1. SULPHURIC ACID o Introduction o Objective o Information o Discussion o AMMONIA AND ITS SALTS o Introduction o Objective o Information o Discussion ALLOYS o Introduction o Objective o Information o Discussion o SYNTHETIC POLYMERS o Introduction o Objective o Information o Discussion o GLASS AND CERAMICS o Introduction o Objective o Information o Discussion o COMPOSITE MATERIALS o Introduction o Objective o Information o Discussion o CONCLUSION REFERENCES 1 2 3 -7 8 - 11


12 13 14 - 18 19 - 21 22 23 24 - 27 28 - 29



30 31 32 - 35 36 - 38


39 - 40 41 42 - 43 44 - 49


50 51 52 - 71 72 - 73 74 75

7. 8.



What is manufactured substance in industry? Almost everything we see is a manufactured product. Industrial products are manufactured for our comfort. Spoons, forks, pots are industrial products used in the kitchen. Washing liquids such as detergents are manufactured from ammonia. Bucket bottles, plastic plates and bowls are example of synthetic polymer normally used in our daily life.

A strong mineral acid with the chemical formula H2SO4. It is a colorless, oily liquid, sometimes called oil of vitriol or vitriolic acid. The pure acid has a density of 1.834 at 25°C (77°F) and freezes at 10.5°C (50.90°F). It is an important industrial commodity, used extensively in petroleum refining and in the manufacture of fertilizers, paints, pigments, dyes, and explosives. Sulphuric acid is produced on a large scale by two commercial processes, the Contact process and the lead-chamber process. In the Contact process, sulfur dioxide, SO2, is converted to sulphur trioxide, SO3, by reaction with oxygen in the presence of a catalyst. Sulphuric acid is produced by the reaction of the sulphur trioxide with water. The leadchamber process depends upon the oxidation of sulfur dioxide by nitric acid in the presence of water, the reaction being carried out in large lead rooms. Sulphuric acid reacts vigorously with water to form several hydrates. The concentrated acid, therefore, acts as an efficient drying agent, taking up moisture from the air and even abstracting the elements of water from such compounds as sugar and starch. The concentrated acid also acts as a strong oxidizing agent. It reacts with most metals upon heating to produce sulphur dioxide. Concentrated Sulphuric Acid When heated, the pure 100% acid loses sulphur trioxide gas, SO3, until a constant-boiling solution, or azeotrope, containing about 98.5% H2SO4 is formed at 33 0C. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a weak acid and a poor electrolyte because relatively little of it is dissociated into ions at room temperature. When cold it does not react readily with such common metals as iron or copper. When hot it is an oxidizing agent, the sulphur in it being reduced; sulphur dioxide gas may be released. Hot concentrated sulphuric acid reacts with most metals and with several nonmetals, e.g., sulphur and carbon. Because the concentrated acid has a fairly high boiling point, it can be used to release more volatile acids from their salts, e.g., when sodium chloride (NaCl), or common salt, is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, hydrogen chloride gas, HCl, is evolved. Concentrated sulphuric acid has a very strong affinity for water. It is sometimes used as a drying agent and can be used to dehydrate (chemically remove water from) many compounds,

sodium bisulphate. cellulose. H2O. it is highly ionized.g. with some carbonates and sulfides. e. The acid reacts similarly with skin. Since it is dibasic (i. It turns blue litmus red.g. When the concentrated acid mixes with water. Na2SO4) and acid sulfates.e. and other plant and animal matter. To dilute the acid. the acid should be added slowly to cold water with constant stirring to limit the buildup of heat. with zinc).. much of the heat released in dilution coming from hydration of the hydrogen ions. from each molecule of sucrose and leaving a brittle spongy black mass of carbon and diluted sulphuric acid. releasing hydrogen gas. Dilute Sulphuric Acid Dilute sulphuric acid is a strong acid and a good electrolyte. Sulphuric acid reacts with water to form hydrates with distinct properties. It reacts with many metals (e. . carbohydrates. large amounts of heat are released. it has two replaceable hydrogen atoms in each molecule).. H2. it forms both normal sulphate (with both hydrogen replaced. It reacts with the sugar sucrose. It reacts with most hydroxides and oxides. sodium sulfate. also called bisulphate or hydrogen sulphate (with only one hydrogen replaced.. removing eleven molecules of water. The dilute acid has most of the properties of common strong acids. and forming the sulphate of the metal.. and with some salts. enough heat can be released at once to boil the water and spatter the acid.e.. C12H22O11. e.g. NaHSO4).g.

II. Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Explain that sulphur dioxide causes environmental pollution. III. List the uses of sulphuric acid. .Objectives I.

iii. iv. Manufacture of fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate. vii. ii. (NH4)2SO4 Manufacture of electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators (car battery) Manufacture of soaps and detergents Manufacture of pesticides (insecticides) Manufacture of plastic items such as rayon and nylon Manufacture of paints Leather tanning Manufacture of car batteries Manufacture of detergents Manufacture of detergents Manufacture of paints Manufacture of plastic items Leather tanning . vi.i) Uses of sulphuric acid i. v.

H2SO4. Catalysts are normally made from transition elements to speed up the rate of reaction. in industry involves three stages. H2SO4. is manufactured in industry through the Contact process. The manufacturing of sulphuric acid. The manufacture of sulphuric acid. . is called Contact Process because sulphur dioxide SO2 reacts with oxygen in contact with the catalyst in several times. H2SO4. The raw materials used are sulphur.Manufacture of pesticides ii) Manufacture of sulphuric acid Sulphuric acid. air and water.

The manufacture of sulphuric acid. SO2 Stage 2 To produce sulphur trioxide gas. S + O2 SO2 AIM To produce sulphur dioxide gas. . SO2. H2SO4 in the Contact Process STAGE Stage 1 Sulphur dioxide gas. can be produced by burning sulphur in air. The gas produced is purified and cooled.

H2S2O7 + H2O 2H2SO4 The three stages involved in the Contact Process. Below are the environmental pollution causes by sulphur dioxide : .5% of the sulphur dioxide. SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7 To produce sulphuric acid. SO2 is one of the by-products of the Contact Process. SO3. The oleum. Sulphur dioxide. SO3. to form a product called oleum. is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid. It can cause environmental pollution. SO3. About 99. H2S2O7. is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. is passed over vanadium (V) oxide. and oxygen.The gas mixture of sulphur dioxide. the sulphur trioxide. O2. H2SO4 in large quantities. SO2. Stage 3 In the absorber. 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 SO3. through this reversible reaction. is converted into sulphur trioxide. SO2 in the air comes from the burning of fossil fuels such as petrol containing sulphur. (catalyst) at temperature 450 – 500oC and under the pressure of 1 atmosphere to produce sulphur trioxide. H2SO4. SO2. H2S2O7. Almost all sulphur dioxides. iii) Environmental pollution causes by sulphur dioxide. V2O5. H2SO4.

fog. Lake and rivers become acidic. Acid Rain – SO2 and nitrogen oxides react with other substances in the air to form acids.S.Acid rain damages forests and crops.Haze occurs when light is scattered or absorbed by particles and gases in the air. . snow. Aquatic organism dies. Continued exposure over a long time changes the natural variety of plants and animals in an ecosystem. Plant and Water Damage . This due to the reaction of sulphur dioxide.Visibility Impairment . Some may be carried by the wind for hundreds of miles. Acid rain destroys trees in forest. Plants die of malnutrition and diseases. and makes lakes and streams acidic and unsuitable for fish. Sulfate particles are the major cause of reduced visibility in many parts of the U. pH of soils decreases.. which fall to earth as rain. or dry particles. SO2 with rainwater. including our national parks. changes the makeup of soil.

it produces a relatively dilute acid (62%–78% H2SO4). difficulty in breathing.SO2 accelerates the decay of building materials and paints. including irreplaceable monuments. and sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage. more concentrated acid but requires purer raw . The Contact process produces a purer. and premature death. they gather in the lungs and are associated with increased respiratory symptoms and disease. and it is available commercially in a number of grades and concentrations.Aesthetic Damage . Discussion There are two major processes (lead chamber and contact) for production of sulphuric acid. Respiratory Effects from Gaseous SO2 .Peak levels of SO2 in the air can cause temporary breathing difficulty for people with asthma who are active outdoors. the older of the two processes.SO2 reacts with other chemicals in the air to form tiny sulfate particles. The lead chamber process. statues. Longer-term exposures to high levels of SO2 gas and particles cause respiratory illness and aggravate existing heart disease. Respiratory Effects from Sulfate Particles . is used to produce much of the acid used to make fertilizers. When these are breathed.

often called chamber acid or fertilizer acid. In the contact process. and nitrogen dioxide. or by burning hydrogen sulphide gas.materials and the use of expensive catalysts. sulphuric acid is formed by a complex series of reactions. oxygen. Waste gases are usually discharged into the atmosphere. The manufacturing of sulphuric acid. From the Glover tower a mixture of gases (including sulphur dioxide and trioxide. dissolved in it) and mixed with nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide gases. In both processes sulphur dioxide is oxidized and dissolved in water. contains 62% to 68% H2SO4. by burning pyrites (iron sulphides). The acid produced in the chambers. Remaining waste gases are usually discharged into the atmosphere. NO2. in industry involves three stages. H2SO4. Safety Laboratory harzard . Contact Process Sulphuric acid. There may be from three to twelve chambers in a series. heated to about 450°C. Lead Chamber Process In the lead chamber process hot sulphur dioxide gas enters the bottom of a reactor called a Glover tower where it is washed with nitrous vitriol (sulphuric acid with nitric oxide. the succession. nitrogen oxides. The manufacture of sulphuric acid. Some sulphuric acid is also made from ferrous sulphate waste solutions from pickling iron and steel and from waste acid sludge from oil refineries. and steam) is transferred to a lead-lined chamber where it is reacted with more water. is called Contact Process because sulphur dioxide SO2 reacts with oxygen in contact with the catalyst in several times. nitrogen. and passed over a catalyst. by roasting nonferrous sulphide ores preparatory to smelting. The sulphur dioxide is obtained by burning sulphur. NO. 98% sulfuric acid is usually produced in this tower. Acid of any desired concentration may be produced by mixing or diluting the products of this process. The raw materials used are sulphur. the nitrogen oxides and unreacted sulphur dioxide dissolve in the acid to form the nitrous vitriol used in the Glover tower. In the first tower it is washed with oleum (fuming sulfuric acid. In the second tower it is washed with 97% sulfuric acid. air and water. The sulfur trioxide is cooled and passed through two towers. 100% sulfuric acid with sulfur trioxide dissolved in it). the sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfur trioxide. H2SO4. boxlike room or an enclosure in the form of a truncated cone. Catalysts are normally made from transition elements to speed up the rate of reaction. After the gases have passed through the chambers they are passed into a reactor called the Gay-Lussac tower where they are washed with cooled concentrated acid (from the Glover tower). it condenses on the walls and collects on the floor of the chamber. H2SO4. some of the sulphur dioxide is oxidized to sulphur trioxide and dissolved in the acid wash to form tower acid or Glover acid (about 78% H2SO4). is manufactured in industry through the Contact process. The chamber may be a large. The catalyst is usually platinum on a silica or asbestos carrier or vanadium pentoxide on a silica carrier. purified sulfur dioxide and air are mixed.

