2008-05-23

Objectives
To grasp basic theory related to textile fibers

Textile Materials

To understand the properties of textile fibers To enlarge vocabulary of textile fibers To keep up with the advance in textile fibers To improve four skills of scientific English and of presentation in English

University of Textiles and Clothing Jiangnan University
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Course Syllabus Textbook Zhang haiquan, Textile Materials, 2007 Reference book Yao, M. et. al. Textile Materials (in Chinese), 2nd ed., Textile Industry Publishing House, 1990

Grading Grades for this course are determined by Homework (10%), Final exam (90%). The final grade will be from A to F corresponding to the total score according to the student handbook.

Topical Outline Chapter 1 Introduction to Textile Fibers 1.1 Fiber Classification 1.2 Fiber Polymer 1.3 Fiber Theory and Fiber Properties Chapter 2 Natural Cellulosic Fibers 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Cotton 2.3 Bast Fibers

Topical Outline
Chapter 3 Natural Protein Fibers 3.1 Introduction of Natural Protein Fibers 3.2 Wool 3.3 Specialty Hairs 3.4 Silk Chapter 4 Regenerated Fibers 4.1 Viscose 4.2 Acetate and Triacetate

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1 Nylon 5. ramie.4 Elastomeric Topical Outline Chapter 6 Absorption of Water on Textile Fibers 6.2008-05-23 Topical Outline Chapter 5 Synthetic Fibers 5.2 Optical Properties 7. desirable: >20 mm.5 mm.1 Thermal properties 7. hemp. and Electric Properties of Textile Fibers 7. Strong enough to be processed 1. Optical. flax Leaf fibers: agave (sisal) .1 Natural cellulosic fibers Seed fibers: cotton.2 Equilibrium 6.2 Polyester 5.1.3 Acrylic 5. kapok Bast fibers: jute. abaca Nut fibers:coir (coconut) 2 .4 Theories of Moisture Sorption Topical Outline Chapter 7 Thermal.3 Regain and Relative Humidity 6.1 Fiber Classification Natural cellulosic fibers Natural fiber Protein fibers Mineral fibers Regenerated fibers Man-made fiber Synthetic fibers Mineral fibers 1.3 Electric Properties 1 Introduction to Textile Fibers What is a fiber? Large length to width ratio Small enough to be flexible Textile fibers Minimum length: 12. pineapple.1 Introduction of Absorption 6.

1. Du Pont Hercules Incorporated E. Du Pont Polyolefin/ polypropylene Spandex 1.2 Fiber polymer Polymerization Degree of polymerization = Average molecular weight of polymer Molecular weight of thr repeating unit in the polymer 3 .1. fur fibers Asbestos 1.1.5 Synthetic fibers Year 1938 1950 1959 1961 Company Du pont E.4 Regenerated fibers Regenerated cellulosic fibers Tencel Modal PLA Regenerated protein fibers Soybean fiber Milk fiber Name Nylon Acrylic fiber 1.3 Mineral fiber Animal-hair fibers: silk.1.1.2008-05-23 1. (Indirect system) 1.2 Protein fibers Animal secretion: wool. specialty hair. spider silk 1. I.I.6 Fineness of fiber Gravimetric (Direct system) Tex: Mass in grams of 1000 m of fiber Denier: Mass in grams of 9000 m of fiber Metric count Ne : The number of meters per gram.

3. 1.2. Shape: Shape of a fiber can be examined both in cross section and in its longitudinal form.3 Fiber Theory and Fiber Properties Fibers.2008-05-23 1.1 Physical Properties Color: White or colorless fibers and filaments are preferred.2 Mechanical Properties Strength or Tenacity Tensile strength Flexibility Resiliency Abrasion Resistance Pilling 1.2 Inter-polymer forces of attraction Van der Waals’ forces Hydrogen bonds Alt linkages Cross-links 1. which are primary materials from which most textile products are made.1 Types of polymer Homopolymer: Polymerized from the same or only one kind of monomer. only a limited number of these materials are useful in the production of yarns or fabrics. 1. Many substances found in nature can be classified as fibers according to this definition. with a length at least one hundred times greater than the width. can be defined as units of matter of hair-like dimension.2.3 Chemical Properties Absorbency Effect of Heat Flammability Chemical Reactivity and Resistance 4 . Luster: Luster may be desirable in some products and undesirable in others. however.3. Alternating copolymer: Two monomers polymerize in an alternating sequence Random copolymer: Monomers are polymerized in no particular order. Copolymer: Polymerized from two or more different monomers.3. 1.

