I can only say in self-defence. With regard to clearness. which alone can form a solid foundation for the study both of Sanskrit and of Comparative Philology. without presumption. have likewise been suppressed. have been clearness and correctness. is. with regard to correctness. the system of native grammarians. is believed to contain all the information that a student of Sanskrit J. they are apt to deprive the beginner of that clear and firm grasp of the grammatical system peculiar to the language of ancient India. Latin. and adopts nearly the whole of their technical termiif nology. which is chiefly intended for beginners. because. I can hardly flatter myself to reached. have kept in view while composing this grammar. though unfinished work. and those who have tested PninTs work. and others. The two which with regard to correctness. more difficult to than one follows so closely as Colebrooke. however interhis successors. most perfect. Rules referring to the language of the Vedas have been entirely is likely to want during the it is first excluded. and to adapt them to the grammatical system current in Europe. the grammar of Colebrooke. for not desirable that the difficulties of that ancient dialect should be approached by any one who has not fully mastered the grammar of the ordinary Sanskrit such as it was fixed by Panini and All allusions to cognate forms in Greek. in The grammatical system elaborated by native grammarians itself. the materials collected by Panini. the high standard of Colebrooke's great.PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. or Gothic. present grammar. if one endeavours to re-arrange. that it is far be correct on every minute point. Flecchia. have Benfey. my chief model has been the grammar of Bopp principal objects I . admit that there is will readily no grammar in any language that a 2 . to have simplified a few of the intricacies of Sanskrit grammar which were but partially cleared up by Bopp. as I have done. HE two or three years of his reading. If I may hope. esting and useful to the advanced student.

Reduplicated Perfect. the former being a secondary and compound. as much as possible. and the Madhaviya-dhatu-vritti. that corresponding to the Aorist. I have called each by its first verb. from introducing any more of the peculiar system and of the terminology of Indian grammarians* than has already found admittance into our Sanskrit grammars nay. I have kept as much as possible to the terminology with which corresponding to the Greek Imperfect. classical scholar I have retained the merely numerical distinction between the First and it was because this distinction seemed to be more intelligible to a than the six or seven forms of the so-called multiform Preterite. or the first and second futures. Imperfect. calling the tense Second Aorists. story. they are after all the only names recognized by native grammarians. But First and Second Aorists have become almost proper names. and if classical scholars are familiar. I have frequently rejected the grammatical observations supplied ready to hand . the Sarasvati Prakriya. such as the Prakriy-Kaumudi.iv PEEFACE TO THE eight could vie with the wonderful mechanism of his books of grammatical rules. I must leave those who enjoy the good fortune of being The few alterations that I have facilitating the made in the usual terminology learner. t In the University of Leipzig alone. as many as fifty pupils attend every year the classes of Professor Brockhaus in order to acquire a knowledge of the elements of Sanskrit. in order not to overwhelm the memory of the student with too many rules and too many exceptions. Aorist. and will not easily yield their place to mere argument. the latter a primary and simple tense. that corresponding to the Perfect. I should much prefer to call the First the Second. as the very name indicates the character of each class . collected in the grammar of P&nini and in later works. Knowing from my experience as an examiner. how difficult it is to remember the merely numerical distinction between the first. But unrivalled as that system is. the Siddhnta-Kaumudi. and the Second the First Aorist. and the mood corresponding to the Optative. but by hundreds f. and though the names may at first sound somewhat uncouth. previous to the study of Comparative Philology under Professor Curtius. This relieves the memory of much unnecessary trouble. least of all to the wants While availing myself therefore of the materials of beginners. in their works. have been made of solely with a view of work of the Thus instead numbering the ten classes of verbs. it is not suited to the wants of English students. The names of Periphrastic Perfect and Periphrastic Future tell their own Optative. second. If it were possible to make a change in the established grammatical nomenclature. Whether I have always been successful in drawing a line between what in Sanskrit is essential to the judgment of engaged in the practical teaching of a language the students of which may be counted no longer by tens. . I only wish it to be understood that where I have left out rules * grammar and what is not. or third preterites. I have abstained.

I did so partly because there are very few bases ending in m. The somewhat #. I have done so after mature consideration. it would be easy to discover here too v was preferred to m. for the sake of reference only. It is m true. elaborate treatment of the nominal bases in i and from 220 to 226. for very much the reason why the same reason. no doubt. m. at the same time. I have out the rule that bases ending in m.FIRST EDITION. or should be carefully committed to memory. rules on the left employment of the suffixes vat and mat ( 187). as for instance in 103. but. i. to mention one or two cases. as everybody will see. contained in other grammars. I passed over. My own fear is that. But this cannot be avoided in an elementary grammar and . or v exceptions. that the omission of such rules or exceptions may be said to involve an actual misrepresentation. viz. Again. in writing an elementary grammar. Here and there. whether native or European. * In the second edition all these paragraphs are printed in smaller type. viz. while lists of verbs like those contained in $ 332 or 462 are given. when giving the rules on the formation of denominatives ( 495). if a word like kim-vdn should occur. though the m be preceded by other vowels than a. deliberately preferring the less complete to the more complete. partly because. in order to avoid the clashing of two m's. I have therefore in the table of contents marked with an asterisk all such rules as may be I safely left out in a first course of Sanskrit grammar*. . will no doubt be sufficiently advanced to be able to consult for himself the rules of Panini and the explanations of his commentators. that bases ending in are not allowed to form denominatives. 8. the prohibition given in Pan. when giving the language. more bewildering statement of the anomalies of the Sanskrit Thus. and have in different places informed the reader whether certain portions might be passed over quickly. always take vat instead of mat. I have erred rather in giving too much than in giving too little. 3. the student who is likely to come in contact with such recon- dite forms. and that a pupil might be misled to form such words as kim-mdn and kim-yati. simply in order to give the student a foretaste of what he may expect in the elaborate works of native grammarians. a few extracts are introduced from Panini.

or join fanitrfl^tasnrK . The * To those who have tations of Sanskrit commentators. *t% ^ra who will take the I trouble to examine the same mass of evidence which have weighed and examined. in unravelling the argumentations of native scholars *. Those only who know the works of his predecessors. 1. and Forster. can appreciate the advance made by Bopp in explaining the difficulties. I doubt whether Sanskrit scholarship would have flourished as say so. Colebrooke. of Colebrooke. Among to these four scholars. partly because it was impossible to bring out clearly the principle on which the peculiarities and apparent irregularities of these nouns are based without entering fully into the systematic arrangement of native grammarians. 13. TIS n$. will be the most lenient in their judgment. Carey. but I feel that I that those sfts^ ^ta: . insert f after fa^IT. and the right reading is found in the old edition. Each derived his information from native teachers and from native grammars. if I may the dark lanes and alleys of the Sanskrit language. and Forster worked independently of each other. Wilkins seems to have been the first first compose a Sanskrit grammar. On page 136.vi PEEFACE TO THE became necessary. the same faith in the accurate and never swerving argumenit may be a saving of time to be informed that in the new and very useful edition of the Siddhanta-Kaumudi by S'ri Taranatha-tarkava- chaspati there are two misprints which hopelessly disturb the order of the rules on the proper declension of nouns in i and tt. if hereafter they should succeed better than I have done. and I believe that to Bopp's it has. 1. read ^JNr^ instead of ^sffcl^ this is corrected in the Corrigenda. But while acknowledging my obligations to the great grammarians of India. 7. Carey. students had been obliged to learn their Forster or Colebrooke. partly because in no grammar had the different paradigms of this class been correctly given. My first acquaintance with the elements of Sanskrit was gained from Bopp's grammar. for he informs us that the printed sheet of his work w^as destroyed by fire in 1795. and in lighting up. On the same page.\\ov $ fiiftrjo-eTai. Of portions like this I will not say indeed. if is grammar from little grammar due a great portion of that success which has attended the study of Sanskrit literature in Germany . it would be ungrateful were I not to intricate acknowledge as fully the assistance which I have derived from the works of European scholars. Wilkins. Wilkins. and I know may say.

and his smaller grammars too. that with * See Wilson's Sanscrit and English Dictionary. p. I grammar who has not owe most. with the exception of the Baft class. . I am bound to say. and therefore stands till 1810. many of which have proved useful to the writer of the present grammar. which as first attempts at ancient language of India accessible to European deserve the It is facile princeps. and it is a great loss to Sanskrit scholarship that so valuable a work should have remained unfinished. at the same time. 1806. but I have derived grammars also. and would. was not published till 1808. and evinces a familiarity with the most intricate problems of Hindu grammarians such as few scholars have acquired after him. preface. published both in German and in English. was not published Colebrooke's grammar was published it But part of in 1805. gives to his list of verbs. these four publications. Carey's grammar was published in first in point of time of publication. The first Unfortunately it was not because the grammars of Forster and Carey were then finished. as Colebrooke imagined. indeed. of Westergaard in Danish. supply the deficient part of his own.. and had actually delivered his MS. a peculiar interest. which was published by Colebrooke. In the mean time Forster had finished his grammar. first edition. There are besides. and containing suggestions. to the Council of the College of Fort William in 1804. Among making the scholars. of Flecchia in Italian. vii whole grammar. No one can understand and appreciate the merits of this previously acquired a knowledge of the grammatical system of Pnmi. in course of publication.FIRST EDITION. each supplying something that could not be found elsewhere. But while thus rendering full justice to the honest labours of my predecessors. There are some portions of Wilson's grammar which show that he consulted native grammarians. the grammars German. and the fact that he possessed the remaining portion many useful hints from other of Colebrooke's * MS. highest credit. to Colebrooke and Bopp. have rendered good service of Boiler in to the cause of sound scholarship. however. xlv. Professor Benfey in his large grammar performed a most useful task in working up independently the materials supplied by Panini and Bhattojidlkshita . of Oppert in French. Colebrooke's grammar is derived at first hand from the best native grammars.

differ very much in the degree of their trustworthiness . practical purposes. they must be given on competent authority. or without being able to produce proofs. in the literary language. for the sake of . a number of forms which occur but It is necessary. to give these forms and if they are to be given at all. Now it might be supposed that a mere reference to any of the numerous grammars already published would be sufficient for this purpose. systematic completeness. without. I soon discovered either that. and that the lists of irregular or unusual forms might safely be But this is by no means the case. but with the exception of the first volume of Colebrooke and of Professor Benfey's larger Sanskrit grammar. if ever. in order to arrive at any satisfactory result. it would seem. hitherto published. with a strange kind of sequacity. it would be impossible to appeal any of my predecessors as an authority on doubtful points. Every grammar contains. Forster and Carey. with regard to regular forms. they all repeated the same mistake. give frequently to forms with perfect accuracy. not one of them can be appealed to as an ultimate authority. or that they varied widely from each other. they were never intended as authorities on contested points of Sanskrit grammar. however. . with regard not the regular forms. who evidently depend almost entirely on materials supplied to them by native assistants. I consulted other grammars. Even copied from their pages. the most difficult grammars of Wilkins and Wilson have been pointed out by and however useful these works may have been for others . and to supply for each doubtful case. as is well known. Nothing remained in fact. whoever should trust implicitly in the correctness of any of the grammars. with Pftnini only to the irregular but likewise to and other native grammarians. without assigning any reason or I need not say that the grammars which we possess authority. I do not say this lightly. would never be certain of having the right form. When I began to revise my manuscript grammar which I had composed for my own use many years ago. any power of The frequent inaccuracies in the controlling their authorities. and when on points on which I felt doubtful. but to collate the whole of my grammar. while they go wildly wrong immediately after. rarely. of which there are many in the grammar of the Sanskrit language.viii PEEFACE TO THE regard to doubtful or difficult forms.

vn. even where there cannot be any difference of opinion. 3. and in so doing I had to re -write nearly the whole of my grammar but though the time and trouble expended . which requires that (Pan. a new rule is cited (Pan. no means pretend to have arrived on all points at a clear and definite view of the meaning of Panini and his successors. 77). vn. vii. ^ isham becomes ^ r (Pan. But comes another general rule (Pan. f: Here the simplest rule would be that final ^ ri before rule th. a root *wijdgri. however. which forms its Aorist by adding ^q isham. We may first and the exceptions in the have the general rule in the last. I believe that on many points a more settled and authoritative character has been imparted to the grammar of Sanskrit than it possessed before but I do by By this process which I . vuii(XM ajdgdrisham. book. under a new rule (Pan. 4. I only regret that I did not give these authoritative references throughout the whole of my work*. Against this change. 84). a reference to Pnirii or to other native authorities. and even then we are by no means certain that exceptions to these exceptions else. like ^MinfiH ajdgarisham. I believe that they have not been bestowed in vain. vn.e. They have been given in the second edition. have adopted. may There not occur is somewhere I shall give but one instance. 2. i. 2. which does not allow Vriddhi in an Aorist that takes intermeis diate 5 i. and for rules that U my might seem to differ from those of any of predecessors. 85). is prevented by another ^t isham ^ ri should take Guna before now This would give us 'smmfts ajdgar-isham. on this work have been considerable. and changed to IJPTJ jdgar. The grammatical system of Hindu grammarians is so peculiar. i) which prescribes final Vriddhi of vowels before ^ isham. * There is an exception. vii. and this secures a special exception from Vriddhi. This I have done. b . because. are scattered about in different parts of their manuals. until this rule 2. however. 3). 3. and As soon as the base has been leaves its base again as Wf^jdgar.FIRST EDITION. final This. fi^ it. some of my readers might thus have been saved the time and trouble of looking through Panini to find the Sutras that bear on every form of the Sanskrit language. i. it falls for "*W[jdgri is forced to take Vriddhi. however. that rules which we should group together. again nullified by Pan. vi.

vil. prohibition. 2.92) is right and how could the Infallible be wrong? 2." want of critical accuracy in the editions which we the Laghu-Kaumudi. as well as the Sarasvati n. vn. and roots with short ^r a. Vriddhi. Far be it from the Sarasvati. and the translation of the Laghu-Kaumudi by the late Dr. . The time has come. these. option. shows that these forms are impossible. 25. A few instances may suffice to show the insecurity of our ordinary editions. Taranatha. i. Kasinatha. Professor Boehtlingk. But during those thirty years considerable progress has been made in unravelling the mysteries of the grammatical literature who his text and notes nearly when few of Sayana to the Rig-veda has shown us how practically to apply the rules of Panini . vn. again Vriddhi and then exception. and hence a new special rule (P&n. who celebrates them in the following couplet : rr " u Guna. even this is not yet the final result. PEEFACE TO THE this rule also. Again. Panini. 2. The commentary beginners to find their way through the labyrinth of native grammar. Ballantyne has enabled even of India. 2. The commentary to Pan. with the change of ri into a semivowel Another difficulty consists in the in the first instance. Dharanldhara. have no option However. This option is afterwards restricted. vn. 2). like possess of Panini. with a consonant and ending in ^r. Our base vtin^jdgar is after all not to take Vriddhi. vn. and Vopadeva. manifold changes and chances in the formation of the First Aorist of in 7! jdgri should have inspired a grammarian. Guna. and thereby establishing its Guna. beginning with short ^r a. yet a reference to Pan. may optionally take Vriddhi (Pan.x to.42. for bases beginning and ending with a consonant. are the nine results. I believe. but are restricted afresh to Vriddhi (Pan. me to wish to detract from the merits of native editors. 39 and 40. 7). 5) settles the point by granting to *rnr jdgri a special exception from No wonder that these Vriddhi.3. left. the Siddhanta-Kaumudi. gives the Benedictive Atmanepada ^Mte varishishta and ^rtfrrte starisMshta . if Panini (vm. like vtm^jagar. 2. still less from those of published of us were able to read a single line of thirty years ago. for new and critical editions of Panini and his commentators. Vriddhi.

for it is an article of faith with every Hindu grammarian that whatever word is used by Panini in his Sutras. and Taddhita suffixes. Otherwise.FIKST EDITION. 4. b2 . or so far lower the character of true scholarship as to appeal. But assuming ^UMifHfH agra- gdmini to be correct. vm. It is useless to inquire whether in doing so he was right or wrong. Hearing from my friend Professor Btihler that he had finished a Sanskrit Syntax. that I shall be truly thankful to any scholar who will take the trouble to point out any mistakes into which I may have fallen . it is quite clear that the compounds gfXchmiflu ^A svargakdminau. carefully avoid these faulty examples to Pan. I was glad to learn from of Panini and the my friend Professor Goldstticker. Unadi. touching the declension of nouns or the conjugation of verbs. based on the works of Patnini and other native grammarians. All I can say is. 13. harikdmdni. though by no means the model. The rules on the derivation of nouns. 13. that the MSS. though most of them occur not only in the printed editions Siddhnta-Kaumudi. which will soon be published. with regard to Upasargas. this being necessarily TRTCT praydna. it would not be right to argue from mij^M agraydna to inrR praydna. but may be traced back to the MSS. as matters of opinion. are all wrong. do not properly belong my to the sphere of an elementary grammar. agragdmini with a dental n is clear that he extends the prohibition given in vm. ymtfmtft vrishagdminau. to other compounds. of the Prakriy4-Kaumudi. is who of Vamana which he possesses. by Krit. of the Siddhanta-Kaumudi. in using ^ii'iifrfa it xi in the last syllable. KMk4 -Vritti. on such matters. and whom preparing an edition of the I consulted on these forms. the rules affecting compounds with Upasargas are by no means identical with those that affect ordinary compounds and though it may be right to . If time and health permit. given in the commentary to vm. 4. 34. the source. argue a fortiori from HJiifaPn pragdmini to tujinrnfn agragdmini. is eo ipso correct. from the verdict of the few to the opinion of the many. After these explanations I need hardly add that I am not so sanguine as to suppose that I could have escaped scot free where so many men of superior knowledge and talent have failed to do so. I gladly omitted that portion of means of grammar. 4. and I hope that I shall never so far forget the regard due to truth as to attempt to represent simple corrections. and ^(XH*)<ii harikdmena.

PARIS. and tenses by a those who. but those only that serve to illustrate certain grammatical rules.xii PEEFACE TO THE FIEST EDITION. reference to the rules of this grammar. when doubtful as to the exact forms of grammar : of certain verbs. F. moods. those that take the terminations of the Atmanepada. Kaumudi. In this manner I it will not hope that the Appendix will serve two purposes only help the student. 1866. 5th April. MAX MULLEE. lastly. In arranged as best to illustrate making a new selection among the verbs selected by Eamachandra and Anubhutisvarupacharya. . These grammars do not conjugate every verb that occurs in the Dhatupatha. and to those which illustrate some points of peculiar interest to the student. again. My kind friends Professor Cowell and Professor Kielhorn have revised some of the proof-sheets of my grammar. the single verbs are so certain grammatical rules. I have given a preference to those which occur more frequently in Sanskrit literature. in others he has to find by himself the proper warranty for each particular form. pp. but exercise to it will likewise serve as a useful practical taking each verb in turn. In some cases references have been added to guide the student. as a separate treatise. Nor do they but they group the verbs of each class according to their voices. In the list of verbs which I have given as an Appendix. those that admit of both voices. hereafter. 244-285. those that take the terminations of the Parasmaitreating together pada. I have chiefly followed the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the Sarasvati. will try to account for the exact forms of its persons. In each of these subdi- visions. adopt. like the Siddhantathe order of the verbs as given in Panini's Dhatupatha. for which I beg to express to them my sincere thanks. the chapter of I hope to publish the Prakriya-Kaumudi bearing on this subject. and.

If then. But in our own Sanskrit grammars we first have a general rule that changed to ^ sh after any vowel 100). except *r and ^r #. published at Leipzig in 1868. and most of scholar to acquire that familiarity with the intricate system of still Panini which the Pandits of the old school in India possess . the system of Panini we have to transfer the facts of There is. TJ*J pumsu.- |: PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. I have also been able seemed remove a number of mistakes and misprints which. in spite of all the care I had taken. They keep true throughout to one system. he is perfectly right in his objection. however. that system into our own system of grammar. From his point of view. and which does not exist for them. one difficulty which we have to contend with. E^j^r4mas4strl objects to the form Tpxpunsu as the locative plural of gm^ pumdn. for according to P&nini the locative plural has Anusvara. yet there can be no doubt that these living guides are invaluable to us in exploring the gigantic labyrinth of ancient Sanskrit grammar. Most of these I had corrected in the German translation of my grammar. in spite of intervening Anusvara (see and it has even been maintained that there is some kind of ^s is physiological reason for such a change. after having laid . corrected. had been overlooked in the first edition. . whose list of notes and queries to my grammar has been of the It seems almost hopeless for a European greatest value to me. and in of the accent. out these oversights. some I feel most grateful to several of more have now been all my reviewers for having pointed to Pandit Rajaramasastri. JL HE principal alterations in the new edition of my Sanskrit grammar number of additional references to Panini. What accidents are likely to happen during this process I shall try to illustrate by one instance. and although some of their refinements in the interpretation of Panini's rules may seem too subtle. in all consist in a cases where an appeal to to his authority the introduction of the marks likely to be useful.

in yet write ^g pumsu. I have mentioned this one instance in order to difficulties show the peculiar which the writer of a Sanskrit grammar has to contend with in trying to combine the technical rules of P&nini with the more I rational principles of convince my readers. plur. vin. though even thus the fact remains that if the dot is really meant for Anusv&ra. by *j making in my second edition the same reservation in the general rule. or he would have been less forward in blaming Dr. grammatically and physically possible for It may be objected that on the same to remain unchanged. 1870. August. 59). is preceded by an Anusvara. and would therefore not be be changed into * sh after a vowel and Anusvara (Pan. ^ punsu. thus. or where I seem to have placed myself at variance with some of the native authorities. ipr: punsah. according to the general tendency of the ancient Sanskrit pronunciation. I have not done so without having carefully weighed the advantages of the one against those of the other system. Keller for punsu. Professor Weber had evidently overlooked these simple rules. that where European grammar . instead of ip punsu. punsd. but in these cases the ^s is liable to 3. I have now. PARKS END. and if the g su is the termination of the locative plural. by the retention of the ^ the ^5 . we simply commit a gramand I believe there is no Sanskrit grammar. MAX MULLER. F. Colebrooke's. Gen. and I hope it may and perhaps even Professor Weber. the ^ s would be sounded as ^ sh. and have written it worded that just excludes the case of g*j TJ*J pumsu. been able to conform to P&nini's authority. except which that blunder has not been committed. iprr radical. In Panini's grammar (as may be seen from my note appended to TOO) the rule on the change of ^s into ^ sh is so carefully ^ pumsu. I wrote it In order to avoid dental it. . instead of having followed my example in writing 33 pumsu. have deviated from the ordinary rules of our European grammars. n. making ground I ought to have written &c. Instr. although the su of the loc. down we matical blunder . OXFORD. this rule.xiv PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

. . 23. final 14. 1 8.. Number The of letters . THE ALPHABET. . List of compound consonants .. . .. The three nasal semivowels 10. Numerical figures 22. 8. 15.. and Combination of consonants 17. 4. initial. Consonants followed by vowels Virama . . short. CHAPTER II. 1 6. The Devanagari letters The Devandgari alphabet Direction of Sanskrit alphabet 3. /. The sign for r The Virama used as a stop-gap The signs for a pause The Avagraha. I. % 1 2. RULES OF SANDHI. Distinction between External and Internal Sandhi 25. Classification of vowels. Rules of pronunciation 21.. Object and use of Sandhi 24. PAGE CHAPTER i. . protracted . s.TABLE OF CONTENTS. 5.. h . Names 1 . ... Consonants without correspond- ing nasals 1 1. long. ... letter It Jihvamuliya and Upadhma"niya Signs of nasals and their substitute 9. medial. 7. Sounds represented by the Devandgari alphabet . 3. Vowel signs. 6. 2. . . 19^ 20. . . Auusvara before of letters sh. How to write the letters .

ac- cording to their quality. e. Classification of consonants. p before nasals . Final 71. PAGE 50. 55. 66. hi.. Anusvara and nants Mm pausd. Final n . and Visarga 62. . s. or mdtra 69. Protracted vowels unaffected by Sandhi 52. dh. sonants 60. Changes of quality 67. before before n I n. Final k. . Final n t before j jh. Final 77. Classification of consonants. n. hm. Final n before d. % r 68. Final m before hn. 56 . Combination of final and initial consonants 54. and before conso. of final with initial vowels 53. hy. t. Final 72. hv before kri. 50. Final 73. . t.2. t. n (not sh) . of quality Changes of place affect Dentals. before t. jh. Particles unaffected * % by Sandhi 51. t. 78. 61 . d. samrdj Visarga and final s or r . m 79. Table showing the combination . contact. chh. Final t h after final k. The eleven final consonants No word ends in two consonants . 63. Initial 70. 8. Final k. n. t and changes Anusvara.. n after a short vowel n before the firsts and seconds 74. j> before maya t. . approach. s . Final 64. opening Surd and sonant consonants con59.. . th. Sam Sam before rdj. ac- cording to their place 5 7. i. n (not sh) 65. Aspirated and unaspirated 58. dh. t. s . before s or s (not sh) before s final . . samskri . . I p .. 51. 75. Final n t 76. . s j.. and n before sh. Final t before Palatals ch. n..XVI TABLE OF CONTENTS. Changes of place.

* 125. 158. .budh. i.58 . Anusvara before /. vibhrdj. dy.68 .pur. 73 . US. Final sh changed to t before . Unchangeable bases. Nirjaras and nirjara C 1 . dhv. bases ending in vowels I. . bh. 2. their aspiration and throw it . 1. Final sh before t. Bases ending in consonants . or final. Ruj. bases formed by as. . 1. Bases in . vdr. 147. . * * * * 133. Jaras andjard 167. . . . Final y and v dropt before . s dropt before dhi. I. 1 N after ch or j changed into CJJi changed to chchh . .57 . A. r. The five nasals abbreviated 66. Final iv. av. far . lose terms used by native .60 if . Irregular nouns inj. II. . Final / changed to k . is. changeable to d. . devej. . dvdr. Final e.Final h of nah treated like dh I3 1 Final s changed into t in cer- Special bases in ch. th. ot au changed . . prdnch.visvasrij. . Final aspirates lose their aspiration . Final gh. dh. * 118. I.56 . chh. grammarians 55 .54 54 consonants. I . . . vrtich . Final ' s. PAGE xvu PAOB *H2. Chh before n or m changed to / 60 60 142. . th . us. . lose their aspiration and change t.64 . ft . bh. . 139.. DECLENSION. and case Bases ending in consonants . . . Harit. . I. . dv. followed 145. Final h before s treated like gh 128. . number. th.55 55 Final ir and ur lengthened ending a word . 129. kakubh Jalamuch . . if . agmmath. n. roots ending in diphthongs . . 50. 1 60. sugan like sh * * * * 126.60 . . brunch. . d. th into dh . s'ch treated . 127. * 117. ksh.57 57 57 155. . Explanation of some tical 60 61 . ay. 60 60 .70 71 y. Final gh. .72 . 143. dh. khanj. . 64 them to t. 68 samrdj. sh. Doubling of consonants 148. . . visvardj.67 157.. to 1 38. 'Arj 162. . Two consonants at the end of a word impossible 115.67 . 121. . Sarvasak 156. Prdchh . bhrijj into t . Unchangeable and Changeable bases . . .66 .suhrid. dh. Chitralikh . Final j in certain roots treated likesA .58 58 159. sumanas. ai. . and s. 57 154.TABLE OF CONTENTS. . . ur lengthened followed by consonants 144.68 j. 123. followed by gramma. ^unchanged before semi vowels 135- 164.j.59 59 sujyotis . 141. bh. nominal bases lengthened 146. Final h treated like .Final ch. ir.68 .53 53 t 40.Final s before s changed into t in verbal bases . * * * I30. changes 56 Gender. no bases in n. Bases ins. 136'37- M unchanged before M changed n to .Sonant and surd initials require sonant and surd finals . . Final h optionally treated like gh or dh .61 64 back on initial g. dh. Bases in r . d. b * * * * * 119. . gup. Terminations 153. 1 III. Final sh before s changed to k 122. except y . into the Anusvara dot . gir. optionally changed 161.Final consonants. 151. s. Radical is or us at the end of by t. 56 56 CHAPTEK 149. other consonants 152. 60 116.parivrdj. ghordh.jh changed to k or g 120.56 .65 65 66 * 124. only eleven 114. . . * ..Final n or m before sibilants avaydj 59 59 59 . 163. .69 changed to Anusvara 134. . .58 132. tain nominal bases . 165.64 . y . Final sh changed to t . h . .

. . . Usanas Bases in . 5. Brahman. Mahat . ndman 192. 189. snih. sh. man. 7. 6. . Prasdm 179I. list of bases in s 173174DJivas.Asis. dris. . adat 1 80. % * * 188. PAGE *i68. Dvish . Nouns with . . Bases in mat and vat . nouns with two bases. . 187. Bases ending in 1. B. divan an. bases ending in radical s . . van. . Anehas. van. three . Nah . 3. h Dis. adat The nasal in the nom. sras . supis. . . Nouns with changeable . Prdchh Taksh . * 193. pratyach 182. . dual of neuters. sutus f . * * % 172. Prdch .. . 11. purudamsas * 169. ksh. . .Ukthasds * 178. . Pipathis . . . 4. . Dhrish . Your Honour . pindagras. . 2. . bases. s . . B. * * 175- Turdsdh I7 6 - *I77. 8. s. chh. Bhavat. 2. muh. * 185. rdjan. . Brihat. ushnih Druh. and in the feminine base % 184- The nasal in participles of re. snuh . . Bases in at and ant. . X/ihf guli g. 181. Kiyat 191.Arvat and arvan 190. sajus .XV111 TABLE OF CONTENTS..Feminines of bases of nouns in man . Duh. and ace. 10. spris Nas Vis . prishat 186. - duplicated verbs . . Bases in an.. bases A. .

250. asthi.TABLE OF CONTENTS. . how added . . how added .. Formation of feminine base 243. Pad . 249. . Chatur. . .. Panchan. d. .. . Bases in ri. ashtan 258. Tara and tama. masc. . Compounds and 228. Nri 2. . PAGE xix #227. t . eka 254.. 253. Ordinals 260. Degrees of comparison . . . . .. fern. . . masc. . and fern. Akshi. pitri ^ * 236... Bases in d. 256. Tri. 252. * * 229.. . .. Exceptional comparatives and superlatives .. . . . . .. .. 235. . 238. Cardinals and declension of cardinals.247. Sakhi 233. tisri . Dvi . 246. . Feminines formed by . tarn 239. 259. dadhi.. neut.. 248. Declension of adjectives 242. td. . . . . pdchikd 245. fern. ADJECTIVES. shash. Exceptional feminines in . 231. . CHAPTER V. II. . naptri. . 257. 251. Bases ending in a and .. .. Kati 232. 244. . . sakthi . neut. bahuJreyast .. . 241. . . Construction of cardinals .. . Ifdhd . . fern. . 255. Atistrl 230. Priyah. Irregular feminines ... NUMERALS. . Formation of feminine substantives . . * 234. * kdntah. Pdchakah. Numerical adverbs and other derivatives . visvapd * 240. Kroshfu 237.. Strt ending in poly syllabic feminine bases in i d. priyd t . CHAPTER IV. Bases in i and M.. chatasri . . 109 . . . masc... . . lyas and ishtha..

#343. Keduplication in the perfect.Special rules for the redupli- 308. Guna . Nij. Hu. . When when when must be omitted. Second division. . . First and second aorist Four forms of the first aorist first 179 179 . . Short initial i and u . 340. Terminations 321. . CHAPTER X. . AUGMENT. 168 by a 311. .141 328. Medial e and ai are redupli146 cated by i. XII. . . and .148 .148 . .146 . . Insertion of long t 3t 341.146 . . . Initial sibilant followed . IX. . ri. vish . . 315. . .161 . General or unmodified tenses 159 324. chi CHAPTER 344. duplicated perfect . . Regular conjugation . . . General rules of reduplication 304. 325. . Kri classes 299. and weak termina. . Periphrastic perfect of inten172 sives and desideratives * % % 316. Special forms of strengthening and weakening certain bases 177 323. 319. Su. Verbs which may form the re. and sub. . . Initial a followed by two con.148 148 148 . 318. 309. . 116. Bases ending in d and diph- 298. The vowel of the reduplicative . Double tenuis initials initials .. it INTERMEDIATE Augment and Augment a . i. The periphrastic perfect 159 348.168 . perf. . ^333.180 .. . . XIII. Weakening thongs.172 sonants 314. d. Rules for the form . i 170 171 171 Irregular by . Reduplicated perfect .148 . first . .ji. . Table showing when diate i interme. . . 301. . ^335. .159 CHAPTER 347. Verbs in which the intermediate i must be omitted in certain tenses . .146 mediate i . . . Special rules of reduplication 317. 146 reduplication . Optional insertion of long i 342. II. Tan. Two classes cond divisions 322. .175 a verbal base . XI. it it may be omitted. Terminations of . 320. . Rudh classes 143 143 how changed i. . AORIST. Guttural initials 306. GENERAL TENSES.165 307. 339. I. . how changed TION. Tud. .146 . must be inserted must be omitted 162 163 #332. . 167 sing. vij. ri. . Par.161 i. Ad. Strong tions First division. 148 Paradigms of the reduplicated perfect .149 se- STRENGTHENING AND WEAKENING. of the red. Periphrastic perfect .159 . syllable is short .149 .167 cated perfect Special rules for the 2nd pers. . 329. Mdjhd Han. . #336. .. Chur classes 297. Div.150 #345- strengthening or weakening . .145 and in the Hu verbs .171 . The intermediate i never liable . Aspirated 305. AND TERMINATIONS. o and au by u Final e.142 . Bhu. ai. . must be omitted i . . 330. . 326..172 hi. . Bases ending in u. 313... PAGE 327. #337. of terminations.147 Samprasarana 147 Short initial a 312. 302. . . Necessary insertion of to . List of verbs in which the inter- 303. Optional insertion of #338. 346. by a * 334. II a. REDUPLICAreduplication . . .146 . CHAPTEK 300. o are reduplicated 310. . PAGE 296. ^46 . . of base 160 160 divisions . Initial ri . . 145 145 CHAPTER 331.XX TABLE OF CONTENTS.

375.Mi.Second aorist 364. 350. . 378. * dhe ay . <fec. FUTURE. Stish 362. Rules for the fourth form * * 361.. 357- Han Gam Yam ... intensives. Verbs beginning with vowels . .. . *379380.Sri. * 359- Yam.. nam 360.. 6vi. Changes of the base . 352. 381. only * 369. PAGE xxi *349- Rules for desideratives..Rules for the second form Terminations beginning with at or ath . lih. .Verbs which take the second aorist . 373. kam. 372.. Mi. 365.Verbs with penultimate ri ... When the different forms of the aorists are used CHAPTER XIV.Vowels of reduplicative syllable 190 * 376. dru. dris 187 .. guh d. i. li . mi. . *377. Paradigms 363.. ram. sru.Bases that cannot be shortened 374. Irregular forms *3<>7. Duh.. Reduplicated second aorist 37i.. Verbs which take the second aorist in the Par. Shortening of bases ending in . Future 382.Roots with penultimate nasal 187 366.TABLE OF CONTENTS. dih. Verbs beginning and ending with double consonants ri...Roots ending in . *358. AND BENEDICTIVE. li *35<5. e. Roots in d and diphthongs * * * 353. ri. PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE. 354355- di.Compensation between base and reduplicative syllable .The Tan verbs 370.. Rules for the third form mi. CONDITIONAL.... Irregular reduplicated aorist Paradigm .

rchh. 220 #438. how formed . 208 % 470. how con. Guna or Vriddhi . Final n dropt and vowel lengthened . DESIDERATIVE VERBS. ^431... 211 * 205 418. VERBAL ADJECTIVES.214 . sthd.207 207 ^428. mi.220 . PAGE PAGE 416. 219 208 ^432.215 . Strengthening of base . Exceptional causative bases. % 452. 220 439.222 . ^429. CAUSATIVE VERBS. . 462. % 449. ... 454. Bases in av and dv 475- . 209 209 209 Exceptional strengthening or weakening. th. 207 .Verbal adjectives. . di. 464. Participles in nah jfc #472. ..212 . and tvd . 458. Desiderative verbs 441. Ghu verbs.. 453. . jugated Desiderative bases. pru.204 . 421. Roots changing v to u 208 #433. how formed 220 468. treated as Bhu verbs. . . .208 208 * 435. Reduplication of desiderative bases 222 ^t .207 i 459. % 450. Penultimate u with optional . The terminations tah and without intermediate i.. General tenses of the passive . so. ^425. ph. Gerund in tvd I. . 220 or :fc 437. . 207 461. . chyu 222 222 476. . 444. Final nasal dropt before tah *II. Causal bases. .206 423. Adjectives in ya verbal adjectives .. .. .207 i % in ya and tya . . 215 217 tvd.' gerund . 420. ' " Mi. Kritya 211 206 #424.. Do. . . and and g . Causal verbs 440. hd change their final into i .. Desiderative bases. . Final ai changed to d or i ^434. Verbs ending in nasals Verbs ending in ri Ve.. . 422. without intermediate i . CHAPTER XIX. .214 intermediate and Guna . am . Tvd with Guna ^427. . . sthd. vanch. 211 211 211 211 . . 467. with intermediate i . The terminations tah and tvd. . 463. Guna #426. and rv 208 . plu. 212 456.XX11 TABLE OF CONTENTS. with 469. . Verbs changing final ch .214 . . II. ./So and chho take i or d 208 #436. . li . Exceptional . v. Internal reduplication #477. Adjectival participles 474.221 209 209 210 210 210 210 473. . so. Adjectives in cmiya. 212 . Exceptional forms . 214 andj into k intermediate . ^447. Nasal lost before lunch . Passive of causative verbs .. Participle of reduplicated perfect Parasmaipada with i .jyd. . . Exceptional forms .. . .vye . Tvd with without . take final d . dhd. Verbal adverbs in . pd. #417. . final chh.. 443. md. Gerund in ya 446. Infinitive in turn 460. Desiderative bases. . Gerund in tya * $ru > s ru > d.. Intensive verbs 442. . 466. Adjectives in ta vya 455. Verbs which nasal lose penultimate ^471. md. I. Participle of reduplicated per- 419. Desiderative bases. * 451. Conjugation of causative verbs 219 219 465. . . .. Verbs which take Samprasa- rana .. Participle of reduplicated perfect . CHAPTER % XVIII. . . . .207 ^457. CHAPTER XVII. ..222 . Gerund of causatives #448. . hd. . 211 gd. .205 Atmanepada Participle present Atmanepada 205 Participle future Atmanepada 206 Participle present and future 206 passive Past participle passive and fect . Vat added to participles 445. . ^430.


Su Class (Svadi. . .282 . Parasmaipada Verbs Atmanepada Verbs .275 .271 .280 . II. Hu Class (Juhotyadi. . VIII Class) 272 Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs 272 Class (Tanvadi. . 267 II. . Parasmaipada Verbs Atmanepada Verbs . 275 II. II. . III. V Class) .. I. . IV. 281 Tud Class (Tudadi.279 . 293-297 . APPENDIX ON THE ACCENT IN SANSKRIT . . .263 . . .267 .284 . . . PAGE Parasmaipada Verbs III. of adverbial compounds . IV Class) . . Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs . . . Bhft Class (Bhvadi. .. Verbs . . . .. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs . Atmanepada Verbs II. . III. IX . . . 266 Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 283 . VI . APPENDIX LIST OF VERBS I. Class) .274 . Itmanepada Verbs II. VII Class) . . Itmanepada Verbs "II. PAGE PAGE 529. Parasmaipada Verbs Atmanepada Verbs .267 .. . . Class) . III. 286-292 Parasmaipada Verbs III. Verbs . 265 I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada III. . (Divadi.284 . 242 Tan % #531.269 Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs . 270 Parasmaipada Verbs only .. II.. Ad Class (Adadi. 284 Div Class I. . II. . Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs 269 Class (Churadi. .270 . . .285 Chur .. 297-300 .XXIV TABLE OF CONTENTS. I Class) I. I. PAGE .274 . III Class) I.271 INDEX OF NOUNS INDEX OF VERBS . Exceptional compounds Modifications of the final letters . Adverbial compounds . . Rudh I. .. .281 . 270 Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs 270 .273 Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs . Parasmaipada Verbs Atmanepada Verbs 244-285 245 245 260 . II Class) I. Parasmaipada Verbs III. Parasmaipada Verbs Atmanepada Verbs .265 . 243 Kri Class (Kryadi. III. . . X Class) . Class (Rudhadi. . . 243 530.273 ^ . .


Medial. x < n (Upadhmamya). Equivalent. Initial. a k P W T kh ph b bh T g f n ch (or k) m chh(orM) j (or 9) jh ri (or ri) n(orri) t (or t) s (or s) th (or th) sh s d (or d) dh 7 e (or dh) (or n} h TT ai t vfil th m m h (or (or m) m) o ^ d (or h) dh au (Jihvamuliya). VOWELS. Medial nitial.THE DEVANiGARI LETTEKS. 1 Sometimes represented Sometimes represented in the in the Veda by or } ( 0( 2 Veda by h l r . CONSONANTS.

how- which we know from Egyptian and Palmyrenian inscriptions. in the usual sense of that word. or. used by Hindus in common transactions where Hindi guage employed. stages. 518. in the nth century. and we must have recourse to the more primitive types of the ancient Hebrew coins and of the Phenician inscriptions in order to explain some of the letters of the Kapurdigiri alphabet. Why the alphabet should have been called Ndgarl. Memoire sur 1'Inde.) To admit. and purely phonetic alphabetlfalways point back to earlier. in (See Mason's Memoirs Prinsep's Antiquities. unless it D. has not as yet been traced back in a satisfactory Semitic prototype. I. possibly. 34^-350.). in the 250 B. 2. as well as of those of Tibet and Burmah. These are written in two The alphabet which is found in the inscription of Kapurdigiri. but the Bengali. may be connected with one of the leading Semitic B 2 . the Devandgart be intended by the Deva alphabet. n. it the employment of the word Devandgari. where a of alphabets is given. If derived from nagara.) Beghram (bhagdrdma. The Aramaic letters. all of the Brahmans. They were formed gradually. written from right to left. is and which main is the same as that of the Arianian coins. vol. and most closely connected with the Aramaic branch of the old Semitic or Phenician alphabet. In the Lalita-vistara (a list life of Buddha. is is called simply Ndgarf. such as Alexandria ad Caucasum or Nicaea. translated is from Sanskrit into Chinese 76 A. about different alphabets. however. such traces of the growth of an alphabet on Indian discoveries are no ideographic. abode important cities of the gods) is the native name of one or more of the most founded by the Greeks. p. ed.) Could Devanagari have been meant as an equivalent of Beghrami? No inscriptions have been met with in India anterior* to the earliest authentic rise of Buddhism. 42. I. Alphabets_were never invented. that which is found in the all other Indian alphabets. properly written with the Devanagari alphabet. have experienced further changes since they served as the model for the alphabet of Kapurdigiri. the of Girnar. p.C. is A more the lan- current style of writing. ever. Thomas. (Pan. p. i. iv. syllabic or soil . (Prinsep's Indian Antiquities manner to any by Thomas. Telugu. bring to light the intermediate links by which the alphabet modern Devanagari. The specimens of writing are the inscriptions of king Priyadarsi or Asoka. 128. 298. Devandgarf means the Ndgart of the gods. But while the proved with transition of the Semitic types into this ancient Indian alphabet can be scientific precision. unknown. vol.CHAPTER THE ALPHABET.) No might mean the art of writing as first practised authority has yet been adduced from any ancient author for city. It is clearly of Semitic origin. pp. (See History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. There and it is to be hoped that new- may it still and through alphabets. the independent invention of a native Indian alphabet is impossible. speaks of the Nagara alphabet (Reinaud. the inscription of Girnar. not mentioned. Grantha.) as current in Malva. in cities. and which is the real source of second Indian alphabet. and other modern Indian alphabets are commonly is SANSKRIT employed Note for writing Sanskrit in their respective provinces. Albiruni.

that is properly dressed. . But Sanskrit is not called so because the Brahmans. Ex. second-rate. and lastly the horizontal line. p.' character of the Vedic lang* 1 ^ . Labials. &c. This did not mean originally vulgar. if between two vowels. original continuations of is the old language (bhdshd). dialects received the general The local spoken name of prdkrita. The following are the sounds which alphabet : and correctly. the original language. and samskrita would then have to be taken in the sense of * This view. *. Long. Short. xvii.THE ALPHABET.) Diphthongs. $ 3. fluently they know them well. In writing the Devanagari alphabet.' this source or type derived. are in certain schools written 35 I and 335 "% lh. as has been well shown by D'Alwis (An Introduction to Kachchayana's Grammar. and is rendered impossible by the refined for literary purposes. Jft -Hth Mdh H bh * H/ US 5. Liquids. Vowels. . is opposed to the view of those who framed the names. (See Vararuchi's Prakrita-Prakasa. or m. k. till Beginners will find useful to trace the letters on transparent paper. Unmodified Nasal or Anusvara. sacred. 1 m h. Hence the language which alone was fit for sacred acts.) (media? aspiratae. aspirated. and can write them j 4. rendered A vessel that is purified.' a had to be taken in the sense of original and language so called would mean. Dentals. n. however.) The former If prdkrita explanation of prdkrita in the sense of 'the natural. Sibilants.Linguals.. was called Samskrita. 1. ^v The sometimes called Dento-labial. Cowell. of the meaning of these two names. but type. Palatals. Unmodified Sibilant or Visarga. 3.' untenable. natural. 2. (tenues. 3. Gutturals.) Soft Soft. are represented in the Devanagari Hard and Hard. or because the all first Europeans who became Samskrita meant what acquainted is with fit it. and are replaced by the two dots h. a sacrificial victim . Ixxxix). (mediae. literally what has a source or (prakriti) being the Samskrita or sacred language. but a soft breathing. ed. secondary. 4 signs for the guttural : and labial sibilants have become obsolete. or the sacred language. the distinctive portion of each letter is written first. the for sacred purposes ancient idiom of the Vedas. then the perpendicular. it i\g. 2 3 h is is not properly a liquid. all these are called samskrita. ?. a man who has passed through all the initiatory rites or samskdras. rendered fit or perfect. considered it the most perfect of languages. Sanskrit is written from left to right. aspirated. 4. (tenues aspiratae. p. . t In the Veda "5 d and <? dh. is Note Samskrita (u**jjd) means what still less. hence purified. because ' it interpolates the idea of continuation.) and Nasals.





Students should be cautioned against using the
the Devanagari


letters instead


when beginning

to learn Sanskrit.

The paradigms should

be impressed on the


first impressions will has been made in mastering the

and native form, otherwise their become unsettled and indistinct. After some progress
in their real

grammar and

in reading Sanskrit, the


f 5.


be used safely and with advantage.

There are


the Devanagari alphabet, thirty- seven

consonants and thirteen vowels, representing every sound of the Sanskrit



the long 7



merely a grammatical invention
sibilants, are



never occurs in the spoken language. Two sounds, the guttural and labial f 7.

now without



the Devanagari alphabet.


Jihvdmdliya, the tongue-root sibilant, formed near the base of the tongue ; and Upadhmdniya, i. e. afflandus, the labial sibilant. They are said to have

been represented by the signs


(called Vajrdkriti,

having the shape of the

thunderbolt) and m (called Gajakumbhdkriti, having the shape of an elephant's two frontal bones). [See Vopadeva's Sanskrit Grammar, i. 185 Sometimes the sign X, of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 508.] History
called Ardha-visarga,

half -Visarga,


used for both.




writing these two signs are


replaced by the two dots, the Dvivindu,

The two, vindu, dot,) properly the sign of the unmodified Visarga. old sign of the Visarga is described in the Katantra as like the figure S 4 ;
in the

Tantrabhidhana as
p. 75.)


two 3


(See Prinsep, Indian Antiquities,



There are

five distinct letters for

the five nasals,

^ n,

*r n,



j n,

as there were originally five distinct signs for the five sibilants. When, x m, in the middle of words, these nasals are followed by consonants of their own
class, (n


k, kh, ff,



n by

ch, chh, j,



n by


th, d,

dh ; n by



they are often, for the sake of more expeditious the dot, which is properly the sign of the unmodified writing, replaced by Thus we find nasal or Anusvara.



by p, ph

b, bh,)

instead of ^f^dl ankitd.
instead of

^ fWrt




* N


<<& V





ri i

instead of ^fertl kunditd. instead of H^dl nanditd.


instead of



The pronunciation remains




style of writing.


must be pronounced as if it were written ^HfffrU ankitd, &c. The same applies to final IT m at the end of a sentence.

This too,




though frequently written and printed with the dot above the line, is to be pronounced as H m. 'snr, I, is to be pronounced ^r*w aham. (See Preface
to Hitopades'a, in

M. M/s Handbooks
final *T

for the

Study of Sanskrit, p.



According to the

m in pausd may be pronounced

Anusvara j

Sarasvati-Prakriya, ed.


1829*, pp. 12


^IWI% TOTWig^ntfr
Kumara, the

*RflT 33.




The Kaumaras

are the



reputed author of the Katantra or Kalapa grammar.


Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, Preface; and page 315, note.)

quoted by

mistake as the author of this grammar, and a distinction

sometimes made between the

Kaumaras and the
$ 9.

followers of the Kalapa


Besides the


nasal letters, expressing the nasal sound as modified


guttural, palatal, lingual, dental,


labial pronunciation, there are still

three nasalized letters, the



^, 77, "4, y,



which are used to

represent a final




followed by an

T{y, 7^

^v, and modified
4, 59-)


the pronunciation of these three semivowels.




instead of instead of instead of



tarn ydti


cjvnr tarn

we may write Tf^rifTf toy ydti; labhate we may write TlWHff tal labhate ;
we may
write Tflhrfa tav vahati.

