but most are derivatives of a few biochemical motifs. The carotenoids produce the reds. It is the secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs. Many alkaloids have dramatic effects on the central nervous system. For example. This medication was patented by Bayer AG. found in all plants. diterpenes and triterpenes are based on the number of isoprene units.[43] "Aspirin" was originally a brand name. The word drug itself comes from the Dutch word "druug" (via the French word Drogue). The aglycone is a molecule that is bioactive in its free form but inert until the glycoside bond is broken by water or enzymes. also known as "aspirin". The chemical profile of a single plant may vary over time as it reacts to changing conditions. These include primary metabolites.[40][41] The functions of secondary metabolites are varied.All plants produce chemical compounds as part of their normal metabolic activities. Caffeine is an alkaloid that provides a mild lift but the alkaloids in datura cause severe intoxication and even death. once prescribed by Hippocrates. and "in" was added at the end for easier pronunciation. This mechanism allows the plant to defer the availability of the molecule to an appropriate time. and digoxin from the foxglove. Pigments harvest light. which is converted in the body into salicylic acid. some useful ones found only in a particular genus or species. [42] y y y y Alkaloids contain a ring with nitrogen. Phenolics contain phenol rings. The word aspirin comes from an abbreviation of meadowsweet's Latin genus Spiraea. pollinators and microorganisms. Herbal philosophy . the isoflavones. the phytoestrogens from soy and the tannins that give tea its astringency are phenolics. Each terpene consists of two paired isoprenes. such as sugars and fats. The active ingredient in willow bark. morphine and codeine from the poppy. Some examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias. An example is the cyanoglycosides in cherry pits that release toxins only when bitten by a herbivore. with an additional "A" at the beginning to acknowledge acetylation. is salicin. The names monoterpenes. Terpenoids are built up from terpene building blocks. protect the organism from radiation and display colors to attract pollinators. Phytoalexins protect against bacterial and fungal attacks. Many common weeds have medicinal properties. which means 'dried plant'. some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation. yellows and oranges of pumpkin. similar to a safety lock on a gun. sesquiterpenes. Plants upregulate and downregulate their biochemical paths in response to the local mix of herbivores. Glycosides consist of a glucose moiety attached to an aglycone. Allelochemicals inhibit rival plants that are competing for soil and light. and secondary metabolites found in a smaller range of plants. and is still a protected trademark in some countries. quinine from the cinchona. The fragrance of rose and lavender is due to monoterpenes. corn and tomatoes. The discovery of salicylic acid would eventually lead to the development of the acetylated form acetylsalicylic acid.

However they claim that over the long term herbs can help the patient resist disease. Herbalists deny that herbal synergism can be duplicated with synthetic chemicals. provided the formulation of that herb is consistent. They argue that the different phytochemicals present in [45] many herbs will interact to enhance the therapeutic effects of the herb and dilute toxicity. Pharmaceutical researchers recognize the concept of drug synergism but note that clinical trials may be used to investigate the efficacy of a particular herbal preparation. Herbalists reject the notion of a single active ingredient. they argue that a single ingredient may contribute to multiple effects. Most herbalists concede that pharmaceuticals are more effective in emergency situations where time is of the essence. they provide nutritional and immunological support that pharmaceuticals lack. and that in addition.[48] [44] . such as the roots or leaves but not isolate particular phytochemicals. They view their goal as prevention as well as cure. They argue that phytochemical interactions and trace components may alter the drug [46][47] response in ways that cannot currently be replicated with a combination of a few putative active ingredients. Herbalists tend to use extracts from parts of plants. few generalizations apply universally. Furthermore. Nevertheless a rough consensus can be inferred. Pharmaceutical medicine prefers single ingredients on the grounds that dosage can be more easily quantified. An example would be where a patient had elevated blood pressure that posed imminent danger.Rosemary Since herbalism is such a diverse field.

Plants are subject to similar selection pressures as humans and therefore they must develop resistance to threats such as radiation. on the basis of their interpretation of evolutionary history.[54] In short herbalists view their field as the study of a web of relationships rather than a quest for single cause and a single cure for a single condition. etc. Certain strains of herbalism rely on sources that would be widely considered unreliable and would not be accepted in a scientifically oriented herbal journal. reactive oxygen species and microbial attack in order to survive. nutrition and ROS (reactive oxygen species) may all play a role in arterial disease. the Bible. teas or spices they have a huge consumer base and large-scale epidemiological studies become feasible.[53] Herbalists claim a single herb may simultaneously address several of these factors. They favor the use of convergent information in assessing the medical value of plants. [55] For example. Because herbs can moonlight as vegetables. Ethnobotanical studies are another source of information.[52] Human diseases are multifactorial and may be treated by consuming the chemical defences that they believe to be present in herbs.[51] Optimal chemical defenses have been selected for and have thus developed over millions of years. not necessarily shared by the pharmaceutical community. These include astrology. Herbalists would argue that cases of synergy can be widely generalized. [49] [50] Popularity . Herbalists [56] contend that historical medical records and herbals are underutilized resources.Thai chili peppers contain capsaicin In specific cases the claims of synergy and multifunctionality have been supported by science. inflammation. dreams. Likewise a factor such as ROS may underly more than one condition. intuition. In selecting herbal treatments herbalists may use forms of information that are not applicable to pharmacists. plant spirits . when [citation needed] indigenous peoples from geographically dispersed areas use closely related herbs for the same purpose that is taken as supporting evidence for its efficacy. The open question is how widely both can be generalized. An example would be when in-vitro activity is consistent with traditional use. Bacteria.

According to this survey. Apotheke). University of Lincoln and Napier University in Edinburgh at the present. University of Central Lancashire. for example. Many herbalists. or use of natural products other than vitamins and minerals.9%) when all use of prayer [57][58] was excluded. Types of herbal medicine systems Dioscorides Materia Medica. c. although the sale of some herbs considered dangerous is often restricted to the public. The survey was limited to adults. Prescription drugs are sold alongside essential [59] oils. Herbal remedies are very common in Europe. aged 18 years and over during 2002. Herbal remedies are seen by some as a treatment to be preferred to chemical medications which have been industrially produced. For example. In the United Kingdom. the training of medical herbalists is done by state funded Universities. or herbal teas.. 1334 copy in Arabic. In Germany. herbal medications are dispensed by apothecaries (e. Bachelor of Science degrees in herbal medicine are offered at Universities such as University of East London. Sometimes such herbs are provided to professional herbalists by specialist companies. University of Westminster. living in the United States. both professional and amateur. often grow or "wildcraft" their own herbs. . was the most commonly used CAM therapy (18. and why it was used. herbal therapy. Use of medicinal plants can be as informal as. what was used. describes medicinal features of cumin and dill. Middlesex University. culinary use or consumption of an herbal tea or supplement.A survey released in May 2004 by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine focused on who used complementary and alternative medicines (CAM).g. herbal extracts.

diarrhoea and inflammation [citation needed] Routes of administration See also: Drying of herbs and spices The exact composition of a herbal product is influenced by the method of extraction. Macerates . Vinegars . A tisane will be rich in polar components because water is a polar solvent.g. One idea is that the yin-yang balance. His system has been [64] taught to thousands of influential American herbalists through his own apprenticeship programs during his lifetime. A completed tincture has a ethanol percentage of at least 40-60% (sometimes up to 90%).) Tisanes . Plants are chopped and added to cold water. usually with an ethanol percentage of 12-38% Herbal wine is a maceration of herbs in wine. the William LeSassier Archive and the David Winston Center for Herbal Studies[65] Many traditional African remedies have performed well in initial laboratory tests to ensure they are not toxic and in tests on animals. Oil on the other hand is a non-polar solvent and it will absorb non-polar compounds. Alcohol lies somewhere in between. similar to physiomedicalism and bridged the European and Native American traditions to divide herbs into foods. such as chamomile. vodka.Cold infusion of plants with high mucilage-content as sage. Usually obtained by combining 100% pure ethanol (or a mixture of 100% ethanol with water) with the herb. [63] chosen to balance "Vata". Topicals: o Essential oils .Alcoholic extracts of herbs such as echinacea extract. They are then left to stand for 7 to 12 [67] hours (depending on herb used). a herb used in traditional treatments. medicines and toxins and to use seven plants in the treatment of disease. drained or neutrally nourished the main organ systems affected and three associated systems[citation needed]. which is defined with both spiritual and physiological aspects. has been tested in rats by researchers from Nigeria's University of Jos and the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development. corresponds to the pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant balance. etc. In India.Hot water extracts of herb. Decoctions . usually diluted in a carrier oil (many essential oils can burn the skin or are simply too high dose used [68] straight diluting in olive oil or another food grade oil can allow these to be used safely as a topical). at least with regard to herbs. according to [62] Cherokee herbalist David Winston. thyme. Gawo passed tests for toxicity and reduced induced fevers. . This interpretation is supported by several investigations of the ORAC ratings of various yin and yang herbs. "Pitta" or "Kapha. [67] [67] Herbal wine and elixirs .Long-term boiled extract of usually roots or bark. etc. According to [66] research in the African Journal of Biotechnology.[60][61] .Prepared at the same way as tinctures.These are alcoholic extract of herbs.Application of essential oil extracts. except using a solution of acetic acid as the solvent. Cherokee medicine tends Eclectic medicine came out of the vitalist tradition. Ayurvedic medicine has quite complex formulas with 30 or more ingredients. including a sizable number of ingredients that have undergone "alchemical processing"." In addition there are more modern theories of herbal combination like William LeSassier's triune formula which combined Pythagorean imagery with Chinese medicine ideas and resulted in 9 herb formulas which supplemented. There are many forms in which herbs can be administered.Some researchers trained in both western and traditional Chinese medicine have attempted to deconstruct ancient medical texts in the light of modern science. For most macerates 10 hours is used. grappa.. Gawo. these include: y y y y y y y Tinctures . while an elixir is a maceration of herbs in spirits (e.

Most topical applications are oil extractions of herbs. thus providing a scientific rationale for this traditional use. This oil can then be made into salves. antibacterial salves and wound healing compounds are made this way. [67] A nebulisate is a dry extract created by freeze-drying. [70][71] [72][citation needed] Inhalation as in aromatherapy can be used as a mood changing treatment to fight a sinus infection or cough .y y y y Salves. They can then be further refined to a capsule or tablet. Alfalfa is also considered a health food.One can also make a poultice or compress using whole herb (or the appropriate part of the plant) usually crushed or dried and rehydrated with a small amount of water and then applied directly in a bandage.[80] Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) may have a role in preventing oral cancer. Echinacea purpurea) extracts may limit the length and severity of rhinovirus colds. Just as Hippocrates said "Let food be thy medicine". while a later review (from 2007) concludes that the cumulative evidence supports the use of aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns. viruses and yeast. lotions. [92] Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos) may be effective in treating urinary tract infections in women with recurrent symptoms. o Poultices and compresses .[75][76] Agaricus blazei mushrooms may prevent some types of cancer. Sixty five parts of sugar are mixed with 35 parts of water and herb. investigations or in-vitro assays and therefore cannot provide more than weak supportive evidence. They can (and are usually) made by vacuum distilling tinctures.Include liquid extracts.This can occur in either dried form (herbal powder). Echinacea pallida. dry extracts and nebulisates. (fresh leaves and other plant parts). it has become clear that eating vegetables also easily fits within this category of getting health through consumables (besides medicinal herbs). which might be higher than is available over-the-counter. cloth or just as is. Taking a food grade oil and soaking herbs in it for anywhere from weeks to months allows certain phytochemicals to be extracted into the oil. oils. Syrups . fights bacteria. the appropriate [93][94] dosage levels. Extracts . Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaf has drawn the attention of the cosmetology community because it interferes with the metalloproteinases that contribute to skin wrinkling. . All of the vitamins. or fresh juice. The whole is then boiled and macerated for [67] three weeks. require further research. or simply used as an oil for topical application. Garlic lowers cholesterol. Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia. Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) Calendula (Calendula officinalis) has been used traditionally for abdominal cramps and constipation. [73] Many of the studies cited refer to animal model y y y y y y y y y y Aloe vera has traditionally been used for the healing of burns and wounds.[81][82][83] Boophone (Boophone disticha) This highly toxic plant has been used in South African traditional medicine for treatment of mental illness [84]. balms. There is "limited [90][91] evidence" that calendula cream or ointment is effective in treating radiation dermatitis. creams. There are clearly some whole herbs consumed that are more powerful than others. A systematic review (from 1999) states that the efficacy of aloe vera in promoting wound healing is unclear. creams and lotions . Any massage oils. mainly because of inadequate testing. minerals and antioxidants are phytochemicals that we are accessing through our diet. Liquid extracts are liquids with a lower ethanol percentage than tinctures. Research demonstrate in [85][86][87] vitro and in vivo effect against depression. however.Extracts of herbs made with syrup or honey.[88] In animal research an aqueous-ethanol extract of Calendula [89] officinalis flowers was shown to have both spasmolytic and spasmogenic effects. Whole herb consumption . or to cleanse the skin on a deeper [citation needed] level (steam rather than direct inhalation here) o Examples of plants used as medicine Main article: List of plants used as medicine Few herbal remedies have conclusively demonstrated any positive effect on humans. improves blood flow. [74] . Shiitake mushrooms boost the immune system and are also tasty so they are enjoyed in soups or other food preparations for the cold and flu [69] season.[77] [78] [79] Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) may reduce production cholesterol levels according to in vitro studies and a small clinical study. Dry extracts are extracts of plant material which are evaporated into a dry mass.