2. lumen.3 Structure of cotton fiber Cotton fiber is composed of cuticle.2. It is generally recognized that most consumers prefer cotton personal care items to those containing synthetic fibers.2.2 Cotton Fiber morphology Cross-section of cotton fiber: kidney-shaped 2. secondary cell wall. Today. from the leaves(sisal or abaca) or from the seed(cotton and kapok). animals and minerals. jute and ramie).2008-05-23 2 Natural Cellulosic fibers Natural fibers obtained from plants. (Except for silverfish) 2.1 Introduction Relatively high density Good conductors of heat and electricity Tend to burn easily Good resistance to alkalis Most insects do not attack cellulosic fibers. It has a number of qualities making it ideal for making textiles and clothing. 2.2 Cotton Cotton is the most widely used natural fiber. Longitudinal section of cotton fiber: convolution 5 . cotton is grown in more than 80 countries worldwide. It is almost pure cellulose. hemp. primary wall.1 Cotton Species Upland cotton Egyptian cotton Asian and African cottons 2.2. Plant or vegetable fibers may come from the stem(flax.

3.2. (C6H10O5)n Degree of polymerization is about 5000 Cotton is a crystalline fiber.2008-05-23 2.2.7 Growth and Production Field Preparation Planting Irrigation Fertilization Crop Harvesting Ginning 2. 2.2. cellulose. about 65 to 70 percent crystalline 2. ramie.3 Bast fibers Bast fiber or skin fiber is fiber collected from the Phloem (the "inner bark" or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem of a certain. jute and hemp 2.4 Polymer system Cotton polymer is a linear. It has a fiber density of 1. cellulose polymer.1 Fiber classification and morphology Flax fiber is classified as a natural. Cross-section: polygonal Longitudinal section: nodes 6 . multi-cellular fiber. Cotton fibers are resistant to alkalis and are relatively unaffected by normal laundering.2. mainly dicotyledonic plants.5 Chemical properties Cotton fibers are weakened and destroyed by acids.6 Physical properties Elastic-Plastic Nature Relatively inelastic Hygroscopic Nature Very absorbent Thermal Properties Conduct heat energy 2. Bast fiber includes flax. bast.50 g/cm3.

7 . The flax system is more crystalline than that of cotton. which tends to make wool a medium weight fiber.2 Polymer system Chemically The flax polymer is a cellulose one. and wlna in pre-teutonic days.2008-05-23 2. the rest are animal secretions. it needs to remembered that linen textile materials are not mercerized. Hygroscopic nature: The reasons given above to explain the hygroscopic nature of cotton apply also to flax.4 Chemical Properties 2. 3.3. The fiber density of wool is 1.31 g/cm3. They have excellent moisture absorbency. Physically The flax polymer differs from the cotton polymer. Elastic-plastic nature: Very inelastic nature is due to its very crystalline polymer system. staple fiber. However.1 Introduction of Natural Protein Fibers Natural protein fibers are obtained from animal sources. Most fibers in this group are the hair from animals.3.2 Wool The word wool was wull in old English. the explanations offered for the chemical properties of cotton may also be applied to flax. It has a DP of about 18000. Natural protein fibers have poor resistance to alkalies Fibers in this group have good resiliency and elastic recovery. 3 .3. wullo in teutonic. multi-cellular.3 Physical Properties Tenacity: Flax is a very strong fiber. 2. Wool is the fiber from the fleece of domesticated sheep. protein.5 Processing of flax Pulling and rippling Retting Breaking and scutching Hackling Spinning Owing to the similar chemical constitution of cotton and flax.3. It is a natural. Thermal properties: The best heat resistance and conductively of commonly used fibers. 2.