^ffir tarn vahati


in composition,

samydnam or ^CTR sayydnam; ^c53f \amlabdham or ^l%3tf sallabdham;

^N^frT samvahati or



But never




stands in the body of a word, such as



the semivowel represents an original vowel,



x. 132, 3.

*W T ^TRT sam u dran, changed to ^Tt'T sam varan. 10. The only consonants which have no corresponding
Sl^ ^,

nasals are T r,
letters at



^ s, ^






therefore, before

any of these

the beginning of words, can only be represented
fied nasal, the


the neutral or unmodi-


t^"fir tarn rakshati.


in composition, ^UjPrf samrakshati.

if SHlfrflT

tarn srinoti.







^tfrr tarn sarati.

TOT^fir samsarati.

3 ^flT
1 1

tarn harati.

M$*Sfi samharati.

In the body of a word the only letters which can be preceded by
ascribed either to Vani

* This edition, which has lately been reprinted, contains the text

herself, Sarasvati, the goddess of speech (MS. Bodl. 386), or to Anubhuti-svarupa-acharya, whoever that may be and a commentary. The commentary printed in the Bombay editions is



or in


Bodl. 382. tl^nft,


IT^Rft. In MS.

Bodl. 382. Mahidhara or


said to have written the Sarasvata in order that his children

might read


and to please


the Lord.


date given


1634, the place Benares, (S'ivarajadhani.)





Anusvara are 9^,^*A, ^s, ^A. Thus^r. amfah, vffi dhanumshi, ijjriftr yatdmti,
ftff : simhafy.

Before the semivowels

^ y,



^ ^ v, the

* m,

in the


of a word,


*ry: amlah.

never changed into Anusvara. Thus ifJirb gamy ate ro namrah, In $nft: bamyoh (Rv. i. 43, 4, &c.) the m stands 'padante/ but
(See f 9.)

not in ^iHjfd &dmyati.
J 2.


the exception of JihvdmiiUya X

x (tongue-root



mdniya X

Anusvara m (after-sound), Visarga : (to be breathed upon), see Taitt.-Brahm. in. p. 23 a), and Repha r (burring), all letters (emission, Thus are named in Sanskrit by adding kdra (making) to their sounds.



is called ^raRTC:




ka, <**K: kakdrah, &c.




if initial,

are written,





H, H,









if they follow a consonant, they are written with the following signs

T '

f ^ 'i












> 1




a, a, t, ^, H, rt /, (^0> M If the vowel one exception.







follows the consonant

^ r,


retains its initial form,

and the r

written over

Ex. PH^fHl


In certain words which tolerate an hiatus in the body of the word, the Ex. Tft^jj goagra, adj. preceded second vowel is written in its initial form.
3 by cows, instead of ifts?I go gra or 'NliJ gavdgra ; horses in7! prauga, yoke fdri^J ^7w, sieve.
; ;


goa&vam, cows and

J 14.

Every consonant,




itself, is

a short a.


OR is

not pronounced




supposed to be followed by ^ not y, but ya. But | k ;
a, is

or any other consonant, if followed

by any vowel except


without the inherent





far ki,

ctf ki,


^ kau.














The only



that short ft

sonant after which


is apparently written before the conThis arose from the fact that in the

forms of the Indian alphabet the long and short


were both
the long

written over the consonant, the short
inclining to the right.

inclining to the


Afterwards these top-marks were, for the sake of
top-line, so as to

drawn across the








and ^. (See Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, ed. Thomas, vol. n. p. 40.) vowel after it, the 15. If a consonant is to be pronounced without any


said to

be followed by Virdma,



stoppage, which




1 6.

Thus ak must be

written ^TC^ ; kar, w^ ; If a consonant is followed immediately
five or


by another consonant, the
are written in one

two or three or four or

more consonants


Thus atka






written ^T3T




It is

These groups or compound consonants must be learnt by easy, however, to discover some general laws in their formahorizontal lines are generally dropt in

Thus the perpendicular and

+ ^ = r* tva ^ + ^ ^r + ^R = ^M0; ft + ^ = ?%nda = -&skha; ^ + = ^chya; ^+-n = Kpta; o^ + U = *R kta; + Tr + ^ = + Wx + = ^j ktva ktya.
one of the letters:





$17. The


r following a consonant



by a short transverse

stroke at the foot of the letter;

r^+^=^or tra; The ^r preceding


= 'g ^ + ^ = ~$dra; T{+^ +

^ + ^=35


^kra; J^+T = 3T$r#/
at the top of the


a consonant
it is



consonant before which

to be sounded.

by placed Thus


placed to the right of any other ^r marks at the top of the same letter. Ex. ^nij arkam ; ^fer arkena ; ^FJ

= ^+?T ^









This sign for


k followed by




written Sf or written ^jna.




followed by *T



sometimes written v^jh. T^jh r followed by T u and g ti is written

^ ru, ^ rd.
^ du

^ d followed by

7 u and







1 8.

particularly in combination with other letters, is frequently written



i^tol; Vl6ra.


sign of

Virdma N (stoppage), which

placed at the foot of a

consonant, shows that
is difficult

inherent short a






to write (or to print)

two or three consonants


one group, placed


one of the consonants


instead of




is at $ 19. The proper use of the Virama, however, which ends portion of a sentence, the last word of

the end of a sentence,
in a consonant.

At the end of a sentence, or of a
end of a
$ 20.

half-verse, the sign




at the

verse, or of a longer sentence, the sign




(Avagraha or Arddhakdra)


used in most editions to


the elision of an initial


a, after a final wfr o or




sftsfxr so 'pi

for Ft ^Tft so api,


TO ^rfo sas api
List of

%sftr te 'pi for

K ^fq

te api.

Compound Consonants.

^ k-ka,
k-t-va }

cRj k-kha,

SRI k-cha, "^ k-ta,


k-t-ra, ^gf-k-t-r-ya,




^f k-n-ya }



k-ya, JR or

^ k-ra,





J& k-va,

"%% k-v-ya,


k-sha, ^{ k-sh-ma, ^r k-sh-ya,

^ k-sh-va




HT g-ya,


v% g-r-ya











n-k-ya t







^ n-k-sh-va,
Tr* j-ja,

j n-kha,


h-kh-ya, jf n-ga t $5J n-g-ya,




iff n-gh-ya,

h-gh-ra, |? h-ha,

^f n-ma, 357 n-ya.

^T ch-cha, *5 ch-chha,

*Q ch-chh-ra,

^ ch-iia



ch-ma y ^f ch-ya ;

w chh-ya,
W j-ra,

*J-jha, * j-na, fq j-n-ya

** j-ma,




n-cha, ^R n-ch-ma




J^f 4-ff-ya,








n-d-ra t






IP w-/a,




n-na t



t-ta y

^ t-t-ya, ^




w ^-Ma,



/-ma, |W t-m-ya,
r^r t-s-n-ya,








1^ t-s-na,

wt t-s-ya

^T ^A-ya




^ d-d-ya,


jf d-bh-ya, TT rf-ma,


K ^



^ d-dha, 9 d-dh-ya, if d-na, d-ya, ^ c?-ra, ^f d-r-ya, f d-va, dh-ma, K| c?A-ya, V rfA-ra, 91 dh-r-ya,

*3 dh-va

TR n-ta,

TR n-t-ya y



"^ n-d-ra,



^ n-dh-ra,

n-na y

^ n-pa,

?B n-p-ra,
"aj jt?-/?a,





p-ta t PI p-t-ya,



p-ma, *m p-ya,



/?-/, b-na,

^ j9-v,




3T b-gha, *5T ^-^'a,



3* b-dha,




b-bh-ya, "m b-ya,


b-ra, *$ b-va








wr m-ma,

^ m-w, T m-pa, ^ m-ra, ^ w-/a, 13 m-va.




*H m-bha,

y-ya, z^ y-va










^ l-va


jf v-na, tq v-ya 9


v-ra, "$ v-va.









^r ^-ra,

Wf ^-r-y,

^r ^-/a, ^r 6-va,




^ *^-/,

w sh-t-ya,
5-joa, 9fi



sh-t-va 9


tq sh-ya, w sh-na, tnn sh-n-ya, tq sh-pa, w sh-p-ra, ^ T& *W s-t-ya, ^ s-ka ^ 5-Ha, H ^ s-tha, ^ s-na, ^q s-n-ya, ^q s-pha, w s-ma, ^q s-m-ya FJ *-ya, ^ s-va, w










^r 5-ra,






it h-rtia, ^f



h-ra, |f A-/a,



Numerical Figures.

The numerical

q^^dMtr^b^o 1234567890

figures in Sanskrit are

These figures were originally abbreviations of the initial letters of the Sanskrit numerals. The Arabs, who adopted them from the Hindus, called them Indian figures ; in Europe,

where they were introduced by the Arabs, they were called Arabic


Thus ^ stands

for TJ e of f&Rl




^ 3

stands for If




stands for




trayah, three.

8 stands for ^T ch of ^r^THS chatvdrah, four.
M stands for

of Tfar pancha,



similarity becomes more evident by comparing the letters and numerals as used in ancient inscriptions. See Woepcke, Memoire sur la Propagation des Chiffres Indiens,*

in Journal Asiatique, vi serie,




Prinsep's Indian Antiquities by




705 Chips from a German Workshop,


p. 289.


The Sanskrit


should be pronounced in accordance with the






however, are





The vowels should be pronounced like the vowels in




^ a,


however, has rather the sound of the English a in America/ Thus aspiration of the consonants should be heard distinctly.

H kh

is said,

by English scholars who have learnt Sanskrit in India, to sound almost like kh in e inkhorn / ^ th like th in e pothouse / ifi ph like ph


topheavy /







loghouse f

V dh


dh in

madhouse f H bh like bh in Hobhouse/ This, no doubt, is a somewhat exaggerated description, but it is well in learning Sanskrit
to distinguish

from the


the aspirated from the unaspirated letters


by pronouncing the former with an unmistakable emphasis. The guttural ^ n has the sound of ng in king/ The palatal letters ^ ch and *fj have the sound of ch in 'church' and
of j in 'join/



lingual letters are said to be pronounced

surface of the tongue against the roof of the palate.
fact the

by bringing the lower As a matter of

ordinary pronunciation of



n in English

what Hindus


call lingual,


it is

essential to distinguish the Sanskrit dentals

by bringing the

tongue against the very edge of the upper In transcribing English words the natives naturally
tip of the


English dentals by their linguals, not by their own * dentals e. g. fiX*^ Direktar, Jimi*U!d Gavarnment, &c. The Visarga, Jihvdmuliya and Upadhmdniya are not now articulated
represent the




^r s


like s in


sin/ the lingual


sh like sh in



the palatal


like ss in


Madras Literary Journal, February, 1864.

Rajendralal Mitra,

On the Origin

of the Hindvi Language,' Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1864, p. 509.

i. (of vowels with vowels. The i. like n in French ' bon. their application is For shortness 3 sake it will be best to apply the name of External * According to Sanskrit grammarians the real Anusvara is the five nasals by their respective organs and the nose. Anusvara is 11 The real If the dot sounded as a very slight nasal. of course. IT.-$ 24. nevertheless Indra ^ <<TMi H^Ht astvagnimdhdtmyam. cannot be pronounced one immediately after the other. between 24. of consonants with is consonants. they have to be modified or assimilated in order to facilitate their pronunciation. Though both are based on the different. the five nasals are anunasika. Let is there bte'the greatness of Agni. C 2 . CHAPTER $ 23. RULES OP SANDHI. It is essential. and uttered through the nose.e. be pronounced like the nasal which represents *. is considered as one unbroken chain of syllables. nasal. the greatest of the gods. and of consonants with vowels. to distinguish the rules of Sandhi which determine the changes of final and initial letters of words (pada). and between those other rules of Sandhi which apply to the final letters of verbal roots (dhdtu) and nominal bases (prdtipadikd) when followed by certain terminations or suffixes. the mere absence of Sandhi in other languages in many cases sufficient to must thus be glued mark the have to be marked by stops. same phonetic principles and are sometimes identical. Distinction between External and Internal Sandhi. e. certain letters As in Sanskrit are according to which either one or both letters are thus modified. i. pronounced by their own organ of speech. is a stop. real Anusvara is therefore ndsikya.-Kaum. In Sanskrit every sentence Except where there of the following word. RULES OF SANDHI OR THE COMBINATION OP LETTERS. The rules. nasalized. indrastu devdndm mahattamah. Ex. which we should mark by to coalesce with the final interpunction.* used as a graphic sign in place of the other five nasals it is it must. i. incompatible with each other. Siddh. the final letters of each initial letters word are made This coalescence of and initial letters. in order to avoid confusion. are called the rules of Sandhi. pronounced in the nose only. As according stops which to a general rule the words is in a sentence together.) called Sandhi. 9. to Pan.

^ri. protracted vowels three. ou 3. 1. "& d. long vowels two. Short vowels : ^ a. with few exceptions. parivrih + tah = parivridh + tah. au 3. ^ 3 i 3. ^ au. ^?T d.^f d. to lick. o li. ^ ai. or by secondary (taddhita) suffixes beginning with any consonants except ^ y. 27. remains short . Vowels are divided into short (hrasva). under the same circumstances. ^ \it ^^u^H^ ri. and derivation. 3 + ^ d + dh. 1. o. ^ d is dropt and the vowel lengthened while in j(V^ + IT: parivrih + tafy. . 2. and T + "%d + dh. from the dictionary. The changes produced by the of a word should properly be contact of incompatible letters in the body treated under the heads of declension. parivrid + dhah =parivrid + dhah = parivridhah. ?J su). 25. e 3 by the figure 3 3 . In many cases it is far easier to remember conjugation. : the vowel. be kept perfectly distinct from the rules affecting the final and of words as brought together in one and the same sentence. or the grammatical paradigms the words ready-made from the grammar. than to remember the rules according to which ^ + J^h + 1 are changed into ^ + TT dh -f t. long (dirgha). and protracted Short vowels have one measure (mdtrd). e.12 RULES OP EXTERNAL SANDHI. ^ 3. i. All vowels are liable to be nasalized. or to become anundsika : ^fa. ^r$ a 3. (pluta) vowels. (Pan. than to acquire the complicated rules with their numerous exceptions which are generally detailed in Sanskrit grammars It is easier to learn that the participle passive under the head of Sandhi. ^ ri. ^T 3 d 3. they should. wr: bhyah. ^ ^ ai. ^ iy T u. instead of 3. to avoid confusion. u e. initial letters Classification of Vowels. is cTte: lidhah. *$h au. and that of Internal Sandhi to the changes produced by the meeting of radical and formative elements. ^ ri. fa: bhih. instead of 3 or ^n 3 ^. are to be given at all in Sanskrit grammars. 3. ^ft 0. $t. and likewise to the final letters of nominal bases (prdtipadika) when followed by the so-called Pacto-terminations (ri bhydm. consonant is said to last half the time of a short vowel. of fe^ lih. The rules which apply to final and initial letters of words (pada) apply. e 3> ^TC ^ 26.) A li. a 3 i. c 2. Protracted vowels are indicated ^3 ^ 3) ^3 . Long vowels : ^rr d. 27. Sometimes we find ^r $ ^. 2. d 3 u. to the final and initial letters of the component parts of compounds. In Greek If they and Latin no rules are given with regard to changes of this kind. 25- Sandhi or Pada Sandhi to the changes which take place at the meeting of final and initial letters of words. Vowels are likewise divided into : Monophthongs (samdndkshara) Diphthongs (sandhyakshara) : <* a.

Guna is the strengthening of ^ raises ^ z. and circumflexed (svarita). i. they sentence. ^r a. divided into two classes liable to : Those which are be changed into semivowels. 29-32. al. which requires Guna or Vriddhi. or. (vivritti) in a and the next word begins with a vowel.. * e. them ndmin. the circumflexed with an even tone. wt o. $ 33. i. ^ any short vowel. J 29. Vowels are again divided into is 13 (guru). see Rig-veda-pratis'akhja. ^T d. the latter hard vowels. into acute (udatta). 2. g. ^i? han forms with Guna ^T^jaffhana. Guna vowels: Vriddhi vowels : 3. 3" M. ^ e. remain unchanged after taking Guna. i. ^ ai instead of F e t ^n au instead of ^ft o. a repetition of the same process the Vriddhi (increase) vowels are formed. for a different reason . Those which are not. ^ ^ i. * *.) : Simple vowels : 2. * ed. 2. and Heavy vowels are *? a. ^rr au. as other grammarians say. ri> ^& > also the diphthongs. important for metrical purposes only. ^TTT dr instead of ^T ar.^ ri. or with Vriddhi niTT jaghdna. the grave vowels with a low. . J 32. T A. i. r*. ? u and 2. Tw. ^aw (a+a+w). with a raised tone. which ri to ri and ar. o. wd *di (a-f a+i). of the reduplicated perfect. Combination of Vowels at the end and beginning of words. M. ^ i.-$ 33J 28. By and ^n?^ dl instead of ^Tc5 al. u. "& li to ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i and ^ (Pan. ^T a and ^n a do not take Guna. * at. 75 li. according to accent. word ends may be 1. Calling the former liquid *. ^ i. (Pan. light (laghu) and heavy This division 1. As a general rule. ^ at. xxiii. w> at/. certain modifications take place in order to remove this hiatus. $ i. Guna and J 30. Vowels are thus divided again into 1.) Accents are marked inVedic literature only. "su. if followed by more than one consonant. M. J 31. If a Sanskrit allows of no hiatus in a vowel. gi w. Vriddhi. Thus in the first person sing. i. divided grave (anudatta). if not followed by a double consonant. viz. BULBS OP EXTERNAL SANDHI. <$ It. ^ 2. The acute vowels are pronounced Vowels are. For the purpose of explaining the combination of vowels. lastly. (Pan. by means of a preceding ^w a. I have killed. we may say : If the The Pratis'akhya calls p. Light vowels are V a. i to i. i. ^ ri.) n u to wt o. ^ ri.

i.14 same vowel (long or RULES OF EXTERNAL SANDHI. "3W ^Ttpraflf = ^IM-M^rd uktvd having spoken he goes away. vi. (Pan. 5! ) Ex. The letter ~3l I U is left out. <*1WJ + ^%J = <*l*-Mfy: kdmya-[-ishtih = kdmyeshtih.di = di. c * Ex. m + aikshishta = saikshishta. i. brahma rishih. because it is of no practical utility. the result is the long vowel. ^TT + 5j = $ d-{.rishik==?mfa Irahmarshih or W5f Rishi. an offering for a certain boon. 88. only substituting c^ for T r in cTfJ^K lanubandhah. kintu *T^t 4- + udeti = kintudeti. d + ri = ar. cf^ ^5: = KT5. kartri + riju kartriju. good advice. the result Thus the liquid vowel. 101. Ex. <5 It is treated like li ^ ri.) . If hard vowels (long or short) occur at the is end of a word. = nadidrisi. doing (neuter) right.W*J Ni having U as indicatory letter. I. t *TT ^fe: = ^f%t sd + riddhih sarddhih. lord of the earth. t Some grammarians consider the Sandhi shortening of the long d. this wealth. but he rises. the result ^T or ^rr H^T or Vriddhi. vi. Or + indrafy = tavendrah. ^TT ^W ^ ^ftw sd + uktvd = soktvdy she having spoken.) Thus CL or ^rr +^ 3[ or wr = ^n a + ? -{- d. Thus ^=^ a + e = di. but they require the Ex. thine is Indra. ft nadi + idrisi + apagachchhati = uktvdpagachchhati. i. thy letter in compounds.: 1 tava /z.) next begins with a diphthong. Brahma. WSTT-f^jfa brahmd-\. ^ or ^+ or ^= ^ z. vi. ^sr (Pan. ^t = *T^$ri mahi + Uah If hard vowels (long or short) occur at the end of a word. f^lT + ^M^i: = f^7ftaRf5K A^a + upadesah = hitopadesah. of thee only. if^ H3 = i^( tava + eva = tavaiva. ^ 35. rf^ oSoRT^: = ri^^Kt ^v + likdrah = tavalkdrah. + ^ or ^= m i. Guna and Vriddhi. mahisah. * she saw. such a river. e. $ 34. a . 87. Thus "^-J. (Pan. and the is next begins with a liquid vowel (except diphthongs). short) occurs at the 34- end and beginning of words. (Pan. = oJuNr Or in compounds. Guna of ^ ^ / w *\ ^T or ^TT ^T or ^3TT + T or gjm^ft a + u = o (du). and the i. -\-anubandhah becomes of a with ri optional.

thy lip. 78. but they require in that case that a long final vowel be shortened. [ or ^="ftc or or -31 ift i=ri.' ri \ r = ^ or ^ = ^ or 5 or ^T t= e9 ai = re. a changed into a semivowel. the wife of Rama. TJ*T -f ^R = tl^R rdma + aisvaryam = ramaibvaryam. see $ 41. vi. vi. rat. 77. 9 yau. or TOT In = fU*4j nadi + aidasya nadyaidasya.) Thus & or ^n = *T or TTT f or r r SM !T = ^ or ^ = ^ or ^ or or TOT = 'H or ^ or TOT = t or TJ or "31 ^= ^ or ^ *j e. the lordship of *rfafT Rama. (o) + any vowel (except a) . and the next begins the last element of the Guna-vowel is elided. *TT TOT7W4Hfl = *flrW*Hcf1 sd -f autsuky avail = sautfukyavatt. and no change takes i. or or TOT~^ ^ = f% = va. like honey. au = vo. in compounds. If a Guna. and the next begins with any vowel or diphthong. ^ft "&& 37. au = ro. similarity with + WHJ = *X\A\m*l8itd + aupamyam = sitaupamyam. e. fft or TO^ L o. au = ye. Sita. Ex. she desirous. doing moreover. word.) Thus ^ ^ = ^r^(ay).-37r: RULES OP EXTERNAL 8ANDHI. = vn. (e) + any vowel (except a) = ^T^ (av). the result change of the liquid vowel into a semivowel. is If a follows. i. ran. milk here. for the sake of a river. J . madhu + iva = madhviva. the omission of this Sandhi. place in the diphthong.vowel occurs at the with any vowel or diphthong (except a). ai L o. end of a word. vai. except in compounds. = yo yai. (Pan. van. ri or % or [ or ^=^ or ^ ^= ^ or ^ or % sn Ex. 15 Or = mrro: tava + oshthah = tavaushthah. = ve. ai o. chakrf atra may be ^-sfcJW chakryatra or ^if^i ^T^ chakri atra. kartri + uta = kartruta. end of a is If a simple liquid vowel (long or short) occurs at the J 36. t^ + ^f = tTirS nadi + artham = nadyartham 9 of A Ida. the river compounds. TH = = ^ or ^ dadhi + atra = dadhyatra. (Pan. Note Some native grammarians allow.

132. T ^y ^v more consistent either always to retain the final semivowels or always to drop them. which stand according to rule for ?? e. may be dropt before all vowels (except a. 3. i. and not HT ^TT id iti. not. fafl ^r: = rwwS: sriyai arthah = sriydy arthah. while the final It would be of Vriddhi is generally retained. is There are ( various exceptions in J 38. 78.) If a Vriddhi-vowel occurs at the end of a word. ^T (au) + any vowel = w^ (dv). tau iti ~ tdviti. + ^T^ = "TR^ nau + artham = ndvartham. are liable to certain modifications The final i^y and ^v of^tnay. Sutras 129. Ex.. which stands it for ^ di. ^ft o. ift + -|$i: = TT^H ift + Uah = gavisafy. but is ^ ^fir tau iti is more usually written rilfcPri tdviti. m ^frf = In composition. Thus final ^ v of ^ vowels. 135 : Pan. without any reason that the final of Guna and Vriddhi and the final ^u of are generally dropt. and fo**l it is usual to drop is in our editions. 38come ! = *U?miJ|<ad. sakhe dgachchha = sakhay dgachchha. The for au. more usually retained in our editions. ^r^av. go Lord. but into 2.16 Ex. sakhe iha = sakhayiha. come near ! ! llVRfav prabho aushadham=prabhavaushadham. H*ft TO WT35 sakha ^ ^W prabho aushadham. In compounds. Lord. vi. (Pan. vi. M. however. not TW WW prabha aushadham. ed. not into *R^fM^ sakhayiha. Friend. Friend. compounds where go treated as *re gava. 78. $ 41) . the last element semivowel. M. See Rig-veda-pratis'akhya. and printed editions change : 1. but into dgachchha. Thus arthah instead sriyai arthah. i. 39. 41. may be dropt before ^rr^ dv. but into ^?T ^5 sakha iha. in composition. but into iw itf^prabha ehi. 'rfTrMfrf tfr for the sake of ships. IWt nfe prabho ehi. may be dropt before all vowels. final into TpT^rNv prabhavaushadham. ^: 6riyd all of ftsnrnr^t Sriydyarthah 3. friyai rite = sriydy rite. vm. and the next is begins with any vowel or diphthong. ^ TOf '-HNI^ sakhe dgachchha. 19. These two rules. % (ai) + any vowel after sunset. *rif -^MNsd. Note It is Guna Before the particle u the dropping of the final \y and \v is obligatory. KULES OF EXTERNAL SANDHI. sakhe iha. not into *K<WI-ed sakhay dgachchha. Thus most MSS. medicine. . H ravau astamite = ravdvastamite. not into TW%fi| prabhavehi. here = TW%f^ prabho ehi =prabhavehi. more usually written foRT . The ^T: ^y of *%r*{dy. however.) Thus changed into a = ^TH^ (ay).

These vowels are called pragrihya (Pan. before short I. liable to There are certain terminations the final vowels of which are not i. i. (Pan. please.) in S'iva there. or jftwHli: go + a$vdh=go '6vdfy may lit. vi. t ^^ (Pan. like husband and ^n^ffwtf. lord of kine. the two children t lie down. late ete. remain unchanged. and the nom. baydvahe dvdm. <. (This follows from rule i. plur. these two sciences. sddhd imau. i. i. these two hills. we two lie down. ydchete artham. J 42. Ex. these horses. The terminations of ^^ ami and the nom. JTTlft ^rtl ^ ^ mani wa. Ex. these two children. remains. occasioned by the dropping of ^ y and initial ^ ^T v. or be substituted for a bull's eye . a window. e and ^ 1 0. 12. amd arbhakau. wife. these two merchants. Lord. JNTHft gavdkshah. Note dampatfoa. and the rules of Sandhi are not to be applied again. bring the two friends. cows In some compounds iR gava must . these two creepers. i. Exceptions occur. ^st a. Sanskrit grammarians.) . ift go. they two ask for money. "gs The terminations of the dual in ^ ^.^ mantva. anugrihdna =prabho 'nugrihdna.e. if a vowel follows . n) by 1. In all 17 $ 40. (a name of Krishna) Jl^lf^'f or jftsftnf gavajinam or go 'jinam. f$re ^ra = ipft f^ 5 ?f &ve atra = 6ive 'tra. 2.-J 42. a bull's hide. oF^ft fhrrfr ^ kavi imau. dual of the pronoun ados.) + ^nar: = Jfts^rr: and horses. and the a is elided. J^jg: gavendrah. or go crfvdh. Ex. ift (Pan. i. 1. In composition this Ex. as HJi. bandhu dnaya. vi. *T f 41. 122. BULBS OP EXTERNAL SANDHI. any Sandhi rules.Hfll< dampattiva. Unchangeable Vowels (Pragrihya). ^TTT giri etau. these two poets. = JWts *JJ]HU prabho WVJJj^liy elision is optional.) ami ishavah y these arrows. like two jewels . and ^ ey whether of nouns or verbs. vidye ime. baydte arbhakau. masc. ^nft ^TOT: ami a$vdh. 1.e. these cases the hiatus. 109. They are.

^WC + ^fVffl = '^IMClSt the lower ^y<*) lip. to go. 43.18 EULES OF EXTEENAL SANDHI. (Pan. avdrndti. a ^[&A. "^t visva+uhah. to grow. 94. the result of the coalescence of the vowels is beginning ^ e or ^ft 0. Guna if ^CJ = ^fUMW rina+rinam = rindrnam. ^ or ^TTa. the two vowels may coalesce into ^5n au or ^ft (Pan. affected. + ^<ed. vi. ^JW ^ftW liquidate another debt + + Likewise "3!^ uh. ^ Ex. This to is not the case before the two verbs i. 44. 91. ^T + ^"WrT jf -f- 1T3TTT TJTJsrflT TO + ^f^frT = ^T^flT para + ohati =parohati. of fqiyqT^ visvavdh. TO + TOfir = para + ekhati =parekhati. i. IT + ^prff tm + ^qfff = TO^fa j9m + rishati =pardrshati. vart. the vi.) the ace. (Pan. and Vriddhi instead of . If the initial ^ft o in ^Ft oshthah. i. affected by sorrow. vi. a gleaner. I. vi. pound by vart. (Pan. vi. if raised by Guna ^ e.) Ex. * In nouns derived from U^ ^res^. Irregular Sandhi. a messenger. the substitute ^Tf vdh. fmyi^: visvauhah. If a root beginning with ^j ri in ^? a or ^rr a. for preceded by ^aj H + ^$18 = TR^ pra+rinam=prdrnam. = ^iftafTT upa + oshati = uposhati.frf = ^TTRtflf apa richchhati = apdrchchhati. principal debt . the elision of the final optional. and beginning with ^T or ^TT a of the preposition is or ^ffr e or o. vi. this lengthening of the ^FT a of optional.) }Ex. forms Vriddhi with a preceding ^ a in a compound. U + ^^rfrr = iNlfif pra + eshayati pr eshayati *. ifa? or 9*51 preshya or praisJiya. "SHr -f- In verbs derived from nouns and beginning with the preposition is ^ ri. is preceded in a o. i. Ex. comi. 92. + ^rVfft = W^T?n or t^^lrft sthula-\-otuh the rule is is = sthulautuh or sthulotuh. debt. plur. ^ft + ^Ullfff = vS^|iSlfri ava + rindti = in^rw pra + rijate prdrjate. "3T + TJViT = "^Vff upa-\-edhate = upaidhate. TT^ec?A. big cat.) ^TlTt ritah. Thus f%^T-f (Pan. optional. not $ ai or ^r au. (Pan. TT In verbs derived from nouns.) is preceded by a preposition ending two vowels coalesce into WHC ur instead of ar. take In certain compounds ^TOT rinam. IR presha.h.) be stated. 89. = JHT^ pra + ejate =prejate. 94. 43- The following are a few cases of irregular Sandhi which require to When a preposition ending in ^r or ^TT a is followed by a verb with Tj e or o. carrying. debt contracted to ^Wt = ^n^l'^t soka-{-ritah-=sGkdrta. 45. cat. ^ Ex.adharaushtJiah or adharoshthah. derived from ITp-a and . and Wtg* otuh. and 3[ . is 89. or viMOst adhara+ oshthah =. ^TT + ^Wff = T^Nw upa + eshate = upeshate. lip.

^ei^rU $ ^f^ devadattd 3 Devadatta. and from ^f + ^ ma+ira. Certain particles remain unaffected by Sandhi. ^TT ^ A f^R7 (TiT d. Ah. *T*T + ^ffat = THTOJ As irregular mama + oshthaJi = mumau8ht hah. a from pra + eshah. go away 48. to a certain place. now I recollect. IT full-grown.) uW. I (Pan. Halloo. viu. of indeclinable words is The final ^ft o not liable to the rules of Sandhi. with the exception of Vf d ( 49). i. 2ffliy<UT akshauhini. little *f ihi ehi. it is not liable to Sandhi. 2.) ! it is always supposed Ex. ^^ 51. If ^TT<2 (which so indeed is written by Indian grammarians W^ dh) is before verbs. from certain prayer. a complete army. according to 48. or before nouns in the sense of little. because . IT -f '&?. Indeclinables consisting of a single vowel. Ex. it is just so. compounds the following are mentioned by native grammarians Jflfi^roairtfi. my lip. (See 43. praudhah. until the reading begins.15. : "Sat svairam. i. "SHft ^nrf^ aho apehi.) Ex. j^ HT?[: prauhati.) Ex. i. If ^TT d is used as an interjection. + "31^: pr a -\-uhah. he indra. ^ ^ i indra.- 51. 14. protracted vowel remains unaffected to stand at the end of a sentence. = come here. ? Oh lord of Uma ! ^TT ^^"a evam.' it is so far as' (inclusively or exclusively) or used as a preposition a liable to the rules of Sandhi. If RULES OP EXTERNAL 8ANDHI. a warm. Oh Indra. Ex. Ex.^tfigil aksha -\-uhini. 46. Is 49. evam kila tat. 50. Oh Indra it ! T <3H^| u umesa. investigation. ^TT ^l^ = d I little. 125 ehi. arc not liable to the rules of Sandhi. ifa praishah. a messenger. oshtha and 19 *iW WlJ o/a are preceded by ^ or ^JT a in the middle of a sentence. self-willed. regarded a d ushnam = oshnam. praishyah. vi. 47. 1. by Sandhi. come here D 2 . 82. wilfulness. ekadesdt ri = aikadesdt. from IT 4- TO? pra+ddhah. ^\ ^U|lMli^= ^mmHTf^a adhyayandt=ddhyayandt. Ex. ! 1. ^||f^a n = ^ d\ Pl d dlochitam = dlochitam. from : ^ftlf 4. (Pan. (Pan. they follow the general rule.

'C. s 1 I tfr 48 W UTS- 1 e 5*1* S tr* fcr" & & c 'C- 9 f "C . a - C.20 EXTERNAL SANDHI.l" "* T!S T. S1C" s. tr 5s. ^ I rfip* p I I $1 ri **' t** IW' I ur tvf p P ft F * r .

^t. &c. ajantah. not five classes the aspirates. No palatal ^ch is the ^cA. <^ /. ^ k. ^d by TT. thirty-five consonants can ever stand in Sanskrit at the end of a word . while before are the changes of nominal and verbal bases ending in the consonants. ^^t?n agantah. This reduces cldtralik. the rules which apply to the final consonants of words following each other in a sentence are equally applicable $ 53. m. * Some grammarians change them allow the soft or sonant letters as final. is found at the end of words. consisting of five letters thus giving twenty-five. but is changed into ^t / sometimes into ^k or K^t. T r. fad fc5 ^ but by 7 /. to the final consonants of final words following each other in a compound. are In every one of these chh. ^ ch. responding surd letters. g su) and before secondary (taddhita) suffixes with any consonant but are treated according to the same beginning i^ y. ^ by Ex. replaced by the corresponding guttural ^ Final speech. k f. '^T^vdch. This reduces the ten to eight. ^ n. (TI y. Combination of Final and Initial Consonants. "^T^vdk. : h. each . viz. i{m. 21 Here. But the derivatives formed by means of these and other suffixes rules. heart nom. 3. but the MSS. Of the semivowels. (wit bhydrn. painter. In a few roots the final *^/ is replaced by a lingual instead of a guttural. is^n.-$54- EXTERNAL SANDHI. *{n does not occur. j^t. 5. voc. f^ y PC* ^ chitralikh. ^/?. are best learnt from the dictionary in their ready-made state . hnd. This reduces the fifteen to ten *. as in the case of vowels. 2. the twenty-five letters to fifteen. 4. t The only exceptions are technical terms such as ending in a vowel. replaced IT by their corresponding unaspirated letters: ^M by ^ k/ -^ gh by g. In order to simplify the rules concerning the changes of final consonants. however. There are five classes of consonants. it is important to state at the outset that eleven only out of the J 54. "^ This raises the eight to nine h cannot be final. and are best acquired by heart the principal paradigms of nouns and verbs. before the so-called Pa</a-terminations fa bhih. are replaced by their corEx. i\^g by c^Ar. voc. and editions generally into the corresponding hard letters. &c. 1. In every class the sonant (J 58) letters. a vowel . ^ . if final. The consonants of nominal bases too. <^ /. instead of "3^ acfc. terminations of declension and conjugation and other in learning suffixes. \v )^l 3 is the only one that letters. wi: bhyah. . "^n. Ex. hence the only remaining palatal. regulated by different laws. if final. can ever be final. ^ir hrit. -*in.

roof. 2. of But "3fi(r urk. palatal. 145. of fqpjft*(chikfrsh is f%sh chikih. sing. ^s cannot be fe<T vit. p. throat. nom.) The nom. palate. the lips. but is replaced by In some words final ^rs is changed into cF k. therefore. 3. Classification of Consonants. 24. we have to explain what is meant by i. to eleven letters. 2. sing. i. final. the three or five sibilants in their respective places. = ^p<^ suvalg + s = suval. 5. 7tf. p. 55end of words 1. and dental consonants are formed. nasal. co-nasal or nasalized. p. EXTERNAL SANDHI. (Pan. Before we can examine the changes of final and initial consonants. For. of ^ff vrit'OT ^^vridh. the only one that is found is at the is Visarga. is The real Anusvara formed in the nose only.22 6. Thus f^^vis becomes t. lingual. amdrt. ( 174. Thus = ^fsfH^ abibhar + t = abibhar. ^f^ urj. 3. e. the roof of the palate. impf. the only ones that can ever stand at the end of real words. becomes Radical fgz^dvit. the palate. . replaced by In a few words final "S sh is changed into but Thus fg^dvish cir k. and the Anusvara. of H bhri. 56. impf. from ?n^ mrij. avarivart. sing. sing. according to the rules of external Sandhi. Labial consonants are formed by contact between the lips. T^p. letters. ^rfe*n: abibhar + s = abibhar. . The Visarga is said to be pronounced in the chest (urasya) . * Lectures on the Science of Language. sing. and is called Ndsikya. the only exception being when an T r precedes a final radical tenuis If cjf &. radical v^sh cannot be final. to carry.) is Final radical ^s treated as Visarga. teeth. the teeth.) By contact between the tongue and the four places. (See $ 4. p. e. because here the r is not followed by a tenuis. raises the nine to ten eleven heads. Of the sibilants. strength. the guttural. i. Hence the rules of Sandhi affecting final consonants are really reduced to Visarga. It is The important to observe that no word in Sanskrit ever ends in more than one consonant. vin. The throat. 3. nom. of H bhri. Second Series. the place and the quality of consonants. well jumping. 4. $ 55. and the nose are called the places or organs of the a. to carry. sing. intens. i^t. impf. Hence these letters are called Anundsika. In forming the nasals of the five classes the veil which separates the nose from the pharynx is withdrawn *.

greater opening than is required for the semivowels. These are called Cshman (flatus) in Sanskrit. 1.). vol. Spar&a in Sanskrit. vdh. y. X X> an(i Visarga : h. 2. ^f /A. : is. */. TXph. "% dh. ^d. 10. (fern. urn. They letters T : are called Aghosha. the rest. * b. rdhyah of the utterance of the sound. Lastly. * X X. ^/. ^ &. ^T ^. non-sonant. Trc. Tf ffh. sonant. ^v (not ^ h). "3V. Vffh. which produces and distinguish it the qualities of surd. and unaspirated. Vowels are said to be formed by complete opening (vivrita)^. <$. T(jh. mode of articulation at the close from M*I. ^ h. These are called nasals. non-contact. . T< *dh. ^ d. Sonant 3JT n 9 ^d^dh. T5/. the Anusvara is closed. into. In their formation the glottis "f n.- $ 59- EXTERNAL SANDHI. According Letters formed by complete contact (sjmshta) of the organs: "*k. Surd letters ^R &. vp. : v dh 9 * bh. effort) letters are divided $ 57. the Visarga h and Anusvara 2. 59. Letters formed by slight contact (ishat sprishta): /. *n. xin. In their formation the glottis is X $* y ^ kh. therefore. formed 3. 3. 4. K /. half-contact. s. to their quality (prayatna*. *tn. : V shy * all g 0. m ^ h. are referred to these five places. or fshadvivrita. n . ^ch. * bh. m. 23 and three of them. 1. iR/?A. into. I. p. ly> <* l> ^.^. JT#. we ought to read ^fiS^JI? eke 'sprishtam instead of ^5 FJT? eke sprishtam. *ch. iv* can be nasalized. Aspirated (mahdprdna) T*ph. and all vowels. according to quality. aspirated. Letters by slight opening (ishad vivrita) : X X ^^ ^ 8^ * *> which may be ^ h. <*. too. ib. 58. as explained in 58. i. * ny. a change of place. or 4. *bh. 9 *lj. that the change of ^ch into ^k is . *r Vffh. *r cannot be nasalized in Sanskrit. mode of articu- prayatnah. and are then called Anundsika. J 59. and that the change of ^ch into ^J is a change of quality while in the * Sanskrit grammarians call this ^i*sn<. . *. 33. Tiff. (3. complete opening while they require for the vowels either vivrita. They are called Ghoshavat. T^r. : ^ kh. HM<^. or asprishta.Kaum. 1. The semivowels. -^chh . to the sibilants nemasprishta. . t Some grammarians the organs. <* would correspond to the classical mutes. T$j/i. "^chh. A second division. opening . vdh^n TJ/?. 2. -^chh zt. Siddh. rendered by sibilant or flatus.e. differ in their description of the degrees of closing or opening of Some ascribe to the semivowels duhsprishta. 7#. wM. W sh 9 Its. Unaspirated (alpaprdna) It will be seen. *th.*n 9 m. or vivrita. according to quality. 6. slight non-contact. complete opening. consonants are divided. dbhyantarah prayatnah. or ishadasprishta.) /*. "nth. In the Atharva-veda-pratisakhya i. and. lation preparatory to the utterance of the sound. open. *r. Vth. M4<7t. slight i. v. These are called A ntahsthd Cshmans. "%jh 9 7 th. if they did not comprehend the ^y. Rig-veda-pratis'. imperfect contact. o (f> } intermediate between Sparsas and which has been freely translated by semivowel or liquid.e.

92. I .) is n before *{j. *{n.24 transition of EXTEENAL SANDHI. T d. Anusvara. 2. 60a change both ^ ch into TT g. 4. the world. The ri 1 final 7^ t is changed into Tr?T ^ ch and then into ^ j according to initial ( $ 66. Final ^ t before palatals (^ ch. 41. Ex. a gloss on this. vm. he hears this *. 40. become palatal and lingual before these letters. or of TT^ into IT n. 40. The the letter by which they are followed. being superadded to the changes of place. we should have of place and of quality. Final i^t before 7#. Final T 68. In composition. + WlfT= WTWifT jagat +jetd =jagajjetd. the idol of him. fTW TFrT TTfT rTcT + ^ = 1TW tat + cha = tachcha. and "S^s will be given 7 th. Anusvara and Visarga adapt themselves as much as possible to the place of the Dentals. vm. 3^ vin. Note 4. Final letters are changed. letters The changes which take initial place by the combination of the eleven final with vowels or consonants may be divided therefore into two classes. Changes of Place. and Visarga. is 4. + SJJUlfri = W^sniflPd' tat + srinoti = tachsrinoti. + f^Rf% = (W'H (Vf tat + chhinatti = tachchhinatti. 74. is * ST 4. + ^^1 = 1^^1 tat + tikd = tattikd. to <J The 66. 63. Trif^ + nrfir = rtiy^frf tan +jayati = f changed to palatal >^n. "^ chh. he conquers them. . i. + ^rnT^ = d-nJUH tat + jay ate = tajjdyate. j 64. etat + thakkurah = etatthakkurah. (Pan. is ^cA. he cuts this. conqueror of T(jh.TJh. SI 3) is N changed into a palatal. with regard to their places or organs. and this. Pan. $ 62. and T^jh. See 73. ^ dh. wn (not \sh. this is born. *(j. 43) changed TTif into a lingual. All other changes of final consonants are merely changes of quality these in the case of Dentals.) Ex. tdnjayati. 60. i^t The same change would take place before an might become either *{j or *{n. and before an initial >r n. TS^chh. + T*Tff = TT!"qTT T t ffff +dayate = taddayate. according to generally changed to "$ chh : ri^lififri tachchhrinoti.) Ex. final T{t changed into and then into ^ d according t In composition. 61. being incompatible with Palatals and Linguals. *T n. with regard to their quality.) before Rules on the changes of final hereafter. (Pan. and Visarga. . the Anusvara. 4. The only final consonants which are liable to change of place are Dentals. vm. tat (Pan.

(J 68. + ^^flf = M fild ^fi Pd parivrdt + hasati =parivrdd hasati.instrum. Before Pada. As all final letters (except nasals and ^ I) are surd. a great (not ^*A) will be given hereafter Anusvara (m) and Visarga (A) will be explained together with the changes of quality to which these letters are liable. Mf^dl'^ + f*fij[ tram. J 66. 45. cf.-J 66. a beggar's friend. changed into i^ff: samyak + uktam = samyaguktam. Zt before sonants. Pan. before sonants. Changes of Quality. they remain unchanged in quality. Ex. vin. Fie dik on the purse-proud man In composition. Pan. 4. they remain surd letters before surds. Before Pada -terminations vrddbhify. cnfj*^ vdk -f min = vagmin. though followed by surd letters. 43) IB changed ^w. unless the contact can be avoided by inserting sibilants. (also qftjU^ T^aflf parivrdd dhasati. *JN^ 4. ( Note Rules on the changes of Jn before ^( and fyh 74). changed into ^d: 9 + ^R = tfwi&qparivrdt + ay am =parivrddayam he is a mendicant. l^t might become either "^d or ^ n. except ^ y TT^ + : fin^= 3.) 65. They are changed into their corresponding sonant As the nasals have no corresponding surd letters. in order to prevent the nasaliza- tion of the final consonant of vdch. beginning with consonants.) parivrdt In composition. u^n (not \sh. ^ <fh.terminations: f^fi Before secondary suffixes + f*Tt = f^fmidik + bhih = e%At#. 4. EXTERNAL SANDHI.plur. Well dhik said ! + dhanagarvitam = dhigdhanagarvitam. the mendiI cant laughs. v&rt. E .*!*H: uproar. Surd initials require surd finals. eloquent *. an elephant supporting the globe at one of the eight points of the compass. ! = f^cfi + 7rf : fyj|*{: + gajafc = diggajah. : oFA. and before an The same change would take initial us n. J 70. The changes of place with regard to final 2. place before an initial 25 *4h. : = wf^dir^Jci + mitram =: parivrd4miparivrdt qfXdl? + ^Tt = irfX'ailj: + bhih =pari- * Panini is driven to admit a suffix gmin instead of win. before sonants. = fl^llKItu: mahdn + ddmarah = mahdrufdmarah. Examples i. Final to ^n before ^ <L. vin. Sonant initials require sonant finals.