as for other corrosive agents. contact with metals in the event of a spillage can lead to the liberation of hydrogen gas. Industrial hazards Although sulphuric acid is non-flammable.5 M should be labeled CORROSIVE.g. Hence burns from sulphuric acid are potentially more serious than those of comparable strong acids (e.5 M but less than 1. 10%) will char paper by dehydration if left in contact for a sufficient time. Exposure to aerosols at high concentrations leads to immediate and severe irritation of the eyes. found in virtually all studies: indications of possible chronic damage to the respiratory tract are inconclusive as of 1997. as the heat produced can be sufficient to boil the diluted acid: efficient mechanical stirring and external cooling (e. and the main occupational risks are skin contact leading to burns (see above) and the inhalation of aerosols. Preparation of the diluted acid can also be dangerous due to the heat released in the dilution process. Solutions equal to or stronger than 1. although there is a risk of subsequent pulmonary edema if tissue damage has been more severe. i. secondary thermal damage.e. At lower concentrations.5 M should be labeled IRRITANT. The danger is obviously greater with more concentrated preparations of sulphuric acid. The standard first aid treatment for acid spills on the skin is.The corrosive properties of sulphuric acid are accentuated by its highly exothermic reaction with water. Addition of water to concentrated sulphuric acid leads at best to the dispersal of a sulphuric acid aerosol.g. AMMONIA AND ITS SALT Introduction . It is essential that the concentrated acid is added to water and not the other way round. an ice bath) are essential. Sulphuric acid is not considered toxic besides its obvious corrosive hazard. respiratory tract and mucous membranes: this ceases rapidly after exposure. Contaminated clothing must be removed immediately and the underlying skin washed thoroughly. while solutions greater than 0. Fuming sulphuric acid (oleum) is not recommended for use in schools due to it being quite hazardous. the most commonly reported symptom of chronic exposure to sulphuric acid aerosols is erosion of the teeth. as there is additional tissue damage due to dehydration and particularly due to the heat liberated by the reaction with water. Preparation of solutions greater than 6 M (35%) in concentration is the most dangerous. irrigation with large quantities of water: Washing should be continued for at least ten to fifteen minutes in order to cool the tissue surrounding the acid burn and to prevent secondary damage. to take advantage of the relatively high heat capacity of water. 1 M. at worst to an explosion. The dispersal of acid aerosols and gaseous sulfur dioxide is an additional hazard of fires involving sulphuric acid. hydrochloric acid). but it should be remembered that even the normal laboratory "dilute" grade (approx.

"Household ammonia" or "ammonium hydroxide" is a solution of NH3 in water. Objectives I. is used to manufacture nitric acid. is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. HNO3.5 °C) being the typical high concentration commercial product. worldwide production was estimated at 146.Ammonia solution NH3 can be used to identify the presence of certain cation in aqueous soluiton in laboratory. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Although in wide use. as used commercially.5 million tonnes. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. is then used to manufacture explosives and nitrate fertilisers. In 2006. Because NH3 boils at -33 °C. Nitric acid. List the uses of ammonia. the liquid must be stored under high pressure or at low temperature. II. Ammonia. Its heat of vaporization is. State the properties of ammonia. Household ammonia ranges in concentration from 5 to 10 weight percent ammonia.Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. . ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. Ammonia. HNO3. with 26 degrees baume (about 30 weight percent ammonia at 15. NH3. is often called anhydrous ammonia. either directly or indirectly. This term emphasizes the absence of water in the material. Ammonia. sufficiently great that NH3 can be readily handled in ordinary beakers in a fume hood. The strength of such solutions is measured in units of baume (density). however.

III. iii. v. ii. Design an activity to prepare ammonium fertiliser. vi. HNO3. iv. Information i) i. Explain the industrial process in the manufacture of ammonia. through the Ostwald Process Manufacture of electrolytes in dry cells Manufacture of cleaning agents such as washing powder and detergents Maufacture of explosives such as trinitroluene (TNT) Manufacture of dyes . IV. Uses of ammonia Manufacture of fertilisers Manufacture of nitric acid .

NH3 Pungent smell Less dense than air. The Haber process is the third stage and uses a catalyst. Very soluble in water iii) Manufacture of ammonia Ammonnia. The three main stages in ammonia synthesis . NH3 is manufactured on a large scale in factories through the Haber Process. There are three main stages in the manufacture of ammonia. Produce thick white fumes with hydrogen chloride Colorless gas PROPERTIE S OF AMMONIA.ii) Properties of ammonia Has characteristic of weak alkali when dissolve in water.

The two gases are mixed in the ratio of 1:3 volumes. from the air with hydrogen gas. N2 + 3H2 2NH3 The hydrogen gas is obtained from methane CH4. . The gas mixture is passed over iron (catalyst) at a temperature of 450 – 550 0C to speed up the rate of reaction and compressed under a pressure of 200 – 500 atmospheres. a type of natural gas.a) conversion of methane and steam to hydrogen and carbon monoxide b) removal of the carbon monoxide and the production of a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen c) synthesis of ammonia in the Haber process The process combines nitrogen gas. NH3. N2. while nitrogen gas is obtained from air by fractional distillation of liquified air. H2. derived mainly from natural gas to form ammonia.

The manufacture of ammonia. iv) Preparation of ammonium fertiliser. Aim To prepare ammonium sulphate. salts . (NH4)2SO4.NH3 through the Haber Process.

filter paper. 50 cm3 of sulphuric acid. glass rod. sulphuric acid. 1 mol dm-3. salts Procedure 1. NH4. wire gauge. 1 mol dm-3 is measured with a measuring cylinder and poured into a 250 cm3 beaker.Materials Ammonia solution. until an excess amount is used (when ammonia. NH3. filter funnel. H2SO4. tripod stand. H2SO4. While stirring. can be smelled) . asbestos tile Preparation of ammonium sulphate. measuring cylinder. ammonia solution. 2. Bunsen burner. 1 mol dm-3. red litmus paper Apparatus 250 cm3 beaker. H2SO4. (NH4)2SO4. dropper. 1 mol dm-3. (NH4)2SO4. is added drop by drop from a dropper into the sulphuric acid.

drops are stopped when the red litmus paper turns blue. . H2SO4. The salt crytals are then dried on filter paper. NH3. The crystals are then filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water. and ammonia solution or ammonia hydroxide. The mixture is boiled until it evaporates to form a saturated solution. and its presence is indicated by its pungent and irritating odor. NH3. The mixture is then poured into an evaporating dish. H2SO4. 6. Analysis Neutaralisation occur between sulphuric acid. The saturated solution is then cooled to room temperature until crystals salts is formed. and can be represented by the chemical equation below : H2SO4 + 2NH4OH (NH4)2SO4 + 2H2O Conclusion Ammonium sulphate. amd ammonia solution NH3. salt can be prepared from the reaction between sulphuric acid. (NH4)2SO4. The adding of ammonia solution. It is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic material. 4.3. 7. Dicussion The mixture formed in the beaker is tested from time to time with red litmus paper. Information The most familiar compound composed of the elements nitrogen and hydrogen. NH4OH. 5.

Ammonation reactions include those in which ammonia molecules add to other molecules or ions. Its dilute aqueous solution finds use as a household cleansing agent. such as sulfur trioxide. plastics. The CO2 and CO are removed by a CO2 purifier and ammoniacal cuprous solution. Ammonia reacts readily with strong acids to form ammonium salts. The physical and chemical properties of liquid ammonia make it appropriate for use as a solvent in certain types of chemical reactions. and dyes. ammonia is generally a better solvent for covalent substances than is water. particularly transition metal ions. in many ways. Examples of its use are the production of nitric acid and ammonium salts. The solvent properties of liquid ammonia are. or a nitride group replaces one or more atoms or groups in the reacting molecule. Ammonia is highly mobile in the liquid state and has a high thermal coefficient of expansion. commonly called ammonation. respectively. (2) substitution reactions. Ammonium salts of weak acids in the solid state dissociate readily into ammonia and the free acid. CO2) mixed with nitrogen is passed through a scrubber cooler to remove dust and undecomposed material. This is particularly true with respect to dielectric constant. Most of the chemical reactions of ammonia may be classified under three chief groups: (1) addition reactions.Ammonia has a wide range of industrial and agricultural applications. silicon tetrafluoride. On the other hand. qualitatively intermediate between those of water and of ethyl alcohol. and (3) oxidation-reduction reactions. sulfur dioxide. therefore. The Haber-Bosch synthesis is the major source of industrial ammonia. Ammonolytic reactions include reactions of ammonia in which an amide group (NH2). ammonia is generally superior to ethyl alcohol as a solvent for ionic substances but is inferior to water in this respect. commonly called ammonolysis. nitrate. Anhydrous ammonia and ammonium salts are used as fertilizers. and the synthesis of hundreds of organic compounds including many drugs. because of its high heat of vaporization and relative ease of liquefaction. An example of the first group is the catalytic oxidation of ammonia in air to form nitric oxide. Ammonation occurs with a variety of molecules capable of acting as electron acceptors (Lewis acids). and chloride. and anhydrous ammonia also serves as a refrigerant. an imide group). H2. and boron trifluoride. Included among ammonation reactions is the formation of complexes (called ammines) with many metal ions. Oxidation-reduction reactions may be subdivided into those which involve a change in the oxidation state of the nitrogen atom and those in which elemental hydrogen is liberated. The physical properties of ammonia are analogous to those of water and hydrogen fluoride in that the physical constants are abnormal with respect to those of the binary hydrogen compounds of the other members of the respective periodic families. Most familiar of the ammonation reactions is the reaction with water to form ammonium hydroxide. These abnormalities may be related to the association of molecules through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. ammonia burns in oxygen to yield nitrogen. water gas (CO. Another example is the reduction with ammonia of hot metal oxides such as cupric oxide. The remaining H2 and N2 gases are passed over a . The strong tendency of water and ammonia to combine is evidenced by the very high solubility of ammonia in water. In a typical process. particularly the sulfate. In the absence of a catalyst. carbonate.