[133] Oregano (Origanum vulgare) may be effective against multi-drug resistant bacteria. In vitro chamomile has demonstrated moderate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and significant antiplatelet activity. Rauvolfia Serpentina. antiinflammatory and some antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering effects [105] in animal research. as well as preliminary results against cancer. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus). administered daily as an aqueous extract of the fresh leaf. May be useful in wound healing. Topical treatments have been used for [citation needed] acne and other ailments. and dihydrochalcones. [116] Magnolia [117] Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts have been recognized for many centuries as "liver tonics.[142] Rooibos has traditionally been used for skin ailments. [119][120][121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130] antifungal. Both a water extract and fresh juice of shiitake have [154][155] demonstrated antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi in vitro. high risk of toxicity if improperly used Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) contains a number of phenolic compounds. however. It can be applied topically or taken internally. worms). . allergies. is unclear. Pomegranate contains the highest percentage of ellagitannins of any commonly consumed juice. a rooibos constituent improved [144] glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells and glucose uptake in muscle tissue. anti-inflammatory and immune modulating effects. [136][137] Peppermint oil may have benefits for individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. including cancer-preventing properties.y y y y y Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) may speed the recovery from type A and B influenza.[143] In an animal study with diabetic mice. is the highest [138] [139][140] molecular weight polyphenol known. as well as increasing HDL cholesterol levels. and high blood pressure. [152] Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) are edible mushrooms that have been reported to have health benefits. effectively decreased nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in a human clinical trial. a [98][99][100] more recent RTC showed favorable results Feverfew is not recommended for pregnant women as it may be dangerous to the fetus. anxiolytic.". Supported in some studies.[96] [97] Feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium) is sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. has shown promise in animal tests [104] Garlic (Allium sativum) may lower total cholesterol levels German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) has demonstrated antispasmodic. aspalathin. asthma and colic in infants. Research suggests that milk thistle extracts both prevent and [118] repair damage to the liver from toxic chemicals and medications. has lowered total cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose levels in rats. Phytolacca or Pokeweed is used as a homeopathic remedy to treat many ailments. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) has demonstrated analgesic properties in mice. antifungal and antibacterial effect. flavones. an ellagitannin unique to pomegranate. administered in 250 mg capsules for four days. [149] Salvia lavandulaefolia may improve memory [150] [151] Saw Palmetto can be used for BPH. It is used as a treatment for tonsilitis. The mechanism for this effect. a traditional herbal medicine in West Africa. [134] [135] Pawpaw can be used as insecticide (killing lice. Rose hips show anti COX [148] activity. and have been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in mice. However few randomized double blind studies have been published. anxiety.[113] [114] [115] Honey may reduce cholesterol. including flavanols. [108] [95] y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Ginger (Zingiber officinale). [145][146][147] Rose hips Small scale studies indicate that hips from Rosa canina may provide benefits in the treatment of osteoarthritis.[101][102] [103] Gawo (Faidherbia albida). Although many reviews of Feverfew studies show no or unclear efficacy. flavanones. In [153] laboratory research a shiitake extract has inhibited the growth of tumor cells through induction of apoptosis. However it is possibly risky in the case of avian influenza because the immunostimulatory effects may aggravate the cytokine cascade. Punicalagin. . used extensively in India for sleeplessness. [141] [citation needed] .[109][110] [111] [112] Green tea (Camelia sinensis) components may inhibit growth of breast cancer cells and may heal scars faster. Ocimum gratissimum[131][132] and tea tree oil can be used to treat acne. Ellagitannins are metabolized into urolithins by gut flora. flavonols. anticancer. In vitro studies support antibacterial. Toxicity tested low except for an isolated case of damage to the testes of a rat after prolonged and excessive consumption. swollen glands and weight loss. Lemon grass administration had no effect on triglyceride levels. failed to confirm in others.[106][107] Essential oil of chamomile was shown to be a promising antiviral agent against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Purified extracts of the seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa may have some antihypertensive.

and herbal medicines. John's wort to be no better than a placebo in treating depression However. Black cohosh has been implicated in a case of liver failure.000 patients died from and 2. but even products made to the same specification may differ as a result of biochemical variations [176] within a species of plant. Examples of highly toxic herbs include poison hemlock and nightshade.[156] [157] St.[168] In-vitro tests show antiinflammatory [169] [170] [171] action. Although not frequent.[177] They are not marketed to the public as herbs. proving more effective than a placebo for the treatment of mild to moderate depression in some clinical trials A [158] subsequent. The Cochrane Database cautions that the data on St. John's wort for depression are conflicting and ambiguous. without proven efficacy. John's wort. A 2004 meta-analysis concluded that the positive results can be explained by publication [163] [164][165] bias but later analyses have been more favorable. "magic" and intrigue. A case of major potassium depletion has been attributed to chronic licorice ingestion. herbal products may have contamination that is a safety consideration. 106. may be used to replace medicines that have a proven efficacy.2 million were seriously injured by adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in the year 1994 (Journal of the American Medical Association [2]).y y y y y Soy and other plants that contain phytoestrogens (plant molecules with estrogen activity) (black cohosh probably has serotonin activity) have some benefits for treatment of symptoms resulting from menopause. herbal medicines offer an inexpensive and safe alternative to pharmaceuticals.S. partly due to a long and colorful history in Europe. Herbal medicines may interact with synthetic drugs causing toxicity to the patient. In consultation with a physician. found St. adverse reactions have been reported for herbs in widespread use. In another rodent study it reduced platelet aggregation.[166] Stinging nettle In some clinical studies effective for enign prostatic hyperplasia[167] and the pain associated with osteoarthritis. stinging nettle reduced LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. [178] [179] associated with "sorcery". In a rodent model.[184] Certain herbs as well as common fruit interfere with cytochrome P450.[175] In addition. an enzyme critical to drug metabolism.[182][183] Herb drug interactions are a concern. controlled trial. Plants have chemical defense mechanisms against predators that can have adverse or lethal effects on humans. usage of herbal remedies should be clarified. Clinical studies show mixed results and researchers note that many trials are of poor quality. Dangerously low blood pressure may result from the combination of an herbal remedy that lowers blood pressure together with prescription medicine that has the same effect. [172][173][174] Valerian root can be used to treat insomnia. which has just 4% of the world's population. more recent trials have shown [159][160][161] [162] positive results or positive trends that failed significance. has yielded positive results. Proper double-blind clinical trials are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of each plant before they can be recommended for medical use.[73] Standardization of purity and dosage is not mandated in the United States. many consumers believe that herbal medicines are safe because they are natural. as some herbal remedies have the potential to cause adverse drug interactions when used in combination with various prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals. Some herbs may amplify the effects of anticoagulants. On occasion serious untoward [180] outcomes have been linked to herb consumption. because the risks are well known. however. In the U. large.[181] Few studies are available on the safety of herbs for pregnant women.[185] Effectiveness .. Vanilla Risks to health In some cases.

[186] Many herbs have shown positive results in-vitro. with many trials lacking an intention to [189] treat analysis or a comment on whether blinding was successful. To recoup the considerable costs of testing to the regulatory standards. this study used a matched pair design and excluded all herbal trials that were not controlled." The gold standard for pharmaceutical testing is repeated. published equal numbers of trials with positive and negative results. large-scale. on the other hand. In high impact journals. The quality of the trials on herbal remedies is highly variable and many trials of herbal treatments have been found to be of poor quality.Running total of the number of research papers listed on PubMed from 1990-2007 containing the word "phytotherapy. Herbalists criticize mainstream studies on the grounds that they make insufficient use of historical usage. species. High impact factor mainstream medical journals. The few randomized. the substances are patented and marketed by pharmaceutical companies. This preference may be due to the possibility of location bias for such trials. Some plant products or pharmaceutical drugs derived from them are incorporated into medicine. studies published in peer-reviewed medical journals such as Journal of the American Medical Association receive more consideration than those published in specialized herbal journals. animal model or small-scale clinical tests but many studies on herbal treatments have also found negative results. double-blind tests that receive attention in medical publications are often questioned on methodological grounds or interpretation. trials finding positive results were also found to have lower quality scores than trials finding negative results. [187] [188] . did not use a placebo or did not use random or quasi random assignment. Likewise. double-blind tests.[188] Another study reported that some clinical studies of [190] herbal medicines were not inferior to similar medical studies. randomized. However. time of harvesting and target population. One study found that non-impact factor alternative medicine journals published more studies with positive results than negative results and that trials finding positive results were of lower quality than trials finding negative results. [191] They maintain that tradition can guide the selection of factors such as optimal dose. which has no relevance to the medical efficacy of a product's usage.

One herb (Stephania tetrandra) was swapped for another (Aristolochia fangchi) whose name in Chinese was extremely similar but which contained higher levels of a renal [194][195] toxin. safety testing and prescription by a qualified practitioner. However different specimens of even the same plant species may vary in chemical content.). since certain samples may contain more or less of a given active ingredient. herbal medicines are now regulated under the European Directive on Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products.[62] In the UK.[199] Yet others agree with the need for more quality testing but believe it can be managed through reputation [200] without government intervention. At one end of the spectrum. Note that neither herb used in a TCM context would be used for weight loss or given for long periods of time. examining the products and factory conditions of member companies. On the other hand. there are fewer varieties of dosages for various herbal treatments on the market. However. the industry's largest trade association. Several methods of standardization may be applied to herbs.S. and the same (or a very similar) common name might group together different plant species with different effects. others are in [citation needed] favor of legally enforced quality standards. [citation needed] . as in the US[citation needed]. herbal remedies prescribed and dispensed by a qualified "Medical Herbalist". in 1993 in Belgium. medical doctors created a formula including some Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs for weight loss. this mistake resulted in 105 cases of kidney damage. Some professional herbalist organizations have made statements calling for a category of regulation for herbal products. most herbal remedies are regulated as dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration. Another method is standardization on a signal chemical. In the United States. In Chinese medicine these herbs are used for certain forms of acute arthritis and edema.Dosage is in general an outstanding issue for herbal treatments: while most medicines are heavily tested to determine the most effective and safest dosages (especially in [citation needed] Furthermore. after a personal consultation. drug interactions. some herbalists maintain that traditional remedies have a long [citation needed] history of use. In the EU. though the FDA may withdraw a product from sale should it prove harmful. aristolochic acid. giving them the right to display the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) seal of approval on their products. etc. has run a program since 2002. medicines taken in whole form cannot generally guarantee a consistent dosage or drug quality. and do not require the level of safety testing as xenobiotics or single ingredients in an artificially concentrated form. are regulated as medicines. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health began funding clinical trials into the effectiveness of herbal [193] medicine. herbal relation to things like body weight. Name confusion The common names of herbs (folk taxonomy) may not reflect differences in scientific taxonomy. The legal status of herbal ingredients varies by country.[201][202] The National Nutritional Foods Association.[196][197][198] Standards and quality control The issue of regulation is an area of continuing controversy in the EU and USA. Manufacturers of products falling into this category are not required to prove the safety or efficacy of their product. herbal remedies that are bought over the counter are regulated as supplements.[192] Clinical studies In 2004 the U. One is the ratio of raw materials to solvent. For example.