^p are followed by initial nasals. + dhanuh = mahaddhanuh. II t before sonant linguals. plur. 45. (inflectional = ^T3TJ: ajo + ghatah = abghatah. but these final sonants may be or further infected by the nasal character of the *{m. ip ? H^ t ej ovin j see 84. not changed. ^HT + nK = ^M*K ap -\-jayah = abjayah.) + atra = kakubatra. instrum. 84. ^i(vat. plur. (Pan. your opinion. t. = etadddmarah. a world-elephant. which represents Visarga. (Pan. lord of the world. HW = 'aifi Pri 1^ 1(fyotis-}-mat=jyotishmat. . ndthah. 3. and may be written ^ n9 ^ n. T{t. 3c5 vala vidyutvat. jagat mahat ff / before sonant palatals. changed into *rfci^-f 'STF? "S^/: see $62: water of the river. is rule. J 67. may ah = ammayah. dik Ex. ^s I. watery. the uproar ^W?T + TRT: = ^rf|THT:t of them.) or initial nasals. H^: = TTT^^: m^TO: prdk + mukhah =prdgmukhah or prdnmu- khah. Additional changes take place if the final surds ^ k. fVTtfw. g. instrum. WlTn*^ + 4. or ^NTVJ: jagat - + ndthah ^jagadndthah. fq^rt^ + ^^= fa^i*i \vidyut + ca^ = possessed of lightning. mahat + 6A^ = mahadbhih. 69. chiefly o^ k. : + Uah =jagadisah. obtaining water. too. The into JT nasals being sonant. except before sonant palatals and it is when (according to $ 62) changed into *(J and T$: the river there. and ^ ^>.) + bhih = kakubbhih. facing the east. a large bow. ^ n. ( before sonants. changed into T d: see $ 62 : etat + ddmarah. a water-jar. but they are confined to Taddhita derivatives Tt^t which are found Thus final before the possessive suffixes Tt^maf. the bee hums. lord of the world. a region there. Note There are exceptions to this in dictionaries. before sonants. and "q jo ^ d. Final Ex.26' EXTERNAL SANDHI. water-river. ) **4\fa*i!{jyotirmat. or ^^ bhavat+matam = bhavadmatam or b vanmatam. = *cftWc3 sarit +jalam = sarijjalam. ^n t. or -f- *%&$ ap + nadi or = abnadi or amnadi. viu. they require the change of ^ Ji^t. f^oF + TPT: = f^nn: f^ni: or + ndgah dignagafy dihndgah. instead of H instead of ft f4 Thus TTf^ + f^TT= IMftjl t^<c/as+rtn= tejasvin. 'Tvf^ + 7Tff7T = nvfej|fif : H^f^rt^ madhulit + nardati = madhuor jagan- lidnardati or madhulinnardati. changed into linguals> <* d. and H m. 4. changed into 67- kakup base '3ftt^kakubh. R1T + ^r: = *lJ|<fl3i. remains unchanged before the same Taddhitas. 7 T d. + ^3 = *rft^W sarit + atra = saridatra.

are doubled. Before the suffix optional. or Tffn. 1(f (1 Ninety-six is always muqfif shannavati. no change takes place. not necessarily. TO maya and before HTO mdtra vm. however. *f3. See also Wilkins. There are. Ex. and is changed into <^/. vart.hut ah ^parivrddhaiah or jjariis killed. large 1 4. Wf^4. and are preceded by a long vowel and followed by any call vowel. ur n. 30. If ^ n. vdhmayam. no words in common use beginning withTri. as a half-moon. ^T^+ c3c3T? = ^d'cftl? brihat + laldtam = brihallaldtam. Fie "Q or fvrirfttnfl dhik-\-hastinah=dhighastinah or dhiggha$! on the elephants HC3T7 -f ^1H = ^fCsfT^Tft TTSTiT or ^iVctrsFn! parivrdt -j. or lingual n *^ff.mdtram = tanmdtram.) Ex. vm. (Pan. into Igh. EXTERNAL 8ANDHI.Sff or inr + = ^i 3u ^T^-f. he sits turned = toward the west. large gain. 3. merely a bee. are exempt from this rule.^<<i( "?iT tat-\-hutam= tadhutam or taddhutam. 4. Sanskrita Grammar. dhdvannaSvah. but obligatory. (Pan. Note then a a word should begin with a guttural. = wfrt<iiid madhulit+mdtram = mntlhulinmdtram. ^SThT + ^idgma kavin + dhvayasva. T^ n. *J*TW 4- ^mir = gnWT^ ^n sugan + dste = suganndste. 62. the mendicant = W^. E 2 . J 72. would become "^ *^fl. changed into the sonant aspirate of the "Zdh. vm. ^T^T + *HI = ^T^pT rdk-\-mayam=. * Technical terms like ^tUlty unddi. = TTWW ^^ + labdham = tallabdham. words ending in tin. if ^ before c^ is not changed into <* d. or viHu ap+haranam = abharanam or abbharanam. fVcf + ^(Vsrit = ftl'^tW'iJ tinah. a running horse. 32. consisting of speech. 4. list the poets.) Ex. called Ardha-chandra. or filTW tihanta. H6A. palatal. = H^l^+ HTH: = Hgl|fl*T: mahdn + Idbhah mahdl Final Idbhah. vre^-f ^ng: = >n^*Sf: dhdvan + asvah =. *Ojf<$^ + *n^ = CT*HI^ tat-}. U7TT + ^rr^" = HW^I^d pratyah + dste pratyahhdste. J 70. if brought into immediate contact with a final ^ Jt (*ty). HI TTpT -f- Note 69. viz. vm. class of the final letter. this is taken. water- fetching. preceded by a short vowel and followed by any vowel. or It final T^/ would change /i.75W head. VrfA. If 27 (^ . in this case to write the Anusvara Ex. 6O. 68. (Pan. and tT n. but into <^/. vrdddhatah.) the change into the nasal is not Ex. a fore- / is Final before J 71. but this c^/ is pronounced It is usual written with the Anusvara dot over it. a of suffixes beginning with un. never Mflliqfrt shadnavati.- 72. element.) Ex. he sits counting well *. <^ T^TI through the nose. (Pan. its place or organ at the same time that it became a nasal. ^( (\<f) t ^)f ^P (^^)> ^ commonly. 45. this is sacrificed. ^ n. The initial ^ h. or ^n.

requires the intercession of 5^s. 30. Tph. ^chh. ^T w^a becomes nksa. or *pni#*rcfr sugan + sarati = sugansarati . vin. where remains unchanged. or 's^nchh. 28. Before ^s. ^kh. changed to Anusvara. those tigers. requires the intercession of "^sh. being the representation of an original *^w. Final ^n and ^n it may be is followed by initial OF "5{s. a great "^1^+ IT^t = HAW^:patan + Note taruh. Thus T$F nsa becomes but optional to add a k after the ljr ^ n and a 92) . not but this + = firrr prasdmschinoti. 3. ^th. EXTERNAL SANDHI. or '^nts. allow To . (Pan. The same w before s^ ^ rule applies to final 7^ it and ^ s. tittibha-bird. grammar. Before these inserted sibilants the original ^w hasan + chakdra Ex. Final f^n before T t ^ th. final TT^nw prasdm. ^n^+^flRTC^^^aRTR laughing. TR ws^a becomes K?TR ntsha. (^ ^ n* ^ ns may Before 3^ s it is first changed again be changed to 355^ nchs. or $ 75. HgR + Tips = H^ia<: mahdn + thakkurah = mahdmshthakkurafi. (Pan.) Ex. but not before \sh. vin. ^ # after the HT n. vni. + tittibhah a run- ning goat. or -^(ns may be changed into Ex. "^n before initial cp k. W5^a becomes ^ ^r nksa (or ^r nkchha.) ^w to remain unchanged before ^s was a mere misprint in Benfey's large and has long been corrected by that scholar. a moving idol. ^shy^s without ^ causing any change . ?M nksha. rTHT -f "^7 = ifT^M? /a/z + shat = tdnshat. 73- and IT p. ^n. 92). TT$T becomes ntsa (or TP"5 ntchha). 7f. /5fl. remains unchanged. and (J 72.) J 74. 31. he did is it *Tre^+ '$Tn: tq^TT = vrf^gNH dhdvan + chhdgah = dhdvamschhdgah. 7. 7. vin. + frfjvr: = ^cfffefpr: chalan chalamshtittibhah. vin.) six. T^t. Final tT w before ^(ch. TTTT + ^W^Trr^^W or Wl^iJM (or Mli^ri) prdn + sete=prdnsete or prdnksete (or prdnkchhete). = hasam$chakdra. y Final n before 7^ 3. =patamstaruh } a falling tree. ^th to take a sibilant. is not allowed before "^ch.) I(t 9 i(th 9 requires the intercession of ^s. Ex. f^n those may remain unchanged. 3. (Pan. rti>aLic*>i rfincci* or or ni>tirti^f tan + sdrddldn = tdn&drduldn or tdnchsdrduldn or tdnchchhdrduldn or tdnchhwrddldn. * (Pan. forms the nom. quiet. ^T ws# becomes (Pan.28 Final J 73. *K^H*t fWiTfif H^lTi%*ltrfT prasdn -\-chinoti =prasdnchinoti. into palatal s5 nchchh 63) . 3.3. U$| ['^prasdn . "^ chh.

and t may be inserted. ^s. ^dh y iffw. must be changed either WT^ m^qPn he conquers her. Before 7/. to Before ^ch. vm. to Tffw.) is the general rule. ^ n. i. A final ^ before ^a must remain unchanged. is Ex.. according to 63. to urn. it Thus if 1R *H4fH may be taken for into which. tan jayati. H^n. T^jh. e. = MZfCff: or M^rHiXd: shat + saritafy = shatsaritah or shatjsaif ritah t six rivers. . + sahate = tdnsahate + *M he bears them. to ^n. f^ (fi[^) + = f^g *J or H$rr Ain (hints) = /a//*w *J or hintsu. the end of words remains unchanged if followed by any vowel.-$ 77- EXTERNAL 8ANDHI. linguals. TO + *finr. he tames her. (Pan. ^d. without exception. *{n. 3. ^T. ^w. and must be so changed only before si s. ^*iMfn tan damayati. and ^r. among (The base f^9[ hims. and we should change of Anusvara into ^. f su of the loc. ^th ^d. 1(v. What is there to ? Before consonants may. be changed Anusvara. J 76. whatever be the initial consonant of the following word. \sh. *TN ?n. We should of compound letters which are troublesome both in writing and printing . to ^y. the five consonants which have no corresponding nasal class-letter. ^n. is ^^fri fan jayati. or TITT is All this uncertainty is at once removed if final UTT \m always changed into Anusvara. ^dh. 9 Before Before 9 9 before all consonants. fcwv + oM>fa = f% ohOfM (or fa^OfM) kim kin karoshi). 7^1. Before T{y See J 56. Ex. 42 . 6. he conquers them. treated as a Pada. This 4> 59)> 23. and dentals. avoid the ambiguity as to the original nature of these class-nasals when followed by initial ' sonant palatals. Hence it follows that final J^m may be changed into Anusvara tt^t. written riiy^fri tan jayati. ^bh ^m. vm. What doest thou ? + karoshi = kirk karoshi (or ^T 4- ^= satrum +jahi 5RJ ^ff? (or ^Tf^%) = satrumjahi (or satrun jahi). v12 Before ^ . plur.) enemies. 3. ^v. *{j. 55. i^m initial at Anusvdra and Final i^m. -&chh. before the See J 53. 29. tarn jayati. - The exceptions are simply optional (Pan. 4. or HlfH^rt tan 29 or tdnttahate. In the same manner tan damayati tarn may be damayati. ^h. It would be most desirable final if scholars would never avail themselves of the optional then be spared a number ^n. ^p9 T^ph. kill the enemy.) $77. -^kh. vm. f^T ^ra kim it + atra = faHd kimatra. -f Ex. he tames them. ^b. i{</ 9 \gh> into ^n > t^ e fi n&l *^ m or Anusvara may be changed ^ n. (Pan. ^th.

for the pronounced as m. foiw + Fff= f$ ^W ? or fofi^ff kim + A/iw^e = A:z/^ Am hnute. N frl he crosses the T*rfifr river. ^s. i. were immediately followed by these hnute or letters (Pan. (or T&ft^evam. T^S. tarn veda (or tav veda). end of a word pausd. 25. he studies the book. *r=r evam. = flR^T]r^+ Or^fd piteously. if^h be if it \y> <^ ^> v> be treated as immediately followed by ^n 9 *^w. and it is so written throughout in this grammar. hallowed. Ex. ^[ s is inserted. vin. at the end of a sentence. =7 ^ he acquires wisdom. Jf^m at the It may be written. $ 78. he salutes the teacher. however. 137. with the simple dot ($ 8. If J 80. + c5HW = frot cW^ ^ TO + $^ (or fwrS"^) vidydm + labhate la- (or vidydl labhate). Before ^r. -3: or \ foh^: ^m + hyah kim hyah or kiy hyah. What What does he hide f^ + ^r: = f^TH f^. an 3. not as Anusvara. is laughs sweetly. 26. ^v. TR?rt ^H^CH + TTTfrf 1 = TTfcf (or ^RT^iiffr) satvaram +ydti = satvaram = vidydm ydti he walks quickly. VT. *fft^r 4- = $|aimf $ff sayydydm-\-sete=-sayydydm 5eve/a he lies on ^%1T = iftet = Tgt ir^H moksham + = moksham seveta. 3. TVT^+^rfw '^ufif madhuram + hasati = madhuram hasati. J 77. T^f IRflf (or r^^Tfncfif) 78-f nadim tarati = nadiih tarati (or tarati). ^T sam. note). Before i^y. Final ^[ ^m may before ^ h. cries 3luimraN +3r? the couch.30 : EXTERNAL SANDHI. about yesterday + ^Tc^rfif = f% ^TH^firT or fch'i^rM^fir kim + hmalayati = kim hmalayati What does he or kimhmalayati. e. \sh.) $ 79. the use 1 31HdH + *ftafaff = STT^ *rfafaffi (or ^n^Ffhrni'ff) sdstram + mimdmsate = bdstram mimdmsate (or sdstram mimdmsate). See. TO + cpn: = Tlff: 5am + kritah = samskritah. Ex. move ? ^ Ari is preceded by the preposition (Pan. thus. let a man he cultivate spiritual freedom. m sake of brevity. + H H = g% (or *T^wrfir) gurum -\-namati-gurum namati (or gurun namati). (or 1T^^) tarn + veda I know him. (or satvaray ydti). e^/. far* + Tfic5 = fa W5 What is (or PcM-Mie^) ? kirn + phalam = kiih phalam (or kirn phalam). and Hm changed to Anusvara. . i. he sete. however. ^h: Xtf^fw R^T!J karunam + roditi = karunam roditi. vin.) Ex. 27).

and were replaced by the two dots (:) which properly belong to the Visarga only. hence love. The phonetic changes of final sibilants. vin. their proper corresponding sonant 83. (originally nadyd <f>pdram). which are considered the $ It should most difficult.-J 83. the border of the river. + ^TC = Hif: (originally X ^w:) tatafy + kamab = tatah kdmah chandrah. the . king. 3. only in mind be borne : 1. 36): or grr: f^rsj: suptah bisuh. however. should be observed. riOw*n taroh + chhdyd = + talati chhdyd. and that the same sign may also be used instead of any sibilant. 25. m is never changed.) Visarga and Final ^s and ^r. if followed by a sibilant. : a sixteenth part. 3. and that r. fmi^ samrdt. If Visarga class to It changed which the following surd letter belongs. is the ^ The only is sibilant which can be it is final in pausd is the Visarga. mr. nom. provided there is a sibilant. the opposite shore of a Visarga before sibilants (Pan. purnah + chandrah = purnaS taros W= the tree. into the sibilant of that now written by : h. the full = MJ^: ^jS: + ^: moon. the child sleeps. sargah or prathamah sargah. the frightened man disturbed. sibilant. (Pan. that the signs for the guttural and labial sibilants became obsolete. tata% kdmah). the -f fftt = nrreftt nadydfy + tiram = nadydsttram. T^t: broken idol. to the unmodified 2. 31 i^ $ 81. and not three . tnt=TOT: param H mt (originally TOTX^ni) nadydh+pdram = nadydk river. may be reduced to a few very simple rules. That there are really five sibilants. shodasah. 82. That all sibilants and Visarga are surd. r: bhagnah + thakkurah = bhagnashthakkurah. or inw: *ni: prathamafy first section. that the guttural and labial sibilants are followed by a surd letter. T. i. e. EXTERNAL 8ANDHI. 4t f^: = *prf35TST: suptah + &isuh = supta& tiiuh or or shoda&ah or bhdgaJj. ^FTC (originally cHT Ex. the shade of -f 375f7f is = WlriEMfri = HH^: bhitah = bhitashtalati. In WTr^ samrdj. vin.

it is 84not changed into dental ^s. followed by an initial ?f( ts. ^HK is EXTERNAL SANDHI. ^T and followed by a sonant consonant. let the ghee If final Visarga is is followed by a sonant letter. vui. Which 2 is If. the sun rises. stand. the Visarga 4. vm. called Avagraha. 35. vart. and followed by and the the Visarga is dropt. tf(ph. however. (Pan. (also ?Tpr^Wjn haris sphurati. ^p. by words beginning "^sh may be substituted for final Visarga. after which. $ 86. consonant or vowel. pafofi + bandhah.32 Note i If Visarga but remains Visarga. Hari appears .) frequently dropt in MSS. the 3. and followed by any vowel except ^ a. is dro'pt. If the Visarga is is a changed to ^ft o. ^(kh. with off &. %f^fTT isuh + hasati = sisur hasati. Note Visarga on the contrary. and are governed by these words.) ^ftt 4-^fCfw ^fct ^firflT or 1[fT *jj<Jn harih+ sphurati =harih sphurati or hari sphurati. are followed <T^ws. If the Visarga is preceded by ^rr a. duh + nitih = durnttih. instrum. however.) 84. if followed by ^s. ^r a. this poet.) the general rule that it be changed into ^r. ^r a. is victo- rious. rule : Examples of the general 1 : = ohfaiji kavih + ay am = kavirayam. the binding of the 91* ^TRJ = oltl* muhuh + muhuh = muhurmuhuh. the Visarga 3. plur. Ex. (also <^IH?i| devds stha. 44. = ^T^frrff vdyuh. drink thou water. piba tvam udakam. (Pan.) is ? + rovPff = $T3t W^Pff sathah+tsarati = sathah tsarati. according to 41. i = ^s he drinks ghee . =pasorbandhah. ^r a. preceded by ^r a. THfr: = 5: + JiuTPri: = vffffiffiljyotifr + bhih =jyotirbhify. (Pan. If the Visarga is preceded by dropt. = ti^lv: cattle. the initial a must be elided. (See. the handle of the sword FJ + W^J = K W^J kah-\-tsaruh = kah tsaruh. but flH?jJ ^It ftrr j^H^^T tishthatu sarpih. If is is the Visarga preceded by dropt. of bad manners. Visarga is followed by a sibilant with a surd letter. the child laughs. without wealth. the Visarga 2. The sign of the elision is s. of the following exceptions 1. and followed by a sonant letter (vowel or consonant). n^33fif gauh + gachchhati = gaur gachchhati. + vdti = vayur vdti. 36. a wicked man cheats.) like ^f%t havih or or Note 3 If nouns ending in VJJ dhanuh. the wind blows. *Ujf H^Tir or ^TPtft fsiFn sarpishpibati or sarpih pibati. vm. as Ex. aiftflT: + "*" SI* 4- ^Tfw : ftr: . the ox + ^nrffT = fVuu^NPrf vishnuh +jayati = vishnur jayati. 3. t^TC + ^ej = ^Tt ^r or ^^T <W devdh-\-stha=. 3. : This rule admits. Vishnu : walks. ^1 ^ a changed into ^ft o.devdh stka or devd stha. you are gods. gradually. + ^Pri = ift'^fri ravih + udeti = ravir udeti. = fVfrf: ni h + dhanah = nirdhanah.

third exception : + TO = ^ft>rft TO 6obhanah+gand/iab = $obhano gandhah. a sweet scent. .-$ 85. ex.ayah 4.T?T: = iRfaR: manah + rcmaA = manoramaJi. r: = IjNt ftfrcft mdrdhanyah 4- nakardh. instrum.T3TT: tt = inn *nn: 4."qnrrt = 3*ldl hatdfy + gajah = hatd unnatdh 4- gajdfy. fain pitaJi. an There are a few words in which the r. = cfi + dgatah = X:w^a dgatab. vedah. according to J 82. (a compound). beginning with mind.adhitah vedo 'dhitab. final letter is etymologically This ^ * It as a final. delightful. father. from &c. first 33 Examples of the : exception : 4. WrH of nouns in ^p. preceded by *3T a. Who is the poet ? Xrz/^aA come ? manah +ddi = mana Examples of the . Who is he ? ^f^: A:a^ + rishih ka rishih. ^hn nirvdnah ^aA = nirvdno lamp is blown out. r. : + ^7: = HHH! 4. Whence ^ + eshah = ka eshah. Examples of the second exception : + ^fq*. day ( 196).?5!rarrT: TI7: nUtanalj. impf.mdsah = atito mdsah. 4. . is changed into Visarga. with the : noses. ^s\rhn read. $ 85. moon. EXTERNAL 8ANDHI. effort is made. iron. ^riiraiTC: + ghatah = ndtano 4- ghatah. the nakdrah.1(Sr: inr: 4. these horses. = mtirdhanyo dipah. rrar Trfir chhdtrdfr 4strive. ^T^t ahaJi.^nft i: = ^TOT ^nft asvdh ^jNii: 4- amf= a6vd 4- ami. 2. nagdfy. within F . Examples of the fourth exception = TTts*T narah. the Veda has been ^Wl 4- ^jf = ^nfts^. on/a/*. in the voc. of in^ma^. again j UTHi prdtah. 4- ay am = naro 'yam. pleasing 1 : to the mind. ajdgar. the elephants are killed. sing. o f^pitri. the lingual n. plur. plur. heaven . the poets have arrived. TO: atitah 4. sing.astram = ayo 'sir am. ^r*. in JtTt punah. = ^ift T^ kritah + yatnah = krito yatnah. the Visarga produced from It occurs. early . 3. K 4.fa: = i fVfa: wa# 4- bhih = nobhih. 7ft 4. : instrum. ^5 *ra^. and in verhal forms such as ^*iii^. and it is called XSTTrft fe*l*h rqjdto visargah. 4- ^pni: = vu'lfll dgatdh rishayah = dyatd rishayah. a new jar. the past month. iff: yatante = chhdtrd yatante. ddi. 4.weapon. the pupiU + fn: = *rrfa ?/^A + ^AiA = mdbhify. *nn: nagdh = unnatd the high mountains. this man.

^TET ^s and ^ r. "fag: + UlTH = f^<Wri vidhuh + rdjate = vidhd raj ate. and ^SWRJ^aghavat. Oh lord! Oh gods ! The same interjections H*ft: bhagoh and ^nft: aghoh. No Tcr lengthened. 3. end of a sentence. drops vowels and all sonant consonants. this person. and therefore by 84 changed to ^r. he. follows the same rule optionally in poetry. jrf: + ^rfa = gRftr punah + api =punarapi. 3. (Pan. = TfT^ bhrdtah + dehi = bhrdtar dehi. $ 87. vi. the rules affecting the Visarga except the exceptional rules e. bhrdtd raksha. this Indra. and its preceding vowel $ 86. preceded by is w a. sinner. may here be mentioned. this. sa and The two pronouns (Pan. 3. But TO + JW^fT = ^sn^rr safy is + abhavat dead. very early. *c: safy and ^m eshah. Hence final Visarga. The ^5: = ^[ ^5: sah indraft = sa indrah. Ht: bhoh. Numerous exceptions.) its Visarga Ex.) Ex. (Pan. ^ sa indrah appears as ^hj: sendrafy. 3. vowel or consonant. even again. vin. A few of the more importanl . Ex. become *f esha before consonants and vowels. 14). (Pan $ 88. whether etymologicaUy ^ s or ^ r. 50 'bhavat. the moon shines. vi. 132.) The pronoun ^q: syah. The following rules refer to a few exceptional cases. and followed by any sonant letter. JJIT: TO mritah sah } he Sometimes Sandhi takes place. except before short ^r a and at the i. vi. H^: 4*Tfc ^TR = Ht f$nT applies to the bhoh + Udna = bho Udna. ih again. 5T: 1 ! These are the general rules on the Sandhi of final Visarga. ^r: two vowels are not liable to Sandhi. if followed by initial ^ r. (Pan. he gives. thou.34 follows 2. protect Tlf: + T^f = *m TT^ bhrdtah + raksha + tfaft = *pTT ft^punah + rogi=pund rogi. is dropt. 22. really irregular vocatives of v(TFR(bhagavat. Brother. 134. God. if 4. all i. Brother. 111 . $ 89. he was. n -f ^T= TnOtSprdtah + eva =prdtareva. + ^Ti: = Ht ^i: bhoh + devdfr = bho devdh. vui. he.) *: + ^ifff = *C ^Tflf safy + daddti = sa daddti. the "tr retained. ^ give ! can ever be followed by another ^ r (Pan. EXTERNAL SANDHI. particularly for the sake of the metre Thus *c sa esha becomes occasionally ffa saisha. Ex. before all an irregular vocative of vc%i(bhavat. $ 8684. i. which are best learnt from the dictionary occur in compound and derivative words.

TfT&pdtra. (Pan. III. 40. before certain Taddhita Suffixes. ^Hi: ^W = *tM*<jiH: ayah+kumbhah = aya8kumbhah. 'Zitvat. "T p or TRpA. iron-pot. = *TCRT. vm. 3. 3. ftRttirak. and ^Jra/a. _ in which the Visarga Ex. (Pan. ^iPMJ az^.-jj 89. goblet. 35 Compound. despising. r. such as ^f^l havih. vm. vm. ^is. muFfkarnt. in ^SH^as. board. = ^TTJKRTlTt dyuh+kdmah = dyushkdmah fond of WJJ! + cRTHt 1 Note ^TTJ^JWi bhrdtushputrah. tirah-\-kdri= tiraskdri. always take ^sh. fruitless.) life. F 2 mat =jyotishmat. the Words namah. ghee-drinking. criminal. lord of speech. In f?TTJ tirah the change is considered optional. Nouns in ^s and "^(us. made manifest. ?^ kh. and t$ph. 41. forming before the first part of a 1. having performed adoration. The words if compounded f^f \ nih. ^is. ^is. with light. 3. "?Wt ^Ts. lord of heaven.) Ex. P^Ufcc^: nih+phalah = nishphalah. with splendour. Nouns in ^PR[as. WH karhsa. change Visarga into Ex. loveless. below the = divaspatih. Jt duh. 47. Ex. to do (e. take ^sh instead of final Visarga. ^p.WS = ^n^T^iC ahah-\-karah = ahaskarah sun. Before the Taddhita suffixes as ^mat. g. 42. t 4- = <=>H<M rajafr+vala = rajasrala. t -\- There are several words of the same kind which are best learnt from the dictionary (Pan. + ^IIT ^ifi*fljiii dvih+kritam = dvishkritam. nephew.oRI = ^M*O 6reyah+karah = sreyaskarah. f^TJ + t f%t + "^Rc^I = = ftT^fiTTt nih+kdmah = nishkdmah. EXTERNAL SANDHI. W*T: f^ = H TrT= W(9 f Pf*f a*ft Pel ^ tejah+vin = tejasvin. before words beginning with ^Ar. if treated as Prepositions. making happy. jar. &c. badly done. "aRTTT kri. 46..) + KRt = ni<5hiO = frR*?hlO namah-\-kdrah = namaskdrah. vessel. AJyotih + . I. ?fr4t + TTT ^ ^TiM'mT sarpih-\-pdnam=^sarpishpdnam. fcA. The words rHTt "JTJ purah. ear. is used instead of WTjJJ J^I bhrdtuh putrah.) 2. (Pan. Ex. = J^fff duh+kritam = dushkritam. ITT kdra). gi^iiJttt^. f^Ttnn. the final Visarga of bases in "W^a5 is changed to ^s.) Ex. "^f^t vahih. H. Nouns in ^Bft^as.^rt = qi'qt^nJ vdchah+patih = vdchaspatih. oFRt chatuh+konam-=chatushkonam. 3. T^us. ^TJt chatuh. ^T^fJ 4. adoration. kdnta. son of the brother. counter. sun. Tttglprddufi. IRkara. V^t dhanuh. 1. compounded prepositionally with ifkri. 45. ^Rt 4. square. vm.) foot.) purah+kritya=puraskritya. WTT kdma). 3. a buffalo. the final ^s appears ^5 or 4: ^sh 4- ( icx>). (but W ^HT namah kritvd. vm. with words beginning with cF Ar. bhdh+karah = bhdskarah. T^us.g. 3. (Pan. Before derivatives of tf to desire (e. ^>? kumbha. Hi: + "an:: 2. VIH. &c. ^ (Pan. ^nn J 4~ ^J = vnitMtj adhah+padam divah+patih adhaspadam. before derivatives ofW(kam. ^^ us. II. having preferred. is changed into dental sibilant.

day. 3T^ + *J = ^T fh^: + ilftf: vdr + su = vdrshu. and in composition before nouns even though beginning with surds. md chchhidat. and we meet with Jftrprfjn gihpatih. vm. both In the body of a word. ^?^t 68. (Pan. Before Taddhita suffixes beginning with \t. and s. a barbarian. the change of after long and short vowels. dhanuh+kah = dhanushkah. he wishes. is further irregular. vm. t$ chh into ^5 chchh is necessary Ex. or cj^O'Q&mi badarichhdyd or badarichchhdyd. v^<. nouns in ^T^ as retain their final ^ while nouns in ^^is and ~^^us change Ex. tioned (Pan.) + f*Tt = vt^lfat ahah-\.). vart. = llMfff: gir -\-patih =girpatih. vart. bad ghee. thy shade. this change optional. n + ^n^T= (M ^r sarpih +pdsam = sarpishpdsam. k alp am = pay ask alp am a milk. after a final short vowel. Ex. is After any other long vowels. (Pan. brightness. *H + f^lTN = *n fsa^H ma + chhidat ^T + gT^TflT = m Wl^ Tn a + chhddayati = dchchhddayati. day and night. 39. 3. lord of the day. ^T^J + ^ = ^n?^J ahah+su = + -CTsft = 4l^ilc|t ahah+rdtrah = ahordtrah. shade of Badaris. vm. in composition with the verb <^i**(^nkdmyati. however.r ( 85) retain the ^r before the g su of $ 90. l *a Nouns ending in radical *. vttjfTT: dhuh- patih. is changed Ex. lord of speech. ichchhati. he covers. (Pan. plur. fn = VJ m*'H fn dhanuh+kdmyati=dhanushkdmyati. ^fqfin svahpatih and ^Rfin svarpatih. because its final r is likens with ^>: hence ^Iff J ahahsu. cfi ka. is changed to ^55 chchh. 73-7^. 1T^ + "5THT = TPf ^3TRT tava + chhdyd = tava chchhdyd. ^:"qfir: ahahpatify and ^qfrf: aharpatih. in the waters. 3. JTOi + cR^I= H*|t*h<34 p ay ah = yasaskah. the aggregate of four. ^chh and after the particles ^TT d and ITT md. he is ambitious. vtpqt ^Wt 3. tTT^f Before the Taddhita suffixes pdsa. fra: mlechchhafy. glorious. ahar. + ^R^T = tiPM^snttH sarpik+kalpam = sarpishkalpam.36 2.) .) + ^Tni? = TfMW ^r payah+pdam =payaspdsam. 70. tf I l little VJ* VJ* + + RJ <*!*<< = ^^x=n. vi. before the Pada-terminations. + TnT = ^IJBfl chatuh-\-tayam=chatushtayam. K^T kalpa.. the into t becomes 7 t . K+ K= yasah+kah n + cni^Pn = 1^T*5hi*<|f7f yasah+kdmyati=:yasaskdmyati. 2. like inQfii: girpatih. preceded by ^i or ^w. at the beginning of a word.bhih ahobhih . + ?t= viPqg arcMh-\-tvam = archishtvam. and in composition before words beginning $ 91. the loc. and ^fir: dhurpatifr. S^arfir i. the Pada base of treated " ^I^^ ahan. he desires a bow. let him not cut. bad milk. EXTEBNAL SANDHI. Ex. a ghee. the optional use of Visarga is sanc- In compounds. belonging to the bow. TT*n it into \sh i ( 100). -\j little M^lt^ti*. lord of heaven . after which the 7^ $ 90 - ^s. \sh.

. ^c?._$ 93. the sound of water. a running hare. not followed by a hard consonant. $T 6. \^dh. i|(Xfll^ TO[W fft vdk + Mam vdktatam or vdkchhatam. ^</. a or nfldl<(^ parivrdf lies + &ete = parivrd( tete or parivrdf chhete. 37 into *5 chh. i{gh. a great car. ^dh. are changed into otherwise. becomes . the beggar down. + $1^! = ^ u^|<<: or ^^^. or v^bh stand at the end of a syllable which and lose their aspiration as final or or with IT^. may be changed word is a hard consonant or 4. ^. sasafy VT3R+ ^nn = VN^f^K ^HJ or VN^ft^lt dhdvan + sasafy = dhdvan or dhdvan chhasah. Ex. becomes visvagudh. H^^r^3 or H^^^<s mahat + 6aka(am = mahach by that fakatam or mahach chhakafam. verse. the initial consonants T^.) (Pan. 63. >p|r dhuk. becomes wise. rf-^t^H ^a/ + blokena tachchhlokena. if the final letter of the preceding (for ^rc). ap + babdah = ap babdah or apchhabdah. or ^ If $ 93. EXTERNAL 8ANDHI. ^ /i. ^ c?. begins ^ d. ^T^ + 5ITT = TTOfnr or hundred speeches. ^ C?M^. vm. all attracting. Initial f 92. Ex. a milker.

s> 1R *l 41 * .0 -6 U| 1 ** ^S 3' 3*3.'1 33 * Sfe. I 94- ( 33 . 4 I 33 33 3' i Eh.EXTERNAL SANDHI. 3 O I** S ' 2 s ll s <i .

94- EXTERNAL 8ANDHI.2 <2 V % I? (fT S3 If .2 II -2 00 &T * ir* K 11? I* I* 41 17 r vo jj 3. p" r P^P S I 5 CO If K* If 15 g & lu- is 3 11 ^ S} I i 2 -2 z ^ " 03 x . " > I II ~ .f r r tr I .'*' IF S ? nr fr : .

I 94tov |u/ ir ** tr /w a* fl^ IB- & & :a ra ra ra |rr fir IT &IS e 17 MS 1C 1C e * .40 EXTERNAL SANDHI."* [1 PS tr lr Jr ar 5 r IB- Ur I 5 IS x t- i r "C3 ^3 .

there are some other rules to be remembered which regulate the transition of dental ^n and ^* into lingual Beginners should try to impress on T^n and ^sh in the body of words.) brahmanyafy. Thus ^P*f a^nt has to be especially mentioned as an exception for not changing its f n into ZJT n in compounds. m). vm. should be written with ^. or Change of Dental t^n and ^s into In addition to the rules which require the modification of certain f 95. H bh.) darsanam. which is itsetf afterwards changed to HSn. or by any labial (q p. (?{6 ardhena. J 96. is rugnah. no protection for the ^n.) Tn^ET prdyena. plur. is guttural. changed into the lingual The dental ^n the linguals following f^ ^n. by the ocean.) (I^TI i. (^y does not prevent the change. i . n is ^ri. generally.) Ex. such as $Kif*n* Gana kshubhnddi. they do. letters at the beginning and end of words.-J 96. k is is is guttural. or by *jn. by any guttural (^1 k. kind to Brahmans.) arnavena. their memory and these rules as far as they concern the change of the dental sibilant into the lingual nasal and sibilant in simple words : with gard to compound nouns and verbs. qm. or ^ sh. "*f gh.) by the sun. of ij nri. ^y. man. karnah.) But ^Hhr archana.) # VSJ <H i^ akshanvat. (^n is lingual. or by \y. n is followed by J n. vi. the rules are very complicated practice. intervening between the linguals and the ^(n. 16). The influence of these letters on a not stopt by any vowel. the Ramas. gen. 2. having eyes. (? h (c^ is guttural and preceded by Anusvara. rested. CHANGE OP ^n INTO ^n.) kurvanti. ^w.) is final. ^tf vrithhanam. jn. nourishing.) labial. ^ r. (TSTW is followed by \v.) grihndti.) N is is palatal. ^ w. Wf kh t * 'T #. (Pan. (V C?A is dental. ^ h. worship. dushananij abuse. followed by i^/. a system of philosophy. and t. followed by a vowel.sal pricious. like <jMli: vriknah (Pan. "Ri ph.) guttural. (t^w rdmdn. throwing.) Q . Note ^7H. Lingual T^n and 41 NATI. if b. 4. and can only be learnt by long Change of ^n into ^n. ^ v). (^ch is palatal. The i{g (Pan. (^ : h kshipnuh. is. arkena. he takes. and ^r. ear. ^m is labial. | + : rt = *TOT nri -f ndm = nrindm. (^ h love.) ("^ nishannah. and : ^n followed by \y. } (^p ifain premnd by : (i^m is labial. if it is preceded by in the middle of a word. by half.

Tg*^ he shakes. . INTO $97conjugation. and the The r^w of JWM. vin. But JNuflfk brinoti. Table showing the Changes of^n into wn. the sign of the Kri conjugation. 39). kshubhdna. **. imper. tripnoti. the sign of the Su ^n of iftnd. Tf^trnfrf pushndti. 4. are not changed into H{n in the two verbs and lf{tnp TTTTfrfTT Hence kshubh (Pan. shake. he nourishes.CHANGE OF f 97. TJtfrfiT kshubhndti. he hears. he pleases*.

by sowing from a bean-jar. of (Pan. There are minute distinctions. but if it is the name of a tribe who live on milk. H vritraghnah. o 2 . In compounds the ^w of nouns ending in tf w. while in ordinary compounds. (Pan. c. 4. over. ^cjr g. the whole day. yojuh -\-pdvanam vm. mountain-stream. according to which. .) cart. are always liable to change. viu. if followed by a vowel. vm. but ^nptf vritrahanam. . 4. name of Rahu. from HTJ agra. = yajushpdvanam. ^f'Anj: name of Siva. (Pan. 3. plur. principal. or '^f^ninf'T vrihivopdni or vrihivapdni. 7. ace. 38. 12 . and ?ft n/. 35-) PH^MH nih -\-pdnarn = nishpdnam.) day W^ . must be pronounced HfkMUli: kshirapdnah. pardhnam. afternoon. killer of Vritra -itrahan. beans but ^r^'W^ri^mdsha-kumbha^ : vdpena. ig {{!: raghunandanah. and the next proper names. may be pronounced with dental if it n or T^rc) or lingual n (^ it . 4. all. neut. In a compound consisting of affected . Ex. viu. from grama. + W*r4 = ^'I4H rik + ayanam = rigayanam. multitude. a hay9 and 10. : Words to \l agranih. vm. /Unii means the drinking of milk. and and the same whenever the first word ends in *R a. ^%T^o: sarvdhnafy. or "at^iiR trihivdpena or vrihivdpena. sing. milk-drinking. more than two words the the word can only be by mtHTUtll mdsha-vdpena '/ sowing: bv T n of any one Hence word immediately preceding. formed by a primary vm. fft \l grdmanih.) or jr Pj|Puu<{l girinadi or girinadi. 4. such as a vehicle belonging to Indra. 5. 4. to lead. Indra.vm. ?JTR front. 43 three-eyed. for instance. (Pan. day but ahan. ojw: K/knn: kamsah kshirapdnah. remains unchanged. In the same manner <*vNl^iU darbhavdhanam. (Pan. 22. and n1 t to lead. the dental indravdhanam. and ^RfT ahan. instrum. name of Rama. rice-sowing. or a vessel for drinking kshirapdnam milk.) suffix \vith ^n. fa: + inT = H T^t + MNH T^ TRT 4. be remembered first. 4. but also WlP^mPm: vrihivdpinah. and the *T n of case-terminations.) TFT In a compound in the change of IT ^n into n does not take place if the first word ends Ex. (Pan. from *r% sarva. is spelt $m^i 2. pflP^Trfi*T vrihivdpin. 4. t^n (Pan. head borough. restrict this to is Some grammarians Or if it ends in \sh.) with lingual ^n. nom. from TTTT para.-$ 98 - CHANGE OF ^n INTO l^n. 3. svarbhdnuh. ' * \ may form V the genitive dlP^lPmn: IT/- hivdpinah. 8.

or of a terminational ^ n. with the adjectival suffix ^r^ in. 3. is. is and vffrTC bhogah. if it ordinary compound. Ex. 92. (Pan. . vin.ij'Jii ksMrapah. always spelt with TfT^n. : though they require nasalization hence U prenganam . ^rfTf ani. the descendant of Kharapa. ^<imf\!r surdpdni. beginning in a vowel the nasalization. TWff^ gargabhagint would Words which have the lingual was derived from T^HTt gargabhagah. but agragdmini. while 'I'taf'i'fl gargabhagini. TffcR gomaya. obligatory. If the second part of a compound contains a guttural. instrum. suffix are treated in fact like have been compounded take a new words (samdnapada). of 3rE5Rjfta*r sushkagomaya . surdpah. with 98. 4. (See also its Again. vm. vin. n.) the adjectival suffix ^tna (samdsdnta). Note The T n of secondary attached to the end of compounds. always retains dental IT n. is While pronounced obligatory. 4. Likewise after prepositions which contain an T r.) Ex. under the general conditions. such as ^R ana. it is said to be optional after causative verbs (Pan. 3. vin. the sister of Garga.) suffixes. instrum. the change obliga4.Mt kharapah (i. always changed to TO w. 31).) . it is forbidden in other verbs. 1 tory. then the change of a final ^ n followed by a terminational vowel. vin.) pravapanam . ^fxcfiT^ harikdmena. urmHW prdpyamdnam. vin. . neut. is changed to TT^W. a vowel). 4. ^fccRTH: harikdmah. vin. and therefore follow the general single Kas'. but under certain restric- tions. even though the second part be not monosyllabic. change necessary . but ^Nhjjft dirghdhni. 4. 30). plur. instrum.-Vritti 'atf^mPmifl' or cflngmPijffl vrihivdpini or vrihivdpim. u. drinking sura : nom. dung.44 CHANGE OF ^n INTO TO n 98. x Thus <3<. 3. (Pan.) . drinking milk . not beginning with vowels. vart. fit TTrWT'fi'TOrt mdtribhoginah. and mftmdna. from TTtT mdtri. 12. in these cases the change 4. vin. the T n of primary affixes.e. enjoyment. the share of Garga. sing. If the second part of the compound is monosyllabic. hence M^IIMHf and O tf praydpanam and praydpanam . 4. dry.) 5. ^T in. 4d^<u: vritrahanah . (Pan. mother. vin. 6. being an *JTw. and after verbs beginning and ending in consonants with any vowel but ^T a (Pan. Likewise feminines such as (Kas'. 4. HH|Tii pramdnam . is 6. after verbs THfitTO or 7f prakopanam Again. after they ^ft ini. but H + ^iiR = Uif*r?T pra -f ^r^ = TPTW pra H. vin. Vritra-killer gen. iHM<!J (Pan.) sushkagomayena. 7. sing. "^1^ : vritrahan. kshirapena. donkey-keeper) becomes sfi^it*iut khdrapdyanah. ^nft^r aniya. fern.-Vritti rule of 96. 4. sing. is (Pan.) 7. ^li. (Pan. Tf na (if preceded by Ex. loving Hari ^njirrfafrr . 29. enjoying the share of Garga.inganam = + kampanam = prakampanam. (not ^T a) and strengthening their bases by is or prakopanam. to be possessed by a mother.





Lastly, there are several roots which defy

these rules, viz.

^pd, Wfton, T^c/am, *n\pytiy
1THTCT prabhdnam


T<T vep


m&( prabhdnam


1T%*R pravepanam, never lOTTO pravepanam.

After prepositions containing an ^r, such as wwraw/ar, f^wtr, qft joflri, and IT /?ra, and after */Mr, the change of ^ n into

w^n takes




In most roots beginning with t^n. (Pan. vin. 4, 14.) IT -f- HHfri = HUJHfrt />ra + namati =pranamati t he bows.


= M^KM^fri jard + nudati = pardnudati, he pushes away. w: -f l^flT = <iri^Mfrt antah -f nayati = antarnayati^ he leads in. + rnrcK = HIIIIM^: ^?ra + ndyakah =prandyaka/i, a leader.



which are

liable to this

change of their



n are entered


the Dhatupatha, the



Thus we

of roots of native grammarians, as beginning should find the root "^nam entered as


simply in order thus to indicate its liability to change.

In a few roots this change


optional if they are followed

by Krit


(Pan. vm.

4, 33.)

QllfH nis, to kiss

or ufj fa



pranimsitavyam or pranimsitavyam.

frSTW niksh, to kiss


or yfHH|^i pranikshanam or pranikshanam. or TTPH^H pranindanam or pranindanam.
resists all

ftjf^ nid, to




In a few roots the
in the



change, and these roots are entered

Dhatupatha as beginning with
nrit, to



(Pan. vi.


65, vart.)


?TTT ndt, to

faU down, (Chur *.)

nand, to rejoice.
nardy to howl.

ndth, to ask.

nddh, to beg.

nakk, to destroy.

nri, to lead.

Ex. iircHHH parinartanam


Mfci<H parinandanani.




to destroy, changes
IT -f

n into




its 31


not changed to t^sh.


= Tmpttpra + na&yate =pranasyate
T/i is


+ TO = TFW.pra -f nashtah =pranashtah,destroyed.

(Pan. vm. 4, 36.)


In the root ^rfcm, to breathe, the

changed to i^n if the Tr Thus IT 4separated from the tj n by more than one letter. = prdniti, he breathes ; but xrft 4- ^fnfH mftllfrf pra + aniti



+ aniti = paryaniti







the desiderative with f^jpard
4, 19, 21.)

wftrftr^fif pardni-


(Pan. vm.

* It




to dance, but



of the



and hence written with a





p. 41, note.


In the root







^han, to kill, the ^n is changed except where "^h has to Thus IT + ?rsrff TnrTRTH pra + be changed to vin. 4, 22.) T^gh. (Pan. hanyate = prahanyate, he is struck down ; -eici^JLHd antarhanyate = SHlftf pra + ghnanti =praghnanti, they (Pan. vin. 4, 24) ; but TT -f "jHlT


Also H^Otf prahananam,


The change

optional again where f^n

4, 23.)


followed by *rw or ^v. (Pan. Tnrfar or TJ^ftw prahanmi or prahanmi ; M^*4! or


U^Fi prahanvah or prahativah. The tT w of fj WM of the Su and of tfT raa
to i^n in the verbs f^ hi, to send,

of the Kri conjugation




m, to


(Pan. vm. 4, 15.)

Ex. TT^rq^fw prahinvanti




The The


of the termination ^fif^dni in the imperative

changeable. (Pan.






+ *^Tftf = TW^lftr pra + bhavdni


n of the preposition fa
to to shout, tfKjpat,


preceded by u pra, ifopari,

changed into T^n before the verbs (Pan.


4, 17)



to speak,



to go, the verbs called


ma, to measure, *T^ me, to change,
ya, to go, ^T vd, to blow,


so, to


kill, ITT

drd, to flee or to sleep,

^ wr

^ghu, Aw, to
psd, to


"^vap, to sow or to weave, ^vah, to bear, yp^sam, to anoint. (c?w), fa cAi, to collect, fij^ dih,
change takes place vin. 4, 17, vart.) (Pan.

to be tranquil



even when








99. In all other verbs except those

which follow n^ gad the change of

fT ni after


pra, iffcpari, &c.,



TTf^q^ffrf or Mriiimfri

pranipachati or pranipachati.

Except again
(Pan. vin.

in verbs beginning with
8), in

ka or

which the


n of fa


^ kha, or ending in remains unchanged.

^ sh

dflT pranikaroti



'wfH fi(H P






likely to

diacritical letters (anubandhas),

but only in their Devanagari form.

be useful, the Sanskrit roots have been given with their Panini in enumerating
ftff ni,

the roots which change f^ni after TKpra, "Oftpari,

mentions HTw?a, but


according to the commentaries, includes two roots, the root
mimtte, he measures,
in this

m&md(n}, which forms


grammar the

and the root ^^me(n), which forms HTfifmayate, he changes. Where transcribed form of a root differs from its Devanagari original, the
always be looked upon as diacritical marks employed by native class to which certain verbs belong has been indicated by

additional letters



Sometimes the

adding the


verb of that class in brackets.

Thus sam


means sdmyati,



conjugated like


and not sdmayate.



Change O/T^S







(chiefly of suffixes
^Tf a,

and terminations*),



by any vowel except v,


into the lingual i^sh, provided or likewise ; 9 }

always changed be followed by a vowel, or by th, i^/,











by certain Taddhita

suffixes, T|Ara,

^ VW kalpa,

in^T pd6a, &c.

Anusvaraf or the Visarga or ^sh intervenes between the vowel and the ^s, the change into "^sh takes place nevertheless.
inflectional *rfxN^ sarpis,

If an inserted





sing. neut. clarified



instrum. *ff^T sarpishd


Anusvara intervenes)


plur. Kqffq sarpimshi (here plur. *rf:i{ sarpihshu (here the


Visarga intervenes), or vdkshu, loc. plur. of


sarpishshu (here the




"ZF^vdch, speech. sarvafak + su sarvasakshu, omnipotent. *cf$T*J


+ ^ = fa^rfo'BJ chitralikh


+ su = chitralikshu,


loc. plur. of jfig girshu, frf^ gir, speech. kamal + su kamalshu, + *J F*T^



naming the goddess Lakshmi.

dhrokshyati, fut. of


druh, to hate




changed to


and the aspiration thrown on the


^ d.)
(here ^s/i




to nourish;


^ k.)

+ K = '^f^Mi:


= sarpishkah



formed by
(here the




clarified butter.

+ TO = *rfqro


+ tarafy = sarpishtarah





2.) changed vowel be long, no change takes place; irtaTO gistard.

into 3^, as in $ 89, III.

If the penultimate
(Pan. vin.

3. I01 -)


H- Trl

= frffar^sarpih + mat = sarpishmat,
not be a radical


clarified butter.



^5 must


hence *jftn

supisau, because the

^* belongs


Yet VHlfyM: dsishah, from root JIT^Afc. the root f*PR(pis. (Pan.vin. 3, 59.) do not apply to final hence -flfHWd agnis tatra. (Pan. vin. 3, 55.)

l"he rules


t The Anusvara must be what Sanskrit grammarians
a radical nasal; hence, even

call nuro, it


write 'Qftpumsu, loc. plur. of



does not become


(Pan. vin. 3, 58.)

must not represent Pada ip^tim*, man, to Bopp and According

other European grammarians,

who do not

limit the
or, if

Anusvara to the inserted Anusvara,
to preserve the

we should have

to write either


we wish


TJ^T jmnjii.

According to Panini, however, TfjJ purhsu

the right form.








^ sh.


Table showing the Changes of



^ sh.

Any Vowels


^r, ^rr







Now Vsh for 1^8 in these verbs is enjoined a second time When a preposition, or whatever else precedes it, requires such
general rules,


+ ^RTTfrf = (qgifn vi -f stauti = vishtauti.
the reduplicative syllable contains

permutation, according to

W(tev forms ftw^ sithera

in the reduplicated perfect.

In desideratives, f fM rw fit


^or 7*



fin^ticM, Des.






of the desiderative element



be changed to ^*A, the


remains unchanged.

faVsiVM, fi

P<m Pff



3, 61.)

Except in



in derivative verbs in

^Haya, where


changed to

Des. gi^Pn tushtushati. fwv^sidh, Cans,
yishati; but

W^ftf sedhayati,
3, 62),

Des. PuMMP*JMPrt sishedh a-



(viu.3, 61.)

Except again, in certain causatives,

^HTaya (vm.





ftKsqrMHPrf sisvedayishati.



^* is not changed into ^i&M^nntn siscdduyishati.

^T? sah, \****\^\*(H\n sisdhayishati.

