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Titrimetric Methods of Analysis

Titrimetric Methods of Analysis

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Titrimetric Methods of Analysis

 based upon measuring the amount of reagent of known concentration (SR) that is consumed by the analyte (A) a A + b SR -- In  c P  widely used for routine analyses because they are rapid, convenient, accurate and readily automated

the time required to complete the electrochemical reaction is measured 2. Volumetric Titrimetry Gravimetric Titrimetry Coulometric Titrimetry involves measuring the volume of a solution of known concentration that is needed to react essentially completely with the analyte differs only in that mass of the reagent is measured instead of its volume the “reagent” is a constant direct electrical current of known magnitude that directly or indirectly reacts with the analyte. . 3.Titrimetric Methods of Analysis 1.

. 4. 2.Advantages of Weight Titrations 1. Weight titrations are more easily automated. 3. Calibration of glassware and tedious cleaning to ensure proper drainage is avoided. Temperature corrections are unnecessary. Weight measurement can be made with considerably greater precision and accuracy.

Volumetric Titrimetry Titration  performed by slowly adding a standard solution from a buret to a solution of the analyte until the reaction between the two is judged complete  volume of reagent needed to complete the titration is determined from the difference between the initial and final volume readings  Equivalence Point amount T = amount A  End Point .Vep .a physical change associated with the condition of chemical equivalence occurs during titration  Et = Veq .

temperature recorders and refractometers kept at a minimum amount. intensely colored and react last with the titrant  weaker than the analyte.Volumetric Titrimetry Indicator  often added to the analyte solution in order to give an observable physical change (the end point) at or near the equivalence point  typical indicator changes: appearance/disappearance of color. a change in color. ohmmeters. . ammeters. colorimeters. appearance/disappearance of turbidity  instruments to detect end points: voltmeters.

Volumetric Titrimetry Primary Standard  a highly purified compound that serves as a reference material in all volumetric methods  accuracy of a method is critically dependent on the properties of this compound Characteristics:  high purity  stability toward air  absence of hydrate water  ready availability at modest cost  reasonable solubility in the titration medium  reasonably large molar mass .

Volumetric Titrimetry Secondary Standard  standard solution / standard titrant  a reagent of known concentration that is used to carry out a titrimetric analysis  expressed in terms of molarity and normality Characteristics:  be sufficiently stable  react rapidly with the analyte  react more or less completely with the analyte  undergo a selective reaction with the analyte .

measured volume of another standard solution/secondary standard . Direct Method  carefully weighed quantity of a primary standard is dissolved in a suitable solvent and diluted to an exactly known volume in a volumetric flask B. weighed quantity of a primary standard 2.Methods for Establishing Concentration of Standard Titrants A. Standardization 1.

Indirect Titration Method  Replacement Titration Method  employs a preliminary reaction in which the analyte is replaced by an equivalent amount of another substance which is then determined by titration . Direct Titration Method   titrant reacts directly with analyte a simple relationship exist between the titrant used and the analyte present 2.Types of Titration Methods 1.

Types of Titration Methods 3. Back-Titration Method  Residual Titration Method  a known excess of the titrant is added to the analyte solution  amount of analyte is found by difference Chemical Equations:  Direct Titration: aA aA + bT In  cP  Indirect Titration: + b R  c NS d NS + e T In f P  Back-Titration: aA d T1 + b T1  c P excess excess + e T2 In fP .

Acid-Base  many compounds. both inorganic and organic. are either acids or bases and can be titrated with a standard solution of a strong base or a strong acid  end points of these titrations are easy to detect. Precipitation  the titrant forms an insoluble product with the analyte  indicators can be used to detect the end point or the potential of the solution can be monitored electrically .Classification of Volumetric Methods 1. either by means of an indicator or by following he change in pH with a pH meter 2.

Complexometric  the titrant is a reagent that forms a water-soluble complex with the analyte. a metal ion  the titrant is often a chelating agent . REDOX  involves the titration of an oxidizing agent with a reducing agent or vice-versa  there must be a sufficiently large difference between the oxidizing and reducing capabilities  end points detected by appropriate indicators or by various electrometric means .Classification of Volumetric Methods 3. EDTA  reverse titration may be carried out also  indicators can be used to form a highly colored complex with metal ion 4.

00-mL sample 28. Express the acidity of the wine in terms of grams of tartaric acid (H2C4H4O6) per 100 mL. Molar Masses: H2C4H4O6 = 150.40mL of 0.09 NaOH = 40.4614 g /100 mL .00-mL sample of white table wine was diluted to about 100-mL and titrated with 28.00 Sample Analyte Indicator Titrant Method Reaction Titration Method White Table Wine H2C4H4O6 Phenolphthalein NaOH Volumetric Titrimetry Acid-Base Reaction Direct Titration Method Given: 25.Exercise 6 Analysis of Table Wine A 25.05412-N NaOH Answer: 0.40-mL of 0.05412-N NaOH with phenolphthalein as indicator.

36 Analyte Standard Indicator Method Reaction HCl Ba(OH)2 Bromocresol Green Weight Titrimetry Acid-Base Reaction Type of Standardization & Titration Method Secondary Standardization Direct Titration Method Given: 50.Exercise 6 Standardization of HCl Exactly 50.02333-MW . Molar Masses: HCl = 36.01963-Mw Ba(OH)2 to reach an end point with bromocresol green indicator.00-g of HCl required 29.46 Ba(OH)2 = 171.71-g of 0.01963-MW Ba(OH)2 Answer: 0.00-g HCl 29.71-g 0. Calculate the weight molarity of the HCl solution.

132-g sample 8.00-A.2.Exercise 6 A sample of copper ore weighing 2.04-min .9% . Cu Analysis of Copper Ore Sample Analyte Method Reaction Given: Copper Ore Copper Coulometric Titrimetry Redox Reaction If 8. Molar Mass: Cu = 63. calculate the percentage of copper in the ore.54 2.04-min is required for the electrolysis using a constant current of 2.00A Answer: 14.132-g is dissolved in acid and the copper is electrolyzed: Cu 2+ + 2 e.

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