Forthcoming changes to laws Some herbs. are intended to ensure the quality of herbal products used[citation needed]. official website of the National Institute of Medical Herbalists. paclitaxel).000 years to fight cancer. one of the governing bodies for herbalists in the United Kingdom American Herbalists Guild.An Association of Herbal Practitioners. the sales of ephedra as an dietary supplement is prohibited in the United States by the Food [203] and Drug Administration. such as cannabis. official website of the American Herbalists Guild Herbalist y y y Herb Research Foundation Research and educational foundation. Hoodia (from Namibia. dementia and heart disease). official website Irish Institute of Medical Herbalists. one of the governing bodies for herbalists in the United Kingdom College of Practitioners of Phytotherapy official website for College of Practitioners of Phytotherapy. covered by Schedule III of the Medicines Act regulating herbal products in the UK. the Botanic Gardens Conservation International (representing botanic gardens in 120 countries) stated that "400 medicinal plants are at risk of extinction. Since 2004. 2008." These included Yew trees (the bark is used for cancer drugs. from over-collection and deforestation. [citation needed] . source of weight loss drugs). half of Magnolias (used as Chinese medicine for 5. official website of the Irish Institute of Medical Herbalists. threatening the discovery of future cures for disease. which is the professional organisation for herbalists in Ireland National Institute of Medical Herbalists. . Herb Monograph Database In depth collection of monographs. The American Botanical Council Research and educational foundation. and Autumn crocus (for gout). official website of the IAur Foundation National Herbalists Association of Australia. The group also found that 5 billion people benefit from traditional plant-based medicine for health care[204] See also y y y y y y Anesthesia Ayurveda Bach flower remedies Chinese herbology Doctrine of signatures Electrohomeopathy y y y y y y y Ethnobotany European Directive on Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Gemmotherapy Herb garden History of alternative medicine Home remedy Homeopathy y y y y y y y King's American Dispensatory List of plants used as medicine Medicinal mushrooms National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Naturopathic medicine Pharmacognosy Siddha Associations y y y y y y Sri Lanken Herbal Medicine.A Medical Herbalist can prescribe some herbs which are not available over the counter. Danger of extinction On January 18. are outright banned in most countries.

worms. and leprosy. fever and flu and other bronchopulmonary disorders Alleviate symptoms of Chicken Pox Removal of worms. colds. most of the parts of the lagundi plant are associated with medicinal value. It can be described as a cross between a shrub and a tree with a single woody stem (trunk). boils. Herbal Benefits of Lagundi: Preparation & Use: Relief of asthma & pharyngitis Recommended relief of rheumatism. and possible nutrient depletions Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's About Herbs. lagundi is becoming recognized as an effective herbal medicine. University of Maryland site about alternative medicine: uses. the flowers are recommended as a cardiac tonic. A decoction (boiling in water) of the roots and leaves of Lagundi are applied to wounds. A decoction is made by boiling the parts of the plant and taken orally. and pharyngitis. More than that. Studies have shown that Lagundi can prevent the body's production of leukotrienes. Commonly known in the Ilocos region as dangla. The leaves. flu. Today. Duke's Ethnobotanical Databases. dyspepsia. and used as aromatic baths for skin diseases. and other internal disorders such as diarrhea and cholera. especially since researches have shown that it contains properties that make it an expectorant and it has been reported to function as a tonic as well. seeds. Plant Description: The Lagundi plant can grow up to five meters tall. It is one of the ten herbal medicines endorsed by the Philippine Department of Health as an effective herbal medicine with proven therapeutic value. lagundi has been clinically tested to be effective in the treatment of colds. colic and rheumatism. apply the decoction of leaves and roots directly on skin. bronchial asthma. chronic bronchitis. and root of Lagundi can all be used as herbal medicine. For skin diseases or disorders. For its part. flowers. and its cooling effects are ideal as treatment for skin diseases such as leprosy. dyspepsia. Boiled seeds are eaten in order to .y y y y y HerbMed Research and educational foundation. diarrhea Treatment of cough. which are released during an asthma attack. Even in Japan. Drink half cup three times a day. a substance with anti-histamine and muscle relaxant properties. boils. Lagundi contains Chrysoplenol D. boils. possible prescription drug interactions. and boils Boil half cup of chopped fresh or dried leaves in 2 cups of water for 10 to 15 minutes. Lagundi tablets (300 mg) are available from the Department of Health's Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) Telephone # (632) 7276199. The roots of this shrub are also used as treatment for rheumatism. Lagundi is available in capsule form and syrup for cough. Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases Dr. as cure for liver diseases. The lagundi plant also has anti-inflammatory functions. The root is specially good for treating dyspepsia. Medline All Herbs and Supplements. Botanicals & Other Products Free database on herbs Lagundi (scientific name: Vitex negundo) is a shrub that grows in the Philippines. One of Lagundi's distinctive features is its pointed leaves with five leaflets set like a hand.

it is now being recommended to be taken half an hour before one s travel to avoid being travelsick and experience nausea during the voyage. Ginger helps in the digestion and absorption of food. antiviral. For cuts & bruises. Pregnant women should take precautionary measures in taking luyang dilaw for medicinal purposes although it has been proven that none of the plant s substances triggers adverse side effects. Its edible roots. While a decoction of the plant leaves is suggested to be taken by individuals to help increase the flow and production of milk. These uses are separate and distinct from the nutritional value of luyang dilaw. As an herbal medicine. The taste of luyang dilaw is distinct. The rootstocks of this erect. For rheumatism and muscle pains. Zingiberaceae. which come from the extract and active constituents of the plant. pound roasted or fresh ginger and apply to painful areas -can be mixed with oil for easy application. Luyang dilaw has antifungal. tops. Recent studies have shown that luyang dilaw had been found with traces of antiemetic properties. and even cholera. Juice extracted from the flowers of lagundi is taken in as an aid for disorders like fever. Medicinal Benefits of Luyang Dilao (Ginger Root): Preparation & Use: Relieves rheumatic pains & muscle pains Alleviates sore throat. it has been found to contain potent anti-oxidant qualities. apply the juice of luyang-dilao directly to the skin or use dried rhizomes with 70% alcohol then apply to afflicted areas. Luyang Dilaw. gas pains Relieve indigestion (dyspepsia). or Ginger Root (scientific name: Zingiber officinale) belongs to the family of. cough. This herbal plant is not recommended for expectant mothers for the very reason that there is a possibility of inhibition of testosterones that binds the fetus. antiseptic. and even its leaves are found to have medicinal value. as its scientific name signifies. remove the skin and chew small portions. . as a result of some of the properties that luyang dilaw contains. as well as to induce menstruation. The rhizomes of luyang dilaw is mainly associated as the main ingredient in a very popular local beverage. diarrhea. which is salabat. In the same way. lowering of cholesterol. For sore throat and tooth ache. even when it interacts with other drugs. giving the plant its pungent properties. toothaches Lower cholesterol levels Aids treatment of tuberculosis Boil the ginger root in water and drink. alleviating nausea and vomiting. The more concentrated the better. Luyang Dilaw has long been used as a cold. fever. liver disorders. smooth plant are thick. and antiinflammatory properties as well. Thus. fever and colds Ease nausea and vomiting Intestinal disorders and slow digestion Relief from tympanism and flatulence Treat intestinal worms Hinder diarrhea. and have strong aromatic qualities. and sore throat remedy. brought about by the zingerone and shogoal substances that it has.prevent the spreading of toxins and venom from bites of poisonous animals.

vertigo and epilepsy. hypertension. Three or four drops of essence on a little brown sugar three times a day. loss of appetite ( 1 drop of essence on brown sugar and taken half an hour before each meal). the cinnamon tree and is used for coughs and irritations of the respiratory organs. bronchitis. vertigo and wounds. diarrhea and flatulence.the essence of cinnamon is distilled from the leaves and bark of. civic organizations and the like Herbal medicine' gardens began to sprout barangays. vertigo. rheumatism afflicted parts of the body.the essence off coriander is a remedy for joint and rheumatic pains (mix warm olive oil. alleviate anemia. Don't exceed six consecutive days. vertigo (3 drops of essence on brown sugar when the attack occurs).Herbal Medicine Posted by --The growing popularity of medicine plants has caught the interest of local barangays. slow digestion (2 drops of essence on brown sugar after each meal). three times a day. BASIL . scanty menstruation. one drop per day for each year of the child's age. . asthma. Three drops of Basil essence is also a remedy for gout. CAMOMILE . eczema. Camomile also cures loss of appetite. ANISE . gastric spasm. It is used to cure scabies.the oil of this herb is good for dry pleurisy. dent groups. Contests also were conducted by civil groups. sore throat. slow intermittent fever. loss of appetite.the essential oil is rubbed on gout. mental strain. impotence. rheumatism and worms. taken three times a day. boils. calms anxiety.the essence of cloves. NSTA and its concerned agencies in itiated training programs in the regions wit a view to promoting the program to loc leaders and medical practitioners. lactation. facila neuralgia. diarrhea. with a maximum of five drops per day. flatulence. spasmodic colic. flatulence. between meals.oil from the leaves is used on burns and injuries. take two drops of Anise essence on a little brown sugar. mixed with a 10 per cent alcohol solution. For insufficiency of milk. rheumatism. CARAWAY . measles. gout. EUCALYPTUS . CORIANDER .better known as a seasoning. influenza. Even health clinics began prescribing medicines either in prepared formulations dosages from raw plants taken from the community. snake bites. influenza. migraine. school campuses and backyard. Three or four drops of camomile essence on a little brown sugar. laryngitis. and scarlet fever. stomach cramps. NSTA target is to set up regional production plan for the manufacture of drugs out of these plants so that people in the regions will have easy access to cheap medicines. worms and diminished amount of urine. is applied on insect bites (1 drop of essence) and snake bites.is a remedy for arteriosclerosis. dermatitis. convulsions. sinusitis.the essence of this plant is used to cure asthma. migraine. dental neuralgia. CLOVES . colic in infants. asthma. and 10 per cent coriander essence and rub on afflicted area). dropsy. diabetes. Basil essence. worms and diseases of the lungs such as bronchitis and pleurisy. For asthma. GARLIC . and herpes. migraine. It is also a remedy for asthma. for colic in infants. rheumatism. depression. dyspepsia. loss of memory. and teething troubles in children. three drops on a little amount of sugar. congestion of the liver or spleen. municipal/provincial governments. palpitations and insufficiency of milk in lactating mothers. st. insomnia. and flatulence. sinusitis. colds. is rubbed on Lupus afflicted parts of the anatomy. CINNAMON . three times a day. measles.

liver ailments.the essence is extracted from the roots and applied externally for rheumatic pains. indigestion. brittle nails (soak nails for 15 minutes in warm olive oil with 10% essence of lemon). herpes (dab with cotton wool soaked in water with 2% lemon essence). hypertension (3 drops of lemon essence on brown sugar after every meal). diuretic and purgative. slow digestion and sluggish liver (2 drops of essence after a meal).the essence of peppermint is a remedy for asthma. food poisoning. bronchitis. arteriosclerosis (5 drops on brown sugar 3 or 4 times a day). paralysis. colic (5 drops on a bit of brown sugar after meals. LAUREL . malaria (5 drops of essence on brown sugar four times a day). dizzy spells. The leaves in decoction are also used to treat bronchitis and asthma. being used in the same manner as senna. migraine and rheumatism. asthma. flatulence. by per viscosity of the blood. bronchitis. migraine. and mental and physical 'strain. Banahaw. and as a gargle for sore throat. . diarrhea.(no English) . slow digestion and flatulence. dysmenorrhea. pleurisy. 'lung problems such as bronchitis. ONION . PEPPERMINT . diabetes. dysentery.the essence of onion is used externally for abscesses (bathe with the water in which an onion has been cooked). and boils and stings (dab with onion alcohol preparation).(Ringworm Bush) . The leaves are reported to be sudorific. warts. Raw onion is a remedy for the following: ageing. liver complaints (3 drops. ROSEMARY .the essence of turmeric eases pain in the bones (rub with lukewarm sweet almond oil and 5% of oil of turmeric). of essence on brown sugar after every meal). it is for loss of appetite.general debility (4 drops on brown sugar before each meal). colds. impotence obesity.Parts used: leaves Akapulko is a shrub that grows wild on Mt. Used also for colic (4 drops of essence on brown sugar three times a day).Parts used: leaves . heart trouble 'of nervous origin. For more information. arteriosclerosis. diarrhea. The essential oil of turmeric must be used in moderation and with care for a fairly limited period.the essence of lemon' is applied on insect bites and stings (1 drop of essence). Alagau . .the essence of bay laurel is a remedy for rheumatism (mix with olive oil 10% of essential oil of laurel and rub on afflicted area) and for slow digestion (3 drops on a little. loss of calcium. wounds (bathe with boiled water and 2% of lemon essence). loss of appetite. palpitations. It is a remedy for anemia (5 drops of essence on brown sugar half an hour before meals). intestinal disorders. and infectious diseases. LEMON .used for asthma. chronic bronchitis.PREMA ODORATA Blanco . jaundice. Lemon essence is also good for preventing facial wrinkles (four drops of essence do brown sugar after every meal forestalls ageing). fragile capillaries. flatulence. Other diseases cured by lemon essence include influenza. diarrhea. liver ailments. Internally. and is used as mouthwash.CASSIA ALATA Linn. migraine. Akapulko . The leaves contain chrysophanic acid. flatulence. slow digestion. brown sugar after each meal). fainting spells. The leaves are commonly used for ringworm and other skin diseases. and rheumatism (3 drops on a lump of brown sugar after every meal. TURMERIC (Yellow Ginger) . anorexia (two drops of essence on a little brown sugar taken half an hour before meal). glandular imbalance. sore throat (gargle with lukewarm boiled water and 2% essence of lemon). asthma. and worm.GINGER . rub abdomen with 60% alcohol and 3% essence of rosemary).