In certain verbs, after prepositions which require such a change, even when they are
separated from the verb by the augment, viz. JJsM (su),

1su (tud),1Rso


^$*tu (ad),



or even


separated by

reduplication, in the verbs JUTT sthd y


senaya, fl!R(sidh,ff(^^sich, '^[^sanj )
(the last only after tjfr/>an,

W^svanj '^sad HK^stambh, ^"^sran,
3, 65.)

fT n, f^vi: vm.

After prepositions




^rftf^fir abhishuvati.

^rfH^fri abhishyati.

M PVKI fn parishtauti. M r<.g^*nf parishtobhate. ^rf^Bl^rd abhishthdsyati. ^ft^inrfw
abhishenayati. M (V< v Per parishedhati. ^rfkfM

*! PIT


M fl.M H frt parishajati.

s P<



n parishvajate


3, 65).


nishidati, but HPntfl^rn pratistdati




W^?*T avashtabhya
3, 69, in


3, 68, in certain senses),

fa and


and avashvanati (vm.

the sense of eating).
After prepositions and

MflJ^Ti parishevate.



^f^i mu *<

M ^ KI


guH ^abhyashunot. M^^^ paryashuvat. ^TT?^TiT abhyashtobhata.

abhyashenayat. ^^f?(paryashedhat.





SN^Ml^i^ abhyashidat.



vyashvanat and VH^ I'M^Ud avdshvanat.



After prepositions and reduplication

(vm. 3, 64)


xi(*ici8l abhitashthau.



3, 118).








f^faHRSfft nishishatsati

after tjftpari,

vjcm>q|<u avashashvdna.






fTnt, fat?.)


after the prepositions "^ft^art, ftfni, fari, the following

words (vm.

3, 70): the

part, "fain sitaA, the subst.


say ah, ftf^sip,

^sA; ^




^5 The words mentioned



similar verbs
in 4.


^J and


^5^ wan; may

optionally retain






3, 71.)



After the prepositions


INTO \sh.



^HJ anu, fa vi,

*jft pari, ^srfa abhi, fTm', "f&^syand
3, 72.)

may tak



applied to living beings,

6. After the prep,
Tf ta

fa vi, ta^^. skand may take ^sA, though not

in the past participle in

(vm. 3, (vm. 3, 74). ^fV^-sct (vm.

73), but after the prep, "qfic pari, throughout, even in the past participle

or s (Xs&q t parishkannah or pariskannah.
fefvi, the verbs


After the prep. f*f^wz>,
3, 76.)


^!^sphur and

t*yco sphul

may take ^sh.


After the prep, f^vi,

^^skambh must

always take ^sh.


3, 77.)


The verb


as, after


vowel, takes "^sh after prepositions which


if the ^sh is followed by \y or a vowel (vm. 3, 87). ^XfazfTi^abhishydt. W^?E(l^prdduhshydt. injt^fir prdduhshanti. The verb CT{st?op, when changed to ^^*p, takes \sh, after *J SM, f% m", fT^mY, <j^c?w

cause such a change, and after TK^prddur,


3, 88).

*[$*: sushuptah.

JfJW*. duhshuptah.

Exceptional cases, where



used, and not


The verb

fa*{sich, followed by the intensive


3, 112).

^afn ^ f ^"rf abhisesi-

13. 14.

The verb ftlV sidh,

signifying to go


3, 113). 3,

^lV*i vfn parisedhati.

The verb




changed to



yP<4ft'^ parisodhum.

The verbs W^stambh,
The verb




in the

reduplicated aorist






followed by the affixes of the ist future, the conditional, or the desidera^fHtftucPri abhisoshyati.


(vm. The verbs

3, 117).


sad, "^T^svanj, in the reduplicated



3, 118).



'STPmifl'T abhishasvaje.
optionally, if preceded

The verb TR^sad,

by the augment (vm.

3, 119).

O^ or

or nyasidat. tmaftt^nyashidat

There are many compounds in which the



of the second word



to TB(sh,


word ends

in a

vowel (except


Ex. gfa ^^yudhishthira, from jfv yudhi,

in battle,

and f^f^sthira, firm;

f<1Ht vishamah,

shomau, Agni and

Soma ;

^ sushthu, well ; g^dushthu, ill; ^^"TT sushamd, beautiful, from ^RTt samah, even ; fag*T trishtubh, a metre ; vcfiTHiiT agni*iinmi mdtrishvasri, mother's sister ; ft n ^pitrishvasri, father's

goshthah, cow-stable


^TP'i8l*iJ agnishtomah, a sacrifice




shtomah, a sacrifice, (here the final ?^s of Tt^^'^jyotis




of Indra, and similar compounds,



changed to

^sh whenever ^
3, 56.)

g<itn^ h becomes T

turdsdh, a t;

nom. '^\m^turdshdt j

^l^IT^ turdsdham. (Pan.


Change of Dental

V dh into Lingual



The ^dh

of the second pers. plur.
"^ftsST sMdhvam

changed to

^ dh

in the reduplicated

perfect, the aorist, and in

of the benedictive, provided the

V dh,

or the



of ^ftt4 shidhvam, follows immediately an inflective root ending in any vowel but


^TT a.



3, 78.)



kri; Perf.



^ cAyw

Aor. vc*J^6 achyodhvam.
^ft Ml


p loshidhvam


Bened. "6<M 1 Bened. <5<5^^ luluvidhve or (Jcjfaj luluvidhve. J But JM. . which H 2 . The phonetic rules contained in the preceding paragraphs ($3294) apply. I hate. %fj dviddhi. each form by itself. or are themselves liable to such numerous exceptions that it is far easier to learn the words or grammatical forms themselves. he hates. without his endeavouring. he hated. sieve. but he will never learn his first declensions an conjugations properly. of a hater. %^: dvishah. Perf. No hiatus is tolerated in the middle Words such hiatus in as n<J<i praiiga. he endeavours to construct according to the phonetic rules laid i. 107. such as if&jnpura-etd. are isolated exceptions. HH^fth: nama-ukiih. There is another class of phonetic rules applicable to the final letters of nominal (prdtipadikd) and verbal bases (dhdtu) before the other terminations of declension and conjugation. ifffc them on irfor memory. beginning with a vowel or ^y. thou ! dveshti. Aor. forms dveshmi. same terminations are preceded by the intermediate \i. to hate. however. and before secondary or Taddhita suffixes.-$ 107- BULBS OP INTERNAL 8ANDHI. to impress learnt that hatest. The com- pounds. <J/tt. ^r. . down in the following paragraphs. before primary or Krit suffixes. fg^4} dvi(su. the change is optional. instead of acquiring the paradigms as they are. and to the final letters of nominal bases before the Pada-terminations. Rules of Internal Sandhi. and deserve to be remembered. to the final and initial letters of words formed into compounds. as we do in Greek and Latin. ^ Ex. than to try to master the rules according to which they are formed or supposed to be formed. ^Z advet. Aor. ^ftf dvekshi. change of final ^ sh into ^F k. of Sanskrit words. ^0. saying of praise. The student will find it useful to glance at them. beginning with any consonant except ^y. But in many cases they either agree with the rules of External Sandhi. if. when brought into immediate contact with each other in a sentence. Final Vowels. Tf*{yqj. which regulate the a hater. more or less general. Aor. &c. and before certain secondary or Taddhita suffixes. \% be preceded by ^ y. as has been stated. fd'Hd titaii. f^fqMl*4 lavishidhvam or rtf^Ml j lavishtdhvam. After he has %s dvish. Hate 3 /. ^fc5fa*4 alavidhvam or <5 /M. Some of these rules are general. ^ h. J 06. If the V II f\Sf **4 akshibdhvam. ^fq^ alavidhvam. and the /. f|T7 dvif. 51 But flSp^foAtp. ^HTtftW abodhidhvam. he will refer back with advantage to the rules. going in front. fore-yoke. Ujll^ yakshidhvam. to the final and initial letters of words (padas). The following are a few of the phonetic rules of what may be called Internal Sandhi. ^ d. among haters.

IT: pund+mah= yvfli! punimah. be it is possible to dispense with a number of these phonetic rules. Again. or changed to ^z These rules be given in the chapter on Conjugation. impf. p. we can form regularly ^s^ advesh-am and TIT^ dvishe. + WT = "fi^T pitri+d=pitrd.p.. Thus it is if *8R^am is put down as the general termination of the ace. are generally Ty. By following the system adopted in this arrive at the grammar of giving two sets of terminations. to the mind.. in order to arrive at f$rt sivam. UbM+ati bibhyati. of these systems has 109. ^$ri. TJ<< + ^Tm tuda-\-ami= it^iUi tuddmi. 2. by the father. according to which final ^TT a either elided. I beat. no doubt.r. Here. elision of a final ( 108- produced by the ^s before certain vowels.52 is RULES OF INTERNAL SANDHI. was said to ^l<s!**i form san- ^IT^TJT sankhadhme. in order to arrive at the correct forms ^Tg^ atud(a)-am and TJ^ tud(a)e. Atm.JJ sankhadhmd-\-e a. is many special rules have to be or to J? e. and thus enabling the student to actual forms of declension and conjugation by a merely mechanical combination of base and termination. t[TT 3[ If we admit ^T a. in the gift. ace. and assigning the weak W[ d is dropt. + ^ tuda+i=ltfi tude. in the declension of bases ending in radical ^TT a. certain phonetic rules laid had to down. they fear. ^. <JTT + + ^ c?awa-f= <H% ddne. observed. ST -t- f^ dd-\-hi=^ . "31 u. the two gifts. in '3F3vdch-am. and the most practical plan is. sing. (to the shell-blower. JT Hw + U = ^ mati+ai=matyai. Thus anti ipfT -h '^ fk puna -\- = ^j r( in punanti. to 4.) ^TT a coalesce with following vowels according to the general Final ^a "if^ and rules of Sandhi. of the two splendours. With regard will to verbal bases ending in long ^TT a. has been treated of under the head of External 108. cleanse. all the so-called Bha cases. (Vf J = J* /^-H$ ==/fey*& they have conquered. In the same manner. + ^fc = *TT^t bhdnu+oh = bhdnvoh. "3u. the same result is obtained by admitting two bases for this as for base. according to which the final ^TT d had to be elided before certain terminations beginning with vowels. Each advantages and defects. Thus the dative ty<sr*Hl 4. sing. Sandhi'.. but we have to lay down a new rule. to learn the paradigms by heart without asking any questions as to the manner in which the base and the terminations were originally combined or glued together. dana+* = <P^ ddne. vi. followed by vowels or diphthongs. they cleanse. it the same set of terminations after bases ending in consonants and in short becomes necessary to lay down some rules requiring final ^T a to be dropt before certain vowels. the cases which its Bopp calls the weakest cases (Pan.. in which the many other nouns. ^ am is as the termination of the i. as necessary to enjoin the omission of final ^Ta of f$R &va before the if ^ am of the put down pres. sing.) by dropping the final ^TT and not khadhmai. 84. 140). and Ue as that of the i. I beat. . Par. changed to Ex. Final ^i. sing. Give if ! no. according to which the final ^T a of ij^ tuda is dropt. Atm. IpTT -j. v. we dehi. too.

to "9^ ur.-$ 1 13. in fear. labials Final ^Qrt. f are 53 T(t<p.. RULES OP INTERNAL 8ANDHI. letter T m.T: = *nT|: yuyu+uh = yuyuvuh they have joined. to the cow. on earth.rdye. 2. ^ t> and.46) i. 7 u and "Hi* to ^ri to ftri. i. ^ he is weary. he swallows. fyOftl tf + Wy = (VPsH^t fiJri+athuJi = siJriyathuJt + ^= fafr bhi+i = bhiyi. Final Consonants. t t you (two) have gone. ^ ai. if followed by terminational consonants. 53 H. under the heads of Declension and Conjugation. battle. to Passive ^npur-yate. ^vye in redupl. and after *T grt. liberal. 77i. but fnf<< fnjihriyati from See ^ fwrfk bibhyati m. (See f 390. I have brought forth. last j^tt ^[ w. X + ^ = ITT rai+e-=. 45. ^TTM. *| >T t 1 T^+ 3[ = M ^fV papri+ i =papuri. ^iWt girnah. ^ + wflf = f^KPn gri+ati=girati. likewise be observed final. he will protect. the ships. final f^ ir or "^. Pan. would be . he protects. (Pan. ^ of a nominal or verbal base becomes e. before vowels and diphthongs. 'M to wealth. it Roots terminated by a radical diphthong (except change into ^TT d before any affix except those of the so-called special tenses. ri to changed to ftrt.ur. vi. 1. ^ + *faT=^ltO*J de+siya = ddsiya. The must rules according to which the consonants which can occur at /. In some cases ^t and to changed to ^iy.) ^ + 7TT = ^TrTT de+td=ddtd. Intensive. ^/?. H + ^Tt = TTre: nau-\-ah=. perf. Ex. Thus the nominal base ifijjudh. Part.ndvah. where the is ^ w. is changed to ^Tfr. + ^HTT = ftnin mri+ate=imriyate he dies. Part "^Ipurnah. 1^5 n gir-yate. to shout.) ^y ^ 112. ^ n. ^e. Passive fill. *[*[ + t 5 -f- + ^ = gfa bhtf+i=zbhuvi. ^ft ! + HT= ^TTTTT so+td=sdtd. May I protect + WT = STrTT mlai+td= mldtd. When from either the one or the other takes place must be learnt from paradigms and from special rules given *ft bhf. But in the Present + ^rfif = 'c6I^Pd glai+ati=gldyati. ^ /. the end of a * word are restricted to ^ k. 113. and Beneclictive. "^prt. he will pare. he will wither. final ^i and "3 u are lengthened. ^ = 5?^ sushu+e=sushuve. + JJ = T3T ^70 + e=gave. Before the final ^J ri of the Passive. after labials. ^uo. vi. are generally changed into 9 + ^Trf = ^frf de+ate = dayate. Wlf = ^ffif yu-\-anti=iyuvanti they join. where not followed by any derivative in the vocative singular letter or syllable. hrt. it : #.

masc. instead of ^rft| adoh. there would remain ^RF suvalk but . Here. *jqf*H: suvalbhih. well jumping. because palatals can never be final (#54-3). Terminations beginning with sonant end of the nominal or verbal base. . Par. sing. aspirate >^ tolerated as a final ($ dh must be changed into ^ d because no and ^ d is changed into f{t. 3. which further changed to k. letters. the final nasal remaining guttural. fir . speech nom. before terminations. Par. no word can end sing. 2. Par. In ^nftcfi adhok. (J consonants of the base are then treated like other rai final consonants. sing. sing. sing. impf. the aspiration of the final is thrown back on the aspiration. + s = vdk. vdch . Atm.ur 2. impf. p. its would change ^ ch into cF k. he hated 3. however. ^ ^ dhi = vagdhi. reduced again to TfT^prdn. p. 114. in the voc. in a soft consonant ($ 54. sing. In this general rule the terminations i. sing. 2). The final two consonants not being tolerated at the end of a word 55). Terminations beginning with surd of the nominal or verbal base. because 54. sing. imp. this is reduced to its 4}4c4 suval. drop the termination altogether. p. of ^ s. after the dropping as no word can end in Before the Pada*jc(c^ two consonants. you mix 2. letters. require a sonant letter at the 2. impf. p. because it would have been guttural if the final ^K k had remained. 1. require a surd letter at the end 3. pres. Here UTcfr prank. Exceptions $ 115. he eats. hence instrum. thou eatest. regard to the changes of the final consonants of nominal rule is. which remains after the dropping of ^s. eastern. + fa = ^rffcr ad + si = atsi. ^tr^vdch. + ^T5*T ahan + s = ahan. the is 114} y^ yudh. thou killedst . is. T^-f fv = "^fHr vach + *[^4. Speak 2. speech. = ^7 will advesh 'srvVoF adoh + 1 = advet. + ^= *J^ suvalg + s = suval. sing. p. beginning with vowels. . plur. plur. + t = adhok. or nasals are excluded. ^= 2. they produce no change in the final con- sonant of the base. initial ^d *T ( 118). semivowels. is The final ^h or "<? TT gh t after losing its becomes g. terminations *}T^ suvalg assumes Pada form suval ( 53) . p. With and verbal bases.54 INTERNAL SANDHL Here. e. pres. be seen under the heads of Declension and Conjugation. Par. he milked 3. pres. =inT prdnch + s=prdn. = IJTJ^ prich + dhve =prigdhve. p. i) . Nominal or verbal bases ending in consonants and followed by terminations consisting of a single consonant. + = ^rf% ad + ti = atti. nom. the general 1. ! . according to the same rule.

TT = they two obstruct. Atm. though here the termination *TH thdh was aspirated in itself. 2. sing. sing. Second Second pers. INTERNAL SANDHI. pres. sing. i. 2. marut 55 the wind. Aspirates. he shakes much. 'Qb. ^JHfft bhudbhih.- Il8. ^ A. %^ rundh + dhve runddhve. he obstructs. they throw their aspiration ^ d. runddhah (also spelt ^VJ rundhah]. i. Instrum. he agitates. . *TT: Ao/ -f nah = bhagnah^ broken. 2. to know. sing. 1(t corresponding soft letters. sing. TJV + ^ = HtT: lobh -H yah lobhyah. nom. ^d. \ dh. initial letters. at the end of a syllable. + ftf = ^jWlfro bobodh+si=bobhotsi. loc. pres. cJ>T + W: = e73H: labh + talt rundh -\-thah-=. 3?^-|-i: + nfw = ^tflfif kshubh + ndti = kshubhndti. But = "5fy yudh + = yudhi. 2. p. ^TJT^ + fff = ^ <u fa runadh+ti = runaddhi. V dh. if followed Ex. \dh. H bh are foUowed by T^^ or ^ th. 1 1 8. H bh. you two obstruct. i. ^s. = ?TW7T grath + ya/e =grathyate.) $ 1 1 6. W6. changed into V dham. thou In ^TOT^ abdnddham. = *i R boundest. provided these letters be no other than *T^. Exceptions such as fa^ -f n = fain /^ + wo h = bhinnah. If ^gh. (J 54. Ex. loc. Intens. must be learnt by practice rather than by rule. it is arranged. divided. + i = maruti. aor. and ^M are likewise softened. p. = labdhah. in battle. it is i. Inflective base '^^budh. i dual aor. knowing. Loc. sing. The same applies to ^fiit abanddhdh. of = ^^rudh you t impede. to be desired. ^ dh. plur. plur. and the <c? receives the aspiration. aor. by terminations beginning with any letter (except vowels and semivowels and nasals). *T^. lose their aspiration. p. Par. Ex. dual aor. ufr 3. plur. If final It is a general rule that \gh. the aspiration of final ^dh is nojt thrown back upon the initial ^6. Atm. 117. ^Hp| abhuddhvam. because supposed to be absorbed by the IT tarn of the termination. but the See also 128. 3d. in ^far vach + mi = vachmi. lose their aspiration either as final or as being followed by VS^dhv (not by fv c?Ai). vi<ri-s abdndh+tam = abdnddham. you two bound. Atm. I speak. p. + Wt = ^r?TJ rundh +tah = runddhah. of the intensive %V + C5H4 = wri^mdmath. i I shall take. y^bhut.. Par. ^=<5T^ labh+sye = lapsye. taken. "Sp^ two aspirates can never meet in ordinary Sanskrit. T\fl^ pers. p. J abandh+thah = abanddhdh. ^(bh. they are changed to the \d. back upon the See 93. plur. pres. iJPJ bhutsu. *TRnqr + fcT = irRfw mdmath + ti = mdmatti. Par.

^ + % = VW cfotta + 5e = letter. vart. vach+mah vachmah. ^T + fv = ?^^ yunj-\-dhi=yungdhi. plur. \fS dadh + dhvam = dhaddhvam. ^th. . sing. Before other consonantal terminations < ^sh is treated like Z^t. = mrid+ndti=. but changes J(t and ^th into 3f and "$th. ^s. Verbal base "3^vach. if it becomes the word. a hater. jf*V dugdhi. he wishes to hurt. Verbal base fg\dvish. hate thou. he hated. but likewise 1H <^^ 4- VWt dadh + tah dhatse . fe 1 ^+ l4 = fk^|' dvish+dhvam-=dviddhvam. imp. Atm. Ex. sing. imp. 2. ! sing. semivowels. speech. before TT t and ^(th.) 123. I place. throws the lost aspiration of the final Vc?A back on the initial ^d. impf. p. 42. ^T^dhak. "^^ + flf < = '%favach+ti=vakti. ^VTfiT dadhdmi. fut. Par. (Pan. fs^dvit.56 Desiderative of <^>T INTERNAL SANDHI. Ex. Hate ye among haters. '%'^+ KJ ^ffrN = "%FJ dvish+tah = dvishtah. \ fg| or dvesh+si = dvekshi. if preceded by ^(n. 41. I shall bind. nom.) Ex. Ex. of "^-f **nf*T = >irtll(l bandh+sydmi=zbhantsydmi. ^f^l ^ i^advikshat. we speak. (Pan. p. = "^TT shat+ndm = shanndm. sing. or nasals. shat+navatih = shannavatih. 2. he will nourish. 121. g^ Note duh. Before verbal terminations beginning with ^s. rri ninety-six. T^f. sing. = dhattah + ^*f ^"^ = <^ + *n TOT: dacta + thah = dhatthah . imp. iHsfi dhipsati. and ^sh. 4. to burn . + 7R = *lfQ8W sarpish-\-tamam=sarpishtamam. ^dh. is changed into the corresponding lingual. "^s^ at the end of nominal and verbal bases./. namely. vin."ff = fkf^ dvid+dhi= dviddhi. 3. 122. Par. Atm. -ws^ advet. This rule admits of a more general application. 2. aor. or followed by a termination beginning with any except vowels. not only before S^dhv. ^ d. ^JTSEf adhugdhvam. : but 2. loc. vin. it is treated like "3F k. Ex. Ex. 3. . l^y^ are final. ^th. Nominal base "^T^vdch. But loc. a burner. ^x^J t?acA-|-t?aA= vachvah. Before IT t "^M it remains unchanged itself. of six. and ^s. is changed into <T t.) final of a 20. to be spoken. they are changed to off k or *T#. sing. plur. *}\V#rApokshyati (posh+syati). sing.mridndti. "Zj. l{dh. p. 4. p. he hated. ^"5 + ftf =. Join = = + ft = ^Tt 1 vdch+ya vdchya. ^T^T + ^= ^jf^ vdch+i=vdchi. *j'^illflf ftf e. ft^ + fV + 1"? ^5 rrffr -f. sing. Tc?. plur. they (two) hate. the best clarified butter. 1 19. $ 119- First pers. (See 1 cfT *! = = also 124. ^Tct?a&. pres. f . we two speak. p. nom. p. <? dah. where we might have expected the application of 1 17. thou hatest. to milk j impf. voc. = ^ &?+ #e = he praises. dabh. the reduplicated base of VT dhd. c?MA+-= dvitsu. ^V dadh. Nominal base fg\dvish. If ^T c^. that every dental Tw.

f$& dikshu. among men. Nominal base TQraksh. nom. among herds. The 3^s' of f%S{dis. = qjii(*i ves+sydmi=zvekshydmi. and to other rules under the heads of Declension and Conjugation. INTERNAL 8ANDHI. ^ nom. THST + ^ = JC&^taksh-\-su = tatsu. the change ^ further particulars see Declension and Conjugation. ^j. f^f'Tt diybhih . 2. Nominal base Put.. fjftsrij. will 57 be seen Exceptions to this rule. vm. Up^spris. instrum. to and m^bhrajj. Verbal base V^prachh.veshtd. 75^ + ti(i = co\asi(#i leh-\-sydmi= lekshydmi. to sacrifice. to touch. like < dh in all other words. nom. to let forth.vrashtd. Most verbal and nominal bases ending in S^. 2. + T = 1J1T mrij+tka = mrish(ha. like a guttural with an inherent aspiration. whether at the end of a word or followed by terminations. ^ ifT Nominal base ili^prdchh . = TT^| rdj + su = rdfsu ^H<^ + l4 = ^Hf^f ay qj + dhvam = ayaddhvam TT*^ + *} >p^ 125. treated like ^gh. enter you. periphr. plur. changed into ^ Ex. vm.32). I shall milk. t^c^ dik . rt9^ = fq^tj rw+*M = r*Y*M. "^ chh. ^A and in ^gh in most words beginning with ^d (Pan. if followed by a termination beginning with ^s. In the root ^t optional (Pan. V^rfArt'A. plur. 36). I shall lick. which aspiration may be thrown forward on the initial letter. loc. I shall cut. 124) are treated exactly like those ending in simple ^*A. instrum. nom. ^t^ is drigbhih. he will cut. plur. I 128. the final is f[j is replaced by *{sh. Thus . you see. TRZprdt. is ^^ c?rV.viddhvam. 124. among carpenters. or (2) . A: or of 31 s into TSJnas. vrasch-\-td-=. i. WT^bhrdj. sing. *\\*J5{ + ^ = '!W^<J goraksh+su-=goratsu.to wipe. in the cases enumerated above. Pan. + = ^7T ves+td=. T7^ dis. + twPM Utt^lfr prachh+sydmi=prakshydmi. = Ml<^tJ prdchh+su =prdtsu.e. 63). ^tch (some in Ex. "^TST ^fW + *f + li ^= . to shine. Loc. 2. ^^" chaksh-}-dhve=zchaddhve. = I shall ask. an asker. sing. Nominal base plur. or followed by Pada-terminations. Nominal base Jf^ltaksh.- 128. . 126. In the roots shine. 7f3^ drik . For 127. + m = fi^ vis+dhvam=. f%5^+ ?J t*uf*i I foetus. among askers. '^vrit. "^3^ dris. = WT prachh + td=prashtd. lp(mrij. such as TJ*{dhrish. vm. sing. to A. is ^ h at the end of verbal bases. if final. l^ksh. cow- Verbal base ^TGfchaksh. q*3^-f Fut. he will enter. thou seest. In all other cases. nom. see. is treated either (i) like ! ushnih . liable to the same changes as an original ^A. you wipe. vrasch+sydmi = vrakshydmi. to show. shall enter. nom. 11^ yaj. which. Ex. f*T^vf> a man of the third caste. <^ + Wrf*T = ^Hy^nfH doh+sydmi = dhokshydmi. TXi(rdj. IF^. to roast (VKi^bhrasj. he will ask. tt*n(*i to cut. = ^^ chaksh+se=chakshe.

Tf The only vowel which is not lengthened is "^J ri . fc5^ lih j nom. 49. before terminations of the general Ex. = 'flfUf sas+si = sassi. 2. 73. is an exception. or. (Pan. VSffjgl dhvadbhih. part. d-fT? dh ( ^+!{dh+t first are changed to is ?T +^ dh+dh. V3R(^dhvat.) chakds+dhi = chakddhi. <m *i j^ updnat . tKiSt udhah. g. instrum. e. <|7Vi dugdhah. to fall. thou sleepest. falling. plur. = sddhi. (Pan. 129- vfrn: dhugbhih . Ex. it Before the J(t of the third person. we have compounds the nom. plur.) In certain verbs final H s is dropt before TV dhi of the imperative. sing. o (Pan. how- ever. past participle '5n^ drugdhah or is "^t drudhah. and the Pada-terminations only.204. as in the part. if final s of vas. Before other terminations beginning with ^s. "grrnr^ updnah. nom. vin. pass. unless Samprasarana 129. vm. vasse. = asdt. ^T^ + + % = fHw nims+se=nimsse. See. (i) INTERNAL SANDHI. fc57 Kf lidbhih . Par. As to ^R"TF anaduh. plur. The ^5 or followed by Pada-terminations. Ex. 4. ^$TT^ + ^ = ^T^T T^ or ^n: asds+s = asdt or asdh. fT^ HH^ + ftf = Tj^fsq pepes+si=pepeshshi. ^ + ^\= ^ into vrih-{-ta = vridha. 15. i. slipper. ^5[ + tHifi = wn(i vas+sydmi = vatsydmi. ^TT^J vdtsu). c?Arwf (Pan. 112). SERK dhvasah. is required. WZdhukshu. thou hurtest. before is changed to T^ (Pan. "ftf ( 100.58 Ex. tearing. final ^s remains unchanged. of the nominal bases tm^dhvas. nom. f&f^jt vdh. the termination of the part. $5R^ dhvas. to bind. nah+tah=naddhah. Vffidhuk . vi. bound. loc. ^ "^ perf. treated as i ^ dh. may final ^s.. 33) . sing. always becomes Tf t. fast. plur. 4. (Pan.) is The final WA of certain roots ('ttdruh. T^ + fft = T^. vin. dhruk and "^T 130. - 132. plur. &c. more correctly. if immediately followed. pass. thou kissest. vaA is changed The vowel of *T^ sah and ^ 2. Jjfi muh. (Pan. to hate. 2. $ loc. ^^ + TT = ^fW vas+se =. (2) drih+tah *' = dridhak. V^duli. vi. then the ^ d dropt and the vowel lengthened. f^^ snih) in treated either as "3 gh or IJali <^c?A.by the termination of the second person. 173. to dwell. In the same verbs ^(s. plur. plur. ox. The final "^ A of Tt naA. to 117). instrum. and ?5T^sra5. Verbal bases ending in tenses beginning with ^s. see Declension. nom. = ^: ruh+tah = In c*te: 74tf&a$ "^ and ^"t rudhah. be changed to or remain 1{t ^s. vn. sing. nadbhih. ^mif|ft upd- Past part. it to T{t. instrum. ^^ snuh. thou dwellest. 74. 131. 35. change ^s. nom. 3. ^f^vas.) fut. From ^^ druh. vi.) . instrum.. "^ + TH =*^<oJ Ex. 72).

^^J amlak. unchanged before the semivowels Ex. or if followed *T a Pada-termination.) VI*IN aganma.thou knewest. by personal terminations beginning with m or ^u. he fears. Par. are changed to Anusvara. sibilants (but thou preventedst. But *jf?T^5 suhinsuy among good strikers. M-ql prenvanam*. he embraces. plur. he wishes to kill. 2. 65. But nom. kramsyate. instrum. 75. is killed. quieting. *33' *{ vm. 35- m remains *^ Mm-yah. plur. and the fourths of each class can J 137. sing. "^ /. M^imt prasdmah. Ex. he trembles. Tf t. dlingati or dlimgati. to go. and ^i*i<r aganva. from 1P{kram. regard to nasals. If 5^ n were changed to Anusvara. he will step. he cheats. H$!Ri{prasdn. the seconds. vm.am. into the fifth or into real Anusvara . %d. ($ fifths. though in writing the dot may be 8. we went. U ^1(arvnat or W^Hn arvnah. vm. 4. 71*^ we two went.Vldh before the 59 may be regularly repre- Final ^ of the 2nd pers. it is optional to change ^ m. or 5^w. Ex. cfiTWj: to be loved. ^n^TUTT or or ^i^jcfcri dsankate or dsamkate. he longs. ^ r. With only be preceded by their own used as a general substitute. ^^Tn 134. ^n remains unchanged before semivowels. plur. INTERNAL 8ANDHI. HH HI U PH jighdmsati. copper. Pada base of *ffi^ suhims. (See J 77. the general rule is that in the body of a word the firsts. is by changed into (Pan. and H^nf^Tt prasdnbhih.). sour.) * If the ^ n before ( ^v were treated as Anusvara. I propelling. iP^ ten. vart.) Ex.. from ^IW A. from H^Il'T^rasam. from ^5T han. from Tf^ /aw and suflix ^ra. (Pan.) of a nominal or verbal base. extending. or ^ifc^Jlfri' ^^mfa vanchayati or vamchayati. from ^W am and sunix <5 la. such as final *R-J-^H sam + kalpah. standing at the end of a Pada. n an d *&l(avet or *ftl aveh. the second Pan. if no suffix follows. before not before the *Jsu of the loc. I 2 . or ^r*^ utkanthate or utkamthate. 2. Ex. hence ^cR^q: or TTf^r: samkalpah or sankalpah. Imperf. sented by l(t orby^*. the thirds. sing. "^Tn" hanyate. nom. 2. loc. ^ n would have to be changed into a lingual 96). In compounds. 2. from ^y. or ifj gantum or gamtum. or giTr?r kampate or kampate. we should have to write "jjf*J suhimshu.. from T^ + T gam+ma. from ^5^nt?. ^w at the end vm. he from '%*^han.. ni^ tanvan. (Pan. 136. from j(V^ suhin. U3li**j prasdnsu. plur. + ^ gam-\-va.-$ 137. TTPff tdmram. 64.) at the *^wi end of a nominal or verbal base.

if preceded by 3(i or TM. ^^^ + ^ = ^rt! J supis+su=supfyshuj 1 nom. *|tfh supth.) must be changed Ex. and f h. voice. ^r becomes Ex. plur. plur. *f\^\njiryati. sing. t*lT ramhate. and neut. sing. ^ >-. vm. decaying. voice. Jra: mlechchhah. Nom. Roots ending in Wt? and ^>. 142. 92. "Schh before a suffix beginning with Tn or Hm is . ^R damsanam. loc. to exert. he plays. (Pan. Before optional. 141. "^. Ex. a barbarian. and T^wr lengthen ^i and Tw. ^+ = tjjn puy-\-tah=putak. There are exceptions. 2. having played. = THU. See No. Ex.) "^^Mr. . instrum. IT^ + T= 1TW prachh+na=prasnak. Anusvara s^ s9 is 138- the only nasal that can stand before the sibilants ^ sh. 7K 143. masc. 78.) Nominal and verbal bases ending final after the loss of in ^CV nom. rT^ tvar. vm.) "3" w. their ^i and 2. ^leqm dw-ydsam. prayer. TTsjftra/m. sing. question. except ^ y. INTERNAL SANDHI. vm. 145. biting. when (Pan. Ex. 'i. plur. = HmlVi pdprachh+mi=pdprasmi. masc. ^chh in the middle to ^. to go '^^fir richchhati. e. he goes. *r^n ^nrft yajdmsM.changed to Tf? s. sing. Nominal bases ending in S^z's or ^^ws (the 3^ is or I^MS being radical) lengthen ^ and ^fu when final. 144. Tw following immediately ^ch or changed to *T n. 76. 79. neut. the prayers. In the body of a word. 2. after he goes. turnah.gir. and before terminations beginning with *T bh or ^s. JjrSt gurnah. . *HT* sajuh. to sound. + llH = fffiC^l^didiv -\-vdn = didivdn. nom. TT^-f another final consonant. *^j is 139. TT^T ydchnd. Ex. to grow old. vm. is On a similar principle ^T u lengthened in jj^-f^rnn = ij^i^* turv+dvah = turvdvak. ^f^ richh. I HlH^ + 1*T ^ v this change is ask frequently.) ^= *f^ or *f\tgir+s=gir or gfk. cflsHPff dtvyati. vn^jir}. ^ s. Tftftgirshu. queen. if ^v or^r 1 is followed immediately by a terminational consonant. he was born. 2. 77. turv+nah=. to play. ^fUra kurydsam. } 140. killed. ^HjpT +^T = ^n sajus+s-=sajuh. of a word between vowels or diphthongs (See 91. Ex.chchh. Roots ending in T^y and ^v throw off their final letters before terminations beginning with consonants. Loc. Bened. (Pan. ^fsir jajne.60 J 138. iftf^t girbhih. Bened. hamsahj goose. lengthen (Pan. f^ div.

&c. I. T^K varshdh. HMU mdnas-a. Thus TOT or ^Ifa vardhana or varddhana. but as it was contrived it for his own it is difficult to adopt part of without at the same time adopting the whole of his system. likewise any consonant or * A. however. grammatical terminology of Panini peculiar system of grammar. Doubling of Consonants. Thus from the root m^ man. and according to some. Thus from the root Sf^Ym. INTERNAL 8ANDHI. are called Prdtipadika. have been collected in what are called Dhdtupdthas. 387). Karmadhdraya.^Mn not be doubled.-$ 148. . 61 146. Atmanepada. so useful that they have found ready admittance into our own grammatical terminology. Nothing can be more perfect than the Taddhita. root-recitals. Tims it is always. From these dhdtus or roots are derived by means of pratyayas or not only all suffixes. R^ man-as. it is But we may write either <^Mff or darsyate or darsfyate. vol. but without as yet any case-terminations attached to them. followed by another consonant and preceded by a vowel. mind. or according to some grammarians with or These roots dhdtus. rainy season U<$: ddarsah (Prat. mirror. the increase. A few remarks. Words thus formed. Taranatha. . 147. As no practical preceded by ^lr object is obtained by this practice. sun. we have the prdtipadika or * Siddhanta-Kaumudi. Unddi. to discontinue it throughout. kinds of verbs. In our editions doubling takes place most frequently where any consonant. Krit. these being again preceded by a vowel. frequently written ^1% arkka. m(i\brahman may be written If %*i^6ra Amman. Sanskrit grammars have besides sanctioned the use of such terms as Parasmaipada. on some of Panini' s grammatical terms may be few are useful. p. Some of the technical terms used by native grammarians have proved $ 148. All words without exception. nominal bases. is preceded by is ^r or A. to beget. may be doubled . an aspirated consonant has to be doubled. we have not only but likewise ?rgw man-u-te. with Sftkalya. and many more. According to some grammarians any consonant except ^r and A. Bahuvrthi. H. mental. he thinks. A sibilant after ^> must <. the most derived from roots important of which is ascribed by tradition to Panini*. it is best. unless . Tatpurusha. Explanation of some Grammatical Terms used by Native Grammarian*. first loses its aspiration. these letters being themselves preceded by a vowel. very exceptions. but all substantives and adjectives. Guna and Vriddhi any are terms adopted rians in the absence of classical words to by comparative grammamark the exact changes of Most vowels comprehended under these words by Panini and others. except the sibilants and ? h. shown. even all pronouns and particles. Thus ^T% arka. to think. ed. it is followed by a consonant.

nom. Kritya. Unddi. is called Anga. appropriate for man. what 3. however. the latter Taddhita. followed A by a suffix Every base. ready to receive the terminations of declension. 2. trembling. if ya. faciendum. to burn. The name prdtipadika would apply both to *&{jana and *&f\<ijanma. i. suffixes used in the formation of nouns which to native rians gramma- Thus form or meaning. is to be done. according to which. which may be treated as declinable verbal terminations. nouns are of two kinds : Suffixes for the formation of 1.62 nominal base GRAMMATICAL TERMS. and ace.. a man. from TO kshu 9 to sneeze. body. (pratyaya) 9 whether Krit or Taddhita. and nom. either in The Taddhita suffixes are no further subdivided. to swell. nom. new distinctions have been introduced by Sanskrit grammarians. is raised to the dignity of a base (prdtipadika). a base is only called Anga before the terminations of the nom. Thus by means of the Sanskrit grammarians form from ^^vep 9 to tremble. CRT kdrya. as nominal bases. but the feminine suffixes (stripratyayd) are sometimes treated as a separate class. These Anga cases together are called the Sarvandmasthdna. suffix WJ athu. Those by which nouns are derived direct from roots Primary Suffixes. seemed more or less irregular. man. . and this by the addition of the sign of the becomes *F\\jan-a-h. in certain declensions. such as rf^T tavya. sing. sing. properly so called. a thing. suffixes formed from roots with certain more or by which nouns can be regularly less definite meanings. ^TTJ vepathu. besides the ace. from fig km. vexation. with regard to the suffix which is attached to it. 2. nouns . Those by which nouns are derived from other nouns Secondary Suffixes. The vocative generally follows the nominative. to vex. . and fern. Cases. from g du. *{r{jan Thus ^jana. certain suffixes. Wtjtffa karaniya. and wi^vastu. but inffarf janina. man. from i&(vas 9 to dwell. kshavathu. ^jan-a.e. is formed <#S<*i kartavya. The former are called Krit. ^ffta aniya. swelling. suffixes are subdivided into three classes : Krit. davathu. dual. For technical purposes. of masc. plur. sneezing. root. and ace. Bopp calls them the Strong Before terminations beginning with consonants (likewise before Taddhitas . sgrrsr svayathu. and finally becomes a real word (pada) when it is finished by receiving a case-termination (vibhakti). 148. The Krit 1. Thus from to do. both ^r vastu. JffoOT elima. cR^ kar. a house. is derived from the root by the Krit suffix ^ a. is derived from *ttjana by the Taddhita suffix fT fact. and nom. of neuters. plur.

division. having made e. substantive. begin with vowels (likewise Before the remaining terminations which before Taddhitas beginning with vowels and ^ y) the base is called Bha. GRAMMATICAL TERMS. Upasarga or Gati. Those beginning with ^ cha. t by Those beginning with u pra before. adverbs which enter into close combination with verbs.148. with three persons and three numbers. 63 beginning with any consonant except ^ y) the base is called Pada. eight cases. literally what what takes its place before or after other words. comprehended under the name of Nipdta. are declined through numbers with seven or. the sound produced by clearing the throat. collected 2. A called declined noun as well as a conjugated verb. they are The name of Gati is also given to a class of if pra govern a When Ex. . was used to signify a noun. are in the main the same as at the end of words. lit. i. e. i. or pronouns. and. a list of prepositions in the same manner by native grammarians. ^TI^ khdt in ttlrjirfl khdtkritya. e. Particles are. and some through a middle voice also. A personal termination is called fir^ tin or Owta vibhakti. is Pada. Verbs are conjugated through the active and passive voices. "astf uri in assenting . with a caseThe rules of Sandhi before these terminations termination attached to it. and when necessary to distinguish. All particles are indeclinable (avyaya). When called the prepositions beginning with are called Karmapravachaniya. collected conjunctions. i. if we include the vocative. as we saw before. it Bopp is calls the Pada and Bha cases together the Weak Cases . ^Oeffl urikritya. falls Particles are into a sentence. 1. a list of words consisting of native grammarians. interjections. they they are joined to a root. three Nouns. A caseis termination called 1{sup or fwf^i vibhakti. he calls the Pada the Middle and the Bha the Weakest Cases. whether substantives. ending in a vibhakti. adverbs. khdt. in ten moods and tenses. the same term which. adjectives.

fern... except bases in ^\n :o * Voc. W33(^samvat. . Instr.bhur. . They take ^ i in the Nom. and "^s ^ au ISM ^r: Neuters have no termination in the Nom. Ace. fire. <f!TTJ ddrdh. plur. the rainy season.. heaven. Abl. fern. Instrumental. Ace. wife i. sand q^coit bahuldh. the usual abbreviations for 5J^M^t suklapakshah and ^snqsj: krishnapakshah. used in the plural only . . plur. plural. ^tj svayam.. Locative.. the self. Ablative. '^fesudi. the light fortnight. 152. and Vocative. p. This nasal .) in the According to Radhakanta. Sanskrit nouns have three three genders. Kalasankalita. and Plural and eight cases. Sanskrit i. or ^c^UHft is bahulapakshah. Bases ending in consonants receive the following terminations : Terminations for Masculines and Feminines. singular (Pada cases).. nouns may be divided into two classes : Those that have bases ending in consonants. masc. are pluralia tantum. Loc. Tty. Iji. Feminine. plur. ^rtTS varshdh. ah ^TT dm ah v like }^ Nom. Dual. *l|f*f saw*. 2. dual (Bha cases). and ^f^ dark fortnight. Bases ending in Consonants.. Norn. *jf?f sudi used West only. and Voc. They take \i in the Nom. ^5 (which always dropt) ^ am ^rra ire l^au J " fa: bhih 1 Dat. the rains . in all consonants except *&n } 5Tn. and insert a before the final consonant of the inflective base nasal is (Anga cases). Dative. $ 149.64 DECLENSION. are subject to some of the phonetic rules explained above. is PLURAL. Accusative. and Voc. ^: ah ^r: \vi\bhyah J ] Gen. badi. half. Singular. atmosphere. Nominal bases may end The final letters of the inflective bases of nouns. Ace. numbers. Nominative. the Pleiades. and . being either final or brought in contact with the initial letters of the terminations. SINGULAR. plur. Neuter . Genitive. water sikatdh. 150. . Some nouns . (of ^*m^ayds. 149- CHAPTER DECLENSION. *j$. DUAL. Ace. 361. Note There are a few nouns which are indeclinable in Sanskrit: *5^ svar. Those that have bases ending in vowels.. and Voc... i. dpah. year. III. Vikramaditya's era). (Warren. e. Masculine. fern.

^n before dentals. Changeable bases.V. but sugan. it should be remembered.DECLENSION. p. sugdn-ah sugdn-dm I sugdn-oh sugan-au sugan-ah sugn-i an V. Plur.) Gen. Paradigm of a regular Noun with unchangeable Base. well. AnuT^n Neuters ending in a nasal or a semivowel do h. the ^s of the termi- ^w nation is dropt (see $ 114. UNCHANGEABLE BASES. Dual Tfift^h: pratich-oh . i. \ N. Plur. and that in the Loc. A. is sugn- Or l7^! sugdnt-su. are given together. Unchangeable of the bases. Dual tyanch. K . ^n before gutturals.) SINGULAR. MASC. (from *J su. Colebrooke. umfhr: pratyag-bhih base M^f^pratyach. all. root IRT ^*M. sugdn-i PLURAL. 8. MASC. FEM. i. Bases ending in / are not liable to and any phonetic changes $ 154. all terminations.) (Pada. first syllable. 5. i^m before labials. Nouns of the second class have two or three bases. determined by the consonant which follows 65 hence it. before palatals. NEUTER. 83. FEM. (See Sarasv. I. base Itfffa^pratich. according as they are followed by certain terminations. masc. first class have the same base before Nouns 2. (Bha. Instrum. this base being liable to such changes only as are required by the rules of Sandhi. DUAL. MASC. (Accent. PLURAL. FEM. Jfitf^ pratyanch-au . . i. 55) TQ^n. SINGULAR. Ab sugdn-bhyah G '} L.) 153. Bases ending in consonants are divided again into two classes : 1. svara before sibilants and ^ not insert the nasal in the plural. a ready reckoner. the vocative under- stood to have proper accent on the first syllable. DUAL. Nom. t As the accent in the vocative once for that wherever the its always on the ace. neut. a ^ t may be and inserted after the final Base ^T^t^suffdn. Pan. is nom. sugdn-au ^n^H sugdn-ah sugdn-am *J WT sugdn-d sugdn-e HlUl?t sugdn-bhih sugdn-bhydm \ D. ^tf before linguals. vi. N.) fern. * *p*l sugdn f 74. The vocative of the neuter sugan would therefore be. base UW^ pra- (Anga.. and voc. 169.) . Sing. except that in the Nom. <^ before the terminations. not sugan. Thus from TTW^ pratyach. A. to count.

PLURAL. FEM. N. all. ir #. neut. chitralikU PLURAL. Base ending in^M. ' Q L. t R& instead of T^kh. MASC. 5fe chitralihkhi Note In the paradigms of regular nouns with unchangeable consonantal bases it will be sufficient to remember the Nom. Base TRtsPB sarvaSdk. Sing. SINGULAR.aOkd sarvasdgbhyah r D. PLURAL.. L. FEM. (from f%^ chitra.l sarvasdkah .V. MASC. FEM. (from *f sarva. A.V. FEM. f<^r<4^u p.) root f&^likh. DUAL. ^ffh. I. see 113.. MASC. _ sarvasdkdm sarvasdki NEUTER. DUAL. \ G . f^^fc^r/?r chitralikhi J NEUTER. PLURAL. SINGULAR. Nom. Instr.DECLENSION. fern. N. DUAL. DUAL. Plur. . 54. SINGULAR. ^kh. declined after the model sarvasdk. '^5^1 All regular h sarvasdk ^^"h sarvasdki nouns ending in ^ A:. 155. A.. i-+ * chitralikhah /. in gutturals.V. sarvasakoh sarvasdksTiu * . ^ A. Bases ending ^ k. and root 3 &%> to be able. *t ^%5nfc sarvasdkam sarvasdkah **imm. chitralikham T. MASC.. MASC. see *J 100.. * On the change of su after "3U. may be of ^rfsr^ 156. N. I. MASC. masc. and Norn. A. chitrahkhoh chitralikshu* L-* 7-77. sarvasdnki N. I t h chitralikhah .r^i^i. and to paint. These bases require no special rules. FEM. Plur. I. FEM. . . A. picture.V. Loc. omnipotent. Ab. cUtralik^ f chitrahkhau n chitralikham J chitralikhd "1 cUtraligbUh D. Plur. faRffa(chitratikkf painter.) SINGULAR.