3. Effect of alkalis: Wool dissolves readily in alkaline solutions. The repeating unit of the wool polymer is the amino acid which has the general formula. Cross-section of wool is usually oval in shape. 8 . Elastic-plastic nature: Wool has very good elastic recovery and excellent resilience.2.6 Physical Properties Tenacity: Wool is a weak fibre. Hygroscopic nature: very absorbent Thermal properties: Poor heat conductivity of wool and its low heat resistance.1 Fiber morphology Longitudinal appearance of wool is overlapping surface cell structure. 3.2.2 Felting of wool Felting of wool is the irreversible shrinkage of the material.2. Effect of sunlight and weather: Exposure to sun light and weather tends to yellow white wool textile materials. Color-fastness: Wool is easy to dye.2.2. cortex and medulla layer. with some very short side groups and it normally has a helical configuration.2008-05-23 3. 3. keratin polymer.4 Structure of wool Wool fiber is composed of surface scale.3 The polymer system The wool polymer is linear. Wet and heat Scales Directional friction Felting 3.2. 3.5 Chemical properties Effect of acids: Wool is more resistant to acids than to alkalis.

1 Mohair Mohair refers to the hair of Angora goat. The fabrics are soft.3. 3. and they drape attractively. they have a distinctive golden brown colour with a pleasing lustre. Italso takes dye exceptionally well.2 Cashmere Cashmere is a type of fiber obtained from the Cashmere goat. Mohair fiber is approximately 25-45µ in diameter. 9 . comfortable. cashmere fiber is highly adaptable.2008-05-23 3. and good wearing.3. strong.3. It is notable for its high luster. The fibres are strong and glossy and make fabrics similar in appearance to mohair. Cashmere is similar to wool in most properties.3 Specialty hairs Mohair Cashmere Camel Hair Alpaca Llama Vicuna 3. 3. 3. or Pashmina.3. It is both durable and resilient. 3.4 Alpaca Alpaca offers excellent warmth and insulation. and relatively uniform in length and diameter but somewhat weaker than alpaca or camel hair.3.3 Camel Hair Camel-hair are both light in weight and warm.6 Llama Llama fibre is soft.

4 Physical properties Tenacity: The silk filament is strong.1 Fiber morphology The rounded triangular cross-section of the silk filament can be used to identify silk.7 Vicuna Vicuna is one of the softest fibres in the world. has a lovely cinnamon brown or light tan colour.4 Silk Silk is a natural.3 Chemical properties Effect of acids: Silk is regarded more readily by acids than is wool. fibroin one.2008-05-23 3. very light weight silk textile materials may be man uf ac tur ed f r om silk f il am en ts.3. It is also very light in weight and very warm. protein filament.34 g/cm3. Elastic-plastic nature: Silk is considered to be more plastic than elastic. 3. It differs from the wool polymers as follows: Silk is composed of sixteen different ami-no acids compared with the twenty amino acids of the wool polymer .2 Polymer system Silk polymer is a linear.4.4. 3. Effect of alkalis: Alkaline solutions cause the silk filament to swell. Effect of sunlight and weather: The resistance of silk to the environment is not as good as that of wool. 3. Its filament density is 1. Silk polymer occurs only in the betaconfiguration.4. 3. which makes it a medium weight fiber. Thermal properties: Silk is more sensitive to heat than wool. However. This is due to the slit-like opening of the silk secreting glands. 3.4. It is fine and lustrous. Effect of bleaches: What has been stated for wool also applies to silk. Silk polymers are not composed of any amino acids containing sulphur. 10 . one each being located on either side within the mouth of the silk moth larvae. and is strong enough to make very desirable fabrics.