its use has long been recognized. and four times more expensive than the imported varieties of Bauang found in the markets. It is mostly cultivated. Banahaw and in many other places in the Philippines. which were applied to the wound. The fruit is known for its cooling properties.(Guava) ." In the Philippines. and as a purgative. being used to loosen phlegm and relieve coughs. and pectoral.(Bitter Gourd) . It has been recommended by the Department of Health of the Philippines. The leaves are also known to be diuretic and purgative. Parts used: fruit. The leaves and bark are used in domestic medicines because of the pectoral. Avocado . and bark Bayabas is a fruit found throughout the Philippines. The bark is used to stop diarrhea. It grows wild on Mt. It is also claimed to benefit tuberculosis and headaches. leaves. Banahaw. boosts the immune system. It is high in colosolic acid which is used in many drugs for diabetes. and antiperiodic properties ascribed to them. which contains over 20 percent fat. In World War I it was widely employed in the control of suppuration in wounds. The successful treatment of tubercular consumption by Bauang has been recorded. Banahaw. being of particular virtue in chronic bronchitis. While the larger varieties are cultivated. Bayabas . There has been much research done on the effectiveness of using MOMORDICA CHARANTIA in the treatment of diabetes. The reason for this is the superior quality and pungency of the small Tagolog (Filipino) variety. as a parasiticide. As an antiseptic. Bauang is a diaphoretic. It is very abundant on Mt. The Filipino variety of Bauang is very small. sterility in women. It is very common on Mt.(no English) . thereby improving the body s ability to produce insulin. parasiticide. Bauang is an invaluable medicine for asthma. It is a seasonal fruit. Bauang . Ampalaya . and antidiarrhetic. Where this treatment was given. poor circulation. in his book "The Super Anti-Oxidants. We use ONLY the Tagolog variety in our herbs. The raw juice was expressed.LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA Linn. Banahaw in its wild form. although wild forms can be found. Parts used: bulb Bauang is cultivated throughout the Philippines.Alagau is a tree that is only found in the Philippines.MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. diabetes and asthma. the melon has a bitter taste due to the presence of momordicin.PERSEA AMERICANA Mill. and its "insulin-like principle. difficulty of breathing.ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. The fruit is commonly used to make jam and wine. Alagau has been considered a drug in the Philippines. leaves Bignay is a fruit tree with small red berries. and more protein content than any other fresh fruit. and stimulant. It has been shown to increase production of beta cells by the pancreas. sudorific. emmengague.(Garlic) . The leaves and bark are known to be astringent. In the Philippines. most of it grows wild. For more information on Bayabas. The parts we use in our herbal formulas are the leaves and bark. diluted with water. and most other disorders of the lungs. and aids in cancer prevention. For more information on Ampalaya. It is also used in the treatment of skin diseases. as one of the best herbal medicines for it's ability to help with liver problems. The fruit also has probably the highest concentration of vitamin C of any of the tropical fruits in the Philippines. Bignay (no English) ANTIDESMA BUNIUS Linn. As the English name suggests. and is used for high blood pressure. it was proved that there were no septic results. In the Philippines. and the lives of thousands of men were saved by its use.PSIDIUM GUAJAVA Linn. The . on account of its powers of promoting expectoration. Bauang is one of our four "power herbs" having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal herb. anthelmintic. Alagau is one of the great medicinal herbs of the Philippines. balances blood sugar. Parts used: fruit. It grows wild in the remote areas of Mt. assists in fat metabolism. Diabetes and HIV. diuretic. It is also used in weight-loss products. including Mt. Parts used: leaves and bark The Avocado is a fruit and was introduced into the Philippines from tropical America around the 16th century. James Balch. stomachic. hoarseness. There has been much resource done on Banaba leaves and their ability to reduce blood sugar. Banahaw. It is a common herb used in Chinese herbology. Dr. vulnerary. prevents heart disease. resolutive. The bark is used in the chronic diarrhea of children. It grows wild on Mt. Banaba is a popular medicine plant and is used in treatment of diabetes mellitus." states that garlic acts as a super antioxidant. lowers blood pressure. For more information on Bauang. expectorant. Banahaw. Banaba . The successful treatment of tubercular consumption by Bauang has been recorded. the leaves are often used for children's coughs. Its other properties are carminative. Parts used: leaves and bark Banaba is a tree which is found throughout the Philippines. the bulbs are prescribed for high blood pressure. For many years now. Parts used: fruit and leaves Ampalaya is a vegetable grown throughout the Philippines. The fruit is known to be anthelmintic. For more information on banaba. coughs.(English same) . as an antipyretic. and put on swabs of sterilized Sphagnum moss.

constipation.(Mandarin Orange. laxative. The juice of carrots is said to be a great colon cleanser. For more information on Darangita. antispasmodic. and help to keep the skin healthy. insomnia. Dumero . Banahaw. Damong Maria . The roots are a staple food in some localities. Parts used: root Carrots are only grown in the Philippines at high elevation. leaves. They can improve the appearance of hair and nails.(English same) . Banahaw it grows wild. It grows wild throughout the Philippines. Darangita . When the bark is soaked in water and rubbed. Banahaw. It is known to be stomachic. chocolate. Gumamela flowers are used as an expectorant in bronchitis. On Mt.ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS Linn. lactagogue. seeds Duhat is a fruit tree found mostly wild throughout the Philippines. increase menstrual flow. Gogo is used extensively in the Philippines for washing hair and for hair tonics. diuretic. colitis. relax the stomach. Duhat .(Taro) .(Hibiscus) . in Asia.ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Linn. It is reported to help prevent liver toxicity. and catarrh. for general coughs. Parts used: root Gabi is a large leaf plant with a tuberous rootstock. and is abundant on Mt. alterative. and cancer preventer.DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Gabi . For more information on Bignay. act as an astringent and decongestant. Banahaw. and is very abundant on Mt. and as a refrigerant drink in fevers. because it contains the enzymes protease. Banahaw. stimulate circulation and digestion.CITRUS RETICULATA Blanco Parts used: fruit Darangita is a fruit tree common throughout the Philippines and abundant on Mt. or Tangerine Orange) . Banahaw. It grows wild on Mt. help improve eyesight.ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. and styptic.THEOBROMA CACAO Linn. For more information on Duhat.COLOCASIA ESCULENTA Linn. cacao butter. The tubers are digestive.(Mugwort) . Banahaw.(Black Plum/Java Plum) . . and improve circulation to the brain. raffinase. Filipinos use it for all sorts of stomach ailments. and we add fresh bignay juice to our Kombucha Health drinks during that time.(Cocoa) . Parts used: flower Gumamela is cultivated as an ornamental flower throughout the Philippines. Parts used: bark This plant is very large tree found throughout the Philippines. Banahaw. Parts used: leaves Dumero is cultivated in some places in the Philippines. often cultivated. which is used to manufacture cacao. For more information. Carrot . it produces a lather which cleanses the scalp very effectively. Dumero is reported to fight bacteria. bark. It is most known for the seeds of its fruit. poor teeth. cesease and oxydase.(Rosemary) . asthma. We use the pulpy flesh of the fruit in our Digestive Enzyme tincture. Duhat seeds are known for the treatment of diabetes. antiseptic. Among the many health benefits of carrots would include: useful for toxemia. etc. invertase. The bark is astringent and in decoction is used as a mouthwash and as a gargle for ulcerations of the mouth. For more information on Damong Maria. haemoptysis. correct dropsy. poor complexion. It is common on Mt. and have anticancer and antitumor properties. and carminative. high blood pressure. Gumamela . The active principle of the bark is saponin. Parts used: leaves Damong Maria is a small plant found in many places in the Philippines. and is grown on Mt. inflamed kidneys and bladder. end painful urination.Syzygium Cumini Skeels Parts used: fruit. Cacao . Darangita is valued for its pleasant flavor and high concentration of vitamin C. and grow well on Mt.HIBISCUS ROSASINENSIS Linn.leaves are sudorific and employed in treating snakebite. anthelmintic. The fruit is harvested once a year. Gogo (no English) . Parts used: pulpy flesh from fruit Cacao is a fruit tree cultivated throughout the Philippines. as are the leaves and the juice from the fruit.

a deodorant. Depending on the variety.CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duchesne Parts used: seeds Kalabasa is a vegetable cultivated throughout the Philippines. root Lagundi is a common medicine shrub in the Philippines. They are used to combat tapeworms. For more info on the radish. Kalabasa seeds are used as an anthelmintic. The bamboo is used primarily in building purposes. rheumatism. especially the purple ones. The flowers are used in diarrhea. a remedy for coughs and for itches. and is common on Mt. colic." states. febrifuge. tonic. and antispasmodic. boils. in the treatment of diabetes. leprosy. Lagundi . and is found on Mt. Eduardo Quisumbing. and is abundant on Mt.(Five Leafed Chaste Tree) . and nervine tonic. Banahaw. Kauayan . Today. Banahaw. and is known to have pectoral and febrifuge properties.(no English) .VITEX NEGUNDO Linn.ANONA MURICATA Linn. It is widely cultivated throughout the Philippines. The use of Lagundi for medicinal purposes has a long history in the Philippines.(Tomato) . Parts used: leaves Kamote is tuber grown throughout the Philippines. ammenorrhoea. stomachic. They are also a rich source of iron and calcium. Parts used: root and leaves Labanos is a vegetable cultivated throughout the Philippines and is one of the main crops of Mt. (b) they are the most wonderful and effective blood cleansers of all foods known to man.LYCOPERSICUM ESCULENTUM Mill. (d) they are a most extraordinary corrective for kidneys. The original form of this species has small fruit. being a gentle.(Bamboo) .(Squash) . and diseases of the liver. and an antiphlogistic. carminative. The leaves are used as an emmenagogue and an anthelmintic. Banahaw. seeds.MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. The juice of Kalamansi is known as a refrigerant.(Mint) . anthelmintic. Kalamansi . The leaves of labanos are laxative and diuretic. cholera. Kalabasa . Banahaw." Kamote . Banahaw.(White Radish) . pharmaceutical companies sell it in capsule form at drug stores. It is valuable as an antiseptic.Guyabano . (c) they are the richest of all vegetables in the natural health acids which keep our stomachs and intestines in condition.BAMBUSA SPINOSA Roxb. and does not occur naturally outside of the Philippines. and is abundant on Mt. Parts used: flowers. Dr. and expectorant. and cholera. For more information on Kalamansi. The seeds are also used as a diuretic for urinary diseases. and are also recommended as a cardiac tonic. Banahaw. The seeds make a cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy. The silicious concretion of the culms is said to be stimulant. Banahaw. Parts used: leaves Kauayan is a tree grown throughout the Philippines. The root is reported to be tonic. "Briefly. The fruit The Guyabano fruit is an excellent source of vitamin B and C. The leaves are reported to be used for coughs and asthma. Parts used: fruit Guyabano is a fruit tree cultivated throughout the Philippines. and has been used in alcohol solutions for asthma. natural stimulant which helps to wash away the poisons which cause disease and contaminate our systems. the medical and food value of tomatoes may be stated thus: -. The roots are considered stimulant. author of the classic book "Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Parts used: leaves Hierba Buena is cultivated throughout the Philippines. Labanos . and grows especially well at higher altitudes. the leaves are either green or purple. For more . and for inflammation of the mouth.(no English) .(Sweet Potato) . Research has been done on the use of Kamote leaves. which is attributed to the presence of saponin in the seeds. The root is also used in a great variety of diseases: dyspepsia. cooling.IMPOMOEA BATATAS Linn. It is grown on Mt. Kamatis . It is one of the main commercial crops grown on Mt.(a) Tomatoes are the richest in vitamins of all foods. Hierba Buena . including furniture and household items. They are also useful in diseases of the heart.RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. although it does well at higher altitudes. This mint is known as a remedy for weakness of the stomach and for diarrhea.CITRUS MICROCARPA Bunge Parts used: fruit Kalamansi is a small citrus fruit that appears as cross between a lemon and lime. It is a native of the Philippines. fever. astringent. worms. and leprosy. It is abundant on Mt. Banahaw. Parts used: fruit Kamatis is cultivated throughout the Philippines.