Discussion The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen. and its synthesis through the Cyanamid process. being mentioned by Albertus Magnus. Gaseous ammonia was first isolated by Joseph Priestley in 1774 and was termed by him alkaline air. History The Romans called the ammonium chloride deposits they collected from near the Temple of Jupiter Amun (Greek Ἄμμων Ammon) in ancient Libya 'sal ammoniacus' (salt of Amun) because of proximity to the nearby temple.catalyst at high pressures (up to 1000 atm or 100 megapascals) and high temperatures (approx. hydrogen as a precursor to ammonia production was produced via the electrolysis of water. Claude Louis Berthollet ascertained its composition. first mentioned by Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan). In the laboratory. The Vemork 60 MW hydroelectric plant in Norway constructed in 1911 was used purely for this purpose and up until the second world war provided the majority of Europe's ammonia. Another source is the hydrolysis of metal nitrides. when sal-ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hoofs and horns of oxen and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid. the name "spirit of hartshorn" was applied to ammonia. Eleven years later in 1785. thus the term Hammoniacus sal appears in the writings of Pliny. 1300°F or 700°C). In the 15th century. At a later period. and to the European alchemists since the 13th century. The Haber process to produce ammonia from the nitrogen in the air was developed by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch in 1909 and patented in 1910. It was first used on an industrial scale by the Germans during World War I. In the form of sal-ammoniac. however it was acquired by the alchemist Basil Valentine. Basilius Valentinus showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalis on sal-ammoniac. It was also used by dyers in the Middle Ages in the form of fermented urine to alter the colour of vegetable dyes. The Haber process is important . ammonia is usually formed by its displacement from ammonium salts (either dry or in solution) by strong bases. although it is not known whether the term is identical with the more modern salammoniac. Other industrial sources of ammonia include its formation as a by-product of the destructive distillation of coal. over an iron-substrate. following the allied blockade that cut off the supply of nitrates from Chile. ammonia was known to the Arabic alchemists as early as the 8th century. to produce ammonia. Prior to the advent of cheap natural gas. Salts of ammonia have been known from very early times. The ammonia was used to produce explosives to sustain their war effort.

As the HaberBosch process branched out in global use. on an industrial scale. It was developed immediately prior to World War I by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch.greater yields are produced at higher pressures and lower temperatures. agriculturally useful "fixed" nitrogen compounds were harder to come by at that time in history. At first a German national secret. The Haber-Bosch process provided a solution to the shortage of fixed nitrogen. Haber won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 for his discoveries. critical chemicals used in both the production of fertilizers and explosives were made highly accessible to German industry. while Bosch shared a Nobel Prize with Friedrich Bergius in 1931 for his work on high-pressure chemical reactions. The efficiency of the reaction is a function of pressure and temperature . the chemistry and techniques behind the effective synthesis of ammonia spread to the rest of the world in the 20s and 30s. While nitrogen in its inactive. In addition to high pressures. the Haber-Bosch process is used to produce more than 500 million tons (453 billion kilograms) of artificial fertilizer per year. ALLOYS Introduction . making it possible for them to continue fighting WWI effectively. Agricultural operations require liberal amounts of fixed nitrogen to produce good yields. billions of people might not exist. roughly 1% of the world's energy is used for it. the gas is relatively inert due to the strength of the triple bond that keeps the molecule together. high temperatures (750 to 1200 degrees Fahrenheit or 400 to 650 degrees Celsius) are used. Without it. Today. Ammonia is important because it is the primary ingredient in artificial fertilizers.Chilean saltpeter (NaNO3). Using extremely high pressures and a catalyst composed mostly of iron. without which modern-day agricultural yields would be impossible. and it sustains about 40% of our planetary population. the artificial synthesis of nitrates was being researched because the world's supply of fixed nitrogen was declining rapidly relative to the demand. Many scientists started worrying about the declining supply of nitrogen compounds. At the turn of the century. In the first decade of the 20th century.1% of the air we breathe is nitrogen. the Haber-Bosch process was the first industrial chemical process to make use of extremely high pressures (200 to 400 atmospheres). It was not until the start of the twentieth century that this method was developed to harness the atmospheric abundance of nitrogen to create ammonia.because ammonia is difficult to produce. Even though 78. Sometimes called the "Haber Ammonia process". which can then be oxidized to make the nitrates and nitrites essential for the production of nitrate fertilizer and munitions. all the world's developed countries were required to mass import nitrates from the largest available source . atmospheric gas form is very plentiful. it became the primary procedure responsible for the production of fertilizer to feed the world's population. German chemists.

and electrical and thermal conductivity. Tian Abrie and Nakamura. such as tensile strength and shear strength may be substantially different from those of the constituent materials. but engineering properties. used for bearings. and smaller atoms exert a tensile force on their neighbors. The temperature at which melting begins is called the solidus and the temperature when melting is complete is called the liquidus. Alloys may exhibit marked differences in behavior even when small amounts of one element occur. Hogan. For instance. This is called the alloy's eutectic mixture.An alloy is a partial or complete solid solution of one or more elements in a metallic matrix. statues. while partial solutions give two or more phases that may be homogeneous in distribution depending on thermal (heat treatment) history. they have a melting range in which the material is a mixture of solid and liquid phases. its primary element. Objectives I. Alloying one metal with other metal(s) or non metal(s) often enhances its properties. Young's modulus. is an alloy of tin and copper. Unlike pure metals. Some alloys are made by melting and mixing two or more metals. helping the alloy resist deformation. However. reactivity. as first predicted by White. Suhl. Relate the arrangement of atoms in metals to their ductile and malleable properties. impurities in semi-conducting ferromagnetic alloys lead to different properties. This is sometimes due to the sizes of the atoms in the alloy. Bronze. since larger atoms exert a compressive force on neighboring atoms. such as density. Brass is an alloy made from copper and zinc. of an alloy may not differ greatly from those of its elements. Instead. . for most alloys there is a particular proportion of constituents which give them a single melting point or (rarely) two. The physical properties. Complete solid solution alloys give single solid phase microstructure. most alloys do not have a single melting point. steel is stronger than iron. For example. Alloys usually have different properties from those of the component elements. ornaments and church bells.

IV. V. State the aim of making alloys. Relate the arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness.II. Relate the properties of alloys to their uses. Information i) Arrangement of atoms in metals . State the meaning of alloy. III. VI. List the composition and properties of alloys.

o When force is applied to pure metals. Pure metal have similar size and shape and are arranged closely but there is still space between the atoms. it can be stretched into wire. Metals are ductile o When knocked or hammered. The arrangement of the atoms in metals gives the metals their ductile and malleable properties. the atoms slide along one another easily. that is. This property causes pure metal to be malleable.Most metals are solid. This property causes pure metal to be ductile. Pure metal is soft and not very strong. metal atoms slide along one another to fill spaces between the metal atoms. that is. Metals are malleable ii) Alloys Two soft metals can be mixed together to make stronger metal called alloy. it can be knocked or pressed into various desired shapes. An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition on which the major .

component is a metal. The process of mixing atoms of impurities with atoms of pure metal by melting is called alloying. The aim of making alloys is to make them into alloys. Most pure metals are weak and soft. iii) Aims of alloying are to : a) increase the strength and hardness of the metal b) prevent corrosion of the metal c) have a better furnish and lustre iv) Composition and properties of alloy ALLOY Steel Bronze o o o o COMPOSITION 99% iron 1% carbon 90% copper 10% tin o o o o o o o o o o o o o o PROPERTIES Hard and strong Withstand corrosion Hard and strong Withstand corrosion Has shiny surface Strong Shiny Harder than copper Shiny Strong Does not rust Light Strong Withsand corrosion Brass o 70% copper o 30% zinc o o o o o o o o o o 74% iron 8% carbon 18% chromium 93% aluminium 3% copper 3% magnesium 1% manganese 96% tin 3% copper 1% antimony Stainless steel Duralumin Pewter Copper nickel o 75% copper o 25% nickel o Lustre o Smooth and shiny surface o Strong o Withstand corrosion o Strong o Shiny silver colour . The properties of pure metals can be improved by making them into alloys.

v) Uses of alloy .

Properties of alloys and their uses. Impurity atoms which are mixed may be larger or smaller than atoms of pure metal. vi) Arrangement of atoms in alloys. Impurity atoms will fill the empty spaces between the atoms in pure metal. Impurity atoms can prevent .

an alloy is harder and stronger than pure metal. as an intermetallic compound. Alloys are frequently described . The formation of alloy Discussion Alloy is a metal product containing two or more elements as a solid solution.the layers of metal atoms from sliding along one another easily. or as a mixture of metallic phases. Due to this.

the steel of a rotating shaft is a common example. the so-called oilless bearings. Most die castings are made from zinc-base or aluminum-base alloys. and others have desirable magnetic. Such castings are used for automotive parts and for office and household appliances which have moderately complex shapes. These particles. Magnesium-base alloys also find some . Amalgams are predominantly silver-mercury alloys. After being compacted. For higher strengths and hardnesses.Beryllium alloys. however. Bearings made by powder metallurgy techniques are widely used because they permit the combination of materials which are incompatible as liquids. or electrical properties. Vitallium and other corrosion-resistant alloys are used for bridgework and special applications. Among these alloys are the precious-metal alloys. Other alloys resist corrosion because a protective film develops on the metal surface. This quality made bronze so important an alloy that it left a permanent imprint on the civilization of several millennia ago now known as the Bronze Age. some alloys possess high strength. alloys of copper and tin. copper. silver. and zinc for hardening purposes. Bronze. Stainless steels and aluminum alloys exemplify metals with this type of protection. The most common dental gold alloy contains gold. and the copper and silver are increased so that the gold content drops. The bronzes. For example. Die-casting alloys have melting temperatures low enough so that in the liquid form they can be injected under pressure into steel dies. Dental alloys contain precious metals. bronze and graphite. These characteristics arise from both the internal and the electronic structure of the alloy. This passive film is an oxide which separates the metal from the corrosive environment. but they may contain minor amounts of tin. for example. an alloy of copper and tin. are embedded in a matrix of softer material which adjusts to the hard particles so that the shaft is uniformly loaded over the total surface.on the basis of their technical applications. Bearing alloys are used for metals that encounter sliding contact under pressure with another surface. palladium and platinum are added. Gold-base dental alloys are preferred over pure gold because gold is relatively soft. They may also be categorized and described on the basis of compositional groups. the first metals of technological importance were alloys. For example. Today the tens of thousands of alloys involve almost every metallic element of the periodic table. and copper. Except for native copper and gold. others are refractory with high melting temperatures. Certain alloys resist corrosion because they are noble metals. Liquid mercury is added to a powder of a precursor alloy of the other metals. elemental metals. The most familiar bearing alloy is babbitt. is appreciably harder than copper. thermal. An alloy is usually harder than a pure metal and may have a much lower conductivity. Iron alloys. the mercury diffuses into the silver-base metal to give a completely solid alloy. others have low melting points. Most bearing alloys contain particles of a hard intermetallic compound that resist wear. some are especially resistant to corrosion. also may be considered to be corrosionresisting. Alloys are used because they have specific properties or production characteristics that are more attractive than those of the pure. and also permit controlled porosity within the bearings so that they can be saturated with oil before being used.