such as viscose. F. Hatching of the eggs into caterpillars. J. High-wet-modulus rayon: They have better dimensional stability. in 1891. Viscose process was discovered in 1891 by English scientists C.5 Silk Production Laying of the eggs by the silk moth. Process for manufacturing viscose was patented by British scientists.2 Manufacture Pulp 4. then mixed with carbon disulfide to form cellulose xanthate. 4 Regenerated fibers Fiber produced by dissolving a natural material (such as cellulose). better strength.1 Historical review Major breakthrough in production of manmade fibers occurred in 1862 when Ozanam invented spinnerette. Spinning of a cocoon by the caterpillar. 4.4. Edward John Bevan and Clayton Beadle. Bevan.1. 4. etc. Cellulose from wood or cotton fibers is treated with sodium hydroxide.1. acetate and triacetate. 4.3 Modified viscose fibres Modified viscose fibers differ from the regular rayon fibers in both strength and elongation properties.2008-05-23 3. The acid converts the viscose back into cellulose.1 Viscose fibres Viscose is a viscous organic liquid used to make rayon and cellophane.1. and better elongation than regular rayon. Charles Frederick Cross. The resulting viscose is extruded into an acid bath a spinneret to make rayon. then regenerating it by extrusion and precipitation. Emerging of the silk moth from the cocoon. Cuprammonium rayon Alkali cellulose Xanthate cellulose Viscose Viscose filaments 11 . Cross and E.

mechanical properties change in water Resist to weak alkali and acids 12 . Hygroscopic nature: The most absorbent fiber in common use.1.1.6 Chemical properties Chemical properties of cotton and viscose are similar. similar to that of cotton. Major use: lining fabrics for suits. coats.2 Acetate and Triacetate Fibers in which forming substance is cellulose acetate where not less than 92% of hydroxyl groups are acetylated: replacing -OH groups with -COCH3. 4. high crystallinity Wrinkle easily in hot water: dry cleaning only Swells in water.2 Properties Acetate: hydrophilic. the viscose polymer does not have the spiral configuration of the cotton polymer.2008-05-23 4. alkalis.1. bleaches.96. sunlight and weather. Viscose can color more brightly. being about 35 . 4. Triacetate: Nearly all -OH groups are replaced 2. The viscose polymer system is very amorphous. However. 4.4 Polymer system It is a linear.40 percent crystalline and about 65 – 60 percent amorphous. thermoplastic Triacetate: hydrophobic.5 Physical properties Tenacity: Viscose is weaker than cotton.2. Shorter polymers and very amorphous nature of viscose are responsible for the much greater sensitivity to acids. cellulose polymer.1 Structures Surface: straited Cross-section: lobed Skin-core structure DP: 250-300 Much less H-bond than in rayon 4.91~2. Acetate: 2 of 3 -OH groups in each 6-member ring are acetylated. when compared with cotton. Elastic-plastic nature: Viscose is limp because its amorphous system.2. 4. Thermal properties: Viscose has somewhat similar thermal properties to cotton. higher melting and softening temperature.

apparel 11% .3 Production Similar to cellulose rayon for the first a few steps Cellulose mixed with acetic acid and acetic anhydride.2 Properties Soluble in acetone Degrade in UV light Burns. nylon 8. usually through extrusion. polymer solution is extruded through a spinnerette into gas or vapor. some acetyl groups are removed 5 Synthetic Fibers Synthetic fibers are generally made from coal.2008-05-23 4. melts.2. a sulfuric acid catalyst is added Degradation of the polymer making DP low Triacetate is made first When water added.6 Small amount: nylon 3. nylon 6.0 Types of spinning methods Melt Spinning: Using heat to melt polymer to a viscosity suitable for extrusion. In general. forms black beads with vinegar like odder 4. synthetic (man-made) fibers are created by forcing. tire cord and ropes 14%. nylon 4. nylon 7. nylon 4.1. Invented in 1938 in Du Pont Market: carpet fiber 80%. nylon 12. petroleum or natural gas. forming a thread. 5.1 Nylon Man-made fibers in which fiber forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85% of the amide linkages are attached to 2 aromatic rings. Dry Solvent Spinning: This type of spinning is used for easily dissolved polymers.10 13 . 5. fiber forming materials through spinnerets into the air. Wet Solvent Spinning: Polymer solution is extruded into a precipitation bath. Types: 5.6.2.1 Types Mostly: Nylon 6 and Nylon 6. nylon 5.