Gen. fire-kindling n. bhudbhfh *{gup. Dat. J See See 118. 1 1 ^^jalamuche t TOWin jalamugb hydm [ 1 J ^^ *i &*{'* jalamuchah 1 m. haritah ^Wilt haridbhih %tf' 1*1(5! f fU4l haritsu ^(Xfn harinti l m. is Plur. PL. NEUT. "] PLURAL.M. 54. friendly m. 54. f. speech . f. fern. VffjrWYj: >P"i*iw wi*iiPiq m. A.~ 158. Abl. fern. guardian m. Dual. Sing. Gen. Abl. ^ifr wifagnimath.. cloud (water-dropping). PL. ^n^ vdch. follow the the Instr. Instr. Nom. Base ^^^Jalamuch. Plur. Neut. Ah. f fVj^ harit vif*r|ti|i ^(Vn. Final ^5 || dropt. Regular nouns to be declined NOM. ladle. Ace. Loc. MASC. FEM. j ^ . . The Instr. like 157. follow The Vocative the same as the Nominative. PL. SINGULAR. SINGULAR. 1(t. * ^^ sruch.. ^ c^ Bases ending in ^ ch change ch into R k. ^th final changed into See 113. 1 N. *T c^fl^ jo lamu cM PLURAL. region f. DUAL. 55. vK&ttjalamuk io*i"*i > ^c^H^T jalamuchau ^ > ico^^ii jalamuchah jalamucham ] ~] ^TOT^n jalamuchd nc5^ f* jalamugbhih jalamugb1iyaH D. green NOM. knowing m. n. light . fern. or I 158. The Ace. BASE. agnimat* agnimathah agnimadbhih\ agnimatsu% agnimanthi ^Q^suhrid. masc. DUAL. f. fTc3$^ jalamuch. 5Tc51 <%jalamuk Decline like skin . Dual. fftl(harit. i. Abl. Loc.PL. Voc. L. A. NOM. ijl^ ^VJ \\ ^P5 bhutsu 7^ bundhi 1 bhut ^J*^ budhah JPi. g^ si i hr it *J^t suhridah ^<jf: suhridbhih ^jfe* *J37*J ^^ suhrindi suhritsu ^{budh.^ kakup F^Tt kakubhah kakubbhih kakupsu Bases ending in palatals. jalamufichi N. ^^ ruch. Dat.V. f. MASC. ^ IT ^r. Plur.. t See 66. G. gup gupah gumpi 4^f*T -kakumbhi JT5pT kakubh. n. 67 Plur. except when followed by a termination beginning with a vowel. i. 5^*^ gubbhih <*<^f*Tt 79 gupsu cf|c|H{ Sf^ n. FEM. DECLENSION. Gen. fern.F. Nom. W9 tvach. 8. Dat.^ jalamuchoh ^j. Plur. Ace. 4^. MASC. FEM. n. W&$*1jalamuchdm i*jni jalamuchi NEUTER. I. INSTR. ^ch. Ab. LOC.f.V.

moving crookedly. vi. diving. NOM. LOC. to cut./. 194. LOC. (See 125.PL. Bases ending in if regular. strength "31^ *3&(\ urjah ^Rfr^J tirgbhih "3R3 drkshu 1!^ urji Other regular nouns in *^j. see 214. would have been ^pfi + 1{krunk According +s. p.vn. I The latter form confirmed by Colebrooke.chh change "^ chh into 3^s. NOM. fiTO^ bhishaj. when final. cutting 1 ^7 mit% ^* vridbhih f^l vritsu ^f* (Accent. 182. f runji ruk tirk \\ ^^Tt rugbhih rukshu ^T urj. ruj. i. the penultimate ^s or and ^(ch before consonants or if final changed into Vt. m. NEUT. Sing. 41 ^^om. m. Bases ending in to *{j changeable ^ d.PL. m. The Nom. and before terminations beginning with consonants. 114.PL. example of nouns in "^ch. see 55. the Siddhanta-Kaumudi.PL. At the end is of compounds the optional forms are ^if^ urji or 01(3* urnji. 162.PL. 182) ping pranbhih prdnkshu prdnchah (Ace. p. 4. are dropt.6: Pan.PL. 159- NOM.68 159. vi. disease before vowels. NEUT. vol. Pan. the same) ^^ vrisch f. T^ mak.) is J The form ^ftvrit (not 'ffZvrat} confirmed by Siddhanta-Kaumudi (1863). (in the Dhatupatha. 71 or Some bases ending in *tj change 1TJ into ^ d when final. ^ch. 174. "^ krun "J^fa krunbhih Ul^'fa: ^Q krunkshu "f^* (Accent. TffRZprdchh. 182) a curlew if it means worship. S^^'is dropt. vi. follow the *^j. i. merchant. Special bases in BASE. would be "^rf^ urji or 3OTn ttmr/t*. 44 a) says i : "3^ i ^ft ^gfrf i. . i. ^ITt rujah INSTR.PL. PL. see f Derived from the root 'ZF^vrasch. Pan. NOM.) ^WTT^ ^ft^w% *rffst (Pan. ^jTST NOM. n. (See 114. Pan. 19. (On the optional forms of vj^^amj. i. to Sanskrit grammarians.PL. &5tsraj. * Derived from the root ^^krunch. Plur. which becomes before consonants.PL. ^rf^i ^|f^ ^rfrr^: ^|f^ ^T^T 72. || On the two final consonants. INSTR. ^i frcf ^f^T^vanij. Sing. Neut.TTT^ pran Tlh| 1. i The Prakriya-Kaumudi i (p.S. an asker NOM. SING. ^TofT NOM.PL. INSTR. and NOM. ^ ritvij. LOC. physician.) 60. priest. garland. The Nom. and the Prakriya-Kaumudi. krunchah JtHlJ (Accent. DECLENSION. Tfif$[prdmsi Tfl^prdt W$f\prdsah UTSfftt prddbhih m^prdtsu 161. 7 t. vart. except that they preserve *{j BASK. f. vi. SING. ^s and FA.) if^majj. ^fld*^). blood. 168) vnschuh Bases ending in *&. vol. Nom. ^5*1 krunch*.

and ^H^ yq. MASC. IN8TR. ^5^n. N. MASC. . ^ is changed into a lingual. samrddbhydm \ Hyi^*K samrddbhyah *fliii samrdjdm samrdjah j . FKM. vi. PLUR. PLUR. PLUR. a mendicant. 6Artf/ (j^THJ. t From another root. (except ^J Prf ^ ritvij).-Kaum. without any suffix.)j HM^bkrajj. Irregular bases in ^Tj. not ^fT3j).'. J LOC. BASE. blood. ed. resplen dent i% y worshipper of the gods visvasrij. PLCB. T^yo. MASC. NOM. 165. A. LOC. creator mbhrdtf <^"3 devet vibhrdj ah vibhrdtlbhih vibhrdtsu devejah devedbhih devetsu tqvjtii visvasrit of the universe visvasrijah visvasridbhih visvasritsu H R I ^parivrdj. Also Tfft$K*{parivrdj '. to clean . sovereign. roasting bhrtjjah bhridbhtTt bhritsu 163. roast (T5T). lame khanbhih * Cf. lengthening of the ^T a in f^I rt?a takes place whenever *^^' 3.) efefla. to sacrifice. ^p^*n. PLUR. NOM. IT See Siddh. wreath. to shine. p. I. 128. Taranatha. NOM. DUAL. FEM. 69 Base SINGULAR.'. to shine. (Pan. to create.- i<53- DECLENSION. 1T mn. G.- Kaum.i'ii parivrddbhih parivrdtsu fq^Ki^UTJ visvdrddbhih rq*aKT^ visvdrdtsu universal monarch visvdrdt visvardjah JJ5^ bhrijj. may be formed. f^TTS^ vibhrdj. famfh?. samrdjoh The words which from the roots OT5T follow this declension are mostly nouns derived. . J || i. SING. (Siddh.V.. a men- MPi^l^ parivrdt dicant parivrdjah f^^i. From The god. vol. PLURAL. PLUR. vol. vibhrdgbhih &c. 165. tT^rtf. NOM. Ab. contracted into ^"5^ y. 4 samr* rdjam \ \ samr dj an samrdjah : samrdjd samrdje 1 samrddbhih D. to BASE. khdnjah INSTR.) i. are not derived from (^n^sro/. samrdj. FEM. to dismiss. to sacrifice. 'll". and WJJ^asn. vibhrdk.. SING. masc. 76. p. L.. to rule.

only ^ and 7 u. I. aari would have the accent on the it first. and Ace. *RiRv{avaydj. ( 90.70 2. and all the cases beginning with consonants (Pada cases) are formed from the same The Voc. DUAL. LOC. because the Nom. i. these bases. voice. DECLENSION. b. PLUR. PLUR. scattering k/h * According to Pan. Loc. " ^ Base frrr^r. 171. Arir. fern. vdri SINGULAR. DUAL. neut. Plur.) Bases ending in ^ r are regular. > N. if Some grammarians. i. being. 125. FEM. SING. 168.. while according to Pan. SINGULAR. are preceding the In the if the lengthened. MASC.V. is irregular. ^r is final or followed by a consonant (f 144).vi. p. MASC. 164- name of a Vedic priest. vol. however. is vt^MiJ avaydh. identical with the Norn. Jf&purah Ct : purbhih j c?t?ar. vi. PLUR. i. Bases ending in ^ r. A.A. &c. I. Nom. }*iinnlS like avaydjoh avayahsu like V. avayobhydm 1 avayobhyah G avaydjah . Dual in the neuter are not Tritiyadi. n. water. MASC. against the rule of base. Base ^RTRH avayas and vtq*u^ avaydj. TJ avaydh viq*(mi avaydjau avaydjah avayobhifr v<q*iin avaydjam avaydj d avaydje 1 > J 2 . Sing. D. ^ra^ avayas. i r. town door f. too. . I PLURAL. D. The Norn. NOM. : vdrbhih. r PLURAL. INSTR. dvdrah dvdrbhzh ?TT dvdrshu m. . L N. I.FEM. avaydjdm L. has two bases. the final r remains unchanged though followed by "S sh. but are Asarvanamasthana.V. BASE. f. DUAL. FEM. f. t Siddh. SINGULAR. would have on the second syllable. avaydh or viq*(i avayah Nom. ^WT vdrbhydm NOM. 164.-Kaum. MASC. MASC. Ab. FEM. MASC. allow ^rezi: he avayah.FEM. NEUTER. Tft^T girbhydm \ Tft^l girbhydh Ab k G '} L. Sing. fJTU girau fiRt girah TftfH: girbht'h f A. Sing. FEM. J- "PTTT giram fH^t gir6h Base . N.

MASC. ^w. -^ J sumdnasah I ^ il"'l. Base *p?F^ sumdnas. fern. (A. suffixes ^ or g^ is Voc.) as followed by terminations beginning with vowels remains unchanged. masc.ir and T^ur. '5*^* sumanah ^intil sumanasah NEUTER. DUAL. eye. MASC. PLURAL.. well-minded 2. MASC. SINGULAR. lengthen their vowel and nasalize in the Nom. Tfl tijfajyotimshi . SINGULAR. suchakshufy. 4J*Htfl sumanasi fern. (See J 100. *J su. Neuter nouns in ^r^as. FEM. T^MS/J or T: Besides these general rules.) y chakshuh. f^us. from ^T^t chakshuh. r <}ini sumanasi f J sumdnasoh ^HH^I sumanasam ?*^" sumanahsu ^HH^I sumanasau V. and ^ is changed to and us followed by terminations beginning with vowels are ^and f^ish and ush. Nouns formed by the vowel in the Nom. *HJfa mandmsi . Bases ending in ^$ change the ^s according to the general euphonic J 165. 5*Rt sumanah rest like the ^iiirt sumdndmsi The masc. and fern. and from (Pan. Nouns formed a in the Nom. Sing. light ^TB|: . N. 3. the following special rules should be observed : 1. and . ^TtflPff: sujyotify. FEM. Thus Nom. A. DUAL. 4. 1 ' n L. mind. chakshumshi.) neut. if final. become ^. (from ^ su and m^mdnas. (eifyzej/ifc) . m. Thus ( becomes w: ah. 3) . having good eyes. Sing. f. good. or us do not lengthen their Sing. *ptTK sumandh. v. PLURAL. rules explained above. m. neut. Ace. From JR: manah. 83. from ^TSffa **ftftt jyotih.) before ^su becomes W(as or *r: ah. Sing.) Bases formed by the suffixes VT^as. good. n. and fern. masc. but not in the Vocative.) as before ^ bh becomes ^ft o ($ 84. A. FEM.V. Voc. tJ*Hi sumanah. 71 Bases in ^s. lengthen their by the suffix ^^as V masc. I. DECLENSION. ^ and 7^ ^ & and 7^ is us before ^ bh *J us before *w become ^ish or ^: i#. 133. from *J su. f. Hence Nom. wA. ($82. com. ^(is it "&3(us. n. as. having good light. *J^Er: and rtftPH: jyotih. tpntt sumdnasam _ U sumdnasau \ HH^: sumdnasah J D.-$ [65. Plur. well-minded.

TT^ pay as. ^"S^ s. N. age. A. ^VT* vedhdh. moon. UHrilt prachetdh. m. though oxytone. 'STTJJara. n. in Sanskrit. MASC. s. N. 166. ^rf$: archih. MASC. s. N. oblation. The rest like the masc.V. f. one whose oblation is destroyed.) There that it is. body*. very mighty. N. DECLENSION. old age. however. N. FEM. m. iron. well-lighted. light. \ sujy6tishi sujytitihshu NEUTER.A. masc. s. f^R^v^%5. N. neut. Nom. * Any of these neuter nouns compound . ^j: vapuh. praise. TSC^K^apsaras. sing. s. DUAL. s. it is of a t Boehtlingk (Declination im the dictionary. fag inn vihdydh. 125) gave *&$(jaras. by mistake put down as neuter. rightly as feminine. s. TIT?: f^cfir: divaukdh. p. n. ^rrg^ dyus. N. splendour. n. 1 ^ chandramas.. N. %wA. m. i66fern. MASC. ^3n*ro apsardh. H^n: mahaujdh. ^15: ^g^ vapus. prop. masc. a nymph. sujy6tisM PLURAL. I. of a lawgiver. n. sujy6tih sujy6tishau sujydtishah sujyotisham f sujyotishd sujydtirbhih D. n. wise. N. n. HjTi*^ mahaujas. bird. FEM. SINGULAR. s. N. and fern. sujydtimslii N. FEM.) SINGULAR. Decline after the model of *JTT^ sumanas bases : following and sujyotis the %V^ ^"^Tr: vedhas. milk. "SFn^prachetas. n. Nom. N.72 Base ?JTif)Prf^ sujyotis. s. life. payah. (from *j su and neut. equally feminine t. Nom. Ab. PLURAL. s. f^^ofi^ divaukas. s. m. except is defective in all cases the terminations of which begin with consonants. DUAL. s. ^^ yasa^.V. ^R: y^. and equally regular. a deity. terminations at the end qg^(V nashtahavih. sujy6tishe sujyrftirbhydm sujy6tirbhyah I sujy6tisJiah sujydtishdm sujy6tishoh L. N. chandramdh. N. ffa: ^flviA^ n. may assume masc. f. s. ^rNN^ archis. sing. . N. T^r: yasafy. m. another base *K$(jaras. m. may be declined throughout regularly as a feminine. is. (See 238. and fern.

103. I. M nirjardya or or Pil<Lii^ nirjardt nirjarasah nirjarasah nirjarasi ( nirjarasdt. A.D. viz. N. N. SINGULAR. f term. is given by anticipation for the sake of comparison with the defective fi L. nirjard. L. L. deest. but deservedly reprobated by others. ** D. MASC./aras. is given here by anticipation t By a pedantic adherence to the Sutras of Panini some monstrous forms (included in brackets) have been deduced by certain native grammarians. besides the regular forms from m jara. deest DUAL. Ab. l. ^ ^(^ jar dm D.V.) D. L. in i ^ST cr. as a regular fern. mT* jardbhyah deest . K jards-ah jards-ah deest . fi^i. H 167. MASC. I. N. I. nirjaram.) T*f5T^T nirjarasya or fVi^f^ nirjare or ( nirjarasasya.1 nirjarasina. IVtif jards-dm deest . Ab. L.V. nirjarah. term. PLURAL. In compositions. N. fn Ab. term. "5TCHT jards-au jardbhydm deest . G. of vol. A. fV|5FC nir/ara deest * The declension of ^^[jard.Ab. in ^TTa. term. <. SINGULAR. -TO^WA "SfTTJ j'W/4 qfilf^jar^At'// term.<u nirj arena l i. IT bhydm jardyoh l^tTit jards-oh PLURAL. pp. f DUAL.DECLEN8IOX.-Kaum.) J The declension ftnfc nirjarah. SINGULAR. G.A. as a regular masc. masc.^ nirjaras* . G. 141. masc. A. Base Base 73 SINGULAR. deest i I:M .) grammarians allow the base in to be used before all terminations beginning with vowels f. fil< nirjaram or or "" nirjarasam nirjarasd nirjarose Tt Trj3ti. (Siddh. (ageless. masc. G. i dya mul jards-ah "5TC^* jards-ah jardyd "*[TTQ jards-i V. I. V. for the sake of comparison with the defective H^.

Ufi<J nirjarau or I. proper name. Sing. though followed by vowels. a compound is formed. well- sounding. *pj3 sutuhshu. Ace. without I? final Visarga. fH*rtmV/aram. forms or o^ii usanah or Nom.*n nirjarebhyah fT5fcU!!ff nirjardndm or fl*l<JRT nirjarasdm deest PiTtO nirjareshu like oRTTTT Fern. ^JJ sutuh. are simply inverted. N. 73. DUAL. f. PLURAL. the ^T^^usanas. ^Jnl^ supis. like ^ifw kdntam. Ace. Plur. L. r*f*f<^T nirjarasau deest D. ^Sl^as. 'g^I^pMrwrfffm/as. well- From Tj^ #ws. G. I. but do not lengthen them. a lump. nasalize their vowels. (and neuter). of neuters. to swallow. "31!(us. a compound is is formed. T^Rusana. fi>K*iu nirjarayoh or fT^T^n* nirjarasoh PLURAL.^ nirjarasah deest deest nirjaraih (f^R%J nirjarasaik. Nouns in 3j^is and "3^ws lengthen their vowels before consonants. form the Norn. L. m. 2. Sing. n. Sing. Plur. and %fH(gras. Sing. *pjf*l suturbhih. is The radical ^s of nouns ending in ?^w and T^MS. From ffepinda. Voc. 5. 4. to walk. fa^HSt nirjarasah Pri^lt nirjardh or f^TT^ fT^T* f*l nirjardn or Pri^K. A. Nom. 1. all terminations beginning with Ex. belong in leave it short. time. The other cases are regular. *jjj^ SM/MS. Voc. From ni^ walking. Instr. I. ^n's.V. fti<3 <jvqf nirjardbhydm G. ^T^^usanan 170. like ^^ ?\ \ purudamsd. Nom. ^nnn^ anehas. neut. N. Dual Neut. Jjf4(Vi supimsi. name of Indra. In the Nom. "QTfif^sumanas. Voc.) (B.) Bases ending in radical f^s. 9.) . not liable to be changed into ^sh.74: DECLENSION. Neut. f. A. 'gtrtfH: supirbhih. 3. nouns in "ZR^as.V. m. m. o ^i ni usand and the Voc. the rules laid down before with regard to nouns in which to a suffix.) D. "ftf^U! pindagrah. Plur. *n. X:a^. masc. 168. Sing. and us lengthen the vowel. nouns in Nouns j^'s "3^ ^K^as Ex. Sing. In forming the Nom. "fffffa sutumsi. ^(is. (Sar. '^(us. to sound. Plur. ^^"^t he anehah. fMfTT nirjard.Ab. a lump-eater. m. and ^J SM. m. Ex. m. 1 68- DUAL. a compound formed. fq^fffS pindagramsi. well. vin^T anehd. < ? nirjardmsi. i . deest (fr|*f<^ nirjarasam) nirjarasi. ^^is. fferf1{pinda- gras. (See 100. and ^ ***> well. 169. note. Ab. ^fh supih.

Ab. 83. MASC. G. pindagrahsu NEUTER. SINGULAR. SINGULAR. Base fs M Hjt^ pipathis. PLURAL. FEM. sutusah suturbhih N. MASC. t pipathih fn M (V H^ pipathishi * Siddh. MASC. L. FEM. FEM. N. masc. I. FEM. NEUTER. 172) i.DECLENSION. DUAL. pipathishi (see N. PLURAL.V. FEM. neut. pindagrasi fern. [ J pipathisham fM M f<J PM pipathishi pipathishoh :^ pipathihshu NEUTER. pindagrafy fern. neut. : pindagrah well-sounding. PLURAL. Base 75 h*n\pindagra8. suturbhydm suturbhyah sutusdm sut us ok L. PLURAL. I. PLURAL. A. 171. MASC. DUAL.V.V. vol. A. eating a mouthful. FEM. sutumsi N. sutusam D. sutusau PLURAL. . pipathishah N.-Kaum. FEM.A. maac. MASC. TTTnjrn pindagrobhyah pindagratdm L. pipathirbhyah ft'^fT^J pipathishah G. DUAL. wishing read. A. pindagrase pindagrobhydm > Ab. fern. FEM. 187.V. DUAL. MASC. DUAL. masc. A. A. neut. FEM. SINGULAR. DUAL. SINGULAR. Nouns derived from desiderative verbs change tcr H s into when necessary.V. pindagramsi SINGULAR. pipathih rMHf<j*f pipathisham pipathirbhih D. MASC. MASC. I ftji N. p. indagrasau pindagraaam pindagrasd pindugrobhih D . SINGULAR.

NEUT.. d iO. vol.f.n.-Kaum.FEM. id. m. ^ s not changed into ^sh. ^T3!fflchakds.n. blessing. The nouns fern. . sumandmsi sumanobhih ^JWtfTfrfa 3{ sumanassu or -nahsu Sjsftfrf^ sujyotis. chikih ^ftf^FHdsis. i. well- ^^ l ?jftnTJ ^"^rnH* supirbhih or ^^5 ^?:3 or going. vi. PL.) ^Tlf^I'RJ ^TT^n"P^ dsimshi dsishah id. well-lighted. BASE. 2 <fft^c?os may be declined regularly throughout as a masculine.f.f. In the other paradigms it is the same as the Nominative. f.n. sajushah sajushshu or sajuhshu ^f^^SM/tim5. m. m. INSTR. see 4 6 214.fiwftl ous of reading. except in the Nom. See 75. are Ace. 'STT'f^I^ dsis. MASC. see 100. i I H ^ -^^^1 ^ ^iJ^J 1 JTlfiT M f^ <* N H4 W1TO*ftJPOT ^TTnTrj ^T^^t "3T cfi^R ^ n tf 'fl * i^THTWTi 1) This may be right according to the strict interpretation of Panini.n. m. f. but the Pratisakhya (xui. p.n. dsirbhih dsishshu or dsi dsihshu "^^. pindagrasah pindagramsi pindagrobhih pindagrassuor-grahsu ^"^iT^Tt ^fofiTtH *|oftTf>Tt w or ^<*Ti3J chakdh chakdsah chakdmsi chakdbhih chakdssu or chakdhsu (Accent. a companion. 4 supimsi supishshu or supihshu "fffiK 51^" sutumsi ?^lf^* suturbhih fo^^ftf*!: 5 ?5^5 or sounding. if they should be used as neuters at the end of compounds*. 194.f.f. m. saJ us > compa- H^J saju/i fMt ^*|f^ sajumshi ^^fHJ sajurbhih ^T5 m.FEM. 172- declined like fTTf^ pipathis.n. m. PL. m. nion. NOM. (jTTTTfir II allow the lengthening of the vowels in ^STT^flfft dsimshi and 1 ^^ I X(T ^. and Voc. 1. stating that every neuter ending in an si or shi.n. the Anusvara being followed Ushman has a long vowel before the by 1 The Vocative is *}*Ri sumanah. chikirshi^ chikirbhih ^JTT^I^f*!* chikirshu 3r ^TT^ft^or W$ft*5 ^T^*dsih (Voc. kind. its irregular or optional forms. 3 sutusah sutushshu or sutuhshu ftf^<ft^5 f^^<S^pipathis. DECLENSION. f^'^T^'^fpindagras. Siddh. But it is likewise declined as a neuter. PL. 7) gives the rule in a more general form. well- supih ^["ff* supisah id. splendid. n. m. 197. 3 * domshi ^Tfani dorbhih d6shshu or dohshu ^tflt-^ ^^T^ supis. *J jSftfiret Wt fin T*T 'p'frfff^ or fr*J sujyotishshuoi-tihshu svjyotishah sujyotimshi sujyotirbhih "nT^T^tt TOf^jnT f'JSiji'm* nh?JW or *<*! ?I^J lump-eating.-Kaum. p. SING.onewho ^n^r^ strikes well.) doh doshah id. List of different Bases in ^s.171. sumandh 1 -nah sumanasah ^^ftflTt sujyotih ftfe?J! id. note. and ^*J^ sajush. Anusvara.^esiY. blessing. IffiHsutus. pindagrah ^cfiTt id. pipathih f^Rf^^* ftr^frf^ -^JJ pipathishah pipathishi pipathirbhih pipathishshuor-thihsh ous of acting.f.n. NEUT. NOM. chikirshah id. Siddh. suhin * ^T^H* suhimsah ^nffa suhimsi ^f^frHt suhinbhih ^'^^ suhinsu 6 Some grammarians do not sajumshi.m. (Voc. MASC.) id. Plur. Loc.f.76 172. id. vol. sutuh id. P.f. masc. id. 8 5 On i.

Bases derived from BASE. NEUT.f. according to a different Nom. LOC. ^ k. A. "^ksh. Trfi r LOG.9O.D. SING. LOG.'WRVSnfflparnadhvadbhydm I. dadhrik 5. SING.-Kaum. hating fjfZ dmt ffT^t dvtshah fsfadvimshi 6. iffTE^goraksh. PL. PL. TfT3iprdchh. NOM. NOM. form Ui^ gorak. *nT7<7ora. PL. "^h. their final consonants are treated either like 1.f. "^ 4. to fall) 173. Sing. f^VF didhak. cow- Nom. PL.i. PL.V. Bases ending in G. asking W^prdt W^'prdsah T3^ TTtf^T prdmsl riT^j*Tt prddbhth f 7. dadhrikshu other bases derived from verbs with final ^sh change ^s& BASE. 7T3F tak. Sing. DECLENSION. s<!)ttI parnadhvasah I. UFS^sprtf. . BASE. NOM.PL.vol.m. n. NOM. ^t or like c k. N. Sofav^pipat. NOM. NEUT. Sing. 'oil 3 H $(jfvana6. All dadhrishah dadhrimshi dadhrigbhih into 7f. LOG. NOM. and ^R^sras (from into T^J. 77 $3N^*rarfw. PL.) desirous of maturing.tsAa. LOC..) BASE. ^ chh into 7 NOM. NEUT.V. t. Bases ending in T5T ksh change ksh into PL. All jtvanat or -naA: -nasah -namsi -nadbhih or -nagbhih -natsu or -nakshu other bases in ST / change their final into BASE.f. L. is. their used at the end of compounds. PL. NOM.Ab. NOM. INSTR. NOM. ^^isfyl parnadhvadbhih T&SERTT parnadhvasd 174. NOM. T r/rar.n. N. NOM. fgr<J ish. INSTR. Bases derived from f^ST into efts'. NOM. VSR^dhvas (from V&^dhvarhs. A. desirous of saying . (See Colebrooke. to see.lfftVafQparnadhvasam I. f^sh. NOM. f^^It disah INSTR. one INSTR. N. INSTR. 7 t. country f^T dtk f^f^f dim& f^fnu t digbhih AT. . INSTR. LOC. SING. *riUnffc parnadhvasoh L. NEUT.NEUT. NEUT. LOC. m. SING. SING. PLUR. SING.f.} 174. . to touch. which regularly forms its may form its Nom. PLUR. before terminations beginning with consonants. Before all other terminations and when final. rHSfJ PL. NOM. ( 126.f. or c^ PL. may.p.PLUR. PL. PL. PL. ^JBfaefif parnadhvat N. to show. and Voc. if ffef BASE. PL.note. 17 tat* tdkshah tdmkshi tadbhih If^fHJ * If differently derived fn^ta&sA herd. f^fWt dvidbhih IJ dvitsu BASE. 187. A. PL. Siddh. dis. PLUR. $%% dikshu into 7 Bases derived from to destroy. change when and ^a in the Nom. NOM. INSTR. V^ dhrish. PL. change *r sh into k. PL. fJ <4 *vivak.n. TS^clth. f Nom. to fall). PL. m. Dual f< derivation. TTO WJ parnadhvatsu ^s. Dual f^lHSJT didhakshau. T^5T:or H: 7 T^JorrEJ life-destroying 3. NEUT. PL. SING. p. desirous of burning. NOM.n ^TMH^or ^ 7T5T: i% <? t. Dual famsfipipakshau. change "S^s TfS^nas. paring NOM.m. Tn&wfT parnadhvasau N. chh change Bases ending in "^ NOM. PL. PL. PL. Nom. f. Bases ending in these consonants retain them unchanged before all terminations beginning with vowels. change 3^* ^S^dris. PL.n. who enters f^vft f^llvtsah f^ffyvfmsi fa^falvidbhih f^ to dare. f^S^ 2.

T^J ^ 1 ratnamush. L. ^fWi^ BASE.f. being identical with the Nom. "g^TT: or ?t puroddh or gOil^fi puroddsau . nah. SING. 1 DUAL.f.f. f. to bind. PL. NOM. ^muh T } to confound. ^CteTSTt puroddsah JCtTn puroddh j^Cl sT^T puroddsam ^ Cl s I ^l! puroddsah ifCtTT^n puroddsd gT^ThTT purodobhydm "yftftxti "$ftftf*K purodobhih D. PL. NOM. may change NOM. is irregular. PL. m. ^^^updnah Decline f. INSTR. Sing. tPffictf^madhuHh. name of Indra. Most bases ending in 175- ^h change ^h into ^ t. to enter. anger. NOM. lih. 176. I. g ^ 3 1 ^|T puroddsau ^X^"5T^TT puroddsau PLURAL. 152). NEUT. to love. PL. TJTraT^fa: turdsMdbUh. NOM. f. or a priest. an and all offering. The Norn. changes ^s into ^sh whenever ^ h Instr. T*fr*\ dhugbhih LOG. NEUT. change ^h into ^T k. m. m. SINGULAR. G. f%13viprush. m. ^f snuh. fnm^l the Beyah river in the Punjab. ( The Voc. SING. Which? 75- into ^ l^T^Tf d or T t . PL. turdsdh. covering NOM. irregular. g^nTpwrorfa/. the change of initial T $r into <^. fi^ tvish. to hate. Sing. f. SING. Vftdhuk g%l duhah |f^ dumhi V^dhukshu Bases derived from the roots ^ druh. f^T lit fc5^ lihah fc5^fat lidbhih fcV&Q litsu "^ <jrMf ^1 ^rw^aA "*T ^T^ gumhi 93. is *f^teTt puroddh. very splendid. A. TufalS^viviksh. to BASE. LOC. INSTR. N. change ^h into J{t. the final ^ h into t k. N.n. ""^1 idris. cow-milker. licking m. f. kidris.PL. f. n. PL. 3H\3& updnahah vvwtklupdnadbh ft^cwA. fc^fir limhi BASE. NOM. though some grammarians allow ^ ^tt'J* he purodah.PL. drop of water. milking ij^duh. ^ f. SING. Norn. f. Plur. loving.PL. . Ab. *rk^ goduh. is changed Norn. LOC. f. see Bases derived from Likewise roots ending in ushnih. ^ d. fi'^J'3T J m. or 'OR f^ snih. Dual ur^ turdsdhau. PL.NEUT. 'Q^fiS'^bahutvish. too. hating ii. m. the cases beginning with consonants (Pada cases) are formed from a Singular. 10. n. PL. ^ h.PL. ordure.PL. PL. INSTR. t NOM. m. and beginning with NOM. such.78 8.n. a metre. iJl!lHl<r turdsMt. n.PL. ^Tt5T% puroddse "grtTT^Tt puroddsah purodobhydm tpCtTteH purodobhyah ^ft^n purodobhydm ^Styftl purodds'oh g^TtTt purodobhyah ^Ct?T$n puroddsah IJ^Trf^I ^Mroc?<i&" ^^T^f puroddsam ^^fT^ft: puroddsoh -c?aA 3^*J purodahsu ^^T^TJ puroddsah V. LOC. a shoe ^m^J(updnat vipds.n. "5^fa ghudbhih "JT^ ghutsu On 9. *\n^*fS(marmaspri^f giving pain. wishing bee. spue. a stealer of gems. "P^ snih. splendour. NOM. DECLENSION. dhrutordhruk druhah druihhi dhrudbhih or dhruglhih dhrutsu or dhrukshu Bases derived from BASE. is base ^f\^^purodas. INSTR. Sing.

ukthasobhih. Plur. Bases ending in all ^m retain *Tm before when final. I and a second base for all other cases. MASC. 79 is 177. however. or rather they modify their base according to rule before certain terminations. ?r*i 311*1 uktha$dsam. Voc (not Ace. *m^prdch becomes in the Anga cases ufa prdnch. J 179. 178. a reciter of hymns. are said to be feminine without taking the \i. which appears in the Pada and Thus the Pada and Bha the Anga cases. SINGULAR. Voc. KI. MASC. i DUAL. Bopp calls it the strong and the terminations the weak terminations. Nouns with two bases. and Ace. . Many nouns in Sanskrit have more than one base. will The former base base. is strengthened in base simple base. Ace. and some of them occur as feminine at the end of compounds. Sing. be called the Anga base. Voc. mild. 9r^^iit or ^cr'q^iJ ukthasdh or uklhasah. DECLENSION.M. and the terminations the strong terminations. J<+^^H'.- 179. Voc. Instr. 1CA8C. Voc. becomes ^T^ Anga such * Most nouns with changeable bases form their feminines in fy. and Ace. H^nr*ipra5^m 2. have one base for the *- Nom. Base Jf$Ki{pra$dm. TTSfTPT nywl prasdmau TT^IW! prasdmah 14311*0 i prasdmam H^HI! prasdmau prasdmah U^TTTT prasdmd H^n^Tf pratidnbhydm w^n*fU prasdmoh H^I f*Ht pras&nbhih Loc. Sing. Nom. nouns * Nom. The general rule is that the Bha cases. ukthasdh. Nouns with two Bases. A few. calls it the The second base will be called the Pada and Bha base. IRRTr^praJdn Ace.) Plural J Nom. 5<*^^||^ ukthatids. Instr. . Bases in *Tm. Bopp weak base. Plural of neuter nouns . PLURAL. Another word. A. 1 Nom. declined like puroddt. FKM. and Ace. Dual > of masc. Nom. Voc. all terminations beginning with vowels. The Pada base of adant in the the present participle ^^ adat y eating. NOUNS WITH CHANGEABLE BASES. is Before other terminations and the ^m changed into ^n. I:M. as^TO^rfaman. Sing.

MASC. DUAL. Nom.80 cases. . 1 80- This gives us the following system of terminations for words with : two bases SINGULAR. PLURAL. IE 1 . DECLENSION. Ace.Voc.

J 181. DUAL. the two bases. Bha base the weakest base. SINGULAR. 81 DUAL. south. NEUTER. Nom. however. declined like fern. pr dchi same is as masc. Strong base B. before all terminations beginning with consonants and another base. TTTfrf prdfichi N. The feminine of tr^prdch in^ prdchi . downward. This gives us the following system of terminations for words with three bases : SINGULAR. I.Voc. Nouns with three Bases. MASC. base. the terminations beginning with vowels. In these nouns with three cases. the Pada base the middle base the .A. In the other cases. PLURAL. Bopp calls Anga base the strong base base. DECLENSION. before all Bha . Decline im*(dvdch.V. they have one .-J 181. MASC. Nouns with Pada three bases have their Anga or strong base in the same cases as the nouns with base. PLURAL. in ^ i. MASC. ^s (always dropt) w au ^K ah .

182- .82 DECLENSION.

. Dual of neuters. must reject the Jn. fern. bhavishydnti or Hfanft bhavithyati. Nom. DUAL. ^J^tuddt. and Chur classes must preserve the ^n. tuddnti or iJ^Tft tudati. rundhatt. Dual Neut. Hence HTift bhdvantt. <^TT dddat A. MASC. ^K^In addnti N. I. DECLENSION. eatin'g.. II. The feminine base throughout identical in form with the Nom. ^f^T^ *ffi^ ydt. Participles of all other verbs I. Nom. dddat oh ^7^ dddatsu *0r dddanti. ^^n\adat{ is t &c. This rule can only be fully understood by those It is this. 184. *flhft bhdvantl dtvyanti. With this exception. II. NEUTER. Mndt.. being. Another rule. The feminine base is declined regularly as a base in \t. these participles are therefore really declined like nouns in J(t with unchangeable bases.A. ij<. (fut. and Ace. fern. I. j^lOf dddadbhydm dddadbkyah dddatah G. FEM. MASC. Dual Neut. SINGULAR. which ought not to be mixed up with the preceding rule. VRl(bhdvat. <J^Tfa ddddmi. Neut. I give. wrftadatf. ^ff dddat am ^fndddatd dddate t <^m dddatau f- <<. n\ tuddntt or ^n\tudant striking. and before the according to which certain participles keep the ^n \t of the feminine. and Ace. ^^ift dddati f PLURAL. DUAL.V. except in the Nom. where the insertion of *^n is optional. ^^Jdl is Jcrinati.ni dddatah ? ^^Pn dddati dddadbhih D. Base rjftf^dddat. Participles of verbs following the Bhu. J dddatdm dddati L. from ^T ddt to MASC. Participles of verbs following the all participles Tud class may or may not preserve the ^n. NEUT. ydnti or *ffift ydtt. There in the a very Nom. ^a<pftae?af/. III. giving.-J 184. M . N. III.). N. 83 PLURAL. Div. *d$J\ juhvatt. r give. fern. Dual Neut. The same applies to of the future in and to the ^H^syat. sunvatf. participles of verbs of the Ad class in ^T d . chordyanti. Ab. Voc. Plur. Ace. who are acquainted with the ten classes of conjugations. and Ace. prohibits the strengthening of the Anga base throughout in the participles present of reduplicated verbs. like difficult rule 183. SINGULAR.. SINGULAR.

DUAL. being poor. N. neut. class. MASC. forms Anga or strong base in SINGULAR. PLURAL. only. N. great. ^f^pr^shat.84: DECLENSION.n 1 maJiddbhih D. Sing. shining. Ab.A. G. DUAL. f if mahantau mahdntah * mahdntam mahatd mahdntau mahatdh t *T?nrT Hij. n. I. DUAL. $ 1 'pift brihati 86. are declined like participles of verbs of the Ad SINGULAR. brihdntau PLURAL. FEM. ifi^ vaw#. a drop of water. SINGULAR. MASC. eating. FEM. *\*\l(jdgat. SINGULAR. its if^mahat. N. SINGULAR. of the great. waking. strong base in i^ mant and They lengthen their vowel in the . mahat mahddbhydm t mahddbhyah rT?1T mahatdh j *}ltfiT JT^WT mahatdm mahati mahatdh mahdtsu V. brihdntah N. *W4i(jdgrat. A.V.A. commanding.V. <jfr%J{daridrat. PLURAL. MASC. *\*\fa jdganti. *i^rfl mahati forming their Anga Bases and itc^mant The possessive suffixes v# form their Anga or ma/ and 187. rule applies to the participles The same vCB^jakshat. a deer. l^fll PLURAL. N. 185. mahati The rest like the masculine. MASC. SINGULAR. brihdntam brihdntau bnhatdh NEUTER. A. But ^ftjmkdt. L. ^iTOT^ chaMsat. . Masc. ^m^sdsat. Bases ending in the Suffixes in ^ ^ Nom. m. These suffixes are of very frequent occurrence. likewise originally a participle Ad class. Plur. MASC. the worlcL forms Nom. N. MASC. DUAL. T^^ mdhan NEUTER.

* bhok NEUTER. MA8C. f. by whatever vowel they be preceded. DUAL. N. 2. distinct Native grammarians derive it from HT bhd. But T*ft Pd *H AJyotishmat. and keep it Your Honour. N. with the suffix from *f33{bhavat. if After bases ending in nasals. ^ f* riiii agnimat FEM. MASC. f^j^vidyutvaty having lightning.V. having water. agnimatt agnimanti N.- 188. bhavatt . N. HTfw bhavanti FEM. 3. SINGULAR. After Ex. having know- But wfi<\H\affnimat. MASC. 2. DUAL. a and ^J Ex. MASC. DECLENSION. ledge. having milk. '^Fffl^jndnavat. MA8C. or sibilants. the participle present of *^bhu. 1*1*^ ayniman NEUTER. N. N. agnimdn agnimantau <i>/ agnimantah agnimantam ^ec ft ni. (Pan. 10. being. DUAL. I^IT girvat. H^*^ bhavan or SINGULAR. having Light. MA8C. SINGULAR. vidydvat. A. having a voice. SINGULAR.) 1 88.) ^R^tf udanvat. viu. bases ending in any other consonants. vni. having fire. There are exceptions to these rules. PLURAL. ^rn^hanumat. nu nt nu agnimatah V. HTcf bhavantam bhavantau bhavantau bhavantah bhavatah V. which is frequently used in place of the pronoun of Vffl^bhavat. having knowledge. ^M P* i*i ifl agnimatt after bases in ^i ^ 2. 85 . preceded by va ^n d. the second person. having jaws.A. semivowels. 9-16. having or fire. SINGULAR. Your Honour. is declined like a noun derived by "%1(^vat. TF^rflpayasvat. V. PLURAL. bhavatf PLURAL. SINGULAR. to be. va/ is used i . may Ex. "^1(vat. followed by the third person of the verb. ^^l^bhavdn A. (Pan. DUAL.

Instr. such as from ifi^parvn ^ ^ . "fSFTi **y fl * Pqi^nl Hya^ Bases in ^ir^an (^5(an. DUAL. is ^R^TT ^^c^orva^ ^Jcfdl arvati. besides. ^nftTtlM anarvdnauj Ace. H^rft bhavanti Wffit bhavanti N. WiT^fHt anarvabhih. I. ^ftl anarvd. except in the ^ _. word. masc. 191. Nom. Sing. N. man and immediately before the concurrence of three consonants. PLURAL. That the Nom. DUAL. Sing. Sing. being. Nom. present. fon*iffT PLURAL. SINGULAR. A. Dual anarvand j 190. : Mark 1. Sing. neut. where totally different has ^Tf ^ declined regularly like nouns in ^lf vat. DUAL. much. or take *{n. Plur. are declined like bases in Their feminines are DUAL. N. 4. horse. >T&toa* FEM.__ arra. *r ^RH\ ar^af. MASC. SINGULAR. & * 1 ^T^ift bhavanti 80. H^f^ bhavan A. i&^man and ^^van keep iceman and ^^van as without dropping the ^r a. That the Nom. MASC. 2. d. Sing. MASC. Sing. That the Voc. NEUTER. not ^r^ an. ii^man. fcfi^fn kiyanti N. and their Pada or middle base ^r a. The feminine of so Instr. DECLENSION. N. fhm^ My an f<*4ri Myaniau ftF^J kiyantah kiyatah Myantam fonMiu kfyantau f^rcirf TciyadbJiydm f%Tin fawn ttya*4 fen fmfel MyadbUh V.86 H^Tif bhavat. SINGULAR. is a like a noun in W^aw. 3. How much f^Rl^%a?. has ^r a. is Norn. PLURAL. ? ^RtTOT anarvdnam. PLURAL. without a foe. MASC. part. may be either identical with the Nominative. That words ending their Bha bases. Words in ^^an have three bases their Anga or strong base is their Bha or weakest base *{n . M^ My an NEUTER.V. has WT not TO^ <&&($)..A. . *r4lT bhavantam H4lu bhavantaw HTiu bhavantau WffJ bhavantah VTO bhavatah V. neut. 189- SINGULAR. it masc. MASC. ^Ti^tyaf. Sing. and declined ^Rf^araew in ^R^awarvaw. MASC. A. when there is a consonant in This is to avoid the vft. SINGULAR.V.

an. Nom. vaw. Ace. Pada. A^ *m* dtmn ^ frjr mdrdhnd.. not to words ending in simple ending in i^ maw and Thus TTfl^ takshan forms UWT takshnd . however. TTlft rdjnt. T&K*{rdjdn. Sing. *JV^ murd/tan. That and words the loss of the Va is optional in the Loc. SINGULAR.-$ or DECLENSION. &c. TTHrdja. The feminine. Voc. Bha. drops the ^r a thus m. king. 87 This rule applies only to words from WTTR^ dtman. . Anga. . in all other in the 5. Dual of neuters.


p. because they replace a Udatta. the same rule ^ro: aharganah. DUAL. where it is ifar: pdnthdh. P. P. f Or ^ff^T dhani.L. D.Ab. vm. The Visarga in the Nominative Singular is treated like an original ^r ($ 85).199. too. DUAL. G. day. (like It is irregular in the Norn. 1 churoing-stick. (Siddh. ^^J T|T^ ribhukshin. *4\**<\pathin. I. N . bahvdhtvaH or 89 Norn. a month (Pan. DECLENSION. Bh.. m. are '^tJHJi: rtbhukshdh and ^fai: mdnthdh. N. (Pan. 1. D. Hence *i^: ahar-ahah. ^: dhah TS&dhnd Bh. I. N. ^dhne Bh. path. ^.Ab. has for its for its for its Anga base ^[^pdnthdn Bha base Pada base and Voc.) < ^^fl (r l ribhukshtn. (See 90. day by day. a declined in the same manner.*f$W\<ihobhydm Bh. ^fdhni-t Bh. Sing.-J take 196. 209. ^fTf^T dhdni P. I. a. PLURAL. L. ^t dhnt* ^?^ dhnoh An. ribhukshdn matht The Nom. Bh.V. 69) though not always. I. A n. P. l. which SINGULAR. N.V. A.V. and ifo^mathtn. and fa*{mathin form their feminines ^ft patht. SINGULAR. applies . ribhuksM. vi. : ahordtrafr. ^J^<| f^qi bahudhivd. L. PLURAL. are ^tJ^f't. name of Indra. ^f\\ pdnthdh A. I. m. J Or ^H^:g dhahsu. and Voc. Ab.-Kaum.D. vol. a The three bases are. N. ^TT vd. G. A. ^faTO pdnthdnah A. P. word of very frequent occurrence is ^r^[ dhan. day and night.) 195. takes ^rfaAas as its Pada base. iffaHpathin. Sing. having many fishermen. In composition. N. A.dhnah Bh.) Or ^ft dhant.V. m. Dual ^IJMl bahudhtce.G. Otherwise it is declined like f 196. VFK$ pdnthdnau s'qinl pdnthdnau *nnf pdnthdnam Wlpathcl ^HH pathdh ^fWT pathibhydm qWW: ^atAt&AiA lost The terminations after T^aM have the Udatta.

PLURAL. m. (Accent. i. Feminine. likewise be declined like a masculine with the suffix ^U(vat or lff(mat. H^4rt maghdvantam V. At the end of a compound. Bha W(3i{maghavan t the Mighty. nim\v{maghdvdn A. dvyahnah.V. <0*njg. bases. p. 194. Ace. mn maghdvd HM^M maghdvdnam i^^iiT maghdvdnau iM^iit maghdvdnak #i*T\ni maghtinah V. Sing. I. vart. take sp( un. For the rest. N. Si. p. vol. i. N. N. igftydni. and the Nom. a name of Indra. vm. like DUAL. A. do not lengthen vowel except in the Norn.V. Loc. W$svc[nau N. N. dirgMhnah ^5 1 ^l fa: dirghdhobhih. 203. <{t5l HIM dirghdhdnau PLURAL.V.A. 1 10. 182. ^iSl^t dfrghdhah A. Pan. HM^rit maghdvatah I. 5^. V. *mqnt maghdvantah A. A. both forms are admitted. DECLENSION. '5^jJwsA^ and ^SnNr^ aryamdn. takes W^t^maghon SINGULAR. Voc. (see ^H P* *\*<{agnimat. Sing. vm. A. as its some grammarians. Sing. ^i^ahan irregular. N. 83. <fl Q ^!<U dirglidhdnam I DUAL. PLURAL. e. two names of Vedic deities. Siddh. 'gfedvyahne or'Sjfgdvyahni or (Pan.-Kaum. but in the Loc. young. I. A. ^j 198. produced in two days. neut. ^ brahman.) SINGULAR. 3. '^rrW A.90 197. substituted for ^K^aAaw. t Colebrooke.V. vi.) DUAL. of g^ ywvaw.A. as their ^ Bha $van. Sanskrit Grammar.g. mii odnam V. I. p. Sing. 2. m. N. 69. In derivative compounds with numerals. &c.A. dog. declined : SINGULAR. . N. (in this they follow the bases in ^(inj For the rest. N. DUAL. accordingly either H*flfl maghtini or HV4il) maghavatt. ^^^ The feminine of according to 200. Plur. i. they are declined like nouns in ^T^ an . N. <0l^ dirghdhni (Pan. ^f?K yuvatty. N. has dtrghdhd as Nom. *i M H\ mdghavan is *iMi(st maghdvadbhik The feminine 201. . 4. is and with fa vi and ^TR saya.) sA^^dvya 199. ^ &van is Tgpft ^ww^. is 197is too. vi.) their (see * Pan. Thus having long days. yuvan. 7). but Colebrooke. T^^^wM^Aavaw *iMl(?J maghdvabhih^ The same word may SINGULAR. ^Krr^T: dirgMhdh * V. *i^iJnT maghdvantau PLURAL. m. <0lH!i: dirghdhdnah A. they are declined regularly. N.