As discussed here. or titanium-based alloys: for example. cobalt-based. Co. Mo. In certain alloy systems a liquid of a fixed composition freezes to form a mixture of two basically different solids or phases. commonly categorized as superalloys. surgical implants such as artificial hips and knees. molybdenum. and soldering. Other alloys are equally complex. alloy selection criteria are different from those for internal prostheses. External prostheses are devices that are worn by patients outside the body. whereas solders melt at lower temperatures. Brazing and soldering alloys are chosen to provide filler metal with an appreciably lower melting point than that of the joined parts. Al. brazing. Low-melting alloys of lead and tin are not common because they lack the necessary strength for the above applications. Metals are bonded by three principal procedures: welding. they have been found to be usable. titanium alloyed with aluminium and vanadium.application when weight reduction is paramount. cast Vitallium. Both nickel-base and cobalt-base alloys. a wrought alloy of cobalt. the nickel acting as a binder or cement for the carbide. may serve useful functions up to 2000°F (1100°C). and titanium. An alloy that undergoes this type of solidification process is called a eutectic alloy. is a fairly simple superalloy. for example. these alloys must resist oxidation by fuel-air mixtures and by steam vapor. a nickel-base alloy containing chromium and iron. cold-worked stainless steel. brazing alloys melt above 750°F (400°C). which are mixtures of metals and compounds such as oxides and carbides. The most widely used prosthetic alloys therefore include high-strength. B. Typically. and commercial-purity titanium. SYHTHETIC POLYMERS Introduction . More sophisticated alloys invariably contain five. An additional 180°F (100°C) may be realized if the steels also contain 3% molybdenum. Welded joints melt the contact region of the adjacent metal. In addition to having strength. C. the austenitic stainless steels serve well. Alloy selection criteria for surgical implants can be stringent primarily because of biomechanical and chemical aspects of the service environment. Fe. A group of materials called cermets. an alloy called René-41 contains Cr. have high strength at high temperatures. thus the filler material is chosen to approximate the composition of the parts being joined. and Ni. Ti. chromium. One of the better-known cermets consists of a mixture of titanium carbide and nickel. corrosion-resistant ferrous. Nichrome. prosthetic alloys are alloys used in internal prostheses. At temperatures up to about 1380°F (750°C). nickel. and although their ductility is low. six. A homogeneous liquid of this composition on slow cooling freezes to form a mixture of particles of nearly pure copper embedded in a matrix (background) of nearly pure silver. that is. or more components. High-temperature alloys have high strengths at high temperatures.

polymer physics. polymers are not just limited to having predominantly carbon backbones. The backbone of DNA is in fact based on a phosphodiester bond. the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials with a variety of properties and purposes Well-known examples of polymers include plastics and proteins. elements such as silicon form familiar materials such as silicones. neoprene. Objectives . polyacrylonitrile. The list of synthetic polymers includes Bakelite. silicone. whose repeating unit structure is shown at the right. polystyrene.A polymer is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. and many more. However. and polymer science. Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids play crucial roles in biological processes. Polymers are studied in the fields of polymer chemistry. PVB. Natural polymer materials such as shellac and amber have been in use for centuries. which is the main constituent of wood and paper. A variety of other natural polymers exist. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic. examples being silly putty and waterproof plumbing sealant. PVC. A simple example is polypropylene. such as cellulose. nylon.

III. IV. Information i) Meaning of polymers . List the naturally occuring polymers and their uses. State the meaning of polymers.I. Justify the uses of synthetic polymers in daily life. Identify the monomers in the synthetic polymers. II.

NATURAL POLYMER MONOMER (small molecules) Rubber Isoprene Cellulose Glucose Starch Glucose Protein Amino acid Fat Fatty acid and glycerol Nucleic acid Nucleotides Examples of natural polymers and their monomers SYNTHETIC POLYMER . Formation of polymer Polymers can be divided into two types: a) natural polymer b) synthetic polymer NATURAL POLYMER A natural polymer is a polymer that occurs naturally. Naturals polymer are normally made by living organism. Polymerisation is a process of combining monomers to form a long chain of molecules.Polymers are long chains of molecules made from combination of many small molecules. Small molecules that combine together by covalent bond to form polymers are called monomers.

Synthetic polymers are man-made polymers that are produced from chemical compunds through polymerisation. NH3. Examples of synthetic polymers (products of condensation polymerisation. and ammonia.2diol Terylene ii) Natural polymers and their uses . Condesation polymerisation Small molecules such as water. H2O. There are two types of polymerisation: a) Additon polymerisation b) Condensation polymerisation Addition polymerisation Unsaturated monomers that contain double bonds between two carbon atoms undergo addition polymerisation. Plastic.4-dicarboxylbenzene and ethene-1. with their monomers) MONOMER POLYMER a) Adipic acid and hexanediamine Nylon b) 1. synthetic fibres and synthetic rubbers are three examples of synthetic polymers. are released in condensation polymerisation.

2diol iv) Uses of synthetic polymers in daily life . pharmaceuticals. used in cooking to thicken foods. Fat Maintaining healthy skin and hair. manufactured of adhesives. promoting healthy cell function and serve as energy stores for the body iii) Monomers in the synthetic polymers SYNTHETIC POLYMER Polythene Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polypropene Perspex Polystyrene Nylon Terylene MONOMER Ethene Chloroethene (Vinylchloride) Propene Methyl-2-methylpropenoate (Methyl metacrylate) Styrene Adipic acid and hexanediamine 1. paper. electric insulation. textiles. and explosives Starch To stiffen cloth (as in laundering). insulating body organs against shock. Cellulose Paper. Protein Essential in the diet of animals for the growth and repair of tissue. eraser.4-dicarboxylbenzene and ethene-1.NATURAL POLYMER USE Rubber Tyres. condom. elastic bands and belts. textiles and as a mold in the manufacture of sweets.

TYPE OF POLYMER Polythene USE a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) a) Make buckets Make plastic bags Make raincoats Make films Make rubbish bins Make water pipes Make electric cables Make mats Make vinyl records Make clothes hangers Make ropes Make bottles Make chairs Make drink cans Make carpets Make car windows Make plane windows Make spectacle lenses (optical instruments) Make ropes Make curtains Make stockings Make clothes Make packing boxes Make buttons Make noticeboards Make textile items such as clothes and cloths Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polypropene Perspex Nylon Polystyrene Terylene Discussion .

who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 for the development of the Ziegler-Natta catalyst. held together by an unknown force. excluded volume. although his definition of a polymer was quite different from the modern definition. and the Flory convention. In 1907. signifying the first popularized semi-synthetic polymer. polyethylene. They have been employed in a variety of biomedical applications ranging from implantable devices to controlled drug delivery. Bakelite was then publicly introduced in 1909. perhaps the earliest important work in polymer science. chain transfer. Polymers such as poly (methyl methacrylate) find application as photoresist materials used in semiconductor manufacturing and low-k dielectrics for use in high-performance microprocessors. Teflon. the Flory-Huggins solution theory. meaning "part". The development of vulcanization later in the nineteenth century improved the durability of the natural polymer rubber. a concept known as association theory. Leo Baekeland created the first completely synthetic polymer. by reacting phenol and formaldehyde at precisely controlled temperature and pressure. Further recognition of the importance of polymers came with the award of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1974 to Paul Flory. an idea which did not gain wide acceptance for over a decade and for which Staudinger was ultimately awarded the Nobel Prize. meaning "many". Hermann Staudinger proposed that polymers consisted of long chains of atoms held together by covalent bonds. Despite significant advances in synthesis and characterization of polymers. Work by Wallace Carothers in the 1920s also demonstrated that polymers could be synthesized rationally from their constituent monomers. Polymers are widely used as adhesives and lubricants. These years have also shown significant developments in rational polymer synthesis.Etymology The word polymer is derived from the Greek words πολυ (poly). An important contribution to synthetic polymer science was made by the Italian chemist Giulio Natta and the German chemist Karl Ziegler. Recently. In 1922. Historical development Starting in 1811. whose extensive work on polymers included the kinetics of step-growth polymerization and of addition polymerization. . Before that. without definite molecular weights. a correct understanding of polymer molecular structure did not emerge until the 1920s. Synthetic polymers today find application in nearly every industry and area of life. Bakelite. scientists believed that polymers were clusters of small molecules (called colloids). The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. and μέρος (meros). Synthetic polymer materials such as nylon. and silicone have formed the basis for a burgeoning polymer industry. Most commercially important polymers today are entirely synthetic and produced in high volume on appropriately scaled organic synthetic techniques. Henri Braconnot did pioneering work in derivative cellulose compounds. as well as structural components for products ranging from children's toys to aircraft. polymers have also been employed in the development of flexible polymer-based substrates for electronic displays.

the property in question is more properly called the crystalline melting temperature. Though abbreviated as simply Tm. suggests not a solid-liquid phase transition but a transition from a crystalline or semi-crystalline phase to a solid amorphous phase. Polymer scientists have developed terminology to describe precisely both the nature of the monomers as well as their relative arrangement. even though their molecules comprise the same monomers. some chemical groups may be lost from each monomer. At the nano-micro scale there are properties that directly describe the chain itself. These are the properties that dictate how the polymer actually behaves on a macroscopic scale. and can be thought of as polymer structure. as thermosetting polymers will decompose at high temperatures rather than melt. Melting point The term melting point. At an intermediate mesoscopic level there are properties that describe the morphology of the polymer matrix in space. For example. a linear chain polymer may be soluble or insoluble in water depending on whether it is composed of polar monomers (such as ethylene oxide) or nonpolar monomers (such as styrene). two samples of natural rubber may exhibit different durability. The distinct piece of each monomer that is incorporated into the polymer is known as a repeat unit or monomer residue. Polymer structure The structural properties of a polymer relate to the physical arrangement of monomer residues along the backbone of the chain. . On the other hand. Polymer properties Types of polymer properties can be broadly divided into several categories based upon scale. when applied to polymers.Polymer synthesis Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain. Boiling point The boiling point of a polymer substance is never defined because polymers will decompose before reaching theoretical boiling temperatures. Structure has a strong influence on the other properties of a polymer. Among synthetic polymers. During the polymerization process. At the macroscopic level properties describe the bulk behavior of the polymer. The bulk properties of a polymer are those most often of end-use interest. crystalline melting is only discussed with regards to thermoplastics.

so polyethene can have a lower melting temperature compared to other polymers. .Chemical properties of polymers The attractive forces between polymer chains play a large part in determining a polymer's properties. has no permanent dipole. The attractive forces between polyethylene chains arise from weak Van der Waals forces. creating a slight positive dipole on this side. This has the effect of lowering the electron density on one side of a polymer chain. the partially positively charged hydrogen atoms in N-H groups of one chain are strongly attracted to the partially negatively charged oxygen atoms in C=O groups on another. These stronger forces typically result in higher tensile strength and melting points. result in the high tensile strength and melting point of polymers containing urethane or urea linkages. for example. The intermolecular forces in polymers can be affected by dipoles in the monomer units. Because polymer chains are so long. Polyesters have dipoledipole bonding between the oxygen atoms in C=O groups and the hydrogen atoms in H-C groups. Van der Waals forces are quite weak. so a polyester's melting point and strength are lower than Kevlar's (Twaron). Different side groups on the polymer can lend the polymer to ionic bonding or hydrogen bonding between its own chains. but polyesters have greater flexibility. This charge is enough to attract the second polymer chain. their electron clouds repel one another. These strong hydrogen bonds. Molecules can be thought of as being surrounded by a cloud of negative electrons. Dipole bonding is not as strong as hydrogen bonding. these interchain forces are amplified far beyond the attractions between conventional molecules. As two polymer chains approach. however. Ethene. Polymers containing amide or carbonyl groups can form hydrogen bonds between adjacent chains. however.