3 Structure Smooth. inc lud ing b ut no t restricted to substituted terephthalic units.2008-05-23 5.2 Polyester Manufactured fibers in which fiber forming substance is any long-chain polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of a substituted aromatic c ar b oxylic ac id .3 Properties Smooth round cross-section and uniformity permit close packing Swells when absorbing moisture Static: not enough water absorption Low specific gravity: 1.14g/cc Resilience: high: wrinkle free Can be laundered but not easy to clean Vulnerable to degradation in acids Low resistance to sunlight 5.3 Properties Tenacity: high due to high orientation and crystallinity Elongation: high due to zigzag structure Recovery: high due to zigzag Energy of rupture: high due to high tenacity and high elongation. produced in Japan. 70’s and 80’s 5. Abrasion resistance: high Water absorption: highest among all synthetic fibers 5. Eastman Kodak PEB: poly(ehtylene oxybenzoate). even diameter Diameter generally 12-25 mm White or off-white colors Intermolecular forces: Dipole-dipole between benzene rings Linear polymer: DP 115-140 Crystallinity: 35% Orientation: very oriented 14 .1. Generic group members: PET (polyethylene terephthalate) ~95% 5.2.2 Types PCDT: poly(1.2.1.2 Structure Polymerization: condensation.1. eliminating a H2O molecule Functional group: amide group Molecular configuration: linear zigzag molecules forming well closely packed pleated sheets IMF: H-bond Crystallinity: High 65~86% Cross-sectional and longitudinal shape: can be any type 5.4-cyclohexylene dimethylene).

low melt polymer sheath Du Pont Coolmax: 20% more surface area and maybe hydrophilic treated for wicking 15 .6 Modification High tenacity for tire cord (higher DP and crystallinity) Wicking Sheath-core: polyester core. Low with high stress because dipoledipole bonding is not strong enough to hold.4 Properties PCDT Lower tenacity and elongation Superior elastic recovery Better compressional resilience: good for end uses such as carpets.2. leading to intermolecular slippage Low compressional resilience: not good for carpet fiber 5.2.2.2.4 Properties High tenacity due to high orientation High failure elongation Elastic recovery 5.5 Production Polymerization Form chips melt spinning drawing heat setting to increase crystallinity and orientation.2. potentially degrades in concentrated alkalies No UV degradation Flammable with black smoke Melt drip Best thermal resistant among all general use synthetics 5.2.4 Properties Resistant to acids. knitwear and fiberfill Less pilling due to lower tenacity 5.2008-05-23 5. rugs. reduce elongation and shrinkage 5.4 Properties Very low moisture regain Low level of wicking due to hydrophobic surface High electrical resistivity: static charge likely at low humidity Medium specific gravity Pilling High dimensional stability High Tm 450~500 degree F High with low stress: 97% at 2% strain.

95% at 1 % strain Moderate abrasion resistance 5.12 . better than wool Failure strain: medium High elastic recovery at low strain level 90 .3.3 Properties Mechanical properties similar to wool but stronger Medium tenacity.g.3.3.3 Acrylic Invented in conceptually in 1893 Produced initially in 1944 and full scale in 1950 End uses: 75% in apparel 18% household 7% Industrial and consumer textiles 5.19 g/cm3 Static electricity built up 16 .1 Polymerization Addition or chain growth Homopolymer: polyarylonitrile strong but compact and highly oriented virtually impossible to dye Copolymers: other types of monomers are included for a dyeable fiber and easier to process: e.2008-05-23 5.2 Structure Microscopic Cross-section: •dog-bone shaped •kidney-bean shaped •round Longitudinal •uniform diameter •rod-like shape 5.3.1. acrylic acid and vinylpyrrolidone most acrylic fibers are copolymers 5.3.2 Structure Molecular DP = 1000 IMF: dipole-dipole interaction between nitrile groups -C≡N Crystallinity is not well-defined 5.3Properties Bulky: tend to crimp Wick but do not absorb water Low specific density: 1.