and useful for constipation. Manga ." It is commonly used for stomach trouble. Parts used: leaves Malungai is a tree found throughout the Philippines. and is useful in diseases arising from corrupt blood and bile.(no English) . For more information on Lukban. indigestion. as a sedative in nervous affections. seeds. and antibiotic properties. chorea. and suggested by the scientific name. Parts used: fruit and leaves Langka is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines.Menispermum crispum Linn. and convulsive coughs.MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Parts used: rhizome (root stock) Luya is a root stock grown in many places in the Philippines. Lukban is a pomelo. coughs. flatulence. Banahaw. seeds Lukban is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines. which is similar to grapefruit. including Mt." The reason it is given this name is that upon human touch the leaves contract and appear to wilt. stroke. The ripe fruit is said to be diuretic. Banahaw. The leaves are used in treatment of diabetes. It is not cultivated.(Horse Radish Tree) . diarrhea. It is pure-strain citrus fruit. and is abundant and wild on Mt. Recent studies in the Philippines have found it useful as an insecticide for rice crops. Banahaw in a few places. antiviral. migraines. but then open up again a short time later. click here. as can cause abortions. and viral infections.MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. leaves. means "sensitive. Where it grows. and cramping. Langka . fruit Manga is a fruit tree cultivated throughout the Philippines.ZIZYPHUS MAURITIANA -Lam. and a glucoside. There is a variety that grows wild on Mt. Luya is also reported to sooth the stomach.ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS Lam. and diuretic. Makahia is known as a diuretic. Mansanitas . The Filipinos and Malay in general consider this vine as a universal medicine. It is used for urinary complaints. Banahaw. colombine. Makahia . They are a rich source of calcium and iron. Lukban . The name in Tagalog means "to give life. Luya is one of our four "power herbs" having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal herb. Japanese researchers have found that Luya causes the heart to beat more strongly and slowly and that blood pressure lowers by 10 to 15 points after Luya is ingested. Parts used: fruit. dizziness. nutritive. fever. It is known as a febrifuge.ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. For more information on langka. Banahaw. berberine. bark Many varieties of Mansanitas are scattered throughout the Philippines.BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM Linn. nausea. because of it effectiveness and safety in large doses. and is said to have anti-malaria properties.(Pomelo/Grapefruit) . The leaves are purgative. for chronic diseases of the lungs. Parts used: leaves. The ripe fruit is said to be demulcent. It is a common vegetable found in the market. It is commonly used in treating colds and flu in children.(Jack Fruit) . Banahaw. It is abundant on Mt. It has been found effective in the treatment of heart disease. and is considered alterant and antiasthmatic. Makabuhay . being more effective than Dramamine. For a good article on the history of Ginger. and is abundant on Mt. Luya's various isolated components also possess anti-inflammatory. The Tagalog name. Banahaw. The seeds are known to have antiseptic qualities. antiseptic. Luya .(Ginger) . laxative.information on Lagundi. it is a huge fruit tree . kidney stones. and laxative. The flowers are used for diarrhea. antifungal.(no English) . The seed (pit/stone) of Manga is used for diarrhea and is considered anthelmintic. A number of researchers have found that Luya is highly effective in alleviating motion sickness. It contains a bitter principle. It is reported to relive gas. The leaves are also said to be useful in epilepsy. Malungai . diuretic. Indian researchers have found that Luya is also effective in removing cholesterol from both the blood and liver. Parts used: leaves Makabuhay is a vine found throughout the Philippines. helping digestion.(Mango) . for asthma and colds. and facilitate the breakdown of food in the stomach and the absorption of food in the small intestine. in the form of a decoction or infusion. and vomiting.CITRUS GRANDIS Osbeck Parts used: fruit. and is very common on Mt. whereas grapefruit is a hybrid between pomelo and orange. For more information on Manga. Lukban leaves are used in the Philippines. leaves. The seeds are also used for treating round worm. Not for pregnant women. and ulcers. Parts used: leaves Makahia is found throughout the Philippines and is found wild everywhere on Mt. traces of an alkaloid.(Jujube) . and is considered a weed.

It is also said to have antidiarrhetic and antigastralgic properties. pectoral. Parts used: fruit. Papaya is one of our four "power herbs" having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal plant. The substance has protein-like properties. its proteolytic action marked in acid. being used to relieve coughs. and is said to purify the blood and assist in digestion. The bark is astringent and tonic. which has anthelmintic properties. which was introduced from Hawaii. soluble. bark Sampalok is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines. It acts in the way rennet does upon milk. Banahaw. antifungal. and for scalds and burns.BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA Linn. This tropical fruit. and used to reduce fevers.CARICA PAPAYA . It is also used as an expectorant. leaves. being in Quezon Province. aperient.(Blumea Camphor) . and has a pronounced digestive power at a wide range of temperatures. anthelmintic. Banahaw.(Coconut) . and also considered cooling. For more information on Pepino. There are two varieties. and purgative. The leaves are often employed as a remedy for asthma. and grows wild on Mt. For more information on Mansanitas. and used to retard cancer and tumorous growth. Noni/Bankoro . and is now known by its common name "Noni. The native species grows mostly wild on Mt. and as a cure for colds. Strong doses are effective against gram-negative bacteria. diuretic. Piña is well-known for its digestive enzyme BROMELIN.TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn.(English same) . which makes is important for those with heart and kidney problems. and are used for coughs. It is also a refrigerant. which is native to the Philippines.(Tamarind) . similar to that of the ferments of animal origin. seeds Papaya is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines. and neutral solutions and also in the presence of many chemicals. root Niyog is a palm tree cultivated throughout the Philippines. and said to also be a heart tonic. and therapeutic agents. The flowers have pectoral properties. Sampalok fruit is used as a laxative. Niyog fruit is often processed into oil or milk because of its refrigerant.that can produce several hundred kilos of fruit per year. is rich in Niyog trees. stem and roots all contain the proteolytic enzyme papain. The fruit is also a mild laxative and expectorant. Parts used: fruit Bankoro is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines. antiparasitic. It is one of the most common used medicinal herbs in the Philippines. Papaya .COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. leaves. Niyog .(Noni/Indian Mulberry) -MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. Pepino . Banahaw. and styptic. Parts used: leaves Sambong is found throughout the Philippines. chiefly along or near the seashore. Parts used: fruit. click here. which has smaller fruits and is grown on Mt. and against cholera. The fruit is said to be nourishing. For more information on Niyog. Pepino is also useful in eliminating water from the body. Banahaw. and is common on Mt. For more information on Piña. It has a peculiar softening and disintegrating actions in proteids. for bilious vomiting. and purgative properties. The leaves are used to destroy worms in children. Doctors in the Philippines prescribe Sambong for the dissolution of kidney stones. The green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Parts used: fruit.Linn. but there is no doubt that Noni is a very effective herb. has become very popular recently due to some heavy marketing by certain companies. and the Smooth Cayenne variety. Parts used: fruit and seeds Pepino is a vine cultivated throughout the Philippines. antiseptics. diuretic. Papain is used effectively as an anthelmintic.CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Parts used: fruit. fruits.ANANA COSMOSUS Linn. For more information on Sambong. Studies at the University of Nigeria have revealed that extracts of ripe and unripe papaya fruits and of the seeds are active against gram-positive bacteria. the native one. It is said to be antibacterial. we have one tree on our farm that is wild. Exhaustive studies have been done on papain. Sampalok . The fruit is used in cosmetics for a healthy skin complexion. Mt. The leaves of Sambong are used as a tea in the Philippines. including Mt. A salve is recommended for skin diseases. Piña . alkaline. Sambong . Banahaw. The seeds are said to have anti-tapeworm properties. The leaves. To read more about Papaya. and are .(Pineapple) . mucilaginious. flowers. It is given for worms and dysentery. and used for asthma and amenorrhoea. digestive ferment or a mixture of ferments of vegetable origin. For more information about Noni. and it is reported to be a true." It is hard to find reliable scientific information on this herb among all the hype. Pepino is sometimes given to children with dysentery. the coconut capital of the Philippines. and its general proteolytic action is that of a genuine digestive ferment. leaves/stalks Piña is a fruit widely cultivated in the Philippines. The bark and leaves are employed as an effective astringent in dysentery and diarrhea. The roots of Niyog are astringent. Banahaw. Fortunately.(Cucumber) . It is often used in cosmetics as a lotion for the skin. mostly cultivated.

helping to digest foods and a carminative. It is grown on Mt. and grows wild on Mt.(Lemon Grass. Banahaw near rice fields. It also equalizes and restores the balance of circulation throughout the body. also know as Cayenne. For more information on Sampalok. being introduced from Mexico. Sili. and thrives in the soil and climate there. It is an antiseptic. and in digestive disorders. is known as the hottest of all peppers. MUGWORT BOTANICAL: ARTEMISIA VULGARIS (LINN. Cayenne is a hemostat. For more information on Santol. and grows wild on Mt. Banahaw. Talong . COMPOSITAE y y Parts Used Medicinally Constituents . Parts used: leaves Tañglad is a grass and is clutivated throughout the Philippines. Schulze lists cayenne as his number one medical emergency herb.O. It is an excellent cleanser of the whole digestive system. and is used to treat ringworm. especially in children. Santol .SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. We believe that we have one of the best cayenne tinctures available on the market. they will universally claim that it is effective in relieving coughs. In the Philippines. and always carries a tincture of it around with him. helping to relieve pain. Parts used: fruit Sili is found throughout the Philippines. and encourage you to buy it in its pure form to add to other herbs and teas as you see fit. This variety of cayenne. having a heat level of 9.ANDROPOGON CITRATUS DC.(Eggplant) . and is a popular ingredient in herbal teas and herbal soaps. Noted herbalist Dr. killing pathogens and a counter-irritant. helping to expel gas. the Talong roots are taken as a decoction internally as an antiasthmatic and general stimulant.(no English) . Suganda .COLEUS AMBOINICUS Lour. such as high blood pressure. arresting the flow of blood from a cut or wound in seconds and a cardiac tonic. is one of our four "power herbs" having a long history and proof of being a very effective medicinal plant. helping to rebuild the heart. increasing the power of the pulse and carrying the blood to all parts of the Body.(Chili Pepper/Cayenne) . Cayenne is also a stomachic. Sili . He claims to have treated many patients with it for over 20 years. For a good article on cayenne.) FAMILY: N. Banahaw. Parts used: bark Santol is a fruit tree found throughout the Philippines. SANDORICUM ACID.useful for jaundice. Banahaw. It is commonly used in Tabasco sauce. The leaves are also used externally to relieve pain.SANDORICUM KOETJAPE Merr. It is used to aid digestion. Cayenne is known to be very affective in the treatment of heart disorders. It is well-known on Mt.(no English) . having no narcotic effect. The roots are also used in treatment of skin diseases Tañglad . When you ask people locally here why they grow it. Banahaw. The bark of Santol contains a bitter substance. and is common on Mt. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS. Banahaw. Parts used: root Talong is cultivated throughout the Philippines.CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. and to have even revived a man who had gone into cardiac arrest with doses of cayenne tincture. Parts used: leaves Suganda. Ginger Grass) . is an herb cultivated mostly in peoples gardens. Cayenne is said to be a powerful and pure stimulant. called "oregano" here on Mt. for stomach problems and to reduce fevers.

' Dioscorides praises this herb. The Mugwort is closely allied to the Cornmon Wormwood. so that reason and authority. Mugwort. ---Parts Used---Leaves. they are either reddish or pale yellow. John's Plant. as useful in keeping off the attacks of moths. terminal panicles. wild beasts and evil spirits generally: a crown made from its sprays was worn on St. such as Ground Ivy. the plant was gathered when in flower and dried. the plant was known as Cingulum Sancti Johannis. The leaves are smooth and of a dark green tint on the upper surface. and on the Continent Mugwort is occasionally employed as an aromatic culinary herb. It lacks the essential oil of the Wormwood. in use by the working classes in Cornwall as one of the substitutes for tea. that if gathered on St. Dr. . It was.' the drinking vessel. John's Eve to gain security from evil possession.y y Medicinal Action and Uses Preparations ---Synonyms---Felon Herb. because from the days of Dioscorides. root. the plant has been regarded. used to a great extent for flavouring beer before the introduction of hops. in common with other herbs. The flowers are in small oval heads with cottony involucres and are arranged in long. In the Middle Ages. not blunt. the fresh herb being considered unsuitable for this object: malt liquor was then boiled with it so as to form a strong decoction. The Mugwort is said to have derived its name from having been used to flavour drinks. and in Holland and Germany one of its names is St. Cingulum Sancti Johannis. may be derived not from 'mug. but from moughte (a moth or maggot). It has also been suggested that the name. they are once or twice pinnately lobed. but covered with a dense cottony down beneath. the segments being lanceshaped and pointed. and the liquid thus prepared was added to the beer. It is a tall-growing plant. The dried leaves were. the stems. sunstroke. Mugwort abounds on hedgebanks and waysides in most parts of England. John Hill extols its virtues. frequently rising 3 feet or more in height. Until recent years. but may be readily distinguished by the leaves being white on the under-surfaces only and by the leaf segments being pointed. John's Eve it gave protection against diseases and misfortunes. which are angular and often of a purplish hue. it was still used in some parts of the country to flavour the table beer brewed by cottagers. it being believed that John the Baptist wore a girdle of it in the wilderness. sixty or seventy years ago.. being one of the green herbs with which geese are often stuffed during roasting. at a time when tea cost 7s. and orders the flowering tops to be used just before they bloom. There were many superstitions connected with it: it was believed to preserve the wayfarer from fatigue. John's Plant. as well as the notice of our senses. point it out for use: but chemistry has banished natural medicines. St. per lb. and says: 'Providence has placed it everywhere about our doors. For this purpose. in common with Wormwood. because of the belief.

which should be prepared in a covered vessel. Sheep are said to enjoy the herbage of the Mugwort. Drying may be done at first in the open air. The infusion drank morning . The down is separated by heating the leaves and afterwards rubbing them between the hands until the cottony fibres alone remain. snapping when bent. woody. fits. or on shelves. and about 1/12 inch thick. beset with numerous thin and tough rootlets. ---Constituents---A volatile oil. be the Artemesia of Pontos.The downy leaves have been used in the preparation of Moxas. and is of value as a nervine and emmenagogue. and turned frequently. three times daily: it has a bitterish and aromatic taste. It is given in infusion. and also the roots. epileptic and similar affections. of the herb to 1 pint of boiling water. internally whitish. Mugwort root is generally about 8 inches long. spread thinly. perhaps. Artemisia Moxa and A. ---Parts Used Medicinally---The leaves. Or they may be spread on clean floors. As a nervine. prevents sickness after meals and creates an appetite. dug in autumn and dried. having also diuretic and diaphoretic action. collected in August and dried in the same manner as Wormwood. Its chief employment is as an emmenagogue. The infusion may be taken cold as a tonic. these are then made up into small cones or cylinders for use. an acrid resin and tannin. sinensis are mainly used in Japan. Gerard says: 'Mugwort cureth the shakings of the joynts inclining to the Palsie. This cottony substance has also been used as a substitute for tinder. A drachm of the powdered leaves. but if made too strong. which the Japanese use to cure rheumatism. The juice and an infusion of the herb were given for intermittent fevers and agues. dried and powdered. ---Medicinal Action and Uses---It has stimulant and slightly tonic properties. The plant may. which was celebrated among the ancients for fattening these animals. and given in 1/2 teaspoonful doses. it disgusts the taste. The taste is sweetish and acrid. Drying in an even temperature will probably take about a fortnight. The tops with the flowers on them. with an angular wood and thick bark. often in combination with Pennyroyal and Southernwood. When somewhat shrunken. ---Preparations---Fluid extract. Culpepper directs that the tops of the plant are to be used fresh gathered. ale. in water. while warm. they must be finished more quickly by artificial heat in a drying room or shed. is stated by Withering to have cured a patient who had been affected with hysterical fits for many years. and says: 'a very slight infusion is excellent for all disorders of the stomach. in similar doses.' and Parkinson considered it good against hysteria. or the juice only. or more. It is also useful as a diaphoretic in the commencement of cold. 1 OZ. The leaves used to be steeped in baths. wine. to communicate an invigorating property to the water. care being taken that the heated air can escape at the top of the room. in a warm room for about ten days. and have the same virtues with wormseed in killing worms. It is not complete until the roots are dry to the core and brittle. 2 to 4 inches long. are good against agues. as contact may turn the roots mouldy. being an old-fashioned popular remedy for epilepsy (especially in persons of a feeble constitution). The juice of the large leaves which grows from the root before the stalk appears is the best against the dropsy and jaundice. It is light brown externally. when all other remedies had failed. A variegated variety of Mugwort also occurs. It is said to be good for poultry and turkeys. Mugwort is valued in palsy. 1/2 to 1 drachm. showing five or six resin cells. given four times a day. near a stove or gas fire. and the root. The roots are cleansed in cold water and then freed from rootlets.