Nom. in $i. but a compensation for the absence of the nasal bases except those ending in nasals and semivowels. dhanfaah. only that dropt. Note These nouns in ^tn.) "^han. V. Loc. Nom. PLURAL. Vni dhanint yaisasvin. SINGULAR. Vft dhan( A. if used as a noun. ^rfy^ loquacious. pdshan. aryamn aryamd aryamdnah aryamndh aryamdbhih aryamani 1. NOM. DECLENSION.. neut. 31.A. DUAL. and in the Voc. with the nouns having unchangeable bases Ace. Sing. Decline ^Vtf^ medhdvin. neut. The root to kill. (etymologically a shortened form of ^*Jcn. I. N 2 . ctoonw dhdninah NEUTER. TW^<man) in the Nom. wise . N. aryama. follows the same rule. masc. SING. and in the Nom. to be observed that They drop ^ i . ACC. They form the and the SINGULAR. in ffif ini.PL. dhantndu dhanfnau t dhan(nah dhantnah : VnfT %rin dhaninam vf^HI dhantnd dhanine VfTri dhanibhydm dhantbhydm dhantthih D. it is Words the in iftin are almost regular. Plur. or. ^(jfaf pUshnf or g((Vr pdshdni. 202. PL. PL. Sing. PL. Bases in J 203. . brahmahdnah brahmayhndh brahmahdbhih brahmahani wwPH brahmaghnt or flw^fcj brahmahdni. glorious .- 303. Plur. L. NOM. Sing. 1. NOM. PL. and which inserted in these cases in all for the lengthening of the . NEUT.) follow the analogy of nouns in ^I^an (like TTH^r^jan. dhanfohydm dhantnoh Vflli dhaninah ^fVrfT dhanini VfV| Vf^RT dhanindm dhantshu VfTfh dhantnok dhdninau V. J dhan(bhyah dhantthyah Ab. INSTR. neut. according to some. ^n at the end of the Pada base. Ace. pfahn pUshd pdshdnah pdshndh pUshdbhih ptisUni aryaman. ACC. oirrft^AranX domg. SINGULAR. in MASCULINE. G. ptisha. is vowel in the is Nom. They might be ranged. ^ in. vPii. ^n is ^h becomes ^gh. : NOM. Plur. in fact. the 2. Sing.NEUT. 91 INSTR. DUAL. N. t NOM. ha. PL. masc. neut. PL. PL. NOM. SING. and neut. ^f^pUfhi. Sing. Ace. when the vowel between ^ h and BASE. J^ghn ^T hd brahmaha hanah ghnah hub hi h brahmahan. Nom. (S&r. N. Sing. VftfH dhanfni FEM. Ace. hdni ^ ha. 9. ghn Loc.

Pada. Participles of the reduplicated perfect in vdms the as the Anga. ^ vas. they change the ^s of ^(vas into T(t9 if ^ vas. is final. 131. that the Pada base is really '^vat. Bha. rurudvdms . vas as the Pada base. 204- Participles in $04. . ^ and ^ vas have three bases . is ^ ush as the Bha. According to Sanskrit grammarians.) But the by terminations beginning with v^bh and T^S. is.92 DECLENSION. or if it followed fact (see J 173. '^^(rurudvas . not Anga.

retain ^T^^^c? as Anga and Pada base. *iO<*i gdriyasah V. foot. PLUR. 207. tjHi^ supddam DUAL. N. ^^ ivas. Anga base MASCULINE. PLURAL. : 93 Decline the following participles I'ADA MASK. TJSNT: gdriyah gdriyasi gdriydthsi FEM. heavier .$ 207. N. supddau supddau I. gdriyasi Miscellaneous Nouns with changeable Consonantal Bases. I. Pada and Bha base SINGULAR. *I O *4 1\ gdriydn gdriydmsam gdrfydmsau gdriydrhsau t gdriydmsah A. FLUE. NOM. NOM. Bases in (termination of the comparative) form their Anga base in ^1^ iyd ?. ACC. IN8TR. SINGULAR. t supddah (Anga) (Bha) (Pada) gtf^: supadah ^pllfk: supddbhih to * ^m changed into ^n according 136. SINGULAR. it to Words ending in "m^tfc?. PLUK. SING. gdriyasd gdriyobhydm gdriyobhlhy &c. but shorten SINGULAR.V. A. N. DECLENSION. jufruvas Jusruvdihsah iusruvushah sujruvadbhih pechivas pechivdn pechivdmsah pechushah pechivadbhih jagmivas jagmivdn jagmivdnisah jagmushah jagmivadbhih jaganvas jaganvdn jaganvdmsah jagmushah jaganvadbhih jaghnivas jaghnivdn jaghnivdmsah jaghnushah jaghnivadbhih jaghanvdn jaghanvdmsah jaghnushah jaghanvadbhih Bases in ^ 206. NEUTER. . N. tj^ad as Bha base.

&c. Plural : Nom.V. masc.V. Ace. A. carrying. Sing. In composition ^r^ap fern. but ^t <f f. . and Instr. and makes its ^r a long in the ^r^ap water. N. ?$. The Sarasvati (i. ^InJ^ anadud DUAL. w\s^anaduh. 9. HI rH svetavdham Instr. ^n apsu. The Bha base "wnj^. Sing. (Accent. Instr. N.) more important compound with ^T^r^A has three bases i. in all Some (Sar. 98. ^^ Instr. ^TTTJ: dpah. ^rro svdpafy Ace. 'sins ^ anadvdham i DUAL. (See 128 . grammarians allow 5mu^> the Bha cases i. shorten 208. "Words ending in retain ^TT^ vdh. It is irregular besides in the Nom. ^f^svap. visvavdt DUAL. is uU.) is said . it to "3fi| Anga and Pada base.. 1. upholder of the universe. 171. vart.94: DECLENSION. svapah. Ab. and I retain- ing it in the Nom.) (Colebrooke. 14). Nom. anadvdmhi The rest like the masculine. according to different interpretations of Panini. note. is 210. Nom. Sing. J mfoauhdh 209. D. w\s*{anadvan A. Sing. 9. The Pada base iHHJ^.&. vi.e.. tivetavdh. e. having good water . PLURAL.Voc. A. y n <f\ fa 3vetavobhfy. Anga base. Loc. 174. The fern. anaduh. Thus (4 HI '41 SINGULAR.. an ox. and likewise aii^t 6vtiavah in Voc. and substitutes j(t for T^p before an affix beginning with *T bh. vn. 101. (Accent.V.c. Plur.^JCm^svetavahsu. xinsi^t anadvdhah A. p. at the end of a compound. it forms SINGULAR. Ace. neuter forms the Nom.) The "^ uh forms Vriddhi with a preceding a or visvavdh. Instr. "*in^lT anaduhd L. 8)j but a metre consisting called PrfM^I dvipadd. and Voc. G. is The feminine of two feet is either tjm'^swpad or *JM<{1 supadi (Pan. Final ^ h is w of interchangeable with ^dh. A It drawer. N. Pan. vi. iv. and Voc. viH^rg anadutsu If used as a neuter. PLURAL. '^5HJI^ anadvdn V. Nom. tanks with good water. N. ftrflBRT^ visvavdham I. SINGULAR. . wn ^1 anaduM wi$\^ i. ^fftt svampi or ^fft svdmpi. 171.. is The feminine 2ii. Pan. i. to form WF^svdp. anadudj 3. n*a<u A. ^fe: svadbhili. *ytih# foetavdh is further irregular. ^T^ vdh as uh as Bha base. ^SMil^T anadvdhau I. i. i^n<*\*svetavclh. Plur. ^R: apdfy. forming its Pada base in ^(ras. Sing. PLURAL. Ace.)- is invariably plural. Nom. *%i\ls\ foetauhd. a cart2. 8. &c.g. Loc. ^TR svdpam . vins^t anaduhah I. ^m svapd. instead of *yiiiF fvetauh. ^ini^ anaduM or ^nji^l } anadvdhi (Pan. L. The Anga base : 'Wisi^ anadvdh. 62) gives ^ift ri^HHf*! svdmpi taddgdni. N. ^Hfe: adbhih. (i.) "35 ^ ^5TT a ( 46). *fisi anadudbhydm vcnj^lt anaduhoh ^isf: anadudbhih I. The Plur. Plur.

) No accent on Vibhakti. does not prevent the change of ^s into ^*A.) and follows the paradigm and fern. and Dual. L. y\\*\ pumdmsah A.9. and in Sanskrit are what Greek grammarians would call under two forms. I. (Pan. vol. G. face . i. Panini (vin. gender. but one in the Sarvanamasthana cases. ^TH datdh. D.V. PI.V. (Accent. Pan. 213. 183): Base flj^rfw. f. D. DUAL. are declined in the masc. man. *2. J&ldyauh A. Voc. * "3^1 udaka. PLURAL. G.e. ^IJ sudyu. n. divdh ftfdfoam D. : (Pan. vi.-Kaum. 212. number of words e. gives written "pumsu. f^div or IJtfyu. (See 219. I. N. vi. N. 171. N. each following a different declension. the Anusvara represents an original *^m. tooth. i. *jfq4 sudivam. D. Plur. The Bha base ty^pums. f^rftW Ab. Ace.L. is declined as follows. datf m. The Sarasvatt Anusvara in ^Qpunkshu (1. n. (See Siddh. .- and therefore that change does not . 4J^Hif<H As a neuter it is. Nom. i. Voc. p. is L. vi. 3. ^rf dydbhydm fffrldivfy f&Jdivd G. Nom. ifttrfyaSA Another base of *ft#o. having a good sky. (Accent. Voc. f^: divdh i^f divdm f^ft dM ^5 dyushu V. or fern. Ace. I. N ^mpumdn V. i. Nona. Plur. sky. tjfr^ puman A. m. being deficient Voc. 138. Nom. Dual 214. has three bases: 2.70). A. n. &"$ I.A. Sing. ^sran^asan. 95 The Pada i. ^TT^T dsya y n. Cf. vol. Hence ^flrt sudyauh. L. Metaplasia. l[ dyu.. not jg^uwwAw or "f^punsu ( 100. The Anga base ^^pumdrhs . tpffcjjumsrfA ipn pumsdh *jptt pumdmsam nuwsa Plur.Ab.-Kaum. of neuters. 63. *34. The Loc. Nom. DECLENSION. 171. Ab. second. PLURAL. i. n. p.jnitn pumdmsau N. supumdmsi. Dual 4JJJ40 supumsi. vi. ^f^r<c sudivi. SINGULAR. like 219.. A i. L. not inserted take place in j(V<^j svhinsu and ^^puihsu. ^rf danta. *i. N. Plur. SHW^ dsan. DUAL.- 214. &c. Ab. note). 171. I. "p^pwhs. Plur. ^n is radical. In the neuter they form Nom. In the first. blood ^np^osn. Sing. 58) says that "^num only. dtiau %t divah f^T. SjyT supum. Pan. f^ udan.) base Jjftpum. n. water .) SINGULAR. Ace. Ace. i. y*lf pumbhyim G. sudivt. Siddh. they exist Nom.) Thus : DEFECTIVE BASE BASE DECLINED THROUGHOUT . . Sift c?yo is declined as a base ending in a vowel... Compounds like gft^sttefaj. I. having a good sky . 3. i. Sing.A. 186 : in the Mil(iri In composition it is declined in the same manner if used in the masc. not general.

- m. drlld dantdn or <5H N. i. . PL ipBpritsu. month . 144. is only. A. m. only . 11.^tpttlT asrigbhydm or^W^asabhydm. Du. Plur. 16. I. tpfT dantena or tpTT rfa^.V. Bases ending in any vowels. n.< only. Sing. pea-soup. N . 2. ia^jn^^dantah.V. ^Tj Dual ^inri dantdbhydm or ^WT dadbhydm. Gen. .) t Siddh. Dual *nT**rf mdsdbhydm or *rn*lima&%am.V. is vttjfi asrinji only Du. Dual is TPHT mdsau only .V. A. ~mil only . Plur. on the exact meaning of Panini's rule . m. hridaya. [I. f. 10. 315dos. DECLENSION. 13. only. Dual is yushau only .V. but * I. is tflfr dantau only . hriddh. IF p. No. . f. 6. Dual the base (See Siddh. Plur. Dual Neut. ^TF^ sakan. Sing. ^[***{doshan rule is may be pp. TTftl!fT ndsikd. ^ An'c?. in asrik only. foot. vol. ^masaA. N. 9. n. Sarasvati gives all vol. n liverlf. is N. A. I.V. p.V. A. Plur. ridge n.V. <*^ doshan. ^HI M I yushdbhydm or ^*ri -shabhydm. a. TT^m^ms. fA. 1 1.) n. Hence No. Sing. ^ Sing. Plur. 131. Sing. vol. wia5<fA but I. i. 4. f. 8. PL Pi^|| msa. except derivative ^r a and Bases ending in derivative w a and ^TT d. *&(nas. Tl^ac?.V. TT^rr^ mdsdn or TTOJ mdsah. J Siddh. Ace. : 2. T^yws^e or ^U!J-s^am or ft5t Grammarians doshant. n. vi. . 7. Ace.pr** army f. Voc.-Kaum. f.63. A. mdmsa. m. m. Bases ending in vowels 1. f. isiran. ordure.V. *I 3 < "^g&iyushan. N. |) The cases of HT^mas 35). but I. Sing. and forms such as show that in the Nom. amj a or N. Dual is ^TCpJ? asrinji or asdni. No. Loc. n. f.) By some the restricted to the Veda. <^m*\ yushdn or ^{W* yushnah. Dual N. fff^T m's. *p^. I. i.. Plur. n. A. TOl yafam. 315. TT^mas. ^ SWM.).-Kaum. TPHt *I2. Sing. 15. N. 171. (m. 141. PL T^t paddh. A. ^W yushena or ^Ul|| yushnd. Bases ending in Vowels. arm . A. L. (i.V.V. ^TOT mdsena or Hlfll wwfoa. N. . may be subdivided into two classes ^TT d. * No accent on Vibhakti. nose Ace. N. Sing. Pan. . A. *I4. PL "TOt nasdhj fT$tt nisdh. 141. 107. 1. m. . n. vi. Sing. I. 131. is T yusMh only. (Pan. n. A. asriji N. Plur. am. is <fffTi dantdh only. differ Nom. would seem to used. night Ace. meat^ || .-Kaum. N. (m. is No. Ttff$pdda.96 *56. pritand.

wealth. I. Ab. and in the Ace. with few exceptions. Pan. Bases in ^ J 217.-J 218. ship. The y ^ ai becomes ai ^rr both $ and d while ^ au remains unchanged w au become dy and ^TTT ^crpf dv. J 2i ^ft o. The only noun of importance a bull or cow. Pan.) . Sing. ai and ^ au. Abl. and Gen. i.V. it will be far easier to learn at all into by heart the paradigms such as they are. i. 182. TK rd-h A. vi. > rd-bhydh G. different terminations were used after bases ending in consonants and after bases ending in nations for vowels. or according to the more correct views of comparative philologists. Pan. N. Tjfa: rd-bh(h nau-bhih D. 1 Instead of attempting to learn. DECLENSION. These bases in consonants. (Accent. vi. except derivative ^J 97 a and *Tf a. the moon. either according to the system J 2 6. It is slightly irregular in Nom. (Accent. TTO rdy -ah fRt ndv-dh L tnftt ray- Hl^t dy-dm ndv-6h do-d Dech'ne k alauhy m. (Accent. and that before vowels f. is iTtgo. "dy-ah ftt ndv-ah dy-au TT^T ndv-c fTQrdy-am TJTTray-^ nq nav-am tjm rdy-dh nau: * ndv-ah . from the beginning. Ace.) SINGULAR. 171. DUAL. . declined like bases ending principal rules to be observed are that before consonants are. nau-h PLURAL. Bases ending in any Vowels. BsL$e\rai. L. Plur. or whether. vi. without entering the question whether there was originally but one set of termiall nouns. I. TT^rdy 9 m.) i. followed by native grammarians. 168. Bases in 8. how the terminations appended to consonantal bases are changed when appended to bases ending in vowels.

A. Dual o^<4l udyadayau.dydm.dy6"h.g. "aft krt. vi. Monosyllabic bases. Sing. : A. fern. and ^n o and w au to T u. but differs from in all other cases. sky. Dual N. Monosyllabic Bases themselves. but change final fy am "31^ into and before vowels. 73). dy6bhyah Ab b. thinking. p. Sing. G L.-Kaum. V. buying. it It coincides in the ( Nom.-Kaum. with f^^div. dyubhih. while from "R^cfo'p the neuter adjective was. IRSpradyu. DUAL. i. 93. vi. These monosyllabic bases rarely occur except at the end of He vi. 4j(XlJJI surind or ^CHTT surdyd. I. dydm. 213. Dual H*l1 pradyuni. and Voc. as having a good sky. N. like vftdM. Note There are no real nouns ending in U e. its at the end of a compound Inrfyo forms celestial. declined like *ft#o. pp. tJ^Tq sudivi (Colebr. . neut. Hence Instr. N. dyauh in the Forms of dyu which occur Sing. Plur. dydvah N dyauh f dydm * dydvd dydve 1 dy6bhih yrfbhydm D. however. dydvahz A. ^?T sudyu. Nom. flffc dydshu : V. in^i and liu. vau PLURAL. 5). 83. neuter base as Igdyu. being both Masculine and Feminine. e. (B. (Pan. *K\ o. Dual and Plural. D.dive*. cutting. 67. G. I. f5lu. WQpradyu. the rising sun Nom. dyun . . 145). they shorten 1* ai to ^ *. N. <TBR^ udyadeh. i. Ace. is 219. Being used Plur. Bases in i. vol. WS^i pradyuni (Siddh. eminently vol. though .d{vam. 145).98 If bases in J? ai. dydvd. Th< remain unchanged before terminations beginning with consonants. 4. 221. ^jP^cfl sudivi. 219- W au are to be declined as neuters at the end of compounds. Sing.divdh. cannot take the optional masculine cases (Siddh. rndyo. as JJi eh. (A. dyausj Rig-veda I. take the same terminations as consonantal bases.) SINGULAR.) At the end of compounds. $t and -31 ti. i. pp. as their Nominative. DECLENSION. dyaus (Rv. The masculine forms. 82. we saw. 51. the sun. Voc. are equally allowed the base is masculine) in cases except the Nom.) By 220.) Their Vocative is the same ^*{iy T^MU. divd(dtvd. heaven. 144. Dual Plur. grammarians imagine such words Plur. but only tj*jiuwmma. 9'CI^Mt udyadayah. as a neuter. derived from verbs without any suffix. by day). compounds. and are then declined like neuters in (if ^ and all ^ u.

T&Qpradhyam.-Kaum. ygSUts'uddhadhyam. is U>fh pradhth. frog. (Siddh. here is ^ ud is a preposition belonging to only belongs to the root.) punarbhuh. 84. Sing. Sing. facilitate pronunciation. thinking in a high degree.-Kaum. Here "ifanih is Ace. Into a.the first member second maintains of the its nominal character. change \t and DECLENSION. self-existing. 4.. They change 1. i. compound forms the predicate of the second. a ^T^ftt fuddhadhth. vi. M*I Tn 4 paramaniyam.) O 2 . the best leader. i. The general idea which "31 suggested the distinction between bases changing their final * t and u either into ^{iy and T^WP. and in some other compounds. a good thinker. vi. 4. so that the only real exception would be in the case of certain compounds ending in ^bhu. or into ^y and ^[r. i|WUfi: grdmanih. thought. Ace. one a Tatpurusha compound). intended to 2. ^^^t svayambhuvam. here n\*\grdma which retains so Sing. i. pure thinker. ^pgfftri Ace. leader of a village.) This is a merely phonetic change. leading out. tuddhadhiyam. or in such compounds as a noun admits of sudhih*. ^TV^ bolt. re-born.) nail. The nouns in which ^t and rule. to have lost its treated as a noun.they 221. a buyer of water. 119). Ace. but only at the providens) or by a noun which was governed by them. "ttQunnyam. here a preposition belonging to >ft dht. 85. 61. never to be treated as a verbal compound. &c. (Pan. preceded either by a preposition (HVfc pradhth. Sing. Sing. if it were a Karmadharaya compound. iJIHJUJ is grdmanyam.) i. "$&: If ty and "&tt are preceded by two radical i initial consonants. Though ^t suddhadhth preceded by two consonants. "3S end of compounds. a pure thinker. Into ^y and ^v. makes Ace. Ace. a man of bad thought. while the latter always retained somewhat of their verbal character. seems to have been that the former were treated as real monosyllabic nouns that might be used by themselves (*fh dht/i. ft nt. its not the predicate of TTt nth. (Sar. Ace. but is governed by ^ nth. 4. a man possessed of pure thoughts (Siddh. or as a ^JSVfc Bahuvrihi compound. SI3*J*h or into ^T (^ft Juddhadhih. Sing. a pure thinker or pure thoughted). becomes *$^bhuv before vowels. (Sar. Sing. Sing. Sing. 85. 119. wherever the monosyllabic bases retain their verbal character. 19. '^J! drinbhuJt. but always forms Ace. thinking ^P^* (if pure things. under other circumstances. IT pro. of a phonetic explanation 330). ^pT*Jt karabhuh or ^TT^Jt Mrabhuh. Not. u stand after two radical consonants form an exception to this general ( which exception admits. vi. vi. tj^scq sutriyam. 84). 1 Itpftt susrth. p. either "31 99 may it 4 into Iftiy and T^W. however. Tffvni kudhiyam. such as R*Jt p. 4.) b.) 6. Sing. i. vol. y and \v. ^<M(\ljalakrth. ^*OJ svayambhuh. p. If ^(iy and T^wr. "&3ftl unnth. all (Pan. which retains verbal nature. thunder- sudhth is as *jf>f*f sudhiyam. vi. a man of pure kudhth.*Hl: paramanth. varshdbhvam (Pan. (Pan. ofwjalakriyam. Ace. 82. vol. vol. would form the Ace. a thinker). well faring. Siddh. Ace. far its verbal character. and the Thus M4. it be verbal or nominal. however. vart. and could therefore not be used by themselves. and thus be distinguished from suddhadhih (as a Karmadharaya compound). (Pan.-Kaum. which both have ^j-sfrra suddhadhiyam for their accusative. Sing. whether Ex.e. in ^tpjt rarshdbhuh. Sing. Ace. and seems verbal character. Thus ^bhu 4.

in \tm and ^ ^ f. They in "3*: follow the verbal H*Tfc pradhih throughout. Sing. Ex. The same applies to nouns like for a son 'Jiftt sutih. is changed before vowels into ^'y. if derived by 1 it may entirely follow the verbal Wftlpradhih (Siddh. 1. sushkiyau. p. tpftj yayih. If the final long \i is preceded by two consonants. Polysyllabic Bases in "3! ^ i and ^1 u. wishing for pleasure. wishing ^^* su khih. it i. the sun. 222.100 DECLENSION. Sing. i/). in %*{in an those in Remember also. except that TJtfh papih. antelope. they form the Ace. .-Kaum. road. dancer. 16). and Abl. they form the Ace. in declined like in . vol.-Kaum. such as and are declined like JTg nrituh. 120). the verbal compounds JT^fh pradhfh and ^3T<$* vrikshaluh.p. . 2. may be papth but I. Polysyllabic bases in ^ and u being both masculine and feminine. vol. Sing. vdtapramih. but they have their Gen. that \i form the LOG. &c. Plur. not i 2. ^^tt sushkih. 222. protector. uhj ^IJt sutyuh (Siddh.

|>ii S i 5-. DECLENSION.2 a ll n m . I a *4&i rS* 58 S " < Ht'Mll^ ftlf Iffll 8 |. 101 *$ = fe> s I 5 ^ $ . CH K <s i ll S . 02 - a H if n .$-222. = - s.

102 DECLENSION". 222- 1- * a .

Bases like >ft c?^z. SINGULAR. Jn4h pradhyoh N. 224. ^f am. SINGULAR. L. pradhye Ab. All these DECLENSION. g. such as Their only a cutter. lrft*K pradhibhyah G. ^r: dh. 138). may then form Vocative ^ ^f^ ( he punarbhu (Siddh. IT^IJ pradhyah pradhyah IT^n pradhyah TnfHWt^rarfAt^AtA pradhyah JUfffir. fuller feminine terminations in ^ ai. and Dat optional forms in the These may be called the five ?ff ndm. brow. L. I.-Kaum. not argument is IPffpradhtm ortpftlpradhth (Siddh. Plur. and Loc. if it means a woman married a second time. m: pradhih 1W pradhyam TRflT pradhyd Uttfr TFtR pradhyd or Tn*I pradhyai D. fear. however. ^rn ah. if 0^1) khalapve striyai (Kasika is i. I. A similar It TtW pradhyah. L. . head-borough or the sweeper should be of the female sex. or 1HTK pradhydh TWt pradhyah yfapradhyi TVfcpradhih DUAL. ^ft srz. I. thinking. and Gen. like A^f\l lakshmih. and take the Jive fuller feminine terminations 224). shame.-J 224.Ab. Sing. A. MASC. and ^6Ar^. or IHflTt pradhydh or TTW pradhydm V. vol. i. 136). 1TUK pradhyah G. compounds may be used without any change. p. IwNff pradhibhydm G.. e. Jiwft pradhyau UW pradhyau inftri pradhibhydm H**fo pradhyoh I. 3). TW pradhyam. Sing. the Dat.-Kaum. ^t Ar?. except in the Ace. pradhibhih D. or Tjfapradhi DUAL. N.V. Gen. intellect. A. IWh'K pradhibhyah or HWT pradhydm MM)TI pradhindm lT>fh| pradhishu i. >rt 5A^.D. ONLY.Ab. Monosyllabic Bases in \\ and ^su. vol. A. some grammarians allow such compounds to be declined in the am feminine. the meaning of a man. det?z^ Feminine only. would '4<4c4i4 be t(i*i<w f$9R yrdmanye striyai. and Plur. peculiarity consists in their admitting a number of Abl. AND FEM. whether they If the still 103 refer to nouns in the masculine or in the feminine gender. 223. where they take it such that itself be applied to a woman as well as to a V and VJ ah. applied to its ^Tjt punarbhuh. Sing. happiness. radhih TTWT pradhyam N. may by compound mftl pradhih. may be declined throughout exactly like the monosyllabic bases in ^ and "35 ^. p. Sometimes. FEM. 4. <jf &2.

N. SINGULAR. and Plural. lute. f 225. . nadi N.) Base T^nadi and ^g^nady. not desiring (applied to women) . They change their final ^ i and ^1 u into T^y and "^v before terminations beginning with vowels. FEM. N. Sing. being Feminine only. while those in Note "31 u have in it. thought. They shorten their final ^ i and "35 u in the Vocative Singular. L. tot: dhiydh : bhuvdh : bhuvdh dhiydh bhuvdh bhuvi dhiydm DUAL. p.Ab. (i) (3) (4) (5) They take n^m and ^ s as the terminations of the Ace. to: dhiydh G. Monosyllabic. Versus memorialis ^^c*y1rf'OH*<^Vl' (Sar. I 225- Optional fuller forms.. only. Some nouns \f take ^s in the Nom. I. only. Tf: vadhd-h A. D. Sing. Ab. A. Polysyllabic Bases in ^ i wc? "31 u. A. V.104 Monosyllabic. Base '^vadhil and SINGULAR. bhilvah bhuvah. (2) These bases always take the full feminine terminations. to A. tfri dhibhydm bhtibhydm bhuvofy PLURAL. ^ FEM. tf : dhih fVrf dhiyam dhiya fVni dhiyai bhuvam bhuvai fwr Ab. bhuvau I. tot: PLURAL. t G. earth. I. DECLENSION. Sing. boat .D. to: dhiyah >rfatt . 18 a. SINGULAR. 'zr^vadhu-m I. "rf^t: tantrth. : goddess of prosperity fTtt: tarfh. to: L. fern.L. dhibhydh : bhubhydh G. vT bhuh DUAL. Remember that most nouns in ^i have no ^5 in the Nom. fern. N. : ^T^h avih. efsen vadhv-d Tcft' nadi-m nady-d "^ITT . Optional fuller forms. o5TS*rh lakshmih. tot dhiyam -qfar bhuvam bhushu $tff bhundm dhishu 2. SINGULAR.

Sing. i.) P . * if it means a good mind. t The Voc. intentionally as a token of his distracted mind. is declined exactly like vh dhth. good brow. L. Kaum. vol. "3S in Monosyllabic Feminine ^i anc? "35 to. having a declined exactly like WJ bhruhlr. and Plur. and fern. with TFf\lpradhth. is Thus masc. TOT: nady-dh L. I. - D. tjlrf Ab. and fern. V. agrees with the rules given above with regard to *J>fh sudhih. ^vn ^njj*n vadM-bhyah vadhu-bhyah ^n vadhd-ndm vadhd-shu Bases in H1 nadi-shu Compounds ending 226.- made Rama vol. TOT: nady-dh G. Oh father. where (wife) . Ab. D. Oh it thou fine-browed . ( 223). eminent intellect. TOfc nady-6h D. 137. it is in both cases declined like c5VJ*fl: lakshmih.. I^WT: nadi-bhyah G. The difference.V. PLURAL. Compounds the last member of which is a monosyllabic feminine base in ^f or w. consider that (Siddh. Sing. A. however. "^Jsw^rM is used by Bhatti. G.- 226. DECLENSION.-Kaum. N. &c. are declined alike in the masculine and feminine. TOTR vadhv-dh G. ^t^ vadhv-au I. ^f vadM-h I. L. while admitting that is a mistake. V. -tpfi* sudhth. intellect. A. . again.D. take ^ . ?T& nady-ai ^d vadhv-ai WT: ^Ulf Ab. The Ace. therefore. N. would be the substitution of T^y for ^^iy before vowels. Ab. terminations and the Vocative in ^ these being the only points of difference only. stands at the end of the Karmadharaya is compound like trfapradhth. p. p. TO: vadhv-ah A. possessed of eminent It would thus become identical intellect. while giving these rules for UVt: pradMh. The Siddhanta-Kaumudf. If *nt dhfy. Ab. q vddhu DUAL. in a passage where Rama ^T f^T: gjrftr % *JW hd pitah kvdsi he subhru. ^njTf vadhd-bhydm G. vadhv-dh nady-dm vadhv-dm -nddi DUAL. fern. thinking eminently. f<l^l nadi-ndm L. or having a good mind. 136. when it takes exceptionally the feminine terminations am and ^1 ah. exclaims.V. or if it used as a Bahuvrihi compound in the feminine. *J*|t subhruh. without * The following rule is taken from the Siddh. masc. between the declension of f*H*{1: lakshmih and vfc dhfh. Some grammarians admit commit it this Vocative as correct it others call a mistake of Bhatti Bhatti others. such as IFiftt pradkfy. TO: nady-ah ircfh wae?/Tflftf*: N. the obligation of using the fuller fern. i . L. ^fffarf nadi-bhydm G. tfift nady-au N.V. L. I. ! in great grief art thou.V. 105 D. nadi-bhih ^(pr: vadhd-bhih ^^wr: nadi-bhyah Ab. TOffc vadhv-ty PLURAL. D. A.

gv DUAL. Optional forms for neuters. gfvftr sudhiyi sudhiyah sudhinah sudhinah sudhini or gfw: sudhiyah "ffipti sudhiydm : V. ^TT dm] for the feminine. sudhibhydm PLUBAL. I. D. except Nom. A. SINGULAR. good intellect. however. A. The same or "31 applies to with this difference. : sudhiyafy sudhiyah.106 excluding the fuller terminations simple terminations the (*? e. . the feminine In "^WJ sreyasi retains 1 its is feminine character (naditva} throughout distinctly maintained for the (Siddh. that in *g[ mridu.^fti: sudhibhyafy G. N. are used as neuters. Ab. vol. \ i. G. Gen. ^tft! vdri compound ^pfh sudhih. : sudhibhyah sudhibhyah Ab. and the same compound TWffc pradhih. p. and Pern. I. 116). sudhiye sudhine : Ab. sudhih gift: gf^R sudhiyam gfaxrr sudhiyd *jfv*r sudhi sudhind sudhiyai . and are declined like If the when used as a substantive. I. or the VK ah. the Inst.-Kaum. i. same compounds base. 119). L. if used as a masculine vol. DUAL. D.V. Dual and Plural they may optionally take the masculine forms. Optional fuller forms. A. they shorten the final \i u of their and Masc. Sing. Ace. ^STt ah. Iff worn)* for the masculine. possessed of distinguished intellect. PLURAL. DUAL. sudhiyau sudhini or gfvlf sudhibhydm or 4jf\ffU sudhinofy PLURAL. Loc. N. tjfimi sudhiydm L. gftrc: sudhiyah L. 326 ^\\dh. N. (*Z ai. DECLENSION. Voc.V. bahusreyasf. : sudhini sudhini sudhibhify sudUbhih. D. i. gftro sudhiyah G. SINGULAR. good-tho ughted. (Siddh.-Kaum. ^TT dm. >T^ sudhibhyah sudhindm sudhindm sudhishu sudhishu * I can find no authority by which these fuller terminations are excluded. SINGULAR. Abl. Dat. p.

and Fern. A. P 2 .-Kaum. many is : auspicious qualities (Siddh. Ab. except Norn. subhruvafy subhrum subhruni : subhruvah subhrubhih subhrubhih D. Feminine in Polysyllabic Feminine Bases in T3(twac?f \ i and "3! ti. G. subhrtih subhruvam subhruvd subhruve subhruvai or or or or g^ ^subhru TT^JTTT subhru g^WT subhrund subhrune D. SINGULAR. and ^^c^flmw may form the last portion of comThus ^^qttt bahusreyasi. Ab. DUAL. N. J^^^^yt bahu&reyasyah From f6*ili lakshmfy. N. vol. I. nouns like pounds which are used has in the masculine gender. p. subhrubhyah : subhrubhyah Ab. L. L. Sing. with beautiful brows. would be i atilakshmty.L. a man who I. pp. Ab. subhrubhyah subhruvam subhrushu t f subhrubhyah subhrundm subhrushu Compounds ending 227. 107 Optional forma for neut/ra. I. SINGULAR. V. A. or subhruni V. DUAL. Maso. Ace. ^^T! subhruvdh g^r: subhruvdh g^!K subhrunah g^Trn subhrunah fiu subhruvi subhrufy g^f subhruvdm DUAL.DECLENSION. subhruvau T subhruni D. A. G. I. A. are declined in the masculine and feminine SINGULAR. i. and xi Pn -s^ atichamv. vol.-Kaum. bahusreyasyai t bahusreyasydh bahusreyasydh bahusreyastbhydm bahusreyasyoh bahusreyasyoh bahusreyasyau 1 bahu^reyas(bhyah T bahuSreyastndm ^M^l bahusreyasydm bahusreyasi ^^'Mil^lM bahufreyastshu 1<s V. 123).V. subhrubhydm subhruvoh subhrubhydm subhrunok PLURAL. the Nom. * PLURAL. N. DUAL. L. one who hetter than an army (Siddh. 116. subhruvah subhruvaJjt G. N. Voc. PLURAL. i^^<4**<t bahufreyasyah ~TS 1 ^T? H^^^til bahusreyasi ^nTOT bahusreyasim bahus'reyasyd bahusreyasyau bahusreyasyau smtO^ bahusreyasin Vin bahusreyasibhyah bahusreyastbhydm ^HSHnftfat bahusreyastbhih D. SINGULAR. Optional fuller forma. PLURAL. I. 117). G.

V. 118. N. atichamu Jcumdrt. feminine. Sing. A. except in the Ace. %^ striydm (Pan. When ^jfl's^ forms the last portion of a compound.A. (Siddh. o^^ilitfl bahusreyasi. N. N. ^t^Tf stribhydm s^rzA or Q^i striyah ffam striyd G. P^j 4i I. 168. A. f^TTt striydh L.^rfn^^iJ atichamvah G. Remember also two optional forms in the woman. atichamvau atichamvau PLURAL. "^^ striyai f^RT D. e. and neuter. atistraye atistraye atistraye \l Ab. stri striyau (tfl*< ^jjjfh striyah A. I. g.-Kaum.G. G.vi. atistrau JH Pri atistriyam or atistrini or ^ T atistrau 1 r L ^Itf atistrau atistre V.) DUAL. i. pp. i. ^fti: stribhydh G. 4.A. bahusreyasini. and Plur. Pan. and where they form kumdryam and kumdryah. behaves like a Plur. * atistre atistre The neuter is said to be N. 5) V. (Accent. PLURAL. a atichamvau atichamvah* Nouns like man who vol. atichamubhydm atichamvofy atichamubhyah atichamundm atichamushu '* wPrr*f*lT atichamvdm 'SfPtf'i'J atichamvoh V.V. ^fftT^f^atichamum I. Ace. vtPfl-s*u: atichamvah L. t atistrih \\ atistrih atistri atistrim or atistrim or atistri atistriyam ^rPrfi^flJn atistriyd atistriyai or ffrf atistrind atistrind atistrine or D.V. and not *?m 5/rya. N. Ab. N. f^fT striyd. N. ^?^4tflPr -sfoe. N. *iiPfi"^*^ atichamvai i atichamubhyah Ab. .A. Sing. Plur. 4) ^1n strishu 229. 1 . ^pff sfrzm or ffepT striyam I. I. Dat.L. A. is declined like T^ wc?^. DUAL. atichamun : ^rfif^*^T atichamvd atichamubhydm atichamubhydm atichamubhih D. ^lillis^/m (P . Sing. girl. Tfiift ffa*{striy. Dual rj^l*lt(lil bahusreyasini. Base npftstrt and SINGULAR.. atistriydh or J atistrinah or atistreh t atistrefy L \ ^Pfi^t* atistreh 'SiPi if^jjffijT L. D.108 SINGULAR. are declined like cjj*u*q bahusreyasi. and has to be treated as a : masculine. atistriyam I. ^fflT^nTt atichamuh DECLENSION. f^|4fl: striydh ^ftfW: stribhih D. 4. L. the following forms occur SINGULAR. bahusreyasyai (-sye ?) or &c.V. Ab. 119. Sing. . Ab.) only that the accumulation of four consonants is avoided by the regular insertion of an ^ i. atichamvah A.

forms are admitted. Feminine. atistriyau In i N. Thus P$IK laghuh. L. and Ace. only that the masculine may optionally be substituted for the neuter in all cases except the Nom. a& qwljc: some compounds ending in ^^: with handsome thighs. atistrayah atistrin or atistrayah atistrih or atistrini atistriyah I. tu atistrtni N.Ab. gi^: uruh. Loc. ^v: vadhufy. Masculine. Plur. Thus . I. and Ace. 134.-Kaum. Thus fern. like and are then tpj: pangufy. p. MASC. the ifl'gpdndu. Some declined adjectives in ~su lengthen their vowel in the fern. and Plur. wfa: suchify. 230. atistriyau NEC*.-J 230. i NEUT. and Voc. fern. lame. MASC. They are of frequent occurrence. Acc.V. fern. thigh. to be declined as a feminine. does not take ^z. except in the Instr. Nom. may form their feminine either without any change. kavih. Sing. PLURAL. atistribhih D. HTJJ pdnduh. F atistribhyah atistribhyah f atistrindm atistrindm atistrishu atistrindm atistrishu final atistrishu In the masculine except in the Nom.. Likewise ^^: a Kuru fern.L. A. may likewise be declined like ^ft stri in the Dat. t atistriyah atistribhih J atistribhih atistribhyah. except that they . Sing. I. either ?5T[: laghuh. FEM. applies to adjectives in ^ u. In the Ace. Dual and Plur. cflMl light. to be declined like T^t nadi. optional vol. or by adding ^ t. The same neut. and neuter bases in ^ i and ^ u.. .. kurufy. Dual. vdmorufy. Bases in ^ i and "3 u. If the final Tu is preceded by more than one consonant. ^jfa suchi. and Gen. and should be carefully committed to memory. masc. atistrini atistribhydm atistriyoh t atistribhydm atistriyoh t atistribhydm atistrinoh G. vdmoruh. pale . Loc. The neuter has the usual optional forms. feminine. kurufy : fern. bright . Gen.A. fern.V. Neuter. Adjectives in \i are declined like substantives. (Siddh. Sing. G. T}IJ: pahguh. Abl. ^fis shortened to ^t. 5 such . Ace. Ex.D. There are masculine. is in the fern. '.Ab. DECLENSION. . or laghvi. Sing. 109 FEM. DUAL.Voc. and the compound declined like <=(%. ^fVi: suchih.) The feminine may be the same but it as the masculine.

MASC. I'M. ^ftv/re* mr/c?o DUAL. \kavi-nd maty-a vdri-nd mridu-nd *t^ cf mridv-d mridu-nd D. soft N. ^TXVf% *pf^* vari-ni 'J^* mriddv-ah [Aravay-fl/i matdy-ah fffti mriddv-ah mr A. vi. vdri-ne mriddv-e ^ mriddv-e or *J^T mridu-ne or mridv-ai *f$3 mriddv-e Ab. soft mridu. Bases in SINGULAR. f ^i^J [ kave'-h mridd-h or ^ ^JjpT* mridu-nah or mridd-h TrPTFt maty-dh vari-nah mrid6-h mridv-dh ipjfc I mridau or L. J ofT^TIJ PLURAL. ^Jn. [A:at?y-^A maty-6h TiHT* vdri-noh mridv-6h mridv-dh N. L wia/^ vdri-nt mridu mridu Ifgft mridu-nf kavi-bhydm matt-bhydm T?ftt vdri-bhydm <4ir<UUU mridu-bhydm mridu-bhydm Jpftt >pftt mridu-bhydm JJgrfttmn'c?M-woAor JJ^tt mridv-dh f^ffr* G. or. *nft N. [ IS** kav{-bhyah mati-bhyah vdri-bhyah mridu-bhyah mridu-bhyah mridu-bhyah G. Sing. of neuters in ^ i. more usually. % The lines of separation placed in the transcribed paradigms are not intended to divide . poet matt. [ kavi-nam f mati-ndm vdri-ndm '4i mridu-ndm *gj$ mridu-shu mridu-ndm >j^5 mridu-shu is mridu-nam L. J [ cFf%: kav{-h cfff^ mati-h Jffif mridu-h mridu-h mridu A. matindm. Vyaghrapad. **3x NEUT. FEM.Ab. J [ i ofi'JM miTJmatdy-eoT nftffl ^W kavdy-e TW maty -at Tlf J mate-h or . thought vdri.110 Bases in DECLENSION. J I kavi-m mati-m mridu-m mridu-m mridu I. r^rf^r^ [kawi-shu ^^ mati-shu f<y If !! mridu-shu 1 vdri-shu * The Guna as in the Voc. i.D. may be seen from the following verse iWT r: 'iJ5r T^'^^TT ^TTIT 7HIT n t Nouns ending in short ^i.Ab. 2 3- MASC. water *rfitt mridu. Plur. 177). **W 15 *^J 15 Base < \_kavi. J "^T*^ [A:fli?-w ^tx^ftr vdri-ni jg^ mridu-n mati-h ^51 mridu-h I. : approved by Madhyandini i. ^[rt.V. TM. NEUT.G. \_kavau J?'*T mridu-ni or mf( maty -dm mate vari-ni mridau T mridv-am f^T mridau or V. (Pan.L. matt-bhih vdri-bhih mridu-bhih mridu-bhih mridu-bhih D. \kavi I. and ^Ta. and having the accent on these vowels. soft mridu.V. may throw the accent on "*tindm in the Gen.A. Hence matf'ndm.

The feminine *^ft saMz is regular. are used and take no terminations in the Nom. 231. HTg prop. L. A. and Tffw tati. as many (relat. For the rest. Nom. Pada and Bha base. I. masc. the strong base. declined as follows Base tjtifW susakhi.). Ace. Tw i. L. G. Nom. nouns. DUAL. as masc. N. . we masc. like find ^f At the end of compounds.-Kaum. Ill in the Plural only. e. is the are name of a tree. and Ace. how many. friend. Feminine nouns in short * Siddh. rope. "q^pWu. has two bases for the for the It is irregular in Anga. 4J4HslHu susakhdyau ^[fl^lMl susakhdyau IJ*ifW*li susakhibhydm PLURAL.- 233. they are declined like and without distinction of gender. I. Loc. fq^ ci^nu. T^p rqjjuh. vol. kdtibhyah ^flfwr: kdtibhyah *fftni kdtindm ^ifriij Gen. t sdkhdyah tt<?H<4 sdkhdyam sdkhdyau sdkhibhydm sdkhye sdkhibhih D. Ab. kdtishu : J 232. SINGULAR. cow. sun. i. Masculine nouns in short TM are 6A4nu. PLURAL. a good friend. lf?f yati. Instr.Voc. Ab.. ^T$ rrfyu. the name of its fruit (Sar. Abl. 112. ^ifif kati. DECLENSION. kdtibhih "arfirWT: Dat. susakhaye susakheh susakheh ^ ftln susakhibhydm i: susakhibhyah susakhibhyah *jufw[i susakhibhydm i: ^^t\l susakhyoh *jti<5i1it susakhindm susakhau susakhe 'QM&\\1 susakhyoh ^^Isll^U susakhdyau i susakhishu V. TOfT sdkhd A. '*{fa*R sdkhibhydm sdkhibhyah sdkhyuh sdkhyuh ^rf%n sdkhibhydm sdkhibhyah *fWfc sdkhyoh W&\\\ sdkhyoh like sdkhfadm sdkhishu like sdkhyau 5aA:Ae V. 17). N. G. Plural. DUAL. *lifa kavi. W^* fa*^> body. wind. sdkhdyau some of its cases. but only to facilitate the learning by heart of these nom. ^rftrsaMe. the real terminations from the real base. SINGULAR. 8. V*j: dhenuh. as neuter. i. susakhdyah declined like ( At the end of a neuter compound is 230). Wfirfcto' Tffft kdti flufnfa. : susakhd susakhdyah* susakhln ri susakhdyam susakhind susakhibhih D. so many. p. Nom.

regular.Ab. wife. *fi%nft dkshint *ratftfor dkshtni ^H^ill aksJind I. *nfr ndptr-e ^H ^^t dhdtn-ne or VTJJfr VTW dhdtrd dAaMA dhdtdri "^rgt wajp^A syaswA VT^H >l I dhdtrt-nah or VTg: dhdtr{-ni or >ll ri THft ndptar-i *3**r<. Feminine. Ab. N.V.L. L. 33. FEM. providence Base grandson ^T svdsri. tfTftt TfTRpdtyd pdtyoh *rffffa: D. but in the Bha cases they substitute the bases '%l(dadhn. N. L. ^^^ sakthi t thigh. ^T^ a^s^e (or Bases in ^ ri. like #aw. svdsah(r) VTJ cta^n or is VTiT: dhdtah(r) "^n has Udatta and becomes ^r and preceded by a consonant. who takes part in the The neuter bases 1 'SrfTSf akshi. Tff ridptri. G. ^a/i at the end of compounds. N. DUAL. The feminine of Tfopati is tf^t patni. ^rfir bhtipati. L. ifiQipdtyau D. These bases are declined after two models SINGULAR. in fact. Ab. bone. "tjrfrfri pdtindm L. NEUT. i. are declined regularly like ^%[f%. T7Jt pdtyuh L. ifftpdti N. lord of the earth. lord. PLURAL. lord of creatures. Bha base wv^akshn. I. ' PLURAL. . fSW*f sakthn. ^r^f oJtsA^ Ab.D.) 234. I. I. Neuter. vj (Vi asthi. like neuters in *%*[an. Anga and Pada SINGULAR. itfqdkshi I. *rfwri pdtibhydm G. TTW^afye Ab. Masculine. base -f fsj akshi.A. Ttfnipdtih A. Tffftpdtim I. TRTwapfa THTt ndptdr-am '5TJJT V^dMtr{ VT^ dMtri ndptr-d VT^TT dhdtn-nd or VTWT dhdtrd* D. eye. VfiJ dhdtn.112 2 33T rfT DECLENSION. N.svdsar-i J fill fll V. L. e.Ab.A. G. pati. tni pdte trfTT V. is g. sister ^WT svdsd ^^TR svdsdr-am ^THT svdsr-d svdsr-e N.Ab.A. A. In these cases they are declined. vi^ii akshndm akshm and vuqfVj akshdni ^rf^J dkshishu V. ^f^dadhi. A.D.V. ^T^ asthn. the feminine and the Ajadi Asarvanamasthana cases have the Udatta. I. Tfimi pdtayah e. : 235. such as *\\*M\ndman. Trfk^K pdtibhyah G.) mM^ aksJin.^Tf^rf dkshibhydm G. I. iv. G. ^T^llft: ^r%ftT: dkshibhih dkshibhyah D. MASC. (Pan. she sacrifices of her husband. i. A. curds. DUAL. legitimate wife.^rf^^* G.V. ftfi:ndptah(r) * If ^[W. is irregular $ 233- : SINGULAR. (See note to 203.vdri. *2f<{li aksJindh 4fPi9!l akshn6h D. N. cirfa HHI MPri prajdpati. trfinj^aft'sfa* V.

except in the Nom. Sing. MTTTrt pitdr-i ^piifa^ (r) . Voc. N. 113 N. by not lengthening the a before the T r. J mdtdr-au fm^pitri-n TTiTt mdtri-h D. TTfTT DUAL. MASC. ftcITp^ar-am TTiTtwa^aV-am I. such as jftrj duhitri. H^ bhartri. daughter . /N . HHKt ndptdr-ah ^STFTCt svdsdr-ah Vlilftu dhdiri-ni nffi ndptri-n *^TO svdsrt-h VTirft& dhdtri-ni H|fWj ndptri-bhih <3f?J svdsri-bhih VTjfa: dhdtri-bhih D. Ace. used as adjectives. giver . ^ *1 lfl Tfiatuh J pitrt-bhydm matrt-bhydm J f pitri-bhyah \ mdtn-bhyah HIH^Jjl TTgJ m^MA IftTWtt TTcft! PMrUUl^^rt-n/m ^Vfl^ pitri-shu PS n <I pitarah mdtrt-ndm ^\\t\\^mdtdr-i \pitr-6h TTiTJ mdtah(r) mdtr-6h nn^ mdtrt-shu V. Most terms of relationship in ^ n (except and ifR ndptri. FEM. IMH* pituh G. l. husband's ftf^ *TRi. I. ndnandri or husband's sister . DECLENSION. ttii<J svdsdr-au N. THH t l^ftijpftarau 'UMitjmdtarau *iinO mdtarah After the first model are declined most nomina : actoris derived from verbs doer . the masculine forms may be used for the neuter also. differs from the first in the Ace.M. : brother's wife.V. "TW^* ndptri-bhyah G. dhatri-noh The second model Dual. WgffJcartri. like T^frna(#. PLURAL. Ace. ryi* ndptri-bhyah T^W*tt svdsri-bhyah Viyn dhdtri-bhyah Ab.. sister. husband's brother . ^fiHIj by the suffix M savyeshthri. tfTTOnajp^r-au I. ar. and Ace. fifflpitft. Plur.-$ 236. A. The feminine is formed by \tj fern. carpenter . SINGULAR. 1 i PLURAL. husband. I KM..*rartfm) VTiJi: dhdtri-bhyah VTTpuf dhdtri-ndm VirtM dlidtri-shu ndptri-ndm *|M^ ndptri-shu s^ svdsri-shu DUAL. ndnandri. W| tvdshtri. sacrificer . brother . TTO!ri ^HT! svdsri-bhyah **m!ji svdsrf-ndm (Ved. ^r Nom. c?evn. Note words in ^J ri are ^kartri. jdmdtri. and Nom.A. -aftf kroshfu (like g mridu) and . son-in-law . ftrjt^M^ L. grandson) If do not lengthen their ^ ^ svd&ri. IfASC. Ao7n. such as TJ bhrdtri. VT^TJTt dhdtrt-nt D. Ab. T| ^TJ </a/rz. "5?^! ndptr-oh 2. "fain />#</ m^</ fMnCt P^dr-au iin*J fMdil pitdr-ah HIHU mdtdr-ah A. L. a charioteer *T*fY ^| and feminines. Ab. ^15 ydtri. Tyn ndptri-bhydm ^^Tf svdsri-bhydm 3taU svdsr-oh VTJWlf dhdtri-bhydm XliJIlD* G. L. -sft| Jcroshtu. 236. Voc. Sing. a jackal. is irregular . but most of its irregularities may be explained by admitting two bases. Dual and Plural. JTTff mdtri. kroshtri (like 7p| naptri). and Nom. Base MASC. ^| A:ar/ri. ^Vj After the second model are declined masculines.

though. cjt nnbhydm D. declined regularly like frj pitri. J kroshtrd kroshtave kroshtre I.) Those who admit sjfr| kroshtum as Ace. the corresponding classes of nouns and adjectives in us. before terminations beginning with consonants. This class is the like most numerous and most important in Sanskrit. vi.114: DECLENSION. W H> man. (Sar. Plur. *ntg|<. often is replaced by TT nara. vn. Plural. 6.6. I believe. i. ^lf nnbhydm nnbhydh nt^ nnbhydh nrindm or p!n nrindm (Ved. ndrau PLURAL. (Pan. i. I. i. kroshtuh ^ITrff kroshtundm kroshtroh kroshtau kroshtushu V. kroshtubhydm I. A.e. SINGULAR. The accent may be on the or on the second syllables in the * first Pada cases beginning with *>\bh and ^ *. N. naram) nr6h nrishu fC* g: nuh (Ved. G. The other cases may be formed from both bases. a. a word of frequent occurrence. wrongly admitted by Wilson. 4.V. DUAL. excepting the Vocative. rfft ndri V. except in the Gen. N. i. (Pan. N. Plur.) SINGULAR. Jcroshto The base JKf^kroshtri is the only one admissible as Anga. Sing.i.) .) The base ^t^kroshtu is the only one admissible as Pada. 184. 'A^Jkroshtrln as Ace. 95-97. "a^TO kroshtdrah A. Bases ending in ^? a J 238. in the strong cases. where it may be either "TOT nrindm or ^pOT nrindm.D. Ab. TT* ndrah ff(nd tR ndram ff^ wnw ^tW ^nr^(Ved.Ab.Ab. kroshtdrau PLURAL. but the Ace. kroshtdram kroshtund I. ndrau is ndrah The feminine 2. A. D. for convenience sake. declined like TSft nadt. L. DUAL. (^ "SRtl'I he kroshtah is.7o. sRtji: kroshtubhyah kroshtvoh '' G. is T$f%*(kroshtun only.) The feminine 2 37*f is Vhlgl kroshtrt. A. likewise admit (Pan. vi. e. urn in Latin. "^tj*^ kroshtun "Siftfa: kroshtubhih N.