GLASS AND CERAMICS Introduction Glass Materials made by cooling certain molten materials in such a manner that they do not crystallize but remain in an amorphous state. but unfortunately the resulting glass has no chemical durability and is soluble even in water (water glass). Also. For example. Chemically. Silica by itself makes a good glass (fused silica). boron oxide is added to silicate glass to make a low-thermal-expansion glass for chemical glassware which must stand rapid temperature changes. . is added in the form of sodium carbonate or nitrate. To overcome this problem. most glasses are silicates. and electrical properties. lime. Although glasses can be made without silica. commercial glass contains other oxides (aluminum and magnesium oxides) and ingredients to help in oxidizing. for all practical purposes. or decolorizing the glass batch. Special kinds of glass have other oxides as major ingredients. index of refraction. most commercially important glasses are based on it. but its high melting point (1723°C or 3133°F) and its high viscosity in the liquid state make it difficult to melt and work. To lower the melting temperature of silica to a more convenient level. lead oxide is used in optical glass because it gives a high index of refraction. is added to the glass to form the basic soda-lime-silica glass composition which is used for the bulk of common glass articles. fining. SiO2. Pyrex glass. soda. for example. Na2O. This has the desired effect. being the most common example. strength. light transmission (both total and as a function of wavelength). corrosion resistance. Although these are the main ingredients. their viscosity increasing to such high values that. such as bottles and sheet (window) glass. CaO. silica. for example. dispersion. Materials having this ability to cool without crystallizing is relatively rare. they are solid. The most important properties are viscosity.

metals. and electrical porcelain. There is considerable overlap among these classes of materials . and electronic materials. which includes only pottery. toughened zirconia. Common-usage glass. clay pipe. porcelain. and sulfides. Advanced ceramics can be viewed as a class of the broader field of advanced materials. carbon-fiber-reinforced glass ceramic. Traditional ceramics include clay-base materials such as brick. tile. and high-temperature superconductors. and so forth. lead lanthanum zirconate titanate. Advanced ceramics are tailored to have premium properties through application of advanced materials science and technology to control composition and internal structure. abrasives. silicon carbide. polymers. The classes of materials generally considered to be ceramics are oxides. This definition includes a wide range of materials known as advanced ceramics and is much broader than the common dictionary definition.Ceramics Inorganic. composites. and refractories are also important classes of traditional ceramics. borides. Ceramic materials can be subdivided into traditional and advanced ceramics. tile. which can be divided into ceramics. cement. Intermetallic compounds such as aluminides and beryllides are also considered ceramics. and arsenides. automotive. silicides. Examples of advanced ceramic materials are silicon nitride. nitrides. zirconia-toughened alumina. aluminum nitride. carbides. nonmetallic materials processed or consolidated at high temperature. Advanced materials technology is often cited as an enabling technology. sanitary ware. enabling engineers to design and build advanced systems for applications in fields such as aerospace. silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide. antimonides. and electronics. as are phosphides. lead magnesium niobate. silicon-carbide-whisker-reinforced alumina. dinnerware.

II.Objectives I. List the type of glass and their properties. III. List the uses of ceramics. List the uses of glass. State the properties of ceramics. . IV.

Information i) Types of glasses and their properties TYPE OF GLASSES Fused silica glass PROPERTIES o Very high melting point o Not easy to change its shape o Does not easily expand or shrink with changes of temperature o o o o o o o o o Transparent to ultraviolet ray Transparent Low melting point Easily to be shaped Easily broken Cannot withstand heat and chemical reactions Withstand heat and chemical reactions High melting point Transparent to light and infrared ray but not to ultraviolet ray Soda-lime glass Borosilicate glass Lead crystal glass o Expand and shrink very little and only when temperature changes o Very transparent o Shiny o High refractive index o High density ii) Uses of glass .

tiles. glasses and ornamental items (crystals) iii) Properties of ceramics o o o o o o o Brittle Extremely hard High melting point Withstand compression Crack when temperature changes drastically Inert to chemicals ( withstand corrosion) Good insulator of heat and electricity iv) Uses of ceramics Manufacture of computer microchips Make porcelaine vase and ornamental items Make plates.TYPE OF GLASS Fused silica glass Soda-lime glass Borosilicate glass Lead crystal glass USES Lenses. prisms. bowls and pots Make dentures – enamel Used in the manufacturing of car engines. beakers and flasks Lenses. mirrors. underground piping or roof tiles. glass containers. cement. laboratory glassware. Bottles. electrical bulbs. o o o o o . pots and laboratory glassware such as test tubes. saucers. superconductors and nuclear reactors o Make construction materials such as bricks. plates. glass windows Bowls. spectacles. ultraviolet column. spacecraft.

test tubes. and is usually black with impurities.Discussion General properties. and windows. Many household objects are made of glass. flasks. quartz glass is used. glass is created naturally from volcanic lava. Fulgurite. Drinking glasses. computer flat panel displays. This transparency is due to an absence of electronic transition states in the range of visible light. cathode ray tubes. aquaria. . who have used it to make extremely sharp glass knives since the stone age. The homogeneity of the glass on length scales greater than the wavelength of visible light also contributes to its transparency as heterogeneities would cause light to be scattered. bowls and bottles are often made of glass. breaking up any coherent image transmission. Volcanic Glass. lightning strikes.. Most laboratory glassware is massproduced. occurrence Flat panel display. giving greater resistance to thermal shock and greater accuracy in measurements. Tektites). Sometimes. Lechatelierite. but large laboratories also keep a glassblower on staff for preparing custom made glass equipment. as are light bulbs. or meteorite impacts (e. uses. Darwin Glass. using thin sheets of special alkali-free glass Ordinary glass is prevalent due to its transparency to visible light. and other laboratory equipment are often made of borosilicate glass for its low coefficient of thermal expansion. For high-temperature applications. mirrors. although it is very difficult to work.g. Obsidian is a raw material for flintknappers. In research laboratories. If the lava is felsic this glass is called obsidian.

for example. Foamed glass. Småland. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74 percent silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). can be used as lightweight. glass (e. including wired. . in beams and columns. As insulation. One well-known example of a structure made entirely from glass is the northern entrance to Buchanan Street subway station in Glasgow. generally obtained from limestone). Glass in buildings Glass is commonly used in buildings as transparent windows. limited. It is also possible to use glass as a structural material. other substances are added to common glass to simplify processing. however. However. so lime (calcium oxide (CaO). Soda-lime glasses account for about 90 percent of manufactured glass. and as architectural features. which is usually undesirable. which are visible in many glass frontages like large shop windows.g. While pure silica can be made into glass for special applications (see fused quartz). Sweden. for example trinitite (from nuclear testing) and beach glass. which lowers the melting point to about 1500 °C (2700 °F) in soda-lime glass. fiberglass) is also used. "soda" refers to the original source of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants. In the middle is the mark from the glass blower's pipe Pure silica (SiO2) has a "glass melting point"— at a viscosity of 10 Pa·s (100 P)— of over 2300 °C (4200 °F). Safe load capacity is. Glass in buildings can be of a safety type. it is very susceptible to brittle (sudden) failure. although glass has a high theoretical yield stress. In the form of long. fluffy-looking sheets.. as well as in the form of "fins" for wind reinforcement. closed-cell insulation. it is commonly found in homes. and has a tendency to shatter upon localized impact. some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide are added to provide for a better chemical durability. internal glazed partitions. made from waste glass. heat strengthened (tempered) and laminated glass. as there is a risk of vehicles or other heavy objects colliding with and shattering the structural element. and is given an R-rating. the soda makes the glass water soluble. Glass production Glass ingredients Quartz sand (silica) as main raw material for commercial glass production Oldest mouth-blown window-glass from 1742 from Kosta Glasbruk. denoting the insulating ability. This particularly limits its use in columns.Glass sometimes occurs in nature resulting from human activity. Glass fibre insulation is common in roofs and walls. Fiberglass insulation is used particularly in attics.

Silica-free glasses Besides common silica-based glasses. Some glasses that do not include silica as a major constituent may have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre optics and other specialized technical applications. in some furnaces recycled glass ("cullet") is added. but also in the energy consumption of the glass furnace. but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eye glasses. chalcogenides. which is a glassy granular by-product of the iron making industry. many other inorganic and organic materials may also form glasses. impurities in the cullet may lead to product and equipment failure. the properties of fused silica (quartz glass) and germania glass are derived from the SciGlass glass database by forming the arithmetic mean of all the experimental values from different authors (in general more than 10 independent sources for quartz glass and Tg of germanium oxide glass). tantalates (glasses based on Ta2O5). Besides the chemicals mentioned. alumina. acrylic glass). titanates (glasses based on TiO2). borates. including plastics (e. Fining agents such as sodium sulfate. antimonates (glasses based on Sb2O3). phosphates. the correct raw material mixture (batch) must be determined by glass batch calculation. carbonates and many other substances.As well as soda and lime.g. The substance was named amorphous carbonia(a-CO2) and exhibits an atomic structure resembling that of Silica. while boron may be added to change the thermal and electrical properties. Large amounts of iron are used in glass that absorbs infrared energy. Unless stated otherwise. and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses. For obtaining the desired glass composition. carbon dioxide (see below). These include fluorozirconate. such as heat absorbing filters for movie projectors. or antimony oxide are added to reduce the bubble content in the glass. calcium oxide. Those values . metals. Unless otherwise stated. sodium chloride. carbon. is more 'brilliant' because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more "sparkles". tellurites (glasses based on TeO2). Physical properties The following table lists some physical properties of common glasses.. phosphate and chalcogenide glasses. In 2006 Italian scientists created an amorphous phase of carbon dioxide using extreme pressure. as in Pyrex. Lead glass. Cullet leads to savings not only in the raw materials. A further raw material used in the production of soda-lime and fiber glass is calumite. nitrates. containing mainly silica. aluminosilicate. fluorides. fluoroaluminate. germanates (glasses based on GeO2). the technical glass compositions and many experimentally determined properties are taken from one large study. most common glass has other ingredients added to change its properties. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion. such as lead crystal or flint glass. originating from the same factory or other sources. while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths (biologically damaging ionizing radiation). However. Under extremes of pressure and temperature solids may exhibit large structural and physical changes which can lead to polyamorphic phase transitions. Adding barium also increases the refractive index. magnesium oxide (and traces of iron oxide). arsenates (glasses based on As2O3).

the majority of well-studied early glass is found in Egypt. due to its limited source areas. and not having stones to prop up their pots. and there flowed streams of a new translucent liquid. Georgius Agricola.marked in italic font have been interpolated from similar glass compositions (see Calculation of glass properties) due to the lack of experimental data. Archaeological finds from this period include coloured glass ingots. History Roman Cage Cup from the 4th century A. especially obsidian. they used lumps of nitrum from the ship. Due to Egypt's favourable environment for preservation. which fused and mixed with the sands of the shore. perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of metal-working slags or during the production of faience." This account is more a reflection of Roman experience of glass production. has been used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and. a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing. although some of this is likely to have been imported. reported a traditional serendipitous "discovery" tale of familiar type: "The tradition is that a merchant ship laden with nitrum being moored at this place. But in general archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria. The earliest known glass objects. Phoenician traders were the first to stumble upon glass manufacturing techniques at the site of the Belus River. According to Pliny the Elder.D. however. the merchants were preparing their meal on the beach. During the Late Bronze Age in Egypt and Western Asia there was an explosion in glassmaking technology. as white silica sand from this area was used in the production of Roman glass due to its low impurity levels. of the mid third millennium BC. Roman glass Naturally occurring glass. were beads. and thus was the origin of glass. . in De re metallica. was extensively traded. Mesopotamia or Old Kingdom Egypt.

