This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Unlike English nouns, which usually do not change form except for the addition of an -s ending to create the plural or the apostrophe + s to create the possessive, personal pronouns (which stand for persons or things) change form according to their various uses within a sentence. Thus I is used as the subject of a sentence (I am happy.), me is used as an object in various ways (He hit me. He gave me a book. Do this for me.), and my is used as the possessive form (That's my car.) The same is true of the other personal pronouns: the singular you and he/she/it and the plural we, you, and they. These forms are called cases. An easily printable chart is available that shows the various Cases of the Personal Pronouns.
Personal pronouns can also be characterized or distinguished by person. First person refers to the speaker(s) or writer(s) ("I" for singular, "we" for plural). Second person refers to the person or people being spoken or written to ("you" for both singular and plural). Third person refers to the person or people being spoken or written about ("he," "she," and "it" for singular, "they" for plural). The person of a pronoun is also demonstrated in the chart Cases of the Personal Pronouns. As you will see there, each person can change form, reflecting its use within a sentence. Thus, "I" becomes "me" when used as an object ("She left me") and "my" when used in its possessive role (That's my car"); "they" becomes "them" in object form ("I like them") and "their" in possessive ("That's just their way").
When a personal pronoun is connected by a conjunction to another noun or pronoun, its case does not change. We would write "I am taking a course in Asian history"; if Talitha is also taking that course, we would write "Talitha and I are taking a course in Asian history." (Notice that Talitha gets listed before "I" does. This is one of the few ways in which English is a "polite" language.) The same is true when the object form is called for: "Professor Vendetti gave all her books to me"; if Talitha also received some books, we'd write "Professor Vendetti gave all her books to Talitha and me." For more on this, see cases of pronouns.
When a pronoun and a noun are combined (which will happen with the plural first- and second-person pronouns), choose the case of the pronoun that would be appropriate if the noun were not there.
We students are demanding that the administration give us two hours for lunch. The administration has managed to put us students in a bad situation.
With the second person, we don't really have a problem because the subject form is the same as the object form, "you":
"You students are demanding too much." "We expect you students to behave like adults."
Among the possessive pronoun forms, there is also what is called the nominative possessive: mine, yours, ours, theirs.
Look at those cars. Theirs is really ugly; ours is beautiful. This new car is mine. Mine is newer than yours.
The family of demonstratives (this/that/these/those/such) can behave either as pronouns or as determiners.
As pronouns, they identify or point to nouns.
That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw) I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience) Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made)
As determiners, the demonstratives adjectivally modify a noun that follows. A sense of relative distance (in time and space) can be conveyed through the choice of these pronouns/determiners:
A couple of sample sentences should suffice to demonstrate why they are called "indefinite": The coach will select whomever he pleases. "That clauses. He seemed to say whatever came to mind. The pronoun which refers to things. are usually deemed indispensable for the meaning of a sentence and are not set off with commas. Those [pancakes that I had yesterday morning] were even better. the reference of demonstratives is non-personal. a "which clause" is often set off with a comma or a pair of commas. however. instead. we would have to use "those" as a determiner and write "The principal suspended those students for two days. Choosing correctly between which and that and between who and whom leads to what are probably the most Frequently Asked Questions about English grammar. The word who connects or relates the subject." Relative Pronouns The relative pronouns (who/whoever/which/that) relate groups of words to nouns or other pronouns (The student who studies hardest usually does the best.student. that usually refers to things. whatever — are known as indefinite relative pronouns. whomever. For that reason. refer to the Notorious Confusables article on those words (including the hyperlink to Michael Quinion's article on this usage and the links to relevant quizzes).) . that [book that I'm pointing to. What is often an indefinite relative pronoun: She will tell you what you need to know.e. to the verb within the dependent clause (studies). For help with which/that. Whoever crosses this line first will win the race.. the demonstratives.). This is my father. Generally. When used as subjects. that can be removed from the sentence without changing the essential meaning of the sentence). but it can also refer to people in a general kind of way. who (and its forms) refers to people. we could write "Those were loitering near the entrance during the fire drill" (as long as it is perfectly clear in context what "those" refers to). In other roles. on the table] is trash. This [book in my hand] is well written. That is my book. say. In other words. A sense of emotional distance or even disdain can be conveyed with the demonstrative pronouns: You're going to wear these? This is the best you can do? Pronouns used in this way would receive special stress in a spoken sentence. we use "which" to introduce clauses that are parenthetical in nature (i. can be used to refer to objects as well as persons. over there. when referring to students." on the other hand. For help with who/whom refer to the section on Consistency. in either singular or plural form. The expanded form of the relative pronouns — whoever. Indefinite Pronouns The indefinite pronouns (everybody/anybody/somebody/all/each/every/some/none/one) do not substitute for specific nouns but function themselves as nouns (Everyone is wondering if any is left. These [pancakes sitting here now on my plate] are delicious. We also recommend that you take the quizzes on the use of who and whom at the end of that section. But we would not write "The principal suspended those for two days".
