Tree diagram

Chapter 1 Introduction .

 Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer ◦ Instruction set.g. Is there a multiply instruction?  Organization is how features are implemented ◦ Control signals. I/O mechanisms.g. addressing techniques. ◦ e. number of bits used for data representation. ◦ e. interfaces. memory technology. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition? .

  All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture  This gives code compatibility (esp. for the hardware programmer) ◦ At least backwards  Organization differs between different versions .

  Structure is the way in which components relate to each other Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure .

 All computer functions are: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Data processing Data storage Data movement Control  2 ways to understand computer system ◦ Bottom up ◦ Top Down (the clearest & effective) .

Basic computer functions: .





Peripherals Computer Central Processing Unit Main Memory Computer Systems Interconnection Input Output Communication lines .

CPU Computer I/O System Bus Memory CPU Registers Arithmetic and Login Unit Internal CPU Interconnection Control Unit .

Control Unit CPU ALU Internal Bus Registers Control Unit Sequencing Login Control Unit Registers and Decoders Control Memory .

        Computer Evolution and Performance Computer Interconnection Structures Internal Memory External Memory Input/Output Operating Systems Support Computer Arithmetic Instruction Sets .

       CPU Structure and Function Reduced Instruction Set Computers Superscalar Processors Control Unit Operation Microprogrammed Control Multiprocessors and Vector Processing Digital Logic (Appendix) .

. IBM.       WWW Computer Architecture Home Page CPU Info Center Processor Emporium ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Architecture IEEE Technical Committee on Computer Architecture Intel Technology Journal Manufacturer’s sites ◦ Intel. etc.

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