. and is good for the liver and jaundice. Placed among woolen cloths it prevents and destroys the moths. the popular Earl Grey tea is black tea with bergamot.' Herbal tea Herbal tea A herbal tea. mixed with honey. . tisane. The tisane is then strained. hence the root should be accounted among the best stomachics. leaves. or white tea).. Strictly speaking. for example. eyes like the leaves. Many companies produce herbal tea bags for such infusions. Wormwood and vinegar are an antidote to the mischief of mushrooms and henbane and the biting of the seafish called Draco marinus. taken on sugar and drank after. . obstruction of the spleen and weakness of the stomach. The oil of the seed cures quotidians and quartans. and served. Composition Herbal teas can be made with fresh or dried flowers. it takes away blackness after falls. Its oil. or ptisan is an herbal infusion made from anything other than the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). With Pellitory of the Wall used as poultice to ease all outward pains. yellow. and genmaicha is a Japanese green tea with toasted rice. bruises. sweetened if so desired. It is admirable against surfeits. resists poison. or quaviver. a drink made from pearl barley. Etymology The English word "tisane" originates from the Greek word (ptisan ). etc. the name 'herbal tea' is a misnomer. jasmine tea is Chinese tea with jasmine flowers. . which originates from both China and the Middle East. oolong. Seeds and roots can also be boiled on a stove. green.and evening for some time helps hysterics.. Boiled in lard and laid to swellings of the tonsils and quinsy is serviceable. but by infusing other plants. On the other hand. kills worms. as they are not actually made with real tea (Camellia sinensis). seeds or roots. flavoured teas are prepared by adding other plants to an actual tea (black. generally by pouring boiling water over the plant parts and letting them steep for a few minutes..

often consumed to ease upset stomach. Cinnamon Catnip tea is used as a relaxant. Roasted barley tea. sedative.Varieties Varieties of herbal infusions are practically limitless. Dandelion coffee Dill tea. In Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit. but include: y y y y y y y y y y Anise tea. with purported health benefits . used in South America to calm upset stomachs. very bitter tea made from Ilex causue leaves. is popular with Chinese Dim sum. known in Japanese as mugicha and Korean as bori cha. a bitter Jamaican herb [3] Dried chamomile blossoms with bits of dried apple and cinnamon. Essiac tea. It is often drunk cold in the summer. good for the relief of vision problems. made from either the seeds or the leaves. including bergamot. [1] Artichoke tea. Peter's mother gives him chamomile tea. Fennel Traditional weightloss herb. The roasted flavor can be reminiscent of coffee (without coffee's bitterness and caffeine). Cerasse. Citrus peel. lemon and orange peel. a blended herbal tea. Che Dang. Echinacea tea. often consumed to prevent or alleviate the cold or flu symptoms. and to calm. Cannabis. Gentian Ginger root . Chrysanthemum tea. made from dried flowers. used in the preparation of Bhang. Bee Balm Boldo. to be used for tea y y y y y y y y y y Chamomile tea is used as a sedative.

a bitter tisane found in Chinese herbal medicine and used to thin blood and reduce blood pressure Labrador tea. Mate (or yerba mate) is a shrub grown mainly Argentina. dried leaves of fireweed. Kava root. Kapor tea. Lapacho (also known as Taheebo) is the inner-lining of the bark (or cambium) of the Red or Purple Lapacho Tree which grows in the Brazilian jungles. made from the shrub by the same name. tea-like brew is prepared. Uruguay and Brazil from which a caffeinated. from the stamens of Nelumbo nucifera (as in Vietnamese trà sen). dried leaves of hydrangeas. from the South Pacific. is popular for its effects in promoting talkativeness and relaxation. Horehound Hydrangea tea.) Honeybush is related to rooibos and grows in a similar area of South Africa. The "safe" hydrangeas belong to the Hydrangea [3] serrata Amacha ("sweet tea") Cultivar Group. Hibiscus (often blended with rose hip). (also known as xiancao or poor man's ginseng). . Kuding. considerable care must be taken because most species contain a toxin. Lotus flower. found in the northern part of North America. (See also Roselle below. Jiaogulan. It is boiled to make an infusion with many and varied health benefits. a popular tea in China and Korea. to reduce bloodstream's fatty levels like cholesterol .Ginsengtea is a stimulant and can be used as a coffee substitute. [2] Hawthorn . Lemon Balm Lemon grass Licorice root Lime blossom. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Ginseng . where the natives associate Hibiscus tea with longevity. a popular tea alternative in the Middle East which is drunk hot or cold. dried flowers of lime tree (Tilia in Latin). but tastes slightly sweeter. Hibiscus tea is also consumed in Okinawa.

i. In some countries where coca is illegal. Records of its use date back 2000 years. traditional roasted corn tea found in Korea. especially peppermint (also mixed with green tea to make mint tea) European mistletoe (Viscum Album). The tea (or more properly tisane) has a reputation as a cure-all. Pennywort leaf. products marketed as "coca tea" are supposed to be decocainized. a very popular tea in the Balkans and other areas of the Mediterranean region. the pharmacologically active components have been removed. Authentic mate de coca contains very small amounts of cocaine and similar alkaloids.y y y y y y y y Mate de coca (sometimes called "coca tea").. in Southeast Asia . Mint. Made from a variety of the Sideritis syriaca plant which grows in warm climates above 3000 feet. made from coca leaves. Neem leaf Nettle leaf Oksusu cha ( ). (steep in cold water for 2-6 hours) Mountain Tea. but is specifically used against colds.e.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Pu-erh Tea. Dah. It was commercialized in 1963 by Foong Chow Hwey and was popular in the 1970-90s. to reduce cholesterol in blood. Thyme Antiseptic.). and in some countries (including the United States) makers of herbal teas are not allowed to make unsubstantiated claims about the medicinal effects of their products. It has many of the antioxidant benefits of green tea. a herbal concoction of a Chinese immigrant to Malaysia in the early 20th century. made in Hong Kong. an anti-diabetic tea from Sri Lanka Sobacha Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) leaves used to make a tea by some native peoples of eastern North America Staghorn sumac fruit can made into a lemonade. or as a sweetener in other tisanes. St. The medicinal effects of certain herbs are discussed under herbalism. Sage Sassafras roots were steeped to make tea and were used in the flavoring of root beer until being banned by the FDA. Skullcap Serendib. The medicinal benefits of specific herbs are often anecdotal or controversial. Stevia can be used to make herbal tea. Verbena (Vervains) Vetiver Roasted wheat is used in Postum. relaxant or sedative properties. Rose hip (often blended with hibiscus) Roselle petals (species of Hibiscus. commonly known as Cats Claw Valerian Sedative. Sugarcane drink. Tulsi Uncaria tomentosa. Yuen Kut Lam Kam Wo Tea Composed of thirty Chinese herbs. known as hyeonmi cha in Korea Rooibos (Red Bush) is a reddish plant used to make an infusion and grown in South Africa. famous in China. John's Wort can be used as an herbal anti-depressant. in Asia Tan Ngan Lo Medicated Tea. Rosemary Memory herb. . especially for their stimulant. a coffee substitute. Medicinal concerns Herbal teas are often consumed for their physical or medicinal effects. aka Bissap. In the US it is sometimes called red tea. it has no caffeine. consumed in the Sahel and elsewhere. Scientific name Ilex paraguariensis. Wax gourd in East Asia and Southeast Asia. used in lysterine. Wong Logat a medicinal tea with several herbs Woodruff Yarrow Yerba Mate Popular in South America. etc. but because it does not come from tea leaves. Red raspberry leaf Scorched rice.

HERBAL TEA Herbal tea has been imbibed nearly as long as written history extends. "A Healthy Heart. van Gelderen. 2004. D. 2. Adagio Teas continues to sell the finest loose herbal tea you'll find. which contains alkaloids that can cause permanent liver damage with chronic use. e. flower or herb. Lobelia. NATURAL HEALTH PRODUCTS. 280 p. formulated recipes like hawthorn plus oolong / pu-er can address the high fat level in body's bloodstream. Among the greatest causes of concern are: y y Comfrey. Herbal teas can also have different effects from person to person. Documents have been recovered dating back to as early as Ancient Egypt that discuss the enjoyment and uses of herbal tea. Also known as a tisane or herbal infusion. Encyclopedia of Hydrangeas. for example. herbal teas such as karkade are very popular. 1. The deadly foxglove. but does treat them technically as food products and require that they are safe for consumption. van Gelderen.J. Traditional Chinese Medicine approach is used in formulating natural herbal teas and they are very popular in enhancing health and addressing core issues within the body. which contains toxins similar in effect to nicotine. all caffeine-free and delicious! Herbal Tea Preparation and Uses TRADITIONAL MEDICINALS® OFFERS HERBAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.g. OTC MEDICINES AND TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS FOR THE GLOBAL MARKET. They are served in ahwa's. can be mistaken for the much more benign (but still relatively hepatotoxic) comfrey. ^ Rachel Levin. an herbal tea is simply the combination of boiling water and dried fruit.While most herbal teas are safe for regular consumption. Why is tea a good delivery system? What conditions are herbal teas helpful for? Why is a long steeping time important? .M. Timber Press. In China. Artichokes: The Thorny Thistles" [1] ^ ROOT Herbal Tea: The Cardiac Guard" [2] ^ C. Popularity Countries In Egypt. some herbs have toxic or allergenic effects. and this is further compounded by the problem of potential misidentification. The UK does not require herb teas to have any evidence concerning their efficacy. 3.

double-pouch filter bag. and Minor seasonal conditions Women's health Teas are made from one or more herbs and are generally prepared by the consumer using the infusion method (by pouring boiling water over the herbs and steeping in a covered cup. teas have been one of the most commonly used delivery systems for natural health products. stimulating digestion. the glued pillow bag and the stapled flow-through. bitter tastes stimulate the taste buds. A tea infusion allows the natural interactions between the various components in the herbs to occur. There are two basic types of tea bags. Historically. tea decoctions or infusions. it is essential that each tea bag is sealed in an "overwrap" that provides an oxygen and moisture barrier. Herbal teas that are not tightly sealed will rapidly lose their strength during storage. due to the interactions occurring during the water extraction process.Why is tea a good delivery system? Herbal preparations must be absorbed efficiently by the body. Most of the major compound groups occurring in plants are either soluble in boiling water or will release into the water in time. Not every health condition requires the use of pharmaceutical drugs for relief. the digestive stimulation will not occur. For a tea to maintain its quality and remain reliable until the expiration date. A tea also allows you to experience the "true taste of herbs". which is the most convenient method of preparation. Why is a long steeping time important? . Certain tastes trigger specific physiological responses. Water is an inexpensive. If you cannot taste the bitter element. tinctures) are more readily absorbed into the system than if they are dried for use in a solid-dosage form (capsules and tablets). syrups. Using the double-pouch bag results in a more efficient extraction of the herb's beneficial components because it allows greater "surface area" access for the boiled water to reach. a component mostly absent in solid dosage form products with the exception of lozenges or pastilles. For example. Taste is considered to be a vital component of herbal formulas. Teas have a long history of use in many systems of Traditional Herbal Medicine worldwide. causing a secretion of saliva and gastric juices. What conditions are herbal teas helpful for? The extraction of herbs with hot water (making tea) is an ancient tradition. light and humidity has a measurable negative impact on the quality of cut herbs. is non-toxic and has a wide range of solvent actions. Sufficient evidence exists demonstrating that Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) in a liquid form (fluid extracts. non-serious conditions such as Occasional constipation Occasional indigestion Mental and physical fatigue Nervousness and sleeplessness. Many of our teas are suitable for self care of common. usually for at least 10 minutes). Exposure to air. pure and readily available extraction solvent.