vessels (often coloured and shaped in imitation of highly prized wares of semi-precious stones) and the ubiquitous beads. The alkali of Syrian and Egyptian glass was soda ash, sodium carbonate, which can be extracted from the ashes of many plants, notably halophile seashore plants: (see saltwort). The earliest vessels were 'core-wound', produced by winding a ductile rope of metal round a shaped core of sand and clay over a metal rod, then fusing it with repeated reheatings. Threads of thin glass of different colours made with admixtures of oxides were subsequently wound around these to create patterns, which could be drawn into festoons by using metal raking tools. The vessel would then be rolled flat ('marvered') on a slab in order to press the decorative threads into its body. Handles and feet were applied separately. The rod was subsequently allowed to cool as the glass slowly annealed and was eventually removed from the centre of the vessel, after which the core material was scraped out. Glass shapes for inlays were also often created in moulds. Much early glass production, however, relied on grinding techniques borrowed from stone working. This meant that the glass was ground and carved in a cold state. By the 15th century BC extensive glass production was occurring in Western Asia and Egypt. It is thought the techniques and recipes required for the initial fusing of glass from raw materials was a closely guarded technological secret reserved for the large palace industries of powerful states. Glass workers in other areas therefore relied on imports of preformed glass, often in the form of cast ingots such as those found on the Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey. Glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late Bronze Age civilisations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt. It picked up again in its former sites, in Syria and Cyprus, in the ninth century BC, when the techniques for making colourless glass were discovered. In Egypt glass-making did not revive until it was reintroduced in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Core-formed vessels and beads were still widely produced, but other techniques came to the fore with experimentation and technological advancements. During the Hellenistic period many new techniques of glass production were introduced and glass began to be used to make larger pieces, notably table wares. Techniques developed during this period include 'slumping' viscous (but not fully molten) glass over a mould in order to form a dish and 'millefiori' (meaning 'thousand flowers') technique, where canes of multi-coloured glass were sliced and the slices arranged together and fused in a mould to create a mosaic-like effect. It was also during this period that colourless or decoloured glass began to be prized and methods for achieving this effect were investigated more fully. During the first century BC glass blowing was discovered on the Syro-Palestinian coast, revolutionising the industry and laying the way for the explosion of glass production that occurred throughout the Roman world. Over the next 1000 years glass making and working continued and spread through southern Europe and beyond.

Types of ceramic materials For convenience ceramic products are usually divided into four sectors, and these are shown below with some examples:
• • •

Structural, including bricks, pipes, floor and roof tiles Refractory, such as kiln linings, gas fire radiant, steel and glass making crucibles White wares, including tableware, wall tiles, decorative art objects and sanitary ware

Examples of white ware ceramics
• • • •

Bone china Earthenware, which is often made from clay, quartz and feldspar. Porcelain, which are often made from kaolin Stoneware

Other applications of ceramics

Ceramics are used in the manufacture of knives. The blade of the ceramic knife will stay sharp for much longer than that of a steel knife, although it is more brittle and can be snapped by dropping it on a hard surface. Ceramics such as alumina and boron carbide have been used in ballistic armored vests to repel large-caliber rifle fire. Such plates are known commonly as small-arms protective inserts (SAPI). Similar material is used to protect cockpits of some military airplanes, because of the low weight of the material. Ceramic balls can be used to replace steel in ball bearings. Their higher hardness means that they are much less susceptible to wear and can offer more than triple lifetimes. They also deform less under load meaning they have less contact with the bearing retainer walls and can roll faster. In very high speed applications, heat from friction during rolling can cause problems for metal bearings; problems which are reduced by the use of ceramics. Ceramics are also more chemically resistant and can be used in wet environments where steel bearings would rust. The major drawback to using ceramics is a significantly higher cost. In many cases their electrically insulating properties may also be valuable in bearings.

In the early 1980s, Toyota researched production of an adiabatic ceramic engine which can run at a temperature of over 6000 °F (3300 °C). Ceramic engines do not require a cooling system and hence allow a major weight reduction and therefore greater fuel efficiency. Fuel efficiency of the engine is also higher at high temperature, as shown by Carnot's theorem. In a conventional metallic engine, much of the energy released from the fuel must be dissipated as waste heat in order to prevent a meltdown of the metallic parts. Despite all of these desirable properties, such engines are not in production because the manufacturing of ceramic parts in the requisite precision and durability is difficult. Imperfection in the ceramic leads to cracks, which can lead to potentially dangerous equipment failure. Such engines are possible in laboratory settings, but mass-production is not feasible with current technology.

Ay material made from at least two discrete substances, such as concrete. Many materials are produced as composites, such as the fiberglass-reinforced plastics used for automobile bodies and boat hulls, but the term usually is used to describe any of various modern industrially manufactured composites, such as carbon fiber–reinforced plastics. Composite materials allow a blending of properties of the separate components. Carbon fiber–reinforced plastics combine the high strength and stiffness of the fiber with the low weight and resistance to fracture of the polymeric matrix. Glass, wood, and other kinds of fibers are also used, and the fibers may be layered or woven. Other modern composites include wood fiber or chunks in a concrete matrix and silicon carbide, a ceramic, in a titanium matrix.


I. Describe the needs to produce new materials for specific purposes. II. State the meaning of composite materials. III. List examples of composite materials and their components. IV. Compare and contrast the properties of composite materials with those of their original components. V. Justify the use of composite materials. VI. Generate ideas to produce advanced materials to fulfill specific needs. VII. Describe the importance of synthetic materials in daily life. VIII. Justify the importance of doing research and development continuously. IX. Practice being responsible when handling synthetic materials and their wastes.

these building materials must have properties like: • • • • • • Low density Strong Resistance to heat and corrosion Last longer Easier and more convenient to use Able to withstand high pressure ii. The different materials work together to give composite unique properties. continuous research and development have been done in search of new structural materials. Composite materials are created for specific application. New materials are needed today to supply high demand for the new industries. Therefore. The resulting material has properties that are superior than those of original components. stones or metals as building materials. alloys. Since the old days. Today. Many of our modern technologies require materials with unusual combinations of properties that cannot be met by the conventional metal alloys. many of such materials are created and used for various fields. ceramics and polymers. A composite material is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal. . bulky or difficult to be shaped or carved. Meaning of composite materials. wood. These substances either corrode or decay easily. Otherwise. ceramics and polymeric materials. they are too heavy. To fulfil the needs. human beings have been using clay. The needs to produce new materials for specific purposes. glass.Information i.

but it is the binding power of the lignin that make a piece of timber much stronger than bundle of cotton fibres. with long fibres of cellulose (a very complex form of starch) held together by a much weaker substances called lignin. Examples of composite materials and their components. A piece of wood is a composite. iii. Cellulose is also found in cotton and linen.Composite exist in nature. COMPOSITE MATERIALS Mixture of : • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cement Gravel Sand Water Iron COMPONENTS Reinforced concrete Superconductor Steel Yttrium oxide Barium carbonate Copper (II) oxide Silica Sodium carbonate Calcium oxide Glass fibre Polyester (a type of plastic) Glass Silver chloride or silver bromide Fibre optic Fibre glass Photochromic glass .

Comparison the properties of composite materials and their original components. ORIGINAL COMPONENTS COMPOSITE MATERIALS Low tensile strength Concrete Reinforced concrete Very strong Nonconductor electric Yttrium oxide. Sodium carbonate. Barium carbonate. Calcium oxide Fibre optic Transparent Transparent but not sensitive to the intensity of light rays Glass Transparent but sensitive to the intensity of light rays .iv. Superconductor Copper (II) oxide Very good conductor Non transparent Silica.

images in a digital format o Water storage tanks o Badminton rackets o Small boats o Skis o Helmets o Used to make protective apparel for Superconductor Fibre optic Fibre glass . voice. Uses of composite materials COMPOSITE MATERIALS Reinforced concrete USES Construction of large structures like o Highways o High-rise buildings o Bridges o Oil platforms o Airport runners o Dams o Transportation o Telecommunication o Astronomy o Industry o Medical fields o Used in medical field to observe internal organs (endoscope) o Transmit data.Photochromic glass Sensitive to the intensity of light rays Silver chloride v.

Photochromic glass o o o o o o astronauts and firefighters. MRI in hospitals . To make optical lenses Glass windows (windshields) of vehicles Lens in camera Information display panels Optical switches Light intensity meters Bridge are is used to reinfrorced concrete Magnetic resonance imaging.

A helmet that is made from fibre glass A fibre optic cable .

Therefore it is very important to do research and develepmont continuosly. we are certain that Malaysia will produce outstanding materials of world’s standard.Lenses made from photochromic glass can protect our eyes from harmful ultaviolet rays Advanced materials and the future A lot of time and resources have to be invested through a series of research and tests to produce a new composite materials. There are so many synthetic materials being produced and used in our daily lives. they may cause adverse effects on human beings and the environment. This is essential to fulfil the ever expamdaing needs especially to help Malaysia to achieve a status of developed country in year 2020. With the abundant natural resources. Synthetic materials may have improve our standard of living but at the same time. dynamic workforce and advance infrastructure that we have. .

. and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications R&D New product design and development is more than often a crucial factor in the survival of a company. The product range is developed so that production processes are as efficient as possible and the products are technically superior. including knowledge of human. culture and society. and only produces goods that are known to sell. according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.Importance of doing research and development continuously The phrase research and development (also R and D or. more often. If the development is technology driven then it is a matter of selling what it is possible to make. firms must continually revise their design and range of products. hence possessing a natural advantage in the market place. A system driven by marketing is one that puts the customer needs first. In an industry that is fast changing. Market research is carried out. refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge. which establishes what is needed. R&D). This is necessary due to continuous technology change and development as well as other competitors and the changing preference of customers.