Ab.V.A. meaning mother. I.Ab. MASC. without asking any questions as of the case-terminations. Q 2. Wt Jtoaw 3inrT*qi kdntdbhydm ehldjfl! fcfetf kdntabhydm kdntdyoh ohld'jfh kdntdyoh kdntdyoh PLURAL. or their relation to the terminations appended to bases ending in consonants. fafeofiri kdntdn Jtantfni K kdntdbhih : D.D. SRTW kdntam by heart in the same manner as to the origin we learn bomis. shortened. N. L. kdntdfr kdntam kdnttna cMdi kdntdm <*id*ll cfrfrtiM Kfaf kdntdm kdntdyd kdntdyai r: D. They are declined in the is the neuter the final TOT d same way in the masculine and feminine gender. G.V. TOT ^. ( all-preserving. A. NKUT. bona.DECLENSION. and TO^PiT ambikd form the bdde. oi> in Greek. IKUkdnta W^kdnte* DUAL. . TO^ alia ! But TOWtST ambddd. These bases are derived immediately from verbs ending in TOT a. The case-terminations are peculiar. ^H<llc* ambdlet regular Vocatives ^^Kambike. form their Vocative in TO a. PEM. L. TO am. G. will be explained in the chapter on Pronouns 278). TO?! c5T ambdld.) base fcmmvisvapd. N. e. and best to learn ^ihn kdntah. g. *hrr kdntd. Ab. bonum. Anga and Pada fern. Bases in TOT a. I. such as In WTT dhmd. L. 77. 115 it is and oy. 239. hlri44| cRfij" kdntdya <*idHI kdntdya kdntdydh kdntdsya ft kdntdydh kdntdsya Mntt if kdntdydm V. which follow the ancient pronominal ( declension. G. Base ifakdntd N. and the word declined like ifa kdntam. kdntebhyah \\ kdntdbhyah kdntebhyah niniii kdntdndm kdnteshu chlriMI kdntdndm <iniii kdntdndm efiirtl*} kdnt&hu Certain adjectives in \ kdntdsu Note ah. Masculine and Feminine. A. declined like RTTT Bha base fa"W{visvap. * Bases in TOT d. ^TS&akka. (masc. SINGULAR. and The neuter is kdntam 238). I.

MASCULINE AND FEMININE. not being derived as follows : by a Krit suffix from verbal roots. p. N.V. like Trf^ mdnas. was exhibited at the same time ($ 165). the declension of ^^(sumdnas. DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 340- N. PLURAL. visvape visvapdni. Thus in the declension of neuter nouns in ^n-^ as. L. i. G. Ab. IV. sankhadhmdh. A. fw^tf visvapam Decline *fi^Hlt somapdh. In the declension of nouns ending in consonants. At the end of a feminine compound the same form is sanctioned in the Rupavali.116 DECLENSION. visvap-d visvap-e visvapd-bhydm visvapd-bhydm l : visvapd-bhih D. hdhdbhydm hdhdbhydm hdhauh AaAe : hdhdbhyah hdhdbhyah t hdhdm hdhdsu hdhauh CHAPTER $ 241. visvapd-h visvapau visvapau visvapd-m I. 6. dhanaddh. A. (this applies to * The Sar. I. hdhdm hdhdbhydm : hdhdbhih D. and admitting of no distinction between masculine and feminine terminations. fern. &c. as an adjective masc. the essential rules for the declension of such compound had to be given in the preceding chapter. 38. 9 b. mind. SINGULAR. DUAL. Ab.V. are declined Base SINGULAR. N. gives the optional form ^T^TJ hdhdh in the masculine. form the final portion of an adjective.. G. wealth giver. at the end of a compound. L. visvapd-bhyah visvap-ah visvapd-bhydm visvapd-bhyah visvap-dm visvapd-su visvap-ah visvap-i visvap-oh visvap-oh NEUTER. and neut. 240. Masculines in ^TT d. . shell-blower. * Soma drinker. As every noun adjectives in Sanskrit all may.

^*fi-u kumdri. ni<ji tdrakd. See 158. vmcm ajakd and vificu a she-goat. gunavachana. HM<*. a mendicant. ^(VieiTflstVa. actor. *iju manushi. ^fe^ dandin. 225). fern. adjectives in ^ van form their feminine base in 246.I kumdraJi.- Many adjectives in their feminine base in trinamayah. ^H'niO kumbhakdri. If^UJI tarunah or cT<5*Tt talunah. . . a deer. ftrf priyam. Jrft9ftjalamuk t *M*J*0 jalamucht. but '*\\mgopd. as they follow exactly the declension of the corresponding feminine nouns.-$ all 247* DECLENSION OP ADJECTIVES. if they admit of a separate kartri feminine base : "VN^prdch. in<*l nartaki. however. but ^Hi ?e/aA. white M Pc4 ri I palitd. the name for adjective. ig^foan. Likewise most bases ending in consonants.) the special forms of the neuter in Nom. a youth. expressive of colour. have to be learnt by practice The feminine bases. : $ 245. Sometimes both forms occur . cowherd. masc. Certain adjectives in 7TT ft? ^a^. Certain adjectives derived by ^HR aka form their feminines in ^9R ikd. variegated. w^ftprdchi ($ 181) . many of these words are substantives rather than adjectives. dear. made of grass. occurs in Pan. l^=t nartakaA. instead of WTa. A few observations on this point must suffice. roAtVa or 'ZiT. there can be no doubt as to their declension. one who star. grey -haired. ntj*ul taruni. maiden. Thus TOH matsyah. red. ^pFftsyenf. xm^bhavat. 247. a doe HRTJ sukaraJt. m^<* pdchaka. ^WT/ye/a. fish. Sing. -q<. Dual and Plur. In the declension of nouns with changeable bases. neut. T&n etd white. to be declined kdnta ($ 238).=fti PHflJfcl kshipakd. ^Ta form q^'^ pivari \i ( ( 193). fern. <*! fX<*l Likewise masc. ^Tt mrigah. dh-ine. doing. HTift bhavati (J 188). ^rftn^^qp^ his wife. white. jffat gopah. present here. ftnn priyd. Bases in ^jrz and in ^n take ^ i as the sign of the feminine w* kartri. chatakd. ^^t devl. ^t devah y god. Some fat. however. ftnf priya. had to be exhibited. iraijfa jalamunchi. dog. Acc. ^%iTT f^^ll rohint. 244. cooking. kdrikdj *HI sarvakaTi. v. fern. Adjectives* in ^r a form their feminines in *n d. boar. ^iscR . J 242. ij<u*i<fl trinamayf . fern. every. i|*U*i<4* 3^vari: ifa^pivan. *irwl matsi ("Qya forms being expunged before ^i) TTt J t*jHl manushyaJi. fern. ihatyakah. ajikd. like ^Fru neut. the more important feminine and neuter forms were separately mentioned . sends <*Mtii kanyakd. or ^ft ^f^Wt rohitah. Ex. sparrow.etaJi. ttRcfcl sarvikd. man. ffitfl dandint (J 203). $^fi*|<*l ihatyikd. fern. The is chief difficulty which remains with regard to the declension of adjectives the exact formation of the feminine base. fire: priyah. ipft win^. 58. and the rules on this subject are often so complicated that they rather than by rule. form their feminine either in or in enf. a female shepherd . ^n^suni (J 199) . 4K*t But kdrakah. a boy. ofi^f ( 235) . <g^nrf sukarithat ^^<*iO kumbhakdrah. masc. svetd. 3. and in the declension of nouns ending in vowels. It will be observed. doer. pdchakafi. Ex. ^*n. J 243. all necessary rules with regard to the same subject were fully stated. once given. fern. ftnf: "^TifJ syetah. *nflRT pdchikd.Voc. TTPW pdchakam. 117 nouns with unchangeable bases. . a potter.

There are a few exceptions. must shorten the \i before JR. 17). ^^mat-iyas. * *f?RT^wa^waft. "cRl Pada ( base. and Tt^fwaf. 197). 57). sudrah. ^i|fv(riT: supathintarah. ^i^HJjft brdhmani forms WT^rftjUrm brdhmanitard. J DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. a S'udra. ^f^r doh-ishtha. forms t W *a I asvd.tyas. fi^*ln<l mdushitard or . strong. he cooks. and the i^r: iyah the last consonant of the original base. milking. a few exceptions. require the Thus from Tfi^prdch ( 180). vi. man. . an uncle's wife. ^v^. wise. Degrees of Comparison. from *Jtrfa^ supathin. v. ^Ti-qwfl dchdrydnt* . 43-45). the suffixes are dropt. fara and im ^m. . he cooks better (Pan. he cooks best (Pan. i. |)a/i$. Even after case-terminations or personal terminations. from TTF^ pratyach 204). JSftin. more of a woman. woman. 9 to the secondary suffixes ^H. forenoon. in in the forenoon (Pan. or ^q^ fyas (J 206) the J 249. {pflrUf stritard\. from \f^j[^dhanavat ( iftj). derived from masculines. must be learnt Thus ^HSK asvah. Gana Kshubhnadi in the Kas'. There f 251. If adjectives ending in these suffixes require ^Tt iyah 3[S ishtha added to '<4 and ^5 ishtha. M^fririHl 250. Thus from ^tr% purvdhne. Substantives such as tj nri. 4. ^r<*H i^ bala^rvdogdhri. forms v< i ajd. form a thorough man. ^tT%Jfft pdrvdhnetare. wife of the teacher. ^ft 5^rz. 203). \Ftt fzrsw* vidvattama . demon-killer . : bdlah. if added to changeable bases. pachatitamdm. garlanded. Also ^JnrcrfafTT sreyasitard or ''SRftfilll sreyasitard. vi. i. forms dchdryd. &c. f 1 : SLUT ** swc?ra. are. but forms ^f^ patni. These terminations in: ^cr and TW /ama . before %*&(iyas and ^T? ishtha they throw it on their first syllable (Pan. the wife of a Sudra. <^1 n^ iZ. horse.-Vritti. The Comparative is formed by TTC. 3. maternal uncle. >|ftTTt dhanitara ($ from from f%^^^6?va5 VKTiK^pratyaktara. % Feminines in \i. tara and rW tama. boy. dchdryah. 3. 56). m&Kprdktara. teacher. j?m: nritamah. v. with good roads. doh-iyas. are not restricted in Sanskrit to adjectives. Superlative by HT tama. more *rfire profusely garlanded. goat. [ ^rjl sudri. vidushitard (Pan. forms WTc5T bald. ( 181). ^f\ stri forms ^pprRT stritard or (^|ri<l stritard.118 248. From tH frl pachati. <)^1 1|^ vdn. T^fjr?fxf pachatitardm. vi. wfe? bal-ishtha. a woman of the S'udra caste. a female teacher. or ^ir ishtha t. in. such as <^gii*U from <^J^ dasyuhan. Other feminines in ^i or "^iw may or may not shorten their vowels . fcifi^ sragvin. tara. forms Hl'j'cA mdtuli or ijc4 I *fl mdtuldm. On the dental *^. *i \ mdtulaJi. forms ajah. %*R(iyas and ^ishtha are never added "3&vala f&^vin. The formation of feminine substantives i 248from the dictionary. in: tara and H*T fawa may be used. lord. dasyuhantamah. ^^^sraj-iyas. earlier the 3. 3. wife. however. see mat-ishtha. f Before ?R ^ara and TfT ^ma adjectives retain their accent.

^W dirgha. t P&n v 3 63- . 7 . 11 . Comparative and Superlative. rajiyas rajishtha * lean krastyas krasishtha "Sjftnf kshepishtha 6. frequent bamhiyas bamhishtha t Hf^Tff bhrasishtha 19. fl^*^ywt?aw. alpiyas T^j uru. T^^wrw. f See Phitsiitra. lose their derivative elements before and ^ff ishtha. or are otherwise irregular by substituting .-f 252. '^TSvddha. ftftpriya. j[^ hrasva. ^TT tripra. *f $T krifa. 162. 4. ^^^n^M. old Kshthat varshishtha varsh or <**t[m{ varshiyas 24. too. 1 8. dear Upra *J5I^ bhuyas TfH preshtha bhuyishtha 17. 7. thick sthavishtha t*tM^ spheyas hrasfyas spheshtha hrasishtha 28. 23 (20). long gT cJwra. nedtyas as BCPERLATIVE. 15. MlfMtf TJTO pdpah. Kielhorn. new bases for the . broad pratMyas nPM8 prathishtha H ^l mprajasy a. 4. ^5T vriddha. "^J bahu. SECOND BASE. ^ K.CH vrinddraka. ^ffnn antika. ^F Mn/a. young kantyas sddhtyas kanishtha^ 22. small kanishtha alpishtha or 3. iK-ilislithfl i. ed. many *^c5 bahula. alp a. near 2. mradishtha yavishtha 21. H(V<J<S parivridha. exalted "5^ dradh dradhtyas as s f< dradhishtha PC s parivradhishtha M (Xd ^ parivradh TT^^ra^A fro. vi. worst. firm 23. short * Pan. OF ADJECTIVES. VttjH kshipra.H 8. quick ksheptyas TJ$ kshudra. strong sphira. straight variyas rijtyas varishtha ^fTttf rijishtha Vedic 5. Other adjectives. bad pap-iyaSy worse pdp-ish(ha. 25. heavy g arty as as garishtha trapishtha 9. mean kshod kshodiyas ttfif^B kshodishtha *II<I. excessive lg mridu. satisfied ^fs 10. far drdghiyas '^lfl|8 drdghishtha davtyas davishtha 12. beautiful ^ ^1 unndf stha vrindfyas vrindishtha f^RsMtra. wide "^nr riju. firm stheyas sthavfyas stheshtha 26. firm 13. ^c5 f^TO stMla. soft bhra&yas mradiyas yaviyas or 20. 14.praiseworthy TR or IR! sreshtha 1 6. COMPARAT1VK. 27. TT3" dridha. i. 119 J 252. DECLENSION.

) dvddasa. ekd. 23 ^ ^ fitt dvdvimsatih. flTM^I^ dvipanchdsat. 40 8 st 41 di ekachatvdrimsat. chatvdrimsdt. ten. ifrf: 46 ^i 47 48 d^ shatchatvdrimsat. I vimsdtih. (Base chatvdri. 253. 34 3^ chatustrimsat. mn. fro:. tisrdh. 39 navatrimsat. n. TOTft. four. (Base dva. f. six. five. (Base (Base (Base as in m. 9 10 1 1 m. 29 navavimsatih. ashtachatvdrimsat. unavimfatih. . b n. f. 1 9 ndvadasa or ^^rfTTJ 42 ^^ dvdchatvdrimsat or dvichatvdrimsat . ffr: 45 8M 24 ^d 25 ^M 26 n chaturvimsatih. m. 44 chatuschatvdrimsat. eight. 28 ^b ^rrtJ ashtdvimsatih. n panchavimsatify. in comp. a. 52 M? ^IM^I^If^ dvdpanchdsat or 32 ^ dvdtrimsat. fern. 17 1 ^ l<*.) 8 ^T^ T3T ashtau. ekah. 43 83 $8 R\\J(trayaschatvdrimsat or l ^ rfir: ekavimsatify.) 7 3 TOf saptdj m. (Base ^ shash. three. chdtasrah. 53 M^ 33 33 ^n^Nm^ trayahpanchdsat or r^M^r^lr^ tripanchdsat. fern.\\^ashtdchatvdrimsat or 27 ^S saptavimSatih.. m. V. . ^ ^ 8b r^. (Base ^T 5^a^. ashtadasa. n. 14 15 chdturda&a. (Base ^r ^ 1^. 49 d<i. Cardinals. f. shodasa. n. ekddasa. ekam.2. eleven. trichatvdrimsat. nine. (Base 5 6 M f 'fapdncha. / f. fern. 38 ^b ashtdtrimsat. two. 20 ^o 21 2. trdyalj. if. 253- CHAPTER NUMERALS. efoe. (Base (Base ashtan. shadvimfatih. n. n. ^ chatur. if. fern. 35 W 36 ^ ^zf^ri ^ do shattrimsat. seven. 50 MO 30 30 31 51 Ml ^cF^T^Ti^ ekapanchdsat. ^ ekatrimsat. saptddasa.) chatvarah. navachatvdrimsat. f. 3 WQl.120 NUMERALS. f. one. m. trdyodasa. trmi. trayovimsatih. . 37 3^ ifa^T pdnchada&a.

ashlapanchdM. saptapanchdsat.-Kaum. athtasaptatih. ekdsttify.) navaMam. : n).^ : chaturnavatih. vi. 77 $9 saptasaptatih. shannavatih. . as before. or *^rrf* ekafatam.3 : saptashashiih. : navashashtih. : <ts saptanavatib. chatuhpanchdM. ^TTf saptddhikam katam or 3Tf ashtddhikam rff 109 soo. dvyadhikam IT %^nr dvifatam. (Pan. 64 fc-S chatushshashlih. 60 ^o trffc: shashlih. 70 so 71 S^ saptatih. 89 b* 65 ^M 66 $fa 67 ^>9 ^fc panchashashtify. 121 54 MS 55 56 57 MS 58 Mb MM 78 sb ^tMUHfril ashtdsaptatify or shatpanchdsat. (Pan. 93 q ? trayonavatih or trinavatih (not Tff 69 ^<j. 99 <S. 61 82 b* 83 t* ^ ekashashtih. 90 91 <io navatih. dvinavatih. ashtdpanchdsat or >HKM*II$1^ 79 <* 80 bo 81 ti navasaptatih. 49. 635.) atam. neut. u. or Mam hatfatam. 105 IOM 1 06 ^o^ 107 ios 1 08 sot ^TW ^Tff panchddhikam shadadhikam atam or "4^17? pancha&atam. chaturadhikam katam or :^T?f Mam or 3. 3. : 94^ 95 *M 96 97 Q. and masc. 49. shada&itib. shatshashtih. 73 S^ J trayahsaptatih or trisaptatih.) 104 iod '^nf chatuh&atam. vol.Q navanavatih or panchasaptatih. NUMERALS. panchanavatih. ashtafatam. 84 b* 85 fcM 86 ti 87 t9 88 bb frt: chaturatttih. t 74 Sd 75 SM chatuhsaptatih. hundred exceeded by one. p. 100 101 )oo w <^o^ i<>3 satdm. saptdsitih.253. vi. ekanavatifr. HMM^I^Ir^ navapanchdsat. ekasaptatih. tryadhikam batam or f^nt trtiatam. dvishashtih. or as a com- pound. Mam or navddhikam Mam or T saptafatam. ^ 0. 62 ^ dvdshashlih or : ri: panchdsitih. 98 ^b ashtdnavatih or ashtanavatih. 92 dvdnavatify or 68 ashtdshashtih or ashtashashtil}. 73 s^ dvdsaptatih or dvisaptalih. : 63 ^^ : trayahshashtih or trishashtify. B ^Tit ekddhikam (Siddh.. 102 103 f 44ilfVj<*3M ekddhika-satam. unasatam. shatsaptatify. fern. fern. 59 MQ.

^31 ri wva satdni or Tr^ilf navasatam.000 * Pan. cfoe sa/e or Pd^M dvisatam or ffT^nft dvisati. 253. fern. 46. ^ <^^o f^^rwAl"<* $Trf TT5|if^rwfV% W vimsatyadhikam satam or f^r 3Tff vimsam satam *. ashtasatam. ekavimsam ekavimsatyadhikam satam or Tjcfif^i W satam*.-Kaum. ^w ayutam. 500 MOO 600 ^oo pancha satdni or "q^ITt panchasatam. or Fr3Trf sdrdhasatam. vol.122 JTUMEEALS. The same 2. so that ion might be rendered by ^'cmq^} 1Xig& ekddasam sahasram. 1041 by i<*^r=nf^^I ^^5T ekachatvdrimsam sahasram.f rules apply to 10. i^RT^nftraf snr ekddasddhikam satam or TOT^TW ekddasasatam &c. 200 ^oo ir 300 ^oo ^% ^nnf5T 'q'q 'SfTlTT'PfT ^ ifrmi satdni or f^Tff trisatam. or u^fiT^f STW ekddasam satam. "^7 ^Idlfrf 5^a/ satdni or Ml^frl shatsatam. v. IT^nfaoff ^nr dvddasddhikam satam or ^T^T ^fafsnfirir $nr trayodasddhikam satam or^[^^trayodasam satam. neut. t Siddh. WHSlrl 700 500 TOT ^Mif*i 5jo/a satdni or 800 fcoo ^n? ^lirrf'T ashta satdni or 900 Q. &c. or ?H[H sahdsrani. rr^^Tf^Gir ^ 119 1 20 121 jc|<> "^ navadasddhikam satam or ^^T ^TfT navadasam satam. ''T^^TTfv^ ^panchadasddhikam satam or iHr^T ^panchadasam satam. ^fi3lfc$r ^nf 140 i$o ^^Tfr^fVNr ^TiT chatvdrimsadadhikam satam or rimsam satam*. neut. 1 30 f^^fv% $TiT trimsadadhikam satam or f^ SHT trimsam satam *.t 2000 ^ooo i" ^H cfoe I sahasre. and masc. i. excess). 1 80 ^bo ^ifarfVrojr ^nr asityadhikam satam or xM^flfrtDM asitisatam. &c.. ^m^^nftnfi ^Ifl^irftrar ^Tff ashtddasddhikam satam or -5ilfT^^ "5^ ashtddasam satam. 100 +-J. 170 ^so ^nrmiVGR ^iif saptatyadhikam satam or tiHfri$('ri saptatisatam. and masc. 1 1 8 <ttb saptadasddhikam satam or TOT^I ^Tcf saptadasam satam. v.O H5rwf\f% ^nr navatyadhikam satam or TT^ffT^nr navatisatam. n. 400 ^oo ^r^rftl Tfnnf^T chatvdri satdni or ^g:^i^ chatuhsatam. ^^rrfVrlr ^rw shodasddhikam satam or *fhr$f ^Tif W 115 116 117 W CI^Q shodasam satam. 45. 635.OO IT^ 1000 ^ooo ^nrrf*T saptasatam. no in w m ^nftnir sn? dasddhikam satam or ^FSlrf dasasatam. p.000 ^0. ^IfH sahasram. chatvd^ 150 <wo 160 i^^i\i%^/>a/icMsa^a^/:flms/morTj^T^^pfl^ nwfV^r ^rf shashtyadhikam satam or ^fF$nf shashtisatam. . ^ ^TWrf?T <&zsa satdni or ^Sfl^nrt dasasati. 2. H2 113 1 <\<\^ 14 ^3 ^8 ^M <|C|^ dvddasam satam. e.(hundred).. ^o 1 190 SQ. 1000. Pill 3000 ^ooo ^^Hril *T?W /rmi sahasrdni. ^t^IlfVoF ^IW chatur dasddhikam satam or '^njtST ^li chaturdasam satam. a hundred having eleven (in Pan.

A hundred thousand billions.. diminished. i. ^tf dhuna. ^T^fa mahd&ahkha. 2. neut. i}*ftf ^Tff may be used to form numerical compounds. ^ ^ NEUT. eka > one - " PLURAL. 635. 6. 'Sftuna. masc. A A hundred thousand billion. or Hm madhya. Memoire sur la propagation des chiffres indiens (1863). If one is to be deducted. e. sjiHf^flT: unavimsatih or K^Tlfffci^ifiT: ekonavimSatih. e. fern. prefixing ^FTW ekdnna. VFR tkam I.. 70.e.000 100.* and neut. 3. Ten thousand millions. neut. Ten billions. i. FEM. p. l^RT tkd ^cRT ekdm Declension of Cardinals. *TI J<J mahdrbuda. Another way of expressing nineteen and similar numbers is by Jd 4 14(^31 ft: ekdnnavimsatih. million billions.. FEM. minute. masc. thousand million billions. or iQ&pardrdha. SINGULAR. masc. p. $vj sahku. fn^c5 nikharva. 3. e. NEUT. Calcutt. masc. other half. without c|f eka t suffices. *?^TVrf mahddhuna. B 2 See also Woepcke. or i.) by one not twenty. ncut. H^IM-W millions. NUMERALS. lotus. 76. neut.000 7TBJ laksham. One Ten million billions. mahdpadtna. exceeding. MASC. masc. billions. . *5K tkah A. i. ^<=M-M tkasya L. vol. middle.. e. or or fagw niyutam. 24. e. sea. an ant-hill.-Sanhita xvn. f Amara-Kosha in. or masc. a conch-shell. A different string of names is given in theVajasan. A A hundred million biUions. ultimate. TITI millions. i. 19. panchonam fatam or e. e. MASC. ^TJ^ arbuda. by one not vi. i. 100 5. padma. fern. 168. 123 100. (Pan.-Kaum.. ^8 ^3ta ^R eyte ^R ^Jba ^BT: elaA ^BTfiT rtaiu * Siddh.J 253.. ^T^T hdhd.t One Ten million. N. e.*. and masc. e. n&^imahdhdhd. or ^w antya. tkam tkam T&K eke ^BH ekdh U<*1^ e'A:a ^^iK ^roA V^iT*?: ekdbhih l*cJH eTcena TWm ekayd ^afc^ ekasyai ^<*H ^tena ^%t eifcatA D.J A A hundred millions. fem. p. neut.. i. Ten thousand billions. In the same manner as a host. thousand millions. ed. i. n. M -ft H 51 tipanchonasatam. A A hundred ^fa sahkha. masc. and neut. q^iH^f^ft mahdkshauhini. Tsfrfz koti. or *nj^ samudra. ^cROTTi^efcasmaZ 5<*^ h ^M ekasmai l&Wle'kebhyah'& <. i. 1 ekasya <J<*Mf ekeshdm ^*im\ e'keshdm ^"^T^ f A-esAu ^(WT^efcasmm ^oh^MieArasyam'^flftTWr^e^aswit/i ^cF^e^e^M *^T ^te {cni^ el-5a V. "gR una. ^fff^ilfl akshauhini. neut. neut.cni^f ekdsdm ^4^1: ekasydh Q<*W\^ekasmdt ^Ti: tkebhyah ^ri: tkdbhyah ^W^l ^ <+^H ekasydh ^ 1 G. 20 i. neut. i. 95. thousand billions. Lalita-vistara. . 19. ^rfVcR adhika. '&R& tkasmai Ab. i. e. ^ kharva. fljw prayutam.. neut.

follow the declension of \\vimsatih is declined like a feminine in ^i... 2. chatvdri : ^jjf^ chaturbhih ^TJ**?* ^i r chatasribhih chaturbhih D.vart. A. i.vii. though these forms occur 180. vart. Ab. 166) N. MASC.. shadbhydh i ashtdbhydh ashtdbhyah "4^ I 1 1 panchdndm If shanndm ^ shatsu l ashtdndm ashtdsu or If ""fajj panchdsu ashtdsu Cardinals with bases ending in ^ w. i. those in in "j^tf. Pan. i. such as TOlr^ saptan. ^H^ chatasri. "*fatt panchdbhyah G. $ 355. fern. five. DUAL. N. t Accent. is The construction of the cardinals from in the singular only. T^ navan. <?R: *rya# tisrdh * D.V. || Pan. 5^4 shadbhih ashtau or ^T? ashtd : iHf^^ancAa^AiAt ashtdbhih t \\ D. FEM. in ^r. 167) ^ r3 1 U.V. four. fern. vi. L. d*U4lli traydndm (Ved. i67. L. 55.) in f Not fw^nf tisrindm. vi. VH. fwrcfc (Pan. <ichi^^ ekddasan. vi. ^rTHt chdtasrah chdtasrah* >Tt N. I. three. Pan. i. Ab.A. TT "q^ f like feminines ^HT satam like a neut. chaturbhyah t chatasribhyah n chaturbhyah chaturndm chaturshu 5<U chaturndm in<ui chatasrindm f ^irt-HM chatasnshu J ^57 ^. iH^a'Ma I. dasan. i 258. 172. vi. nor -i n^ft chatasrth. trindm) "JW'3 frfWH tisribhyah tribhydh ftHprf tisrindm Irt^Mf tisrishu f traydndm trishu trishu 356. nor the Veda and Epic poetry.Ab. except to 19 requires a few remarks. ^n^tc/mWra#(Pan. If Pan. L. -iriii]ri chatasrindm (Pan. base $254( ^ ^. ^fi" ^frf eke vadanti. vi. . ^g^ chatur. dvdbhydm l"Tn dvd'bhydm G.99. 181.98) chatvdri ^if* chaturah (Pan. r "^r shash. eight. f<f dvdyoh dvdyoh H. A. &c. 4). 4igc^ ashtan. 4. vn. I. panchan. six. vi. i. or masc. G. it *Jfi eka naturally used when means some . two. * Not rf^n f&r?#. fif*n tribhydh G.V.i. like cfffir Ararat 238). 254* ft dvi. (Accent.124: NUMERALS.L.

tTT. always used as a dual. The cardinals after four do not distinguish the gender. :. i. am. ^uflnl 6atam ddsindm or ^Trf sahasram pitarah. w. d. am. 2. am. am. i. some people Ex. t. dasamdh. ?t. 5 d. ashtamdh. VftH fiji^q: shashtih sis'av'ih. ft. i. say. a hundred fruits j fc^l n ^fil tririrfatd vriddhaih. may take the plural number : M^i^ns^Mt pailchdsadbhir J 259. the second. <<*!<. dvitiyab. tritiyah. 31 ace. with three men . patichdsdh. > the first. navamdh. :. i. J . niOi eleven men. fif dvi is NUMERALS. am. unavimbdh. the z. turtyafy. MmM*. i ekadasa ndrih. $ft 5 3T. panchdsaitamdh. shashthdh. T. 'M^'I^MHJ. i. all 125 the rest from 3 to 19 as plurals. Jft. 4. am. H. am. f. * ft. with fifty horses. z. T. (Pan. H. am. prathamdh. } ^. am. third. satam phaldni. :. TfHT $\mi satam ddsyati. 4. 0< 9 d am. i. ^Tff MirilfH i elders fi^ri'Ct . fafa: TjpT*fc tribhih purushaih. :. 4. t. J $ft. . . d.56). am. trimsattamdh. if to 19 are treated as adjectives. ^77?^. ekddasdfy. or f=J5lfff! ^lei^'. ^T. am. i. a thousand ancestors. I the fourth. the tenth. :. am. v. H. am r. ift. i. d. by thirty boys . d. r. fq^ifni vimsatih and the rest may be treated both as adjectives and as substantives. <ft. ddimdh. am. am.<*i<^l ^w^ekddata pvrushdn. Ordinals. am. . While the numerals from tives in gender. a hundred slaves . i. ft. ft. vimsatih fatravah . i ^ vim&atitamdh am l ^ 1 twentieth #. dnavimsatitamdh. the thirtieth> ^NH:. eleven women. I. sixty twenty enemies. *. pafichamdh.- 259. ^. 1 } j m^. . i. i. the ninth. i. . i. am. "j chaturthdh. ^ fortieth chatvdrimsattamdh. JT. *HH Exceptionally these cardinals liayaih. am. S the nineteenth. am. the fifth. . turyah. ace. . Hence fi^|fdt ^ic^di vimtatih fatrundm. the eighth. am. and number and case. am. the eleventh. agreeing with their substanin possible. i. saptamdh. the seventh. "| ^ agrimdfy. d. J MHi^rt. the sixth. chatvdrimsdb.

42. 57. saptatitamdh. a triad. I. a These are ^(^nr^panchatayam. _ d&tdfr. 60). first. in the sense of five-fold &c. . and in the Kasika-Vritti. used as feminine. (Pan. : ekdsititamdfy. &c. or tNTnr panchataye (J 283). in five panchakritvahj five times. also a pentad. i. : -qto shodhd. ways.. ^cRVT ekadhd. is TfT: tamahj but if preceded by another numeral. &c. 59. (Pan. (or ekasahy one. gifi' ^rayz. dvidhd or ^VT dvedhd. and may then form their plural as "^n^fllpanchataydJ}. f^r: "STf tri&afr. both forms are allowed (Pan. (Pan. ekasaptatah. a decad (Pan. Satatamdh. 260. *ft. the hundredth. the thousandth. \ ] the sixty-first. VFR^panchat. four times. 58). v. in four ways. :. ekanavatitamdh t \ : the ninety-first. the hundred and : sahasratamdb. Numerical Adverbs and other Derivatives. ffTVT j. .) ekasatatamdfy. 43.) fi[ tray am or fdd4 tritayam or tetrad. the ninetieth. ^^44 chatushtayam. in six ways. v. i. . isah 9 two-fold. : J i. t J 260- ekashashtitamdh h. . the seventieth. v. v. : ] asititamdh. the sixtieth *. 2. chatuh. three-fold. The ordinals from sixty admit of one form only. twice. . . v. &c.. but both words occur likewise as masculine in the commentary * to Pan. . v. shatkritvah. 2. six times. Tfowpanchadhd. 57). J.. in "two ways.fold. ^f\ sakrit. thrice. riH: : ekasaptatitamdh. are generally ^r?^ dasat. that 2. 4. navatitamdhj > am. am. used as adjectives. n ekanavatdhj *rt. 1 : ekashashtah. v. jf. &c. t !Jfif satam forms its ordinal as satatamah only (Pan.] > the seventy-first. the eightieth. a pentad. once. : f^>n tridha or ^>n tredhd.126 : NUMERALS. : ^T chaturdhd. in one way. a pair. . . shashtitamdh. 1 \ \ 7 */*. 'i the eighty-first. in three ways. 2. if.) dvayam or ffinf dvitayam..

^: vaA. ^rni dvam. in us you The 7T te. ^rref *pf yuvdm. and. yT^ yushmad. vaydm. me W te. to us two 5^Trf yuvdbhydm. I. by you to D. in us two ^4 <TlJ yuvdyoh. *n md. by us ^: waA. ^f vaw. WTTri dvdbhydm. by me to tvdm. *cfa tubhyam. ^: vaA. wA. you srsm asmdsu. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. A. ^ me. VHNI*qf dvabhydm. from us two g^T^rf yuvdbhydm. indeed. / in thee i N. ^: vah. A. 7?aw. you yushman. composition) IT? Base (in mad and Base (in composition) R^ tvad and asmad. ^: vaA. we two A. ^f vaw. by us two *pnli yuvdbhydm. you two g^f yuvdm. SINGULAR. I. *RT me wayd. thee OTT tvdyd. G. you : asmdbhih. from us IT: *pn^ of us yushmdbhyam. to you two from you two Ab. ^ we. m tvd. ^ro\ L. of L. have no accent and are never used at the beginning of a sentence. you two ^v^m. N. >HWli asmdkam. in you two PLURAL. ama/. *rf I W /ram. Ab. TO mdhyam. we. of us two g^ft: yuvdyoh. us two I. . 261. in me DUAL. ftf thou Wm. by thee D. *n ahdm. to us i yushmdbhih. 127 CHAPTER VI. ft waw. ^ ha. SUN Ml: dvdyoh. *n^wa/. from you yushmdkam. ^ te. of you two dvdyoh. Personal Pronouns. L. ^ cha. m wd. TO mama. ^r^ aha. N. ^: wa^. of su. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. W3Tli dvdbhydm. me Tjwi Ab. ^ waw. to thee from thee tfava. from me G. ^ ^f v^m. in i you G. we asmdn. nor can they be followed by such particles as or.- 261. of thee mdyi. VHN*ft: ^ft ?zaw. by you two D. asmdbhyam. ^ eva. yushmdt. "^T vd. us : yfydm. ^f vawi. substitutes in the even cases.

he. mWTi(tydsmdt m^TTI tydsydh j\W\^tydsmdt G. :. Likewise vn. she.128 PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. asmadiyah. N. yam. ff te NEUT. thine. tadiyah. . i. *H sdh A. I. MASC. PLURAL. 1. riN<=K Idvdkah. *n*?R* Other derivative possessive pronouns are * mdmdkah. teshu DUAL. yd. Base (in composition) SINGULAR. Base (in composition) u^ tad. it. N. ) ^. their. NEUT. yd. L. L. MASC. SINGULAR. Wm tytbhyah 7TW* tydbhyah Wl tyebhyah W^f tyeshdm mjlty&hu mi^lf tydsdm TH'^f mW tydsya ?T^TTt tydsydh 7TO tydsya tytshdm 'mfeff*[tydsmin 10X31 tydsy dm mftR^ tydsmin DUAL. FEM. iv. yam.) PLURAL. its. 262 (Accent. the bases of the three personal pronouns. our. :. sydh FEM. L. iv. A. FEM. JT^fan. MASC. V. ^ *r. i(tdm HX tctm HT^tdt cHT TTF^ td'n irn tdh WrfT tdni ^T tdsmai IHIT ^aya Una tdsmai %: taik i: infa: t %: tain D. L. *n. mine. 182. tebhyah tdbhyah ffH tdsydh ta'sya K tdbhyah tdsya "rfTOT frf'sam Wi W^f ntlit tdsydh tdsydm MASC. FEM. our. mine . ^n^RTR: dsmdkah. possessive adjectives 264. 4. A. ^^RTcfi: yaushmdkah. are formed by means of ^T 2ya. TTWf tdbhydm G. mTlf T*nft* tydbhijdm mi^TT tydbhydm W*ftl tydyoh tybhydm tydyoh Possessive Pronouns. 1-3. her. TIw tydsmai 7TO tydsyai T?w tydsmai Ab. Ab. W "FT MASC. . yarn. Ab. From ^rr. 44. FEM. madtyah. tdsmin Wg NEUT. ^TT syd mr: tydh ^/^i WT #y^m wt 'I tydbhih mi tyaih D. yam. I. N. Ab. WT tau I. A.30. yd. NEUT. tvadiyah. 3. thine. your. ITTf^ tdni N. inftt ta'yoA rTTn tdbhydm tdbhydm 263. G. Pan. 7TT D. D. G. TT^tyeshu MASC. mTQtydsu NEUT. WTt tdh FEM. his. yd. yam. * Pan. / irr. yd. T^y yam. yd. your. 3.vi. ^T. 262. tadiyah. yushmadiyah.

is a reflexive adjective. thou chosest it thyself. 2. I chose myself. D. Ab. Base (in composition) 3 idam. N'EUT. J 268. our . 171. ASC. they chose it by our. sua. ': etdbhydm etdyoh ^l!T*Tr etdbhydm *. ^BTO a5ya -ejfWT asmtn asydh ^f esA^'m asmin S as* eshcfm asydm . vritavdn. KHW etdsmai ^n<3 etdsyai jnw etdsmai ^JW. ^ni <Jd*Ml svayam vritavati. they died. asmat r l ebhydh. NEUT.n*\i[etdsmdt G. svdh. ^^ aydm ^R imam viin an^na "WW asmai iwii1 asmdt ^4 iydm "^\ imdm ^ ^ iddm c?aw W& tWA r. r: r: N. is indeclinable. <fht see thyself It is used in the "^TRidtmano dosham jndtvd. A. self. FEM. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. she chose it herself. Reflexive Pronouns. ^4 ^fHff: svayam vritavantah. <fl<*ll etdsdm <nm eteshdm etdsydm ^T^R^etdsmin DUAL. FEM. PLURAL. On the declension of ^ sva. Demonstrative Pronouns. to Latin suus.66. <lfn etena *nnrr eto'y<2 *nTT etena TFitl etaih etdbhih ^: efat'A D. L. i. corresponding f 267. gnosce te E ipsum. A. (Accent. FEM. ^:. N.-f 269. by thyself. FEM. svdm. is declined like WB^brahman (J 1 92). I. thine dsmdkinafy. ^yr svam putram drish\vd t having seen his ^^ own son. G. ^r. mdmakinak. having returned to their country. ^T dtmdnam dtmdndpatya. suum. your. *1TTri etdbhydm G. SINGULAR. MASC. 129 : : rfN<*lHt tdvakinah. Tgm eshdh A. this (indefinitely). N. WtH*{dtmdn.etebhyah ^jn^letdbhyah. see f 278. mine . you. etdyoh J 269. having known his own fault. Ab. Base (in composition) ^?nT etadt this (very near). we. he chose it himself. themselves. i^mi^lnj: yaushmdkinah your. MASC. Ab. vi. *nf etdm *s sW ^fff efc^ ^TTT* ^nifn : e/ani I. MASC. "ZJW. even when referring to two or three persons uirHHl <$IHNIMJ ipn: singular : dtmano desam dgamya mritdh. 265. PLURAL. self. FEM. imdni dbhih D. sva. L. ^.n<4\. L.etebhyah eteshdm <jnt<(it etdsydh <{. I. Pan. it WQsvaydm. MASC.) SINGULAR.

I.V. . which has no accent.A.D.Ab. 271 Base MASC. I. FEM. amubhydm G. A. enayofy ^TMU enayoh ^ri<<u*iMln y vydkaranam adhitam. FEM. 5) amund amushmai D. ni amuni ^FftfH: amibhih J : ambhih amibhyah D. ^Wt*i: am&hyah G. NEUT. f imt dbhydm . FEM. N.130 PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. A. FEM. ^TT amum vijr|i amtind . MASC.V. L. JMJfl: enayoh Ex. 4itl\ ewaw enena ^TH ewaA <niTn endni <nT <1*(i enayd DUAL.A. L.L. by substituting ^f ena. and their wealth vast. MASC. VH*^ 1*! amubhyah amishdm amushdm amushu DUAL. NEUT. 29. A. l&^etdd and etad and preceding when repeated in a second sentence with reference to a ^rf^ ^ idam. IJ A. N. Ab. (in composition) ^Qadas. asaii that (mediate). FEM.Ab. I. I. I N. amuyoh .L. I 370- N. ewa/w PLURAL. NEUT. im6 ^TP*rf dbhydm ^HT^ftj andyoh G. t enau I G. I. vrn<4\J andyoh 270. amushmai amushmdt amushya amushmin amushyai l amushydh amushydh amushmdt amushya amushydm amushmin PLURAL. MASC. I. FEM. G. MASC. SINGULAR. enam chhando 'dhydthis person. is decent. MASC. J .D. NEUT. andyoh 'Zftiddm.L. FEM. A. teach paya the grammar has been studied by the family of these two persons him prosody. SINGULAR. enayoh prabhutam svam. DUAL.Ab. vary in the following cases. anayoh pavitram kidam. NEUT.