please contact myself me or Bob Jones. Be alert to a tendency to use reflexive pronoun forms (ending in -self) where they are neither appropriate nor necessary. and I have deceived ourselves into believing in my uncle. "Myself" tends to sound weightier. (Students who cheat on this quiz are only hurting themselves. both. more formal. several. These decisions will be made by myself me.) It is possible (but rather unusual) for an intensive pronoun to precede the noun it refers to. . There are other indefinite pronouns. any.) What this means is that whenever there is a reflexive pronoun in a sentence there must be a person to whom that pronoun can "reflect. The indefinite pronoun none can be either singular or plural. more. When pronouns are combined. neither. but it would be correct. See the section on Pronoun Consistency for help in determining the number (singular/plural) characteristics of these pronouns. None is nearly always plural (meaning "not any") except when something else in the sentence makes us regard it as a singular (meaning "not one")."). much. (There is an entire page on the pronoun one. The inappropriate reflexive form has a wonderful name: the untriggered reflexive. none.) Reflexive Pronouns The reflexive pronouns (which have the same forms as the intensive pronouns) indicate that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb. every. words that double as Determiners: enough. ourselves. Intensive Pronouns The intensive pronouns (such as myself. (Myself. little. the reflexive will take either the first person Juanita. each. fewer will finish. so it has a way of sneaking into sentences where it doesn't belong.) If you think of this word as meaning "every single body." Some can be singular or plural depending on whether it refers to something countable or noncountable. all. many. themselves) consist of a personal pronoun plus self or selves and emphasize a noun. fewer." the confusion usually disappears.One of the chief difficulties we have with the indefinite pronouns lies in the fact that "everybody" feels as though it refers to more than one person. some Few will be chosen. but the other indefinite pronouns use either himself or themselves as reflexives. Refer to the section on Pronoun Consistency for help on determining the number of the indefinite pronouns (and the number [singular/plural] of the verbs that accompany them). Carlos. as in "None of the food is fresh. A sentence such as "I gave that book to myself for Christmas" might be silly. Bob and myself I are responsible for this decision.) It is probably better to pluralize and avoid the clumsy himself or herself construction. (I myself don't know the answer." In other words. You paid yourself a million dollars? She encouraged herself to do well. If you have any questions. few. when there is no first person. the second person: You and Carlos have deceived yourselves. I don't believe a word he says. The indefinite pronoun (see above) one has its own reflexive form ("One must have faith in oneself. most. (Everybody is accounted for. There is a separate section on the uses of the pronoun one. Little is expected. or. herself. either. yourself. depending on its context. but it takes a singular verb. less. the sentence "Please hand that book to myself" would be incorrect because there is no "I" in that sentence for the "myself" to reflect to (and we would use "me" instead of "myself"). than little ol' me or I.
his. generically. they are sometimes called interrogative adjectives. If I ask "What questions give you most trouble"? I could be asking what kind of questions on that quiz (or what kind of question. and like the relative pronouns. I am referring to specific questions on that quiz. and you. He doesn't know whose car he hit. its. It helps to ask about something. Like the relative pronouns. the interrogative pronouns play a subject role in the clauses they introduce: We know who is guilty of this crime. . but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun. The interrogative pronouns also act as Determiners: It doesn't matter which beer you buy. The red basket is mine. The possessive pronouns are hers. The demonstrative pronouns are that. not us! Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun tells you who owns something. Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points out a noun. I already told the detective what I know about it. whoever. The interrogative pronouns are what. These are hilarious cartoons. and whomever. these. The objective pronouns are her. Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used in a question. taking the place of a noun. which. us. and those. Take a picture of him. In this determiner role. and compound words ending in "ever. him. A demonstrative pronoun may look like a demonstrative adjective. and yours. (What is that? Who will help me? Which do you prefer?) Which is generally used with more specific reference than what. Yours is on the coffee table. in general) gives you trouble. The people here cannot blame themselves. whom. If we're taking a quiz and I ask "Which questions give you the most trouble?". the interrogative pronouns introduce noun clauses. That is a good idea." such as whatever. mine. ours. theirs. Interrogative Pronouns The interrogative pronouns (who/which/what) introduce questions. me. Cousin Eldred gave me a trombone. No one here can blame himself or herself. this. who. them. it. Objective Pronouns An objective pronoun acts as the object of a sentence—it receives the action of the verb. whichever.