S. Japan. and engineering companies like Ericsson (24. expensive safety certifications.5% of revenues. .6. a typical ratio of research and development for an industrial company is about 3. On a technical level. A high technology company such as a computer manufacturer might spend 7%. Bank ratios are one of the best measures. South Korea. EU with approximate percentages of 4. They often reuse advanced manufacturing processes. scientific instruments. Generally such firms prosper only in markets whose customers have extreme needs.668 billion GDP). and 1. and then the EU. public and reflect risk. R&D activities are conducted by specialized units or centers belonging to companies. Such companies are often seen as poor credit risks because their spending ratios are so unusual. and China (US$115 billion).. Most industrial companies get only 40% revenues. Iceland. Although Allergan (a biotech company) tops the spending table 43. "research and development" normally refers to future-oriented. United States. Switzerland.1%). United States.4% investment.3. specialized embedded software. (14. electronic designs and mechanical subsystems. In 2006. high tech organization explore ways to re-purpose and repackage advanced technologies as a way of amortizing the high overhead. gross profits will be as much as 90% of the sales cost. The extreme needs justify the high risk of failure and consequently high gross margins from 60% to 90% of revenues. because so many individual projects yield no exploitable product. and its abilities to conduct research and development. using similar techniques to scientific research without predetermined outcomes and with broad forecasts of commercial yield. Some common measures include: budgets. the world's four largest spenders of R&D were the United States (US$343 billion). Statistics on organizations devoted to "R&D" may express the state of an industry.8 respectively. In terms of percentage of GDP. 2. longer-term activities in science or technology. Finland. with manufacturing costing only 10% of the product price. In the U. the EU (US$231 billion). the order of these spenders for 2006 was China (US$115 billion of US$2. universities and state agencies. computer-aided design software. In general.2. In the context of commerce. The top spenders in terms of percentage of GDP were China. Companies in this category include pharmaceutical companies such as Merck & Co. such as medicine.9%). 3. Japan. because they are continuously maintained. Japan (US$130 billion). the degree of competition or the lure of progress. Sweden. R&D investment generally reflects a government's or organization's willingness to forgo current operations or profit to improve future performance or returns. numbers of patents or on rates of peer-reviewed publications.1%) or Novartis (15. safety-critical mechanisms (aircraft) or high technology military armaments. anything over 15% is remarkable and usually gains a reputation for being a high technology company. followed by 9 other countries. That is.R&D has a special economic significance apart from its conventional association with scientific and technological development.

In the United States. and determining ideal levels and delivery mechanisms. development refers to the exploitation of discoveries.g. Materials science is helping to develop new energy generation technologies. developing artificial bones and organ implants. safe drug delivery systems. The information and associated computer revolutions closely depend on advances made by scientists working on new electronic.. universities are the main provider of research level products. water filtration systems. etc. Health: Overcoming disease and providing worldwide medical care are high priorities. demands and desires of their customers. Importance of synthetic materials in daily life Materials science plays a pivotal role in determining and improving economic performance and the quality of life. optical. can meet this challenge by. Development is concerned with proof of concept. more energy efficient devices. R&D alliance An R&D alliance is a mutually beneficial formal relationship formed between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon goals while remaining independent organizations. and magnetic materials. e. safety testing. the development phase can cost between $10 to $200 million and approximately one in ten compounds identified by basic research pass all development phases and reach market. Research involves the identification of possible chemical compounds or theoretical mechanisms. in conjunction with biotechnology. Communication: The increasing interconnectedness of our world requires faster and more reliable means of communication. . In the United States. and easily recyclable. The different parties agree to combine their knowledge to create new innovative products. Development often occurs in phases that are defined by drug safety regulators in the country of interest. less toxic materials. Materials science.Pharmaceuticals Research often refers to basic experimental research. production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of especial importance in the field of Marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs. Business Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition. In the United States. particularly in the following areas: Living Environment: Because of pressing environmental concerns more efficient use of material and energy resources is urgently required. corporations buy licenses from universities or hire scientists directly when economically solid research level products emerge and the development phase of drug delivery is almost entirely managed by private enterprise. where acquiring new knowledge is a goal by itself.

Materials science can improve not only the products but also the way they are handled (e. metal. resulting in faster production and delivery times and higher quality goods. Examples are the development of light-weight aluminium bodies for automobiles. reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials. quieter aircrafts. holidays. and electronics. the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste . high-performance materials that make traveling faster. paper.g. Recycle" waste hierarchy. materials science is needed to provide durable. reduce energy usage. reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal. Although similar in effect. packaging). and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. or space exploration. brake systems for high-speed trains. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass. plastic. safer. Transport: Whether for business. and more comfortable.Consumer Goods: Consumers have come to expect global products/services that are delivered rapidly at reasonable prices. and insulation tiles for reentry spacecrafts. Handling synthetic materials and their wastes Recycling Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent waste of potentially useful materials. Reuse. textiles.. Recycling is a key component of modern waste management and is the third component of the "Reduce.

as according to the United States Nation Solid Wastes . Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside. removal and reuse of mercury from various items). lead from car batteries. thus providing a clear incentive for use and creating a stable supply. either an installed or mobile collection station or the reprocessing plant itself. Buy-back centres differ in that the cleaned recyclates are purchased.– such as food or garden waste – is not typically considered recycling. recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material. either due to their intrinsic value (e. Critics of recycling claim that it often wastes more resources than it saves. so "recycling" of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (e. this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources). and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing. or gold from computer components). hopefully creating a profit. The three main categories of collection are "drop-off centres". but suffer from low and unpredictable throughput. They are Recycle bin in Malaysia the easiest type of collection to establish.. "buy-back centres" and "curbside collection". or used foamed polystyrene to more polystyrene. cardboard) instead. for example used office paper to more office paper. However. The post-processed material can then be sold on.g. cleaned.g. These systems tend to lie along the spectrum of trade-off b etween public convenience and government ease and expense.g. Drop-off centres require the waste producer to carry the recyclates to a central location. Unfortunately government subsidies are necessary to make buy-back centres a viable enterprise. especially in cases where it is mandated by the government.. Note here that municipal recycling may nevertheless still be worthwhile if the net cost is less than the landfill or other disposal costs for the same amount of material Process Collection A number of different systems have been implemented to collect recyclates from the general waste stream. In a strict sense. or due to their hazardous nature (e. then sorted. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products..

Source separation is the other extreme. contents of a recycling bin in but has advantages as well: the city need not pay for a separate Canberra. Some plants can now sort the materials automatically. all recyclables for collection are mixed but kept separate from other waste. An extensive public education program is also required. At one end of the spectrum is mixed waste collection. however. Curbside collection Curbside collection encompasses many subtly different systems. This is done in a series of stages. Advances in sorting technology (see sorting below). commingled recyclables and source separation. The main categories are mixed waste collection.Management Association it costs on average US$50 to process a ton of material. This results in a large amount A recycling truck collecting the of recyclable waste. Any changes to which materials are recyclable is easy to accommodate as all sorting happens in a central location. have lowered this overhead substantially—many areas which had developed source separation programs have since switched to comingled collection. This greatly reduces the need for post-collection cleaning but does require public education on what materials are recyclable. the different types of materials must be sorted. in which all recyclates are collected mixed in with the rest of the waste. but incurs additional operating costs for collection of each separate material. A 30% increase in recycling rates has been seen in the areas where these plants exist. many of which involve automated processes such that a truck-load of material can be fully sorted in less than an hour. In a Commingled or single-stream system. which can only be resold for US$30. Sorting Once commingled recyclates are collected and delivered to a central collection facility. paper especially. Source separation used to be the preferred method due to the high sorting costs incurred by commingled collection. which differ mostly on where in the process the recyclates are sorted and cleaned. which must be successful if recyclate contamination is to be avoided. and the desired material is then sorted out and cleaned at a central sorting facility. . being too soiled to reprocess. Australia collection of recyclates and no public education is needed. known as Single Stream. where each material is cleaned and sorted prior to collection. A waste collection vehicle generally picks up the waste. This method requires the least post-collection sorting and produces the purest recyclates.

bricks. dirt. often along with asphalt. and tin-plated steel cans ("tin cans"). but has become automated in some sorting centers: a spectroscopic scanner is used to differentiate between different types of paper and plastic based on the absorbed wavelengths. This magnetic eddy current is repulsed by a large magnetic field. are collected. splitting lighter paper and plastic from heavier glass and metal. automated machinery separates the recyclates by weight. amber. Strong magnets are used to separate out ferrous metals. which in turn creates a magnetic eddy current inside the cans. the commingled recyclates are removed from the collection vehicle and placed on a conveyor belt spread out in a single layer. Crushed recycled concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free of contaminants. Cardboard is removed from the mixed paper. green or clear. Large pieces of cardboard and plastic bags are removed by hand at this stage.Initially. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. PET (#1) and HDPE (#2). steel. and the most common types of plastic. Finally. This separation is usually done by hand. glass must be sorted by hand based on its color: brown. Non-ferrous metals are ejected by magnetic eddy currents in which a rotating magnetic field induces an electric current around the aluminum cans. Common recyclables Aggregates and concrete Concrete aggregate collected from demolition sites is put through a crushing machine. which in turn saves trees and habitats. . and rocks. such as iron. and the cans are ejected from the rest of the recyclate stream. as they can cause later machinery to jam. and subsequently divert each material into the proper collection channel. Next. This reduces the need for other rocks to be dug up.

Biodegradable waste Garden waste for composting Kitchen. harmful materials which must be handled with care. Additionally. but municipal green-waste collection programs also exist. and other green waste can be recycled into useful material by composting.Some batteries contain toxic heavy metals. Lead-acid batteries. garden. like those used in automobiles. These programs can supplement their funding by selling the topsoil produced. This process allows natural aerobic bacteria to break down the waste into fertile topsoil. Clothing . proper disposal of used batteries is required by law in many areas. older batteries contain mercury and cadmium. Much composting is done on a household scale. Unfortunately. the recycling rate is 90%. In the United States. Because of their potential environmental damage. are relatively easy to recycle and many regions have legislation requiring vendors to accept used products. this mandate has been difficult to enforce. with new batteries containing up to 80% recycled material. making recycling or proper disposal a high priority Batteries The large variation in size and type of batteries makes their recycling extremely difficult: they must first be sorted into similar kinds and each kind requires an individual recycling process.

Non-ferrous metals Aluminium is one of the most efficient and widely-recycled materials.Recycling clothes via consignment or swapping has become increasingly popular. unclaimed clothing is donated to a local charity. component recovery can be achieved in a cost-effective manner. These pieces or bales are melted in an aluminium smelter to produce molten aluminium. aluminium is 600 °C. The recycling process works by mechanically separating the metals. and among the easiest materials to reprocess. In organizations like Clothing Swap. so aluminium can be recycled indefinitely. as they can be separated magnetically from the waste stream. Electronics disassembly and reclamation The direct disposal of electrical equipment—such as old computers and mobile phones—is banned in many areas due to the toxic contents of certain components. Any grade of steel can be recycled to top quality new metal. Recycling is via a steelworks: scrap is either remelted in an electric arc furnace (90-100% scrap).. Inc. By this stage the recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium and further processing is identical for both. This process does not produce any change in the metal. while to extract mined aluminium from its ore requires 900 °C. In a clothing swap. 42% of crude steel produced is recycled material. To reach this higher . Recycling aluminium saves 95% of the energy cost of processing new aluminium. plastics. and circuit boards contained in the appliance. or used as part of the charge in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (around 25% scrap). a group of people gather at a venue to exchange clothes amongst each other. This is because the temperature necessary for melting recycled. Steel crushed and baled for recycling Ferrous metals Iron and steel are the world's most recycled materials. When this is done on a large scale at an electronic waste recycling plant. with no 'downgrading' from prime to lower quality materials as steel is recycled repeatedly. Aluminium is shredded and ground into small pieces or crushed into bales. nearly pure.