which decreases the stimulant effect. Some teas are best decocted (simmered) for 30 minutes or longer. which in turn affects the release of other compounds. flavonoids are a group of plant chemicals that are only slightly soluble in water. balanced extraction. Each new compound that is released changes the solvent's composition until full saturation occurs or until the reaction is stopped by removing the herbs from the solvent. The longer you let the herbs steep. as soon as the plant's cell walls begin to break down and compounds enter the water. There are several grades of herbs available. Another example is caffeine in black and green teas. A longer steeping time allows for more of the components in the herbs to dissolve into the tea water. The central nervous system stimulant effect of caffeine is strongest when the tea is steeped only 2-5 minutes. Are Traditional Medicinals products organic? .In comparison to beverage teas. It isn't just water anymore. Longer steeping times of 10-20 minutes will increase the yield of catechin polyphenols. which ensures that our teas and other herbal products meet the highest quality standards. We follow standards for pharmacopoeial herbs such as those published in the European Pharmacopoeia. Depending upon what compounds are first released. For instance. This enables some compounds that are not entirely water-soluble to still be released into the water. food grade and inferior grades. the water changes. We tend to think that water is the extraction solvent when we prepare a cup of tea . because caffeine dissolves quickly into hot water. the more components you will have in your teacup. But testing shows that there are therapeutic levels of flavonoids in a properly brewed cup of tea prepared from flavonoid-containing herbs. However. This is why a sufficient steeping period is necessary to produce a complete. Pharmacopoeial grade herbs cost more than the commonly used commercial grade herbs.pour boiling water over the herbs. which generally require only a 3-5 minute steep for taste considerations. because the catechins bind the caffeine Ingredients What are pharmacopoeial grade herbs and why use them? Are Traditional Medicinals products organic? Are your products suitable for vegetarians and vegans? Do any of your products contain caffeine? Are your green teas tested for fluoride content? Do any of your products contain genetically engineered components? Do any of your products contain gluten? Do any of your products contain artificial or natural flavors? About the use of licorice root in Traditional Medicinals' products About use of stevia leaf in Traditional Medicinals' products What are pharmacopoeial grade herbs and why use them? Our herbal products are formulated in accordance with specific rules of combining and compatability stemming from traditional systems of herbal practice. steeping times for Traditional Herbal Medicines (THMs) in tea infusion form are generally set at anywhere between 10 and 30 minutes depending on the herbs in the formula. but we think you're worth it. including pharmacopoeial grade. our recommendation of a 10-15 minute steep may seem long. But there's more depth to this water story! While the initial solvent is the boiling water. let them brew a few minutes and then strain and drink. the water can become a mild acid or a mild base solution.

We believe teas that are good for your body should be good for the earth as well. Some plants. Traditional Medicinals® is opposed to the practice of genetic engineering. which involves the insertion of genes from any source (including bacteria. There is concern because some green teas have been shown to contain relatively high levels of fluoride. Now with the USDA National Organic Program. are factors that can determine fluoride levels in the tea leaf. butterflies and other pollinators. The soil and water conditions where the tea plant is grown. a condition caused by an excessive intake of fluorides (2 or more ppm in drinking water). We do not use ingredients that were produced using biotechnology in our products or at any stage of production. what was once on the fringe has become mainstream. or animal-derived components) and are suitable for use by vegetarians and vegans. we believe that the practice of genetic engineering should be halted and in the meantime all products containing genetically engineered ingredients should be clearly labeled as such. petroleum-based. processing or handling. We also see the spread of genetically engineered crops as a serious threat to certified organic and/or biodynamic . powders and teas are natural and plant-based (no synthetic. The pastilles contain beeswax and honey and the syrups contain honey. Back then we believed that the herbs in our teas should be grown without the use of harmful fertilizers and pesticides. other plants or even animals) into the DNA of cultivated plants. Genetically engineered crops. Our herbal pastilles and syrups are suitable for vegetarians but not for vegans. We have had our organic green tea products tested for fluoride at an independent laboratory and the test results have shown none detected. Do any of your products contain caffeine? Yes. may throw off the balance of nature and cause harm to beneficial insects such as ladybugs. Some of our products include caffeine-containing herbs such as maté leaf (ILEX PARAGUARIENSIS) or black or green tea leaf (Camellia sinensis). as well as the methods of cultivation. Are your green teas tested for fluoride content? Yes.We have been committed to organic agriculture for over three decades. Following a precautionary principle. We believe that the potential long-term risks to the environment and to human health far outweigh any perceived benefits that could come as a result of manipulating nature in this way. are inherently able to uptake and accumulate relatively high quantities of fluoride. altered to be insect resistant. We continue to recognize the importance of sustainable agriculture and wild collection. Some studies have also shown a correlation between lower quality teas having higher fluoride content and higher quality teas having lower fluoride content. Do any of your products contain genetically engineered components? No. Are your products suitable for vegetarians and vegans? The ingredients of our herbal capsules. including the tea plant (CAMELLIA SINENSIS). Fluoride-containing drinking water is considered to be a risk factor for dental fluorosis. working to develop new organic sources of herbs for all of our products.

Do any of your products contain artificial or natural flavors? .. Do any of your products contain gluten? Celiac patients are advised to avoid food ingredients containing gluten and/or its derivatives (e. or their derivatives. or -teas contain any wheat or rye. John s Good Mood® does not contain measurable gluten (detection limit 3. rye and wheat contain proteins that are composed of prolamins and/or glutelins. HERBAL PASTILLES (LOZENGES) As a flavor component. Many pollinators travel long distances that may put them in direct contact with both certified organic acreage and genetically engineered acreage.agriculture due to the inability to control cross-pollination. you should avoid the pastilles.1% proteins. HERBAL TEAS We have tested our herbal tea products that contain barley grain (PMS Tea®) or oatstraw (St. We found that St. The analysis of the maltose syrup used in our pastilles product shows that it contains 0. PMS Tea® contains more than 20 ppm gluten. our Throat Coat® Herbal Pastilles contain a small amount of organic maltose syrup. oat.g.e. The proteins. if you are a celiac patient who responds to extremely low doses such as these. Wheat starch generally contains not more than 0. Gluten-free products are those that contain less than 20 parts per million (ppm) gluten. None of Traditional Medicinals® herbal capsules.00 parts per million (ppm)) and can be labeled as gluten-free. however. gliadin). which is made from wheat starch.3% of total protein. -syrups. If the use of an ingredient results in the presence of 20 ppm or more gluten in a food or dietary supplement product (i. Certain grains such as barley. 20 micrograms or more gluten per gram of food). are removed in the process of making wheat starch which makes it a gluten-free ingredient. While our pastilles can be labeled as gluten-free. Celiac patients should not use PMS Tea® because it contains gluten which naturally occurs in barley. John s Good Mood®) to determine whether they contain gluten. then it is can not be labeled as gluten-free.

Traditionally. It is also one of the most widely used herbs in many Traditional Medicinals®' herbal formulas. While it is common for beverage teas to contain added flavors. licorice root is affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use.000 mg daily). edema. which contains both licorice root and licorice extract as primary ingredients. . We are occasionally asked about its safety and about some reports that it may contribute to potassium loss and raising of blood pressure. often in combination with maté leaf (ILEX PARAGUARIENSIS). as a flavoring agent or flavor enhancer in candies.No. The American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) Botanical Safety Handbook gives stevia leaf a Class 1' safety rating. among other things. myoglobinuria. meaning that it can be safely consumed when used appropriately. In a clinical study involving our Throat Coat® herbal tea. teas for self care generally do not. About use of stevia leaf in Traditional Medicinals' products Stevia leaf (STEVIA REBAUDIANA) is used in some of our formulas at very low levels functioning appropriately as a taste balancing component. there were no significant changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressure measured during the course of the study with patients drinking 4-6 cups of tea daily. foods. About the use of licorice root in Traditional Medicinals' products Licorice root is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs today and has been employed therapeutically for several thousand years in western and eastern systems of Traditional Herbal Medicine. dietary supplements as well as nonalcoholic beverages including herbal teas. and. in rare cases. please flatten the carton and include it with other household paper or cardboard for recycling. When finished. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). no adverse effects have been associated with licorice root when it is used within normal therapeutic dosage and treatment period limits. We prefer to balance an herbal formula's taste profile using other complementary herbs or their essential oils. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) licorice monograph. accompanied by hypertension. Packaging Do you use recycled materials in your packaging? Why are all Traditional Medicinals tea bags individually wrapped and sealed? Do you use recycled materials in your packaging? Our tea cartons are printed on 100% recycled paperboard (at least 55% verified post-consumer waste). On prolonged use (longer than 6 weeks regular daily ingestion) at overdose levels (greater than 50. stevia leaf is used as an herbal tea by indigenous peoples of South America including the Guaraní and Mestizos. and it has no known contraindications or specific use restrictions. hypokalemia. sodium and water retention and potassium loss may occur. which may contain concentrated extracts of licorice root. We do not add flavors to our products. We strongly encourage recycling. Licorice adverse events have generally been associated with the overdose or binge eating of licorice candies. because it is important to experience the true taste of the herbs for best results.

As a rule of thumb it takes twice the amount of a fresh herb as dried. Measurements suggested are general and not herb specific. oxygen and moisture barrier sealed overwrap. One way to find this out is to visit your local health food store and see how herbs that you are interested in are packaged for sale and what the recommended dosages are. The methods are arranged in order of potency. . it would take about three months to effect a healthy repair. pottery or unchipped enameled pot. Generally speeking however. roots. and can require an adjustment in the amount used..be careful though. consider that. etc. It is important to cover your pot while boiling or steeping to prevent the aromatic oils from evaporating into the air. Here. Boil the water first. then remove it from the heat and add the herb or pour over the herb. The following recipes are made from fresh or dried herbs. which is an important consideration when using teas for self care. The sealed teabag overwrap assures that the potency of the herbs remains intact until they reach the teacup. their quality diminishes considerably if not stored and sealed properly. dried herbs. Remember that herbs are not like prescription medicines and usually do not have immediate effects. Herbalists have found that each herb releases its healing powers in certain forms. The ones presented here were developed through trial and error over the course of centuries of use. from the weakest to the strongest. herbalists recommend you use clean glass. Infusions and Decoctions: y y y y y Not all herbs are suitable for making medicinals. which prevents deterioration of components and is essential for preserving the stability of herbal ingredients. Once herbs are cut and dried. seeds. A lid will cause the steam to condense back into the water. ceramic. You can grow your own herbs. Also. Aluminum.Why are all Traditional Medicinals tea bags individually wrapped and sealed? We pack each tea bag into a tamper-evident.we want to make sure the tea will be reliable. it's easy to make a mistake and pick something other than you intended) or purchase dried herbs from your local health food store or online. Important Considerations When Making Teas. The overwrap is not excessive packaging for a pharmacopoeial quality herbal tea but rather an absolute requirement for shelf life stability . Exposure to air. the effectiveness of herbs is based on a gradual action to restore the natural balance of healthy bodily functions. Herbal Preparations There are many ways to prepare herbal remedies. Our teas are made with pharmacopoeial quality herbs and it is essential to protect their potency. infusions and decoctions until you feel better which should be no longer than three days or so. You may have to do some extra research if you wish to prepare your own herbals. it takes one month of an herbal treatment for each year that you've had the problem. Be sure to research the strength and effect of herbs you are unfamiliar with. In the case of treating prolonged problems. light and humidity has a measurable negative impact on the quality of cut. we define the various types of herbal remedies and offer tips on how to make them yourself. You'll need to know which preparation is best for which herb and what dosage is most appropriate. Use a glass or ceramic container. wildcraft them (pick them from the wild . Some herbs are most productive when they are prepared as decoctions while others prove to be more appropriate in capsules. flowers. as a rule of thumb. In all cases. Continue drinking the teas. leaves. In other words. Fresh spring water or distilled water is best. iron. Very few plant remedies produce lasting beneficial effects after one or a few doses. tin or other metals will leach into the tea. Use pure water. one ounce of a single herb or one ounce of combined herbs is what you will need to use. the part used makes a difference. if you have had a problem for three years. Although copper and stainless steel may be okay.