any. The relative pronouns are that.) Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent (the noun that comes before it). himself. itself. Something smells good. That introduces "you love most. An indefinite pronoun may look like an indefinite adjective. You should bring the book that you love most. Hector is a photographer who does great work. neither. (Themselves refers back to they. . Each of these words can also act as an intensive pronoun (see below). both. I learned a lot about myself at summer camp." which describes Hector. none. some. who. ourselves. themselves. Who introduces "does great work. ourselves. The reflexive pronouns are herself. but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun. Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun introduces a clause. The intensive pronouns are herself. but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun. nothing. which. I myself don't like eggs. The queen herself visited our class. Indefinite pronouns include all. several. many. or general." which describes the book. himself. (Myself refers back to I. everyone. each. Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun refers to an indefinite.) They should divide the berries among themselves. taking the place of a noun.What on earth is that? Who ate the last Fig Newton? An interrogative pronoun may look like an interrogative adjective. myself. Many like salsa with their chips. person or thing. Each of these words can also act as a reflective pronoun (see above). few. and whom. or part of a sentence. and yourselves. themselves. taking the place of a noun. and somebody. and yourselves. myself. that describes a noun. itself. Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of a sentence.
Smith. John pet? Reflexive pronouns. ___ name is Susan. She same school. name is John.Exercise Choose the correct reflexive pronouns from the dropdown menu. sister is nine. I like garden.yourselves . Jason's form teacher is Mrs.ourselves . 7) The lion can defend . There are 450 boys and girls in has got a pet. Jason and I go to the school.themselves 1) Robert made this T-shirt . friend Jason. too. Answer: I have got a sister.himself .Exercise Choose the correct possessive determiners.itself . 4) Emma. Our form teacher is Mr. pet is a budgie. Hi Daniel. myself . Her name is Susan. He has two dogs. lessons. pet is a tortoise.Possessive determiners . Now I have a question for you. Peterson. 6) He cut with the knife while he was doing the dishes. name is Charlie. . Example: I have got a sister.herself . He's 12. did you take the photo by ? 5) I wrote this poem . self-pronouns . This is They have got a pet.yourself . 2) Lisa did the homework 3) We helped to some cola at the party. The dogs love to play in What's Yours.
8) My mother often talks to . Relative pronouns . if you want more milk. which or whose where necessary. father is a professor. 5) That's Peter. 6) Thank you very much for your e-mail was very interesting. which. is a taxi driver. shouted in the street. which. are not from our school. 1) I talked to the girl car had broken down in front of the shop.who. 2) Mr Richards. the boy has just arrived at the airport. 4) This is the girl comes from Spain. which or whose from the dropdown menu. driver is a young man. 3) We often visit our aunt in Norwich is in East Anglia.who.Exercise Choose one of the following relative pronouns who. lives on the corner. whose or no pronouns? . forgot his umbrella. 9) The car. whose . 9) Tim and Gerry. Type an x if the relative pronoun can be left out.Exercise 2 Put in the relative who. 8) The children. 10) What did you do with the money your mother lent you? Relative pronouns . 7) The man. is from Ireland. 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers . . Example: Peter is the boy ____ rides the blue bike. help .