1 Introduction of absorption Adsorption in a non-swelling medium.2008-05-23 5. 5.4. the lightest apparel fibre in common use. for example. but the absorption of water by fibers is an example of a process that comes midway between these two and partakes of some features of each. Each is extruded into filaments with excellent elastic properties but differing in their resistance to alkalis. 17 .4. Elastic-plastic nature: Excellent recovery Hygroscopic nature: Elastomeric are hydrophobic Thermal properties: Elastomeric are thermo-plastic.4. Polyurethane is synthesised from urea: H2NCONH2. Elastomeric has a fibre density of 1 g/cm³.4 Elastomeric Elastomeric is polyurethane-based fibre.4.4 Chemical properties Effect of acids: Elastomeric textile material in general are resistant to acids. 6. Vyrene) 5.3 Physical properties Tenacity: Elastomeric are weak. Elastomeric consists of polymers which are at least 85 % segmented polyurethanes.2 The polymer system Two types of elastomeric polymers are synthesized. Cross-section of fiber has the dump-bell or dog-bone shape 5. Colour-fastness: Elastomeric textile material tend to be difficult to dye owing to the hydrophobic and very crystalline nature of their polymer system. the adsorption of gases on charcoal. The polyether type (for example Lycra) resistant to alkalis The polymer type (for example.1 Fibre morphology Longitudinal appearance has distinct striations and specks. Effect of alkalis: The elastomeric is sensitive to alkalis. 5. is a comparatively simple process.

when no further change takes place.3 Absorption in crystalline regions In crystalline region.1 The effect of hydrophilic groups As absorption. such as –NH2.4. the active groups would have to be freed by the breaking of cross-links. for the others: They may be attracted to other hydrophilic groups. but. it takes up or loses water at a gradually decreasing rate until it reaches equilibrium. - W= G − G0 × 100% G0 18 . As such it is the effect of gases or liquids being incorporated into a material of a different state and adhering to the surface of another molecule. Fiber H 2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O Direct Indirect - - G Mass of undried specimen Mass of dried specimen 6. for absorption to take place.4. or they may form further layers on top of water molecules.2 Directly and indirectly attached water The first water molecules are absorbed directly onto hydrophilic groups.2 Equilibrium When a textile material is placed in a given atmosphere.2008-05-23 6.4 Theories of moisture sorption Sorption refers to the action of either absorption or adsorption. All the natural animal and vegetable fibers have groups in their molecules that attract water.4. the fiber molecules are closely packed together in a regular pattern. 6. —CONH. —OH. 6. Thus it will not be easy for water molecules to penetrate into a crystalline region.3 Regain and relative humidity Relative humidity(RH)= p* (H p(H 2 O) 2 O) × 100% p(H2O) Partial pressure of water vapor p*(H2O)—Saturation vapor pressure Regain G0 6. This is a dynamic equilibrium. 6. we take account of interaction between water molecules and molecules of the fiber. and. —COOH.

optical and electric are important properties of textile fibers. Refractive index niso of an isotropic fiber is given by the mean of the refractive indices of an oriented fiber in 3 directions: niso = 1/ 3(n + 2n⊥ ) n Polarized parallel to fiber axis 7.2 Optical properties When light falls on a fiber. Resistance can be defined: R = Rs l ×105 l—Distance between the ends of specimen. it may be partly transmitted. Fiber material Thermal conductivity[mW/(m.k] Cotton Wool Silk 71 54 50 7.3 Electric properties The electronic properties of fibers are of less obvious technical importance than the mechanical properties. cm N —Number of ends of yarn or fiber T —Linear density of yarn or fiber. 7.1 Thermal properties Thermal conductivity: Thermal conductivity is a property of materials that express the heat flux(W/m2) that will flow through the material if a certain temperature gradient DT(K/m) exists over the material. tex NT n⊥ Polarized perpendicular to fiber axis 19 . which decide the performance of the processing and usage of textile fibers. the electronic properties are interrelated.2008-05-23 7 Other properties of textile fibers Thermal. absorbed or reflected.

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