Papers coated with plastic or aluminium foil. Glass can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when reprocessed. then each ton of glossy paper produces more than 200 kg of sludge and less than 800 kg of fibre. Americans throw away enough aluminum every year to rebuild their entire commercial air fleet. pasted. It is then mechanically blown or molded into new jars or bottles. Glassphalt is a road-laying material which comprises around 30% recycled glass. . and papers that are waxed. leading to the high environmental benefits of aluminium recycling. Sometimes recyclers ask for the removal of the glossy inserts from newspapers because they are a different type of paper. This means that either a higher percentage of new fibres must be added.temperature. but some types are harder to recycle than others. or gummed are usually not recycled because the process is too expensive. Public glass waste collection point for separating clear. Almost all paper can be recycled today. Also. The collected glass cullet is taken to a glass recycling plant where it is monitored for purity and contaminants are removed. where the glass may be sorted into color categories. much more energy is needed. Gift-wrap paper also cannot be recycled due to its already poor quality. the energy saved by recycling one aluminum can is enough to run a television for three hours. Most of the clay is removed from the recycled pulp as sludge which must be disposed of. or the paper downcycled into lower quality products. Paper Paper can be recycled by reducing it to pulp and combining it with pulp from newly harvested wood. clays. green and amber glass Glass Glass bottles and jars are gathered by a curbside collection truck and bottle banks. which also removes fillers. Glass cullet is also used in the construction industry for aggregate and glassphalt. and fibre fragments. As the recycling process causes the paper fibres to break down. Any writing or colouration of the paper must first be removed by deinking. Glossy inserts have a heavy clay coating that some paper mills cannot accept. If the coated paper is 20% by weight clay. each time paper is recycled its quality decreases. The cullet is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace.

resin identification code numbers 1-6 have been assigned to six common kinds of recyclable plastic resins. In addition to this. This can be costly. Compared to glass or metallic materials. no such 'easy sorting' capability exists for plastics. with the number 7 indicating any other kind of plastic. Standardized symbols are available incorporating each of these resin codes. while labels do not need to be removed from bottles for recycling. There is a trend of moving these facilities from developed countries to developing countries either for charity or sold at a cheaper price. To help in identifying the materials in various plastic items. whether recyclable or not. Most textiles are composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. while metals can be sorted using electromagnets. plastic poses unique challenges. Workers sort and separate collected textiles into good quality clothing and shoes which can be reused or worn.Many international . they each carry a resin identification code.Plastic shipping crates Plastic Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products. The textile's composition will affect its durability and method of recycling. lids are often made from a different kind of non-recyclable plastic. Because of the massive number of types of plastic. Textiles A brown cloth When considering textile recycling one must understand what the material consists of. and must be sorted before they can be recycled.

This recycling practise is encouraged because it helps to reduce unwanted waste while providing clothing to those in need. Timber A stack of wooden pallets awaits reuse or recycling. roofing felts. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibres and spun ready for weaving or knitting. Greenpeace also view recycled timber as an environmentally friendly product. Textiles sent to the flocking industry are shredded to make filling material for car insulation. with consumers commonly believing that by purchasing recycled wood the demand for green timber will fall and ultimately benefit the environment. panel linings and furniture padding. Fibre reclamation mills sort textiles according to fibre type and colour. as the washing and drying facilities are not present at sorting units. depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. these may still be disposed of in a landfill. loudspeaker cones. Recycling timber has become popular due to its image as an environmentally friendly product. The textiles are shredded into "shoddy" fibres and blended with other selected fibres.organisations collect used textiles from developed countries as a donation to those third world countries. The fibres can also be compressed for mattress production. citing it as the most preferable timber source on their website. .Damaged textiles are further sorted into grades to make industrial wiping cloths and for use in paper manufacture or material suitable for fibre reclamation and filling products. The arrival of recycled timber as a construction product has been important in both raising industry and consumer awareness towards deforestation and promoting timber mills to adopt more environmentally friendly practices. Colour sorting eliminates the need to re-dye the recycled textiles. If textile reprocessors receive wet or soiled clothes however.

health.Wood recycling is a subject which has in recent years taken an ever greater role in our lives. They suggest that every product (and all packaging they require) should have a complete "closed-loop" cycle . The concept of sustainable design aims to solve this problem. frequently at an industrial level. Sustainable design Much of the difficulty inherent in recycling comes from the fact that most products are not designed with recycling in mind. Namely. balancing all these considerations is an environmental justice problem. Used tires can be added to asphalt for producing road surfaces or to make rubber mulch used on playgrounds for safety. recycling timber. Tire recycling is also common. Ship breaking is one example that has associated environmental. One of the countless examples. Other techniques Several other materials are also commonly recycled. is that although many local authorities like the idea of recycling. however. which has been in the news is the concept of actually recycling wood which is growing in the cities. and was first laid out in the book "Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things" by architect William McDonough and chemist Michael Braungart. they do not fully support it. trees and other sources. The problem. and safety risks for the area where the operation takes place. They are also often used as the insulation and heat absorbing/releasing material in specially constructed homes known as earthships.

called an interphase. there are two interfaces. organic. Because the different constituents are intermixed or combined.mapped out for each component—a way in which every component will either return to the natural ecosystem through biodegradation or be recycled indefinitely. cardboard packaging for food products is more easily recycled than plastic. but is heavier to ship and may result in more waste from spoilage. Examples are the coating on the glass fibers in reinforced plastics and the adhesive that bonds the layers of a laminate together. . one between the matrix and the interphase and one between the fiber and the interface. serving to enclose the composite and give it bulk form. there is always a contiguous region. composites can be constructed of any combination of two or more materials— metallic. In some cases. The matrix is the body constituent. laminae or layers. Major structural constituents are fibers. the surface forming the common boundary of the constituents. In principle. or inorganic. Discussion A material system composed of a mixture or combination of two or more constituents that differ in form or material composition and are essentially insoluble in each other. For example. They determine the internal structure of the composite. particles. It may simply be an interface. the contiguous region is a distinct added phase. they are the additive phase. fillers. and matrices. Usually. but the constituent forms are more restricted. flakes. care must be taken to ensure a complete view of the costs and benefits involved. As with environmental economics. that is. When such an interphase is present. An interface is in some ways analogous to the grain boundaries in monolithic materials.

Components fabricated from advanced organic-matrix–fiber-reinforced composites are used extensively on commercial aircraft as well as for military transports. and property gradients. especially in rotating components. Composites consisting of resin matrices reinforced with discontinuous glass fibers and continuous-glass-fiber mats are widely used in truck and automobile components bearing light loads. A composite must be selected by more than one criterion. Selection of composites rather than monolithic materials is dictated by the choice of properties. and bombers. In fact. and how these processes influence the global material behavior. makes up a significant fraction of aircraft weight (frequently 50%) and must provide a good thrust-to-weight ratio and efficient fuel consumption. Advanced composites comprise structural materials that have been developed for hightechnology applications. such as natural frequency and flutter speed. for which other materials are not sufficiently stiff. While composite strength is primarily a function of the reinforcement. and low cost of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics have led to their widespread use in electrical and electronic applications ranging from motors and generators to antennas and printed circuit boards.Interfaces are among the most important yet least understood components of a composite material. structural. although one may dominate. knowledge of the sequence of events occurring on these different levels is important in understanding the nature of interfacial phenomena. glasses. such as interior and exterior panels. the matrix frequently dictates service conditions. rotors. including carbon. such as airframe structures. The propulsion system. metals. brakes. which includes engines and fuel. drive shafts. pistons for diesel engines. the upper temperature limit of the composite. In particular. Advanced composites possess enhanced stiffness and lower density compared to fiber-glass and conventional monolithic materials. Also. In these materials. A number of matrix materials are available. The use of fiber-reinforced materials in engineering applications has grown rapidly. often considered as surfaces. and polymers. ceramics. Interfaces in composites. leaf springs. Characterization of the mechanical properties of interfacial zones is necessary for understanding mechanical behavior. the ability of the matrix to support the fibers or particles and to transfer load to the reinforcement is equally important. for example. The high values of specific stiffness and specific strength may be the determining factor. . and macroscopic levels. The excellent electrical insulation. or small particles are dispersed in the matrix. where material density directly affects both stress levels and critical dynamic characteristics. The primary means of improving engine efficiency are to take advantage of the high specific stiffness and strength of composites for weight reduction. fighters. and clutch plates. extremely stiff and strong continuous or discontinuous fibers. but in some applications wear resistance or strength retention at elevated temperatures is more important. are in fact zones of compositional. microscopic. there is a lack of understanding of processes occurring at the atomic level of interfaces. wheels. There is a close relationship between processes that occur on the atomic. typically varying in width from a single atom layer to micrometers. formability. whiskers.

fishing rods. Sullphuric acid. The process of mixing atoms of pure metals and atoms of impurities such as metals or non-metals by melting is called alloying. is made in industry through the Contact process. NH4NO3. H2SO4. ammonium sulphate. skis. Advanced composites are used in a variety of other applications. The main use of ammonia. Ammonia NH3. composites are used as replacements for fiber-reinforced cements and cables for suspension bridges. (NH4)3PO4. archery bows and arrows. is mass produced in factories through the Haber process. In engineering. Sulphur dioxide can caused acid rain which harmful for human and nature. and bicycles. which pullutes the environment. Alloying aims to increase the strength and hardness of metals. sailboats. leading to development of biocompatible prostheses for bone replacements and joint implants. An alloy is a compound formed by mixing metals with other elements. They have made it possible to mimic the properties of human bone.Composites are also used for leisure and sporting products such as the frames of rackets. SO2. and ammonium phosphate. is used to make fertiliser. the electrolyte in car batteries. racing cars. The burning of fossil fuels such as petrol and products made from sulphuric acid. including cutting tools for machining of super alloys and cast iron and laser mirrors for outer-space applications. NH3. (NH4)2SO4. golf club shafts. is in the manufacture of nitrogenous fertilers. paint and detergent. Examples of ammonium salts that can be used as fertiliser are ammonium nitrate. will produce sulphur dioxide. CONCLUSION Sulphuric acid H2SO4. . H2SO4.

A polymer is a long-chained molecule made from the combination of many small molecules (monomers). such as starch and cellulose. . The new subtance has the properties that are superior to those of the original components.htm 13.wikipedia. a good insulator of heat and Form 4 Chemistry Text Book (KBSM) 15. www. http://en. http://en. Types of glass include fused silica glass. Examples of composite materials are reinforced concrete.answers.wikipedia. hard. www. The main properties of ceramics include being brittle. very www. 12. fibre optics. borosilicate glass and lead crystals Composite materials are compound that are formed from combinations of two or more different compounds. transparent and chemically inert.wikipedia. www. Ceramics are items made from clay that have been heated at high temperature. There are two types of polymers. http://education. 14. A natural polymer is a polymer that occurs naturally.portal. natural polymer and synthetic 8. www. www.answers. soda-lime glass. composite plastics. Glass is brittle. REFERENCES 1.prevent metal corrosion and to improve the appearance of metals so that they are more 6. having a very high melting point and being heat resistance. The main component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide.unesco. Polymerisation is the process of combining monomers to form a long-chained polymer. A synthetic (artificial) polymer is a man-made polymer that is formed from chemical compounds through polymerisation. www. 7. fibre glass and photochromic.wikipedia.en.htm 9. Reference Text Series Chemistry (Pearson Longman) 3.html 5.

com/topic/ceramic . www.answers.17.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.