relative pronoun c. I know you like the flavor of ice cream you have. a. relative pronoun c. demonstrative pronoun e. The soldier who spotted the sniper saved the platoon and won a medal. a. Tim saved himself an extra serving of ice cream. demonstrative pronoun e. interrogative b. personal pronoun interrogative pronoun 4. interrogative b. a. brother is five. personal pronoun pronoun 3. indefinite pronoun d. indefinite pronoun d. personal pronoun pronoun 5. and his brother was jealous. but please try his and tell me what you think. 6) This is the man house is on fire. relative pronoun c. indefinite pronoun d. was President of the USA. Identify the correct choice in each question 1. 4) I haven't seen Frank. indefinite pronoun d. reflexive pronoun f. demonstrative pronoun e. has only one daughter. Kathy knows who will be taking her place. reflexive pronoun f. demonstrative pronoun e. b. 5) The robber stole the car the lady parked in front of the supermarket. 7) Can I talk to the girl is sitting on the bench? 8) The book you gave me is great. indefinite pronoun d. 10) Bill Clinton. reflexive pronoun f. interrogative b. interrogative b.Answer: Peter is the boy who rides the blue bike. reflexive pronoun f. personal pronoun pronoun b. indefinite pronoun d. Did you find anyone to take your shift next Friday so you can go the concert? a. 1) This is the boy had an accident. relative pronoun c. interrogative . demonstrative pronoun e. for a long time now. relative pronoun c. relative pronoun c. Have you had any of those? a. indefinite pronoun d. 9) She likes hamburgers are hot. reflexive pronoun f. reflexive pronoun f. demonstrative pronoun e. a. relative pronoun c. interrogative b. a. personal pronoun pronoun 6. The snake that startled Melissa was more frightened than she was. personal pronoun pronoun 7. personal pronoun pronoun 2. reflexive pronoun f. 3) Mandy is the girl I met on Friday. 2) Yesterday I saw a car was really old. demonstrative pronoun e.
indefinite pronoun d. interrogative b. interrogative b. indefinite pronoun d. demonstrative pronoun e. relative pronoun c. interrogative b. demonstrative pronoun e. reflexive pronoun f. a. personal pronoun pronoun 19. indefinite pronoun d. relative pronoun c. demonstrative pronoun e. personal pronoun pronoun 12. reflexive pronoun f. indefinite pronoun d. indefinite pronoun d. "The West Wing. interrogative b. relative pronoun c. demonstrative pronoun e. demonstrative pronoun e. indefinite pronoun d. reflexive pronoun f. reflexive pronoun f. a. indefinite pronoun d. demonstrative pronoun e. demonstrative pronoun e. relative pronoun c. reflexive pronoun f. relative pronoun c. he will put it some place safe. a. demonstrative pronoun e. reflexive pronoun f. interrogative b. reflexive pronoun f. Which of these would you like to wear to the awards dinner? a. indefinite pronoun d. reflexive pronoun f. a. demonstrative pronoun e. Bob smiled and asked. Neither of the movies that Margaret wants to see are of interest to Shawna. maybe she should offer them some of her water." which is Karen's favorite show. demonstrative pronoun e. relative pronoun c. interrogative b. indefinite pronoun d. "Would you please hand me that?" a. personal pronoun pronoun b. demonstrative pronoun e. interrogative b. reflexive pronoun f. indefinite pronoun d. indefinite pronoun d. personal pronoun pronoun 16. When Dick finds the key. Did the letter carrier bring anything for Eli? a. relative pronoun c. When Enid catches the hikers. relative pronoun c. personal pronoun pronoun 10. reflexive pronoun f. personal pronoun pronoun 14. Did Gwen want these? a. interrogative b. personal pronoun pronoun 15. personal pronoun pronoun 18. won several Emmys this year.8. The company provided itself every opportunity to succeed. indefinite pronoun d. Rest assured that some of the vegetables will be left and none of the dessert will. interrogative b. relative pronoun c. interrogative b. relative pronoun c. interrogative . relative pronoun c. interrogative b. Would Bob like Sally to come to the presentation or is he more comfortable going alone? a. a. Whom did you pick to win the league championship? a. personal pronoun pronoun 20. relative pronoun c. relative pronoun c. demonstrative pronoun e. The dirt that is piled behind Randy's house is for his new vegetable garden. a. personal pronoun pronoun 9. interrogative b. reflexive pronoun f. personal pronoun pronoun 17. personal pronoun pronoun 13. a. reflexive pronoun f. reflexive pronoun f. demonstrative pronoun e. personal pronoun pronoun 11. indefinite pronoun d.
me (personal pronouns) or my. Personal Pronouns Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns subject form object form possessive adjective possessive pronoun I me my mine myself you you your yours yourself he him his his himself she her her hers herself it it its its itself we us our ours ourselves you you your yours yourselves they them their theirs themselves . mine (possessive pronouns).Pronouns are words like I.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.