preferrable when you want the herbs released in the intestines rather than the stomach. Be sure to break up the bark or roots into small pieces. Boil one ounce of your herb(s) in four cups of water for about ten minutes. leaves or petals of the herb of your choice in a clean cloth. Tea: Herbal teas are quite pleasant and a healthy addition to your diet. pour in boiling water and allow to steep for ten to 20 minutes. Refrigerate if kept for more than a few hours. They don't. Usually. provokes an important series of bodily actions that are important to the process. Decoction: A decoction is made by boiling the hard and woody parts of herbs. Single strength herbal teas can be taken as often as you wish. the smaller the better. Drink the tea hot only if the goal is to induce a sweat or to break up a cough or cold. depending on the character of the herb. Most herbalists prescribe an ounce of dried herb (you should invest in a small scale) in a pint of water. The easy way to make a medicinal cup of tea is to triple up on herbal tea bags or the loose tea leaves that you would normally use and steep them in one cup of very hot water. at this point you can add any lighter herb parts -. toss a quantity of the herb in a nonmetallic container. Strain and refrigerate for up to three days. however. follow the previously mentioned "Important Considerations" (above in the tea section). Start by bruising one ounce of dried flowers. They have a mild relaxing or invigorating effect.y y Strain the finished tea before capping and storing. of the active constituents in herbs. one ounce total if you are using more than one herb. The reason capsules are not as beneficial as the following liquid remedies is because no extraction process is performed and thus the active constituents of the herbs are not as readily available to your body. Digestion alone does not guarantee the release of the healing agents of herbs. have the potency. Dosage is in cups per day. Capsules: You can buy empty gelatin capsules from your health food store. the medicinal dose.) The liquid should reduce to three cups. (Remember. By tripling the amount of tea you come very close to the medicinal value of an infusion. There are varying sizes of capsules. Strain the herb parts. the cumulative dose would be one to four cups a day depending on the herb. Strain and drink at room temperature or cold. To use bulk dried herbs. Cover this mixture and steep for ten more minutes. Cover and let steep for at least 20 to 30 minutes or up to several hours (the longer. As with teas and infusions. The bitterness however. for ten minutes. the tea is consumed at room temperature. If you wish. More heat is needed in making decoctions than infusions because these parts of herbs are more difficult to extract active constituents and be absorbed by water. the total amount used should equal one ounce. Many people prefer capsules and pills for convenience and also because some herbs are rather bitter to taste. Dosage is in cups per day. however. Infusions generally will last in the refrigerator for three days. covered. . Follow the same "Important Considerations" (above) as in making medicinal teas. Then. Infusion: This is another easy way to make an herbal remedy. Capsules are. Sip throughout the day. Simply fill the capsules with powdered or finely cut dried herbs. If you are using multiple herbs. the stronger). Dosage is in cups per day. pour three cups of boiling water over the herb.flowers or leaves that you would use in infusions.

It takes time for the active ingredients of the herb to be released into the alcohol. . An extract uses three ounces of fresh herbs. comfrey. depending on the condition and the herb being used. If you want a paste like mixture. Poultice: Mix dried. Continue to do this for at least two weeks (and up to six weeks). Other Medicinal Recipes: Syrup: Honey-based syrups preserve the healing qualities of some herbs and can be used to soothe sore throats and provide relief from coughs and colds. not cups. Add one to two tablespoons of honey. powdered or macerated herbs with hot water or herb tea. Tinctures can last for over a year. combine two ounces of dried herb(s) with one quart of water in a large pot. Leave it in place until it no longer feels warm and then replace it with another. add flour or oatmeal. air tight bottle or jar. or bandage should hold the herbs in place. A tincture is made by pouring five ounces of alcohol (preferrably 100 proof vodka) over one ounce of a dried herb (or a one ounce combination of dried herbs). Other herbs work well as plasters when you want an antiseptic and healing effect on an injury. Cover the compress with a dry towel. Some herbs are stimulating and warming (such as Cayenne or ginger) and are used to increase circulation and energize areas of the boday that are congested or debilitated. Burdock. Place this herbal mixture right on the skin. or a tingling sensation or feeling of relief develops and interrupt the regimen if the area becomes red or the patient feels discomfort. much smaller dosages are used. Compress: Soak a towel in a hot herb tea and lay it on the affected area. add the tincture when finished as above to one cup of warm water to cause most of the alcohol to evaporate. Plaster: Cayenne and mustard are best applied as plasters rather than poultices so they don't actually touch the skin. flax seed and slippery elm are safe and traditional poultice herbs. leak-proof. stop the application when the skin becomes uniformly flushed. Keep the area under compresses for up to 30 minutes.Extracts & Tinctures: Because extracts and tinctures are much more potent than decoctions or infusions. They are dosed in drops. They are strong preparations that should be stored out of the reach of children and in a cool place (it's not neccessary to refrigerate). These are effective for drawing out infection and foreign bodies and relieving muscle spasms and pain. the strength is also changed. If you prefer not to use alcohol you can use vinegar instead. Store all herbal syrups in the refrigerator for up to one month. Other herbs are soothing and cooling and dissipate excess heat or nerbous energy or calm swelling from sprains or bruises. Make an herb paste (as described in "Poultice") and place within folds of cheesecloth or muslin. Be careful not to burn yourself when you wring out the towel thoroughly or the "patient" when you lay it on the area to be treated. crab apple. Generally. To make an herbal syrup. sterile. Apply to the injured area. Use a small. This will also dilute the bitter taste however. Shake the tincture or extract twice a day to maintain the blend of active ingredients. Or. A warm cloth. The alcohol acts as a preservative. Boil down until it is reduced to one pint.

Hot baths dehydrate the body. rose flowers. The following are some herbs. hyssop. You could also make a strong infusion and pour it into the water. cool baths stimulate the body.Oils and Ointments: Aromatic herbs contain active ingredients in essential oils. comfrey. lavender flowers. lemon balm. chamomile flowers. calendula flowers. extracting oils from many pounds of plants to produce a few drops. add one to one and a half ounces of melted beeswax (or tallow) to any herb oil. You can make a less concentrated (and safer) oil yourself by macerating two ounces of dried herb(s) and mix with one pint of olive oil (or safflower or vegetable). sandalwood . evening primrose flowers. Cool. sage. jasmine flowers. juniper berries. Manufactured oils are extremely concentrated. strain and allow to set. for use in baths: Stimulating Herbs: basil. refreshing baths should range in temperature from 70 to 85 degrees. bay. Shake this mixture twice daily for a few days to six weeks depending on the potency you want. ginseng root. dry the skin and can be exhausting. Strain and bottle when cooled. the herbal bath is a safe and effective way to use herbs for healing. Relaxing. Do not underestimate their potency when purchasing manufactured essential oils. When the herbs break down well. dandelion. For ointments. classified by type. raspberry leaves Herbs for muscles and joints: agrimony. passionflower. vervain. For a quicker process. comfrey. bay. oregano. slippery elm. Strain and bottle the oil. mint. Herbal Baths: A very old form of medical treatment. violet Tonic Herbs: blackberry leaves. uncovered. lemon verbena. nettle. patchouli. jasmine flowers. savory. Calendula or comfrey ointment is widely recommended as a first aid cream. healing qualities of herbs permeate through the skin. thyme Soothing Herbs: catnip. for one hour. orange. fennel. mugwort. simmer one ounce of crushed dried herbs in three quarters of a pound of fat. Do not boil. lovage roots. It's easiest to wrap dried herbs in cheesecloth and hang the bundles from the spout while running the water. heat the herbs and oil gently. juniper berries. eucalyptus. Warm baths relax muscles. Your body temperature (98 degrees) is the warmest you should have as bath water. rosemary. For a firmer ointment add melted beeswax while this mixture is still warm. mullein. citronella. elder. Also pay attention to the temperature of the water. If using tallow (rendered lard). Keep in a warm place. sage Antiseptic Herbs: yellow dock.

lemongrass. provide cosmetic enhancement and fill our senses with calming and precious fragrances. They season our foods. clary. cleanse our skin and hair. Useful Implements for your Herbal Preparations: y y y y y y y y y y y y Heatproof glassware Enamel pot with lid (avoid copper or aluminum pots) Enamel double-boiler Mortar and Pestle Clean. To make an infusion. rose flowers. white willow bark. dark glass bottles and jars with airtight lids Kitchen scale Blender Coffee Grinder Clean gauze/ linen towels/cheesecloth Strainer/sieve Wooden spoons Recipe ingredients Basic Herbal Preparations: Infusion: An infusion is a beverage made like tea. bay. freshen our breath. yarrow. witch hazel. treat our ailments. mullein. dock. HERBAL PREPARATIONS Nature has given us the gift of herbs to use in a variety of ways. nasturtium flowers. There are a number of ways we can prepare herbs in our own kitchens. rosemary. raspberry leaves. comfrey. pour one pint of boiling . frankincense. lady's mantle.Astringent Herbs: agrimony. help us to sustain natural good health. and Herbal Extracts Plus has provided a condensed guide for those who would like to enhance their herbal experience. brighten our eyes. bayberry.

Close and label the jar. Never use industrial alcohol. and pour the liquid tincture into clean. i. Reduce heat and simmer for thirty minutes. A . it is also often recommended that for every one part of herb. add five parts of the alcohol. discard the herbs. Add about two ounces of fresh herbs to cold water in a nonmetallic pot and let stand for twelve hours. Powdered herbs can be sprinkled on food and added to drinks. methyl or isopropyl spirits. then crush these (or dried leaves and flowers) with mortar and pestle or in coffee grinder.. Add melted beeswax to create a cream . soups. Pulverizing: Grind. Add two and one half cups of alcohol (at least 60-proof.e. Make sure the herb is completely covered.about one ounce should suffice for two and one quarter cups of oil. Tinctures are easy to make and can be kept for up to two years. Powder: Chop large dried plant parts. May be added to a cup of hot water or drunk separately. it is entirely a matter of preference. such as roots. bruise or mash dried plant fibers and seeds with a mortar and pestle or blender. by this time liquid should have reduced by half. brandy or vodka or rum). (To promote sweating or break up a cold. Tincture: Combine four ounces of powdered herb (or eight ounces of fresh chopped herb) in a nonmetallic pot or clean glass jar (never plastic) with a tightly fitting lid and preferably one that is dark. rather than vitamins and volatile ingredients. bark. Bring to a boil about one ounce of plant parts per two (or two and a half) cups of water in a nonmetallic pot (preferably enameled).) Some recommend that the steeping process be continued up to thirty minutes. dark glass. strain and drink. sunflower). Strain infusion into a cup or glass. The relatively short exposure to heat minimizes the loss of volatile elements. Bring to a boil until liquid has evaporated (bubbles cease to appear). Strain into a cup or glass. bark or thick stems. Ointment and Creams: Prepare and strain a strong decoction or infusion of preferred herb and add to a quantity of pure cold-pressed vegetable oil (i. Shake well for one or two minutes. drink hot. etc. Cold Extract: When prepared with cold water. dark place and shake twice daily for a period of two weeks.e. Do not use an aluminum or copper pot (enameled is preferable). then allow the herbs and alcohol mixture to stand in a cool. stems and seeds) or when it is desirable to extract mineral salts and bitter principles from plants. OR Quick Method: Combine well one part of your powdered remedy with four parts hot petroleum jelly. As a rule of thumb.water over about one ounce of fresh herbs (usually green parts or flowers). leaving herbal principles in the oil. and only minor amounts of mineral salts and bitter principles will be extracted. most volatile ingredients will be preserved. and steep for about ten minutes to extract their active ingredients in a tightly covered pot (to minimize evaporation). Strain. well-stoppered jar and store. Decoction: This method is usually employed for the tougher parts of the herbs (roots..

Herbal Baths: Hydrotherapy is used for the treatment of illness. holding it in place with a clean gauze bandage. such as chocolate or strawberry.little gum benzoin or a drop of tincture of benzoin per ounce of fat will help preserve the ointment. draw out poisons. soak a clean linen or cotton cloth in a hot decoction or infusion (wring out excess). shaking the jar each day. and make a paste with a little boiling water. Some herbs have a pungent taste. Macerating: Pack a glass jar with crushed. a poultice can relieve aches and pains. Cover it with plastic and a towel or blanket to maintain the heat. stimulate circulation or repair wounds. to relieve stress. or mix with a small amount of boiling water. rather than liquid extraction. Apply the pulp directly to the skin as hot as can be tolerated. (Do not give honey to small children.) If you order herbs in powdered form. mash fresh plant parts to a pulpy mass. you can also mix the powder with a flavorful. powder it. but allow it to cool before applying. . It is thought to be more active than a compress and is similar. Poultice: A poultice (or cataplasm) is used to apply a remedy to a skin area with moist heat. Strain and top up with fresh. To prepare a poultice. Seal and leave for two weeks. so you may wish to mask that taste with a sweetly flavored syrup when mixing the two together. Replace it when cooled. smooth skin. Compresses: For a hot compress (or fomentation). Syrup: Simply boil three pounds of raw or brown sugar with added medicinal ingredients in one pint of water until it reaches proper consistency. Depending upon the herb chosen. maple syrup or honey. except that plant parts are used. fresh herb and cover with vegetable oil. pleasant-tasting. readyprepared syrup. If using dried herbs. cider vinegar or alcohol. or boil plant materials in honey or store-bought syrup and then strain through cheesecloth. Repeat until the liquid smells strongly herbal. Prepare a cold compress in the same manner. and either heat in a pan over boiling water. The bag can also be added to the bath to enhance its efficacy. Herbs can be added to baths via decoctions or infusions made from large quantities of herbs sewn into a cloth bag and boiled in several quarts of water. relieve itching or inflammation or to stimulate the mind and body. and apply it to the affected part as hot as can be tolerated.

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