Base (in composition) Tf^ydd. L. vol. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. IHy<a A. kdsmai WRkdyd Pw kdsyai <=HMK kdsydh Jtasyrfwi ^ f^ktm ktha kdh %:kafy "SK^l kd'bhih oRfl*n kd'bhyah %t kath cR^ kdsmai ^IJ k&hyah : IfW. By thee! instead of ! WJT tvayd.kcth ^FTt 3ikdm ^k^na I35R D. FEM. ktbhyah Ab. L. ^i*<f -361*6 kd'bhydm N. N.Ab. NXUT. to denote contempt or dubious relation (Pan. I. MASC. (See Siddh. MASC.V. NKUT. i. I. *T^y<fc M MASC.-J 274. TXlkcl -atikctm PLURAL. G.A. T^ I. FEM. p. FEM. I. G. NKUT. 3.Wiib us 706. N. &c. or which 1 SINGULAR. N. L. TQ&^kdsmdt iK&CMsydh ^^^(kdsmdt G. r^HRT tvayakd. SINGULAR. 71). *Hy</ $y *H^y</n *h ya/A TOy<& TJT! ydfe ifa yjni ufn yon *h ya<3i *}y<m *liyam *n^yrf MT y^ha D. Base (in composition) f% ^m.D. Of you two .k#>hyah B^I Aroisya K^T Araisya ^if k&hdm ^fTSktshu 4IUI Ara's^m WTT kfshdm ^ftR^Ara. ^^^\l yuvakayoh.A.Ab. v. FEM. ! ^Wotilf*?: asmakdbhih. ^nt yayo^ Tt yrfyo^ Interrogative Pronouns. 131 Relative Pronoun. NEUT. ydbhyah ^TWyasya ydsya WT y&hdm <fw^ya5nm ydsydm DUAL.D.) ^^4 ayakam. who or which. MASC. ytbhyah T&RXI^ydsmdt T^JT: ydsydJi 'H\&\1(ydsmdt TTt ytbhyah TJW. 'a&fam' ^1*^ 5KTn^y(fm ^BTn kdbhydm 274. *Tw ydsmai Ah. NEUT. $ 272.-Kaum. MASC.mm F^f liftR^ kdsmin cRHJ Ar/tt DUAL. Who MASC. S 2 . &H\ktbhyah IKW. G. f*Mm %*6f "S^kcln W. Tm ya'y^ ^*T y^na T^ ydsyai T^ ydsmai T^^lydsydh T&Q <<t*ii TTfWt ydbhih ^T: ytbhyah TWt ydbhyah TW. L.Ubhyah W*r. 'n: ydyoh f 273. i i PLURAL. FEM. TXlkdk A. Pronouns admit the interposition of ^!Jf ak before their last vowel or syllable.

m. such like. so many. like thee. also 'affai^kachchit. whosesoever. On the declension Note many. tddrik. When ? kvdpi. ^R c^aw. oFT^T kdchana. so much. ScTT^ etddriksha. 3Tfil iyat. ^declined much. Where ? T W&* na not anywhere. J 1 like nouns in '^vat (J 187). it is changed into an indefinite pronoun. What like? These are declined in three genders. Mld^f yddrisa. relative once . to certain pronominal compound pronouns have been formed igs^dris. the following tddri$ 9 ^fdrisa. J 276. WiT^kdchit. i. the *n^ ya^ following compound pronouns. fohHfq kimapi. or HT^r:. ^ft p^. formed : In the same manner ddchit9 indefinite adverbs are oin*T &ac?a. have been formed : so . : yattad. idrisa. Likewise irf^y^^ kaschit. : irnjsr tddrisa. this what idriksha. yddris. ^*. fsK^f^kimchitj some one. or "^driksha. ril^cf. whosoever iRS fi^T IT: yasya kasya. T etddrisa. Similarly TTT^ft formed are HT^^I mddrisa. ^ft^ Mdriksha. whosoever. indefinite IT: : TK ^B: yah kah. kaSchana. n A:v. like me. this like. tddrisah. some one. to the interrogative pronoun kirn. zn ^T. or in <*<$H yA kaschana. tddrisi. to render . implying . . Occasionally and demonstrative pronouns are combined for the same purpose *T?T^. 277. whatsoever. ffr^T kimchana. HldKJ yddriksha. &c. feni %/. much. Compound Pronouns. ^^ kidrisa. anything. By adding ^ va# and to certain pronominal bases. or ojrg yah kascha. f. some one. . as 231. like. n. relative : The pronoun. Sometimes the it pronoun is prefixed to the interrogative. By adding bases.132 PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. as much. quantity. whosoever. am. and Tfa ya7i. y y<^. ofrrfTT Aropi. ch^m kaddchana. wr^f tddriksha. see How much ? of } ^^ iyan > fiflT Arrfri. F^T^T tvddrisa. forming the feminine in ^ i. By f^ir adding fq-f^ chit. yS. "1 so . How many? or TfflT tdti. the relative yad yad. like. assumes an indefinite or rather distributive /o meaning iff iy:. ^T. 5ft. . 375. if doubled. kaschit.

east or prior. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 12. south or right. ^rsr all. *nr sama. 6. unless they imply a relation in time or space dakshind gdthakdfy. outer. west or inferior 21. 4. he lives between the two villages. other. 9. THJirn ^T* prabhdtdfi svdh. 22. Which 13. any a. w ubha.) or lower (scil. ^ 20. purva to Hence <fttJ*U! <nvj<*K ^rvn adhara. grdmayor antare vasati. jifcitara. which has been freely translated by Pronoun. (a proper name) . such as 9. 17.. Tit sarva. means ^ Kurus. either. other or inferior . north or subsequent 19. 1. ^TTC apara. own. "3S?TR katama. 1 8. 14. the northern if it . 5. subsequent. they are used in certain senses. } 278. other) . ^TfT antara. 15. ^R eka. ^araraT anyatara. . great treasures ( Kas'. half. all . W9R avara. but which really means a class of words beginning with sarva. native grammarians have included. nor any of the seven from . 2. 8. all. TWn: "$^J uttardfy kuravah. ^frspff dakshina. Which of two? 10. TJR uttara. . i . 133 Under the name of Sarvandman. of many? 10. TOTJ ubhaya. other (some add w?^ tvat. besides the real pronouns mentioned before. 3. both. suburb. ^nrc adhara. words formed by the suffixes Tfft tar a and TTH tama. They may be called Pronominal Adjectives. Pronominal Adjectives. pdrva. fan sima. w tva. are affected and it is to be remembered that they if by declension only I. other. clever minstrels . 1 6. qftX katara. fira vtiva. if it means kinsman or wealth nor ^Kt antara interval. v&para. whole . . 1 1. nor ^f0f*!T . If OT 5flma means equal or even. (except ^rHl ^: antard puh. ^T *va. means clever . one. 35) .-f 278. &c. if it . 7. "sfa nema. it is not a pronominal adjective dakshina. two. the following words which share in common with the real pronouns these peculiarities of certain peculiarities of declension. west or posterior. nor ^ sva. garment).

first. though used in their Plur. ^ purve "^^ftt purvayoh ^ft The 33. gwft: ubhayoh. ^z" or ^f! The nine words from pronominal senses. "WI* ubhayah A. ^rfT itara. ^. . of the neuter fern.V. &c. J 281. DUAL. or may take in the ^ Nom. jjzt/ra ahj in the Abl. ^1% sdrvam 1$ sdrve ^rsfiTT The rest like the masculine. Nom. D. WV?(smdt ^n^a/. cRTR katara. N. three-fold . (Pan. &c. fgrnfl dvitayt. 1. SINGULAR. ^T?U charamau. T>nr: ubhayah. G. and Plur. SINGULAR. . Masc. ^ran^emya^ neut. 1. I. -&ftubhau. N. V. w w5^ : W Tmn w^^e. W*J awya. and neut. but only in the Sing. ftR^smiw or SINGULAR. I. PLURAL. ^rarrawya. 7VR ubhaye ^WTT*^ ubhaydn "SH^tT ubhayena ^TOJ ubhayaih D. Sing. in the Loc. Ab. Sing. last. Acc. L. ^n*n any ah. A. "3WTCR ubhayasmai. V. A. N. I. t charamah. <JWT ubhayam I. 282. Plur. 4 -ym. G. or ^TflTt charamdh. Sing. used in the Dual only 280. A. ^qiP<y sdrvdni NEUTER. L. "^Ipurvah ^^ purvam T$l$ purvena ^tln purvdbhydm "^^HWf purvdbhydm or ^l purvaih ^fJt purvebhya h Xj^fa: purvebhyah D. N. L. is never used in the Dual. ^T& charame fern. any at ar a. to ^Hfcantara (14 to 22). *t5tHit sdrvasydh G. iniT prathame or n>4*iit prathamdhj fern. ^w purvasmai Tjfwn^w/rasma* ***** purvasya ^tn^pMnja^ "^tr^rf purvdbhydm ^[%^I purvayoh or ^fw^^Mrvaswm 283. *rf ^ sdrvasyai sdrvdbhydm ^T%n tf<=n*ii sdrvdbhyah Ab. 279. J prathamah. .Yoc. Ab. 279- ^f^TT sdrvayd ^T^WT sdrvdbhydm ^<=rt*ri ^rflfat sdrvdbhih D. THWi prathamau. N. ^[%T purvau tj^T purvau PLURAL. : cRnr katama. Haradatta admits the Dual. "$t-yi. nn prathamd. masc. PsnM* dmtayahy two-^l.) following words may likewise take A or ^i in the Nom. fern. is Sing. A. MASCULINE. and similar words in IHT #aya y fWrPTt tritayah. DUAL. f^TTW tritayp or f^H^TTt tritayah. iitii! sdrvasydh ^TtPTT sdrvdbhydm ^T^ftt sdrvayoh ^rt^ftt sdrvayoh ^HtTWK sdrvdbhyah sdrvdsdm 5<*f sdrvasydm ^^TCJ sdrvdsu PLURAL. ubhdbhydm. take f^/ in the Nom. ^3^^Wt ubhayebhyah.134: PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. masc.

j5 M<UUi purvdpardndm. element may throughout take the pro- nominal terminations (Pan. Dat. 31). fat. alpdh. though in the Norn. and Loc. tt nemah. neme or TTH nemdh. these Dvandvas may take ^i. MASCULINE. local. some. 28). ^ tra. last such as ^<R^<I uttara-purva. fgrtl^Ti dvitiydh N. chiram. words : whom both are dear (Pan. "ftn^H^nT^nyo&Aayaya. : ardhah. with a locative meaning. 30). ftrufaj dvittyah and other words in tfhltfya are declined like ^ifa kdnta. 4. 1. T*T ^PnMMi. In addition to the regular case-terminations by which the declension of nouns effected. two-fold. 1. L. they may follow *ft sarva. with an ablative meaning. fern. Sing. and particularly to bases. the Sanskrit language possesses other suffixes which differ from the ordinary is terminations chiefly by being restricted in their use to certain words. f^T Other adverbial terminations 1. but in the Dat. like ^fa: kdntah. SINGULAR. fT^Y alpe or *K-HI. of former and 1. as irti^J mdsapurvah. katipayah. too. 285. *liti^i<4 mdsapurvdya (Pan. 29). ?HH alpah. fsnW doittyau f^ldl4 dvittyam Psrt1iT dvittyau fgnlMl^ dvitiydn HSdl^H . long ago. The ordinary case-terminations. Only in compounds expressive of points of the compass. to him to at the are treated like ordinary 1. *tff ardhe or : V^Tt ardArfA. and similar words in I 135 trayah. with a temporal meaning . north-east. long. 1. in a long time. fedlM: dvitiyah A. <*fdM^ katipaye or half. a month 1 earlier Dat. Pi dl ^ G. are. Plur. dvitiyena PS nl M I *4 i dvltiydbhydm TS nl M i dvittyaih D fSdl^lfl dvittydya or fsnl<4*f doitiyasmai I T^mTWT dvitiydbhydm frf ism*!*'!! dvitiyebhyah Ab. Likewise in Dvandvas. DUAL. In all other cases these words are regular. Abl. 3. for a long time. f(dvitiydt or fjj ifl ^ W I <\dvitiyasmdt id ^ I **4 1 dvittydbhydm PS r/1 M^I dvitiyebhyah dvittyayoh ferri JJ44J dvitfyasya fkri*ft<fofrfye or fsnlM^J fsn1<iii dvitiydndm rrfHl^rm^rfmViyo^mm feff^^nftt dvittyayoh fsnl^M dvitiyeshu At the end of Bahuvrihi compounds the Sarvanamans Dat. a long time. Adverbial Declension. ^T dd. Instr. rTC tah. UTi^ tdt. few.-J 285. 284. fa^u^chirdt. chire. P^u chirena. . The same end of compounds such 1. Hya . dvayah. Sing. <j5m< purvdpare or ^=imUt purvdpardh. PRH4 TTC^T chirdya. also raised to with a locative meaning. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. the I. later persons (Pan. katipaydh. Abl. a long time. are frequently used in an adverbial pronominal sense. Gen. . I. Loc. half. Thus Ace. becoming generally 2. chirasya. i. PLURAL. T^ft dvayt.

t -ram^ or purd. t asmattah. 6.) fire. with (see "<fW Aw^ra. always. in another way. behind. at times. 2. ^T^T sa^ra. formerly. before (in a general local or temporal sense).When? ^oft^T ekadd. msaif^parastdt. opH frwtaA. always. in one of two ^rK^I itarathd. expressive ^TT a and ^rrf^ dhi. T^T uttard. (or JJIS T! -re. ^rfJ itah. ^T idd. afterwards. ^^ purvatah. with an ablative meaning. TfW tatra. H w^Il i^ bhasmasdt. ^TT "*T vrithd. !< nvm #Aa. at one place. local. where. reduced to d and ^iHfc dhi. in the North.) hence.136 5. or in the South. obsolete nouns ending in consonants. thus. from ignorance. below. likewise ^ tham of effect. together. ^TTi^saf. in anyatarathd. another time. modal. temporal and causal. 7.) 1&Rpachd. JplT mrishd. around. here. between. ^H^l at any add. amongst men. locative j originally c^T trdt as in gotdi purushatrd. all cIT^T &afcf. from your Honour. with. in the East. "f| rhi. t. above. 7. from us. ^T|W amutra. TMf<8 vt^uparishtdt.) falsely. ways. 1R thd. instrumental cases of . W<K bhavattah. local. thd. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. like ^T?T fl^e. ^flf iti. W^fJT^prdktdt. Whence ? VSHJcU amutah. (cf. vainly (?). then. ^SRT*IT anyathd. saAa). thus. one time. or T^ -rena). IHf I tatah. in the Veda. always. hence . later ^m*) iddntm. T^TT y/Aa. thence. when. Frequently after a base in ^s : before. from the ^sJM'H. <M^H^ra/asa^. Tin yatah. all round. below. "5 ha. WTitt ubhayatah. on both TTftw: paritah. j[^ iva. 9. now. Or efPective. Where ? ^Tcf a^ra. How? ^r*T ittham. IT^T tadd. whence. in front. local. 285- with a meaning of modality. 10. near. ^T sac?a. 6. 1P tar. ^f^Wf^ dakshindhi. ^TT purah and ^*jf\\^purastdt. 8. before. ^TiTTT antard (or ^'rKlH^ uttardhi. See also the terminations for forming numeral adverbs Kt tah. ^(Jrt* agratah. thus. (or **vt\<^paschdt. sides. VfHJ sarvatah. "UTR^sdt. Or in both ways. H tham. thence. in the other way. 5rRWt grdmatah. as. from me. temporal. ^ft^n sarvathd. ^R^T ubhayathd. as. in vain. cl ^ra. are Adverbs such as ^pn mudhd.tn i f^ adharastdt. ^HfT sarvadd. ^T rfa. before. dependent on the king. local. local. 4. *Tr?T yarfa. thus. ^ V&ffi ekatra. village. in ^HI aMa. ^TT ^b*\*\\t(^agnisdt. (TT$ft$\ftlf rdjno 'dhinam. or ^Hsjiiu dakshind. '^ ya^ra. and ri^THlT taddnim. Tf^f satram. ajndnatak. ^3r5?!f: abhitah. *^J mattah. ITTi^^. reduced to ashes. in every way. in front. there. and 3. ( 260). . R^ katham. in the next world. vi M <. tathd. there.

etarhi. sanutar. 2. e. At what time? ifl? yarAf. The Active has two forms TjtafiT : known. Such roots are marked in the Atmanepada. he is Ex. . locative. HNf ^iqfff mdmsam khddati. others only. e. were originally verbs expressive of states rather than of actions. local. 287. take the one or the other form according as the action of the verb is conceived to be either transitive or reflective. vyatihasanti. fixed by usage rather than in the Certain verbs in Sanskrit are used in the Parasmaipada only.g.) y Ex. e. In the language of the best authors. temporal and causal. while others which govern an accusative. ^ An. tiiitnTn Atmanepada only. in the 10. restricted by grammarians to the Atmanepada . H smiles. he f 287. g. of IR para another. e. whether used as transitive or neuter (Colebr. Those which are used in the Atmanepada only. The Parasmai-pada. he goes to or approaches the village. i. atati. he laughs. with. are verbs the action of grdmam grows. i. they laugh at each other (Pan. (Wilson.) ddatte. is But like W^ smayate. is always Parasmaipadin. 1. however. though they govern an accusative . he e. intransitive. morning. tfUJd trdyate. are Atmanepadin (i. jn. of ^HlcH^ dtman. .) f$% karhi. he protects. Where ? ^5 *^ fl > here. e. VIL CONJUGATION. i. others in both voices. wherefoie. e. a verb the action of which refers to the agent. t*<. he gives. 1. i. he rejoices. vart. CONJUGATION. in which case verbs in Sanskrit mostly take the Atmanepada . Smg. FMfl edhate. ^rfk hasati.) 9. (from mirM^ dtmane. tarhit therefore.n spandate. g. Protect me These correspond to the Latin deponents. he eats meat. knows.e. between the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada is The by distinction rule. CHAPTER J 286. used in the Atmanepada). c*i<3 TT trdyasva mdm. Sanskrit verbs are conjugated in the Active and the Passive. *R saha.2). he takes. Dat. at this time. 3. HI! tar. 12). he trembles. *jf% ivfn bhumim manthati. <^i(rt daddti. he shakes the earth. bddhati.3. g. a verb the action of which refers to another. Note >sn<^c i. are conjugated in the Parasmaipada.-$ 8. he *f^n modate. in concealment. (Wilson. self. Dat. Dhatupatha as n-it or anuddtta-it (Pan. 15. e. many verbs which we should consider intransitive. at that time. and verbs ! ' Verbs which are used both in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. y The Atmane-pada Ex. (from TJT^R parasmai. 297) it is so even when reciprocity of action are always conjugated in the : is indicated. JTTHT/>nfrar. 1. $^ 4etet he lies down. early. yMni budhydte. p. Sing. Those which are used in the Parasmaipada which was originally conceived as transitive . transitive. 137 f^ rhi.

290. 3. corresponding to the Atmanepada. I. Mifif yajati. Causal verbs are conjugated both in the Parasmaipada and Atmane- pada. n. never '3favardhati. The Reduplicated Perfect (Lit) ^33 babhdva W$5 babhuve 6. he grew. is and in Sanskrit as well as in Greek. 288- info pachati.138 e. he turns is ^H away but or dismisses wrath. 250.. (Pan. the : other without 289. ATMANEPADA. Par. Grammar. ^ffi vardhate. ^fff yajate. i. but as Atmanepada. difficult to bring under any general rules. The same applies to Causals (Pan. There are in Sanskrit thirteen tenses and moods of Greek and Latin. but e.) 288. a subtle distinction which it is possible to appreciate when stated. The Imperfect (Lan) The Optative (Lin) The Imperative (Lot) ^sw4 dbhavam H^TI bhdveyam H^rftr bhdvdni ^W% dbhave 4. he enters . (Pan. he sacrifices. ^^f^avridhat.3. i.g. 8. he cooks for himself. Taranatha. Again. and middle voices best learnt by practice. Atm. p. Siddhanta-Kaumudi. active or middle in others. the same as those of the different forms. 2. These distinctions. p. g. if if ya. a swelling . which is always Parasmaipada. The passive takes the terminations of the Atmanepada. The Periphrastic Perfect (Lit) ^fksf ^$5 choraydm babhuva vft<n[ choraydm cha ^ 7. 337. or ^Rffo avardhishta. 3. I. The First Aorist (Lun) ^nffftri dbodhisham ^wfafa dbhavishi ^rftr% dsiche The Second Aorist (Lun) The Future (Lrit) ^*$ dbhdvam Hfmmfir bhavishydmi Hfa*T bhavishye Colebrooke. and prefixes yd to them in the four special or modified tenses. in Sanskrit as well as in Greek. fV^lfw visati. the right use of the active "rf\ nt. intensives have The Denominatives ending in ^srTO ay a have both forms (Pan. he cooks. he carries off used as Parasmaipada in such expressions as *TJ TM f*( fit gandam vinayati*. on peculiar conceptions which it is difficult to analyse or to realize. but Aor. however. in fVn*^ krodham vinayate. . CONJUGATION. vfebhdve The Present (Lat) H^lfH bhdvdmi 3. In the other tenses the forms of the passive with a few exceptions. Thus to lead. are. 91. in Sanskrit as well as in Greek. PARASMAIPADA. ATMANEPADA. 5. 17. PARASMAIPADA. *^H bhdveya H% bhdvai II. he enters in. which is always Atmanepada . * Cf. 3. Desideratives generally follow the Pada of the simple root (Pan. Formed from the General or Unmodified Base. some verbs are middle in certain tenses only. he grows. 90). i. two forms one in it ya. 9. g.. I. Formed from the Special or Modified Base. ed. rest in many cases. 3. SMCI pachate. he sacrifices for himself. 74). 1. Atm. certain prepositions e..) Others take the Parasmaipada or Atmanepada according as they are compounded with . 62). vol. but fiTq^n ni-visate.

tuda. devcLS rice. .g. g. Certain verbs which are not allowed to form the reduplicated perfect. form their perfect periphrastically. the people would perish. a student of the Veda. that such persons should revile Krishna. e. bhavdn ihdsita. 10. *TW H*H ^^T *f yach cha tvam evam kuryd na frraddadhe. g. mif^m!* e. as ijj^ far as the e. They .e. The First and Second Aorists refer generally to time past. g. village. take the e. Strike ! The first . *(l^^H f^W^W^^^KHr^r. Supposition (sambhdvana) . 4. Imperfect takes the Augment (J 300). ^nfhftn Tr 7rl*nfhqffaj vedam adhiyiya. f.291. The Present and Imperfect require no explanation. wish your honour may eat. It is Brahmans used in relative dependent sentences . thou mayest Let your honour sit go. The Subjunctive (Let) occurs 12. e. The Future. by means of an auxiliary verb. The Reduplicated Perfect denotes something absolutely past. 1 1. here! Inquiring. if it rain.g. e. 6. g. H ^ilM^r^ yafy pathet sa dpnuydt. if there were not punishment in the world. yad yad rocheta viprebhyas tat tad dadydd amatsarah. requires no explanation. which has always the accent. $291. . second person is and third persons are used many cases in place of the Optative I e.8. 1. e. g.2. Augment we 300). m$ ^rll$li: ^pnsr fH^dfmra yat tddrisdfy krishnam ninderann is dscharyam. and are the ( common 9. Signification of the Tenses and Moods. a. Command Wish e. g. e. ^m bMydsam in the Veda only. CONJUGATION. 3. Shall I study the Veda or shall I study logic? d. The The principal senses of the Optative are. because Condition . c. he ~m T^T^ who studies. wonderful The Imperative concerned in . will obtain. shall sow life ^N-nil^H^ <l^fri ydvaj-jivam annam ddsyatiy T 2 as long as . ^N H^wfo EM^glXm: IHTTt dandab chen na bhavel loke vinasyeyur imdfy prajdh. g. i. ?fr jppw *T^: tvam grdmam gachchheh. e. 7. uta tarkam adhiyiya. historical tenses in narration. go thou to the b. 5. I believed not that thou couldst act thus. he probably he is a Brahman. 3*41 ft HTT^^ii ichchhdmi bhavdn bhunktdm. also called the Indefinite Future ched varshishyati dhdnyam vapsydmah. whatever pleases the let one give that to them not niggardly. 1 139 ^wfir& dbhavithye Hfaing bhavitdhe *ftprta bhavishiyd The Conditional (Lrin) w*frT dbhavishyam The Periphrastic Future (Luj) Mflrdifw bhavitdsmi The Benedictive (As'ir lih) 13. i. M<^*ft 3<MK*ft is dHHIM!^ bhaved asau vedapdrago brdhmanatvdt.

HTS^ bhlds. g. without the g nu. ^rrfw skundti (Pan. ^jJT Thus TS^ bhrds. ^rfiPff skunoti or in. the Imperfect. The Sanskrit verb has in each tense and mood Plural. Singular. and Imperative. if things are spoken of that might have. g. Imperfect. rain. f^fj chinu. One and to the i. if there plenty. fqvj Hence fajR: chi-nu-mdli. instead 6f the Optative. i. 292. bhram. all Sanskrit grammarians have divided verbs into ten classes. according to certain modifications which their roots undergo before the terminations of the Present. the root. ^tskumbh belong Su and Kri classes. the base of the special tenses. and CHAPTER SPECIAL J 293. fft 13. AND GENERAL TENSES AND THE TEN CLASSES OF VERBS. in. We call f% chi. in. certain circumstances this Future . ^sku. but have not happened (Pan. the Optative. 82). g. the same root *f may belong to different classes. thou wilt to-morrow proceed to Ayodhya. 394. . &c. searched. 3. Thus the root fa chi into is changed in the Present. ^ lash belong and Div classes . e. $ *i1mif^ used for expressing not only a blessing. had been abundant takes the . we searched. ^3( tras. or the Reduplicated Perfect chitdh. szwmM^ died abhavishyat tadd subhiksham abhavishyat. *%?{ kram. 139) . g. but also a srimdn bMydt. three numbers. root will be called the Special or Modified Tenses the rest the General or Unmodified Tenses. When will he eat? 10.140 lasts. May he be happy! e. (Pan. The Periphrastic or Definite Future e. 12. The four tenses and moods which require this modification of the . chichy-u^ they have fa^aj: we searched. 70).ffcHstumbh} *^fo^skambh. VIII. 11. with three persons in each. Bhu klam. may be used optionally with the Periphrastic Future kadd bhoktd or H^ffi bhokshyate. Dual. T$IW bhrd&ate or WT^m bhrdtyate. there ($ would have been The Conditional Augment 300). and Imperative chi-nu. e. But the Past Participle f^nr: search. ^rf%pr dchi-nu-ma. 'snfaflT TO JI41rilftl ayodhydm &vah praydtdsi. ^fhfTRJjni^ chiram jivydt. w^stambh. Optative. The Benedictive wish in general. This division is very useful. 1 H to the J Again. May he live long is ! The Subjunctive occurs in the Veda only. *K^T H^W The Conditional is used. and will be retained with some slight alterations. SPECIAL he will AND GENERAL TENSES Under 29!- give food. cJ7 trut.

because the first verb in their lists is ^ bhd. ^faild bebhidydte. "3rffr . ft^rty. Note traces to The accent in verbs of the Div class rests on the radical vowel this class though there are show that some verbs of had the accent originally on 1 ya. U^rf^ tudddi. u. except where it is drawn on the augment. to foff^fw kir-d-ti* Note The accent in verbs of the Tud class rests on the intermediate ^? a j hence never Guna 3. g nu y "9 u. he worships. and the This second division subdivided into. short i. Bases which Bases which in the modified tenses end end in *1 a. b. r. The Div a. to ^rjr ($ no).e. he knows. u. J 296. ^ri ^ri Ex. he causes to be. AND THE TEN CLASSES OP two VERBS. such as causatives. to tf kri. n*nfii namasydti. budh-ya-te. ^tvfiT bodh-a-ti. The Tud a. if followed by one consonant). grammarians. and called by them v^rf^ bhvddi. Bases which insert terminations. ft ri. The vowel of the root takes Guna. to to T^ uv. where if final . I. to know he is. 1. he cuts much . nah. from *bhu. . H^fri ndh-ya-ti. H^fir bhdv-a-ti. Note The accent in verbs of the Bhu class (as we know from the ancient Vedic language) rests on the radical vowel. ^r a is added to the last letter of the root. CUlTd riy-d-ti. Verbal I. II a. \nd. grammarians. a is added to the last letter of the root. to strike). yMfcf nuv-d-ti. to strike. or *ft nt y between the root II b. r^mf^ divddi. in II. to go. class (the sixth with native Before this ^ a. he grows red. comprises four classes: The Bhu class (the first with native grammarians. and called by them because the first root in their lists is f^div y to play). possible (i. iQ b. class (the fourth with native t^. First Division. to die . (i. intensives in the Atmane- pada. Many desideratives. lohitdydti. IT ya is added to the last letter of the root. fa^ mriy-d-te. and denominatives. to bind . ^ftiVdHlfa 2. ^J?rflT bubhushati. yi budh. $M. praise . to awake . he wishes to be. in the modified tenses is any letter but W a. follow this class. "g^tud. ^ budh.-$ 296. Ex. Bases which take the terminations without any intermediate element. of the radical vowel. ri. first division The a. final ^ i T and ^ i are changed u and ^l u to ^ iy. divisions : 141 bases are first divided into J 295. to be . scatter . HmMiir bhdvdyati. and called by them because the first root in their lists is ip tud. to be). . long or short t. derivative verbs. ij^fif tud-d-ti. Ex. ^ mri.

GR^S^rrr kirt-dya-ti. before certain terminations. are and identical in form with causatives. preceded by ^ i. rt. to fill . and the base before them. ft ni is strengthening of the vowels J This strengthening generally takes place by means of raised to *n nd in the Kri. chur. the strong terminations. if not all roots arranged under this class by native grammarians. . The accent rests on the first ^ a of ^R ay a. and ^ n to *T na in the Rudh rft ni. ^ u. in the as verbs belonging to it. the accent falls first As on the . vowel of strong terminations. the . The Chur class (the tenth with by them yiigf steal). We strong shall call the terminations which require strengthening of the inflective base. Many. $^ir. Final ^i. | ^H> an<i "^[r^ take Vriddhi. ^l^^fd ddl-dya-ti. Guna. ifRnrflT mdy-dya-ti. J 297. preceded by ^T a is lengthened to ^n d. fg^&fcA. ^RTfir pdr-dya-ti. churddi. to steal Ex. a rule. it require strengthening of their radical vowel. weak vice base and terminations. ay a is added to the last letter of the root. while ^ri becomes . ft Ex. "35^. or. ^Ulfff mrish. to walk. keep their modificatory syllable ^HTaya unmodified as well as in the modified tenses. to a. or if they take of these syllables. ^ "3 ^ cMr. denominatives. vn^rfK dhdr-dya-ti. from other inasmuch throughout. the versd. It is a distinguishing feature of this second that. fwyn.togrow old. end in ^T a before the terminations. (many exceptions. these vowels take Guna.) If the root ends in a simple consonant. o #. except in the Benedictive Par. u. v^pri. ^. and first 297called 4. m^. the weak base. and the base before them. -gr u. The second division comprises all verbs which do not. thus establishing throughout an equilibrium between base and termination. to praise d. secondary roots. %tnrflT 6lesh-dya-ti. Ex. because the root in their lists is ^ sr . Second Division. If the root ends in a simple consonant. all verbs belonging to nu. in the division special tenses. to cut . the terminations which do not require strengthening of the base. c. but class. ^ Note dhri. This class differs classes. cfi^ W.SPECIAL AND GENERAL TENSES native grammarians. if the terminations are weak. ^ . to endure *rl^W marsh-dya-te. on the strong base. and the Reduplicated Aorist. ^ m\ fajray-dya-ti. . ^HT b. II. ^ dal. to hold. &c. to embrace chor-dya-ti.

except one. i. Ex. Pres. 27) . This first AND THB TEN CLASSES OP VERBS. All verbs belonging to this class end in ^n. The Su nu class (the fifth class with native grammarians. before i. plur. thou lickest ($ ($ 1*8). "aftarfa: kri-na-mi. kri. root in their lists is ^ ad. *c*<^ diet. The Kri ctylty class (the ninth with native grammarians. before strong terminations. Pres. and called by lists is ir*^ iMlty tanddi. kri-ni-mdfy. : subdivision comprises three classes I. kri-n-dnti. g su y to squeeze out ist pers. The Tan them class (the eighth class with native first grammarians. 3rd pers. tan-6-mi 9 ist pers. I do. and called by is *| su). ist pers. ftwo before weak terminations. ^ftr leh-mi. I lick 1 . you lick (J 28) . ctfte ttdhd. 1 we lick . except in case of terminations.-$ 299II a. is on the first . because the first root in their ft ni is added to the last letter of the root. before strong terminations. a. to lick f?5^ lih. which the terminations are joined immediately. II b. Pres. rules explained above b. which take g nu. . kryddi. b). sing. before weak terminations. because the first root in their lists added to the last letter of the root. H nd Ex. the phonetic ( 107145) must be carefully observed. Pres. inpn tan-u-mdh. plur. ist pers. Tyf^f lek-shi. ^ffffa su-n6-mi. fc5TO lih-mdh. "aft W. when the accent falls on the radical vowel. Note 3. Bases J 298. JG^tan. and consonants with consonants. sing. rttftfa Ex. before strong terminations. . : The second class (the division comprises three classes The Ad second class with native grammarians. 7u *ft is added to the of the root. and called by them first ^ify adddi. because the a. *{n before strong terminations beginning with vowels. The strong base possible ($ the weak terminations takes Guna where 296. to buy. and called by them lists is "aft kri). o before weak terminations. to stretch. Pres. : Ex. consonants with vowels. vowels with consonants. *frp: su-nu-mdfr. thou lickedst The accent weak vowel of the terminations. Pres. sing. because the last letter root in their tan). The terminations are added immediately to the last letter of the base and in the contact of vowels with vowels. plur. them ^rf^ J is svddi. ^f JiOfH karomi. Bases to J 399. plur. ist pers. ist pers. Pres. to eat). lu.

Hu class. with native grammarians. The Agama is. class. class. 192). jdgri have the Udatta on the syllable preceding the terminations. class. <f*nfff dddhdti. X class. daridrd. because the first root in their lists is fr hu a. Boehtlingk and Bopp. or whether the termination now places the accent on the first syllable. and called rudh. 302. b. Ex. to sacrifice. vart. V class. beginning with a vowel. 192. Ad class. but the question is siyut whether tta is to be treated as ajadi. hu. bhri. *JH! ju-hu-mdh.. vi. vi. *[*{yuj to join gr*n yu-n-j-mdh. i. and see it confirmed by the Pratyudaharana For if ydt of dad-ydt is no longer ajadi. IX class. Prof. where (Rules of Reduplication. Chur Churadi. The Rudh class (the seventh class with native grammarians. i. We find in the Rig-veda both dddhita and dadhttd. ? hu. Benfey. 7f which to na. . but begin with a vowel. Kryadi. sj^frfa ju-ho-mi. VI IV class. in ddd-ita must be on the same ground. t The terminations The strong base are added as in the Ad class. in. II class. is and the final consonant <{n the strong base before weak terminations is raised radical vowel 9 : inserted. wherever it appears. jan. conjugated in the Parasmaipada. c. follow this class. and called by them "Spftarf^ juhotyddi. avidyamanavat svaravidhau (Pan. augment. fwfff bibhdrti. 3. class. but fwfif UbJirati (Pan.. 189. by them ^vrf^ rudhddi. The reduplicated verbs bhi> hri. vi.144: SPECIAL AND GENERAL TENSES AND THE TEN CLASSES OF VERBS. then tia. Adadi. VII class.) possible. Juhotyadi. I (Pan. Kri class. class. sacrifice : Ex. native grammarians. who at first accentuated dadhitd. I join. Svadi.) The The intensive verbs. 2). we sacrifice . mad. ajadi adopt the former view. The accent falls on tf na. III class. likewise if the terminations are strong. b. Bhu Tud Div class. i. a. Ex. Tanadi. to obstruct). because the first root in their lists is ^ T^qffg rundddhi. VIII class. no doubt. class. dhan. Bhvadi.. before the weak terminations takes Guna. ^vfff dddhati (Pan. Rudh Rudhadi. 299- 2. accent is on the first syllable of the verb. First Division. 1. Divadi. I Tudadi. I given in vi. Ex. unless it is attracted by the . Second Division. if the terminations are weak. 189190). i. The root takes reduplication. like is ta with Agama i. The Hu class (the third class with native grammarians. if the terminations are weak.3. Whether this rule extends to the Optative Atmanepada is doubtful. Su class. with Tan class. we join glft*T yu-nd-j-mi. The terminations Between the in are added as in the Ad class.

he went. REDUPLICATION. a with ^ ri. vi. 4. ^a[fir richchhatij he goes. AUGMENT. the augment In the later Sanskrit. May he not do it! Reduplication. or ^ri. 90. (Pan. REDUPLICATION. = ^TP dr. The reduplication in intensive and desiderative verbs and in one form of the aorist will have to be treated separately. karot. ^ft o. and in forming the special base of the verbs of the Hu class. 302. ^r&l(drchchhat. 145 CHAPTER J 300. we Augment and the Reduplication. beginning with vowels the i. modifications of the root with which we are familiar in Greek. ^Tf aikshata he saw. ^rtfir archati. ^ftq^aunat. initial Vtviftr Roots result Imperfect waftv dbodham. he sees. Conditional. always take Vriddhi. we can leave the subject which occupies us its at present* viz.- 302. AND TERMINATIONS. . he wets. From ^undy ^'nfrl unatti. vi. btidhdmi . Reduplication takes place in Sanskrit not only in the reduplicated Most of the rules of perfect.) *T vst a with ^r a. he wetted. Thus from iftbudh. and Perfect) in every verb. AND TERMINATIONS. he praised. Roots beginning with consonants take short ^ d as their This ^r a has the accent. as in the more ancient Greek. = ^ au. or ^T a. reduplication are the same in forming the base of the perfect of all verbs. Aorist. ^K d. processes. ^?r ikshate. and which in have to consider two the Sanskrit as well as in Greek form the distinguishing features of certain tenses (Imperfect. AUGMENT. ^ ^t a with T u. afterwards those that are peculiar either to the reduplicatiori of the perfect or to that of the verbs of the Hu class. $301. a with ^ i y \ f. 74). ^T = ai. the preparation of the root previous to assuming the terminations. too. this! Let not your Honour do or *rr ^ *fT^ inftTwza sma ITT <*mTi^ md bhavdn kdrshit. From ^^arch. From ^T iksh. or ^ft au. the initial irregular of combination of the augment with the vdwels. negative particle *n md (Pan. = wr d. Present augment. From i$ri. These will be stated first. Before IX. ^i^drchat. it has to be dropt after the frequently absent. or ^ ai. ^ e. he praises. but likewise in all verbs of the Hu class. y is In the more ancient Sanskrit.

Roots with final *e. is long. approach. i). to sound. = J^cfi dudhauk. to enter. Gutturals are represented in reduplication palatals . ^Z kut. But ^ff 5mn. by their corresponding 4. by a tenuis or aspirated $ 307. ^ dhe. = ^ gai. to = ^JST chukruf. to sing. v$J)hu is exceptional in ^ budh=z'3^^bubudh. to sever. 4. vn. reduplicated. 303- $ 303. h ^ by *(j. the tenuis only is reduplicated.) 305. = if^n tasthd. 308. = faffcp^ chikship. 73. = '^cf^paspardh. that portion of it which ends with a vowel) repeated. e. letters are represented $ 304. = ftr^ sishev. ^gi^ chu&chyut. T^dhu. to ^c^ dhauk. ^ stid. AND TERMINATIONS. to shout. or ^ ai. The first is syllable of a root (i.146 AUGMENT. i?T^ final or medial. it becomes ^ i. If a root begins with a sibilant followed tenuis. whether shortened in the reduplicative syllable. ^ft dadhau. = "$% tushtu (J 103. = TTCR sasmri. the first If a root begins with $ 306. to strike. W^stan. to buy. = fwfa^ bibhid. to pine. gdh. =^dudhu. to worship. to go. throw. 62. REDUPLICATION. Aspirated in reduplication by their cor- responding unaspirated fas bhid. General Rules of Reduplication. = irer^ tastan. = fsnft chikri. WT sthdj to stand. If the radical vowel. If the radical (not final) vowel ^ft o or ^ft auy it becomes ^ u. ^ffro. = . to dig. ^ kri. to sharpen. fqpikship.) forming ^t^babhu. 310. = to laugh. to praise. . ??nl spardh. to feed. = more than one consonant. =s ^ft ^o. to drop. it is = TTTT| jagdh. (Pan. = ^^ sushud. = ^^7 chukut. %ai. to strive. ^J stu. = ^3g\ Schyut. is TJ e is 309. if it %^ sev. are treated like roots ending in a. as. to cut. only is ipi kru$. to shake. taking ^r a in the reduplicative syllable. = ^^R[ chakhan. vn. letters. (Pan.

29). 147 The following roots are slightly irregular on account of the semivowels which they contain. to fiy. ^ u. 1 = TO^ vavrdscha. i. vi. in all persons of the reduplicated perfect where neither Vriddhi t The weakest forms of these verbs do not belong to the reduplicated perfect. paprdchchha 9 7). but have been added as useful hereafter for the formation of the past participle. uvdda 9 to say. ^F ad. uvdcha. 5. ^^ vavrite. ft^rt riv?. (dja. vivydya. the passive. = f^HlM sushvdpa. IF Or f^ITO ^svdya (Pan. i. to surround. ^ ^ dd. J ^T{vay is ^T ^t (1 Pan.to grow fat (Pan. to * eat.) WEAK FORM*. and which are liable to be changed into vowels. ^^ vavridht.a. AND TERMINATIONS. stitution does not take place. Roots beginning with short contract ^i a + ^ a into 5TI d. 4. 33). &c. 30). vas = TTW uvdsa. i. ^^ vavrtich. vi. to call (Pan. vn. ^il^ babhrajj. 39. ^ a.) uvdya. vi. vivydcha. AUGMENT.-$312. uh. TRF&paprachch to ask. 40). (fvidh.) f^T^ vivyath. dh.) Roots beginning with ^ va 9 but ending in double consonants. -^j^jagrdha 9 to take. = fzpar^ vivyathe (Pan. SING. to carry. U 2 .) Pan. then ^ve forms vavau. a substitute for ^ve. uvdpa. nor The weak forms appear Guna is required. = < u<{ arf. to swell^f. FIRST PERS. to speak. Ex. $u$dva. vi. to sleep. EEDUPL. PERF. i. do not In the last three change ^ va to J 312. vi. vi. BOOT. in the reduplicated perfect (Pan. i. 41). (Pan. fo. i. to weave. to sow. grow old.to cut (Pan. the benedictive. 2. to strike. = f&pipye. babhrdjja. i. (This change is called Samprasdrana. (zu. (for iprnr yaydja. 68). f 311. 17. to . to cover. 4.) = f^nv vivyddha. to dwell. 38. to sacrifice. verbs the weak form in the reduplicated perfect is protected against Samprasarana by the final double consonant. and ending in a single consonant. to wish. n. WEAKEST Fomt- ^ ^J^ tj. vah = ytfig uvdha. REDUPLICATION. w. i. fafa^ vividh. If that subvavuh (Pan. tick. vi.

4. 78.) dndrch. vii. (they do not occur as PRESENT. (Also ^rsi as (Su). ukh-atuh) they two have withered. to fill. I have withered. by \i. Other roots beginning with ri prefix w^ara. f^ vish of the take Guna f*1^ nij. ^H^ arch J 314. Certain roots change their consonant if they are reduplicated. some points on which these two classes of reduplicated bases differ. T^ftsf uv-okh-a (Guna). 71. -zw^ardh. to go. Likewise in the desiderative fnrt^fTT jighishati. vii. Likewise in the desiderative ftTO^rfw jighdmsati. whether final or medial. (Pan. = vf^Ttijahdra.) I have gone. 3.148 AUGMENT. vii. So far the Hu are 1. *TT i?T hd. to measure. see the rujes given for the formation of the Reduplicated and Periphrastic Perfect. 315. (H*flri mimitej ^T hd. TTJ? veceshti. vi. f to bear. hriy to = TOCTC sasdra. The two verbs TT ma. ftmfS ^ ^ hri = f^fS jiharti. 4. Special Rules of Reduplication. 71. AND TERMINATIONS. These roots are treated in to obtain. and the reduplicative syllable. to nT3W jahghanydte. of the Hu class take ^z in (Pan. ^T% nenekti. .) . y and ^v are inserted between the reduplicative syllable and the (Pan. f 318. f*T%fft jiMtt. but if the radical ^i or ^r u take Guna or Vriddhi. ^ sri sisarti. final -^ri and ^ri CLASS. fact as if i "^p^ridh. contract ^ + ^ ^R u . (Pan. to go. ^T!^r dna&e. Hu class 317. ^^A = ^g: ish-dtuh. Hu bibhdrti.) ma. &c. whether applied to the bases of the class. 55.) = ^rt ^ ^^r^'. 4. -^ri. 3. are represented in reduplication 2. 3 process of reduplication would be the same. to pervade. to kill. 313. root ^ri. and the (Pan. to thrive. The three verbs f^^nij. 4. 75. f*m\<*jigh$yq. 76. REDUPLICATION. send (Su). prefi^ ^T^dn. 4. In the Reduplicated In the bases of the Perfect. But there Reduplicated Perfect or to those of the 1 6. fWa piparti. forms ^rf ^pn. &c. iy-arti. f%*tvij. 73. and (Pan. %f^ nenikte. = -qvrn: babhdra. vii. (Pan. vii.) intensive ft[ hi. viz. they two have gone. f%\vish. 3 T 3"- and ending with more than one consonant. take. vii. to wash. and in tfr$ red^plicated syUahle.) Pan. Roots beginning with ^ i +i and tf + "$ u+u i{ into ^ i and or "su (not prosodially long). As to roots which cannot be reduplicated or are otherwise irregular. by ^r a. base. The root ^j n forms the base of the reduplicated perfect as WT^ dr. Roots beginning with short ^r a. *in\*ijaff1idna. initial 319. 56. = ^TPpf dn-rij. radical ^ ri. ^rf^ vevekti.) the intensive W*fNTiT jeghiydte. = ^TRJ>^a/zn^ they were 'W^arch. ^^ ukh = grwg: = ^^(iy-esh-a (Guna). vii. to go. Hu class. f&^vij. bhri = fWiff ^ The sri. 4. *^ han. medial) are represented in reduplication REDUPLICATED PERFECT. V[ bhri. to separate.

(Pan. 3. are subject to certain variations. The same option applies to the desiderative. and learning that the to d of ^rr$ dthe is changed ithe as ^i after bases in ^T a (Pan. 81). > (Pan. Imperf. has optionally Pi u4 chichdya or P^^IM chikaya. and moods. (Vl'IIH jigdya. and explaining the real or fanciful different classes of verbs. Present. AND TERMINATIONS. Instead of taking ^rre dthe as the termination ^TT of the 2nd pers. the Present. 3. Bhd. ftwivj mimdthe. dual Atm.^Rlamah ^Rama ^Rima z. 58. Optative. Optative. Instead of between themselves and the terminations. or ^u t "^ni (Second Division. fwfMn jfyishati . Likewise in the desiderative 149 but not ftf ji. or nothing J nu. B. though on the whole the same for all verbs. or according to that of comparative philologists. such forms as at first ftvvi bodhethe. i. (Second Division. fart ^(it If ta ^W ithdm it ita ^Rava "^iva ff tarn ava W^avahe W<4 fi$ avahi ^f^ irahi ^R^ arahai ^TTT it ^lf itam ^iff it tarn ^ ^n ithe ite ^TT ^iff ^ttlRiydthdmJpRithdm ^Minf iydtdm 3. according as the verbal bases take ^? a (First Division). Imperative. simpler to take ^ the termination in the First Division but still simpler to commit to memory are. vii. but in the intensive we have ^W)in chechtydte only. REDUPLICATION..-$ 3^1- AUGMENT. After having explained how the verbal roots are modified in ten different ways before they receive the terminations of the four special tenses.^&faamt ^m lh 1(t ^Tjiyam^&f^ani ^i ^lih ^* ^ft'ya thdh J^ttl ^e 2. ATMANEPADA. Optative. 57. A. and Chur Classes. fgmuj dvishdthe.). The beginner should commit to memory the actual paradigms rather than the different sets * of terminations. PARASMAIPADA. Imperfect. Imperat. Present.) in the intensive.f*si 3. changes which they are supposed to have undergone in the it will be more useful to give them in that form in which they may mechanically be attached to each verbal base. 1ft tah Iff tarn dm WT tdm dm dm i. it is . 2. to gather. we give a table of the terminations for these so-called special or modified tenses $ 331. which is always ^hftTTTT jejtydte.) gramma- giving the table of terminations according to the system of native rians. J 320. fa c/tt. Div. ntdm verbs. without asking to any questions as how they came to be what they FIRST DIVISION. if may be used as termination after all . -* ijta* ^T^T "ft $se ^te *m ithdh ^ sva Iff tarn.lftha If ta ^>T ama ^HR^amahe ^SKf^amahi If ^f^imahi ^131 WH$_ amahai ^ifVa ta U& dhve *4 dhvam nT nta idhvam iran l4 dhvam nff ^ nfe * In the second and third persons TR1(tdt the sense is benedictive. to conquer. vn. Tud.) Terminations. Imperfect. vn. The terminations for the modified tenses. and Imperative.

or Hu classes). Parasm. Hu and Rudh 9 Classes. Optative. I. unaccented terminations which require strengthening of the base. 155.150 AUGMENT. and Imperative in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepade of all regular verbs in Sanskrit . 162). according to the rules of Sandhi. vi. require Guna. EEDUPLICATION.4.) In the 3rd pers. verbs of the Hu class. 177. however. 111. (See No. Tan. The verb J hu.) Kri verbs ending in consonants form the 2nd pers. imp. imp. 101. Imperative. though ending in a vowel.) means of these terminations the student is able to form the $ 322. 4. root (in the Ad. plur. . sing. Uf dhvam ^TrTf atdm squares are the weak. verbs of the Su and Tan classes take no termination. verbs ending in a vowel. When f^ hi is added immediately to the final consonant of a Note i in The terminations enclosed changed to fv dhi (Pan.. take ^rfir ati and ^nj atu. SECOND DIVISION. Parasm. Imperative. Parasm. are irregular in the formation of their Atmanepada. verbs of the Hu class and ^rvq^f abhyasta. Su. imp. and imper. Note 2 In the 3rd pers. before which. Present. Pan. e. except when ^ u is preceded by a conjunct consonant. understood how receiving their terminations. Imperfect.) In the 2nd pers. Imperfect. AND TERMINATIONS. base . Optative. See No. Imperfect. both in the Parasmaipada and Some verbs. ATMANEPADA. and Note 3 to hate. i. Optative. 4. to know. it is WT (See No. "gt uh is used optionally after verbs in *&\ a. Ad. (Pan. i. 109112. By Present. pres. Rudh. 101. will have no difficulty in writing out for himself the paradigms of any Sanskrit verb in four of the most important tenses and moods. for the sake of euphony. plur. Kri. vi. 83. reduplicated bases. PARASMAIPADA. takes fqdhi instead of f^ hi. and any one who has clearly after f&^dvish. (Pan. these must be learnt from the Dhatupatha. Present. sing. take 7: uh. e. reduplicated bases. the verbal bases are prepared in ten different ways for and who will attach to these verbal bases the terminations as given above. and ft^ vid. in ana. i. in.

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. The rules of reduplication have been given above. the inserted j nu. in. (^fai oshdm).-J GENERAL OR UNMODIFIED TENSES. 2. to WR(kds. 1. ' Polysyllabic roots. to sit down ^n^ ay. to its base in the Perfect ends in two consonants. WR(kds. Denominatives. ^T^ as. The verb drnundva as ^ its i. also (Sar. SINGULAR. fapvftjdgardm. drnu. and Imperative. 'S^und. ($31 3. d: such as fr id. 3.). ("SJ^T juhavdm. to cover. although polysyllabic. &c. such as l *w&( chakds. modified tenses . as if ^^archchh. although forms only VMM^ dnarchchha. 35).) Terminations of the Reduplicated Perfect. form the Periphrastic Perfect by means of composition. J 324. the Optative. Intensives. (J 340. are removed again from the roots to which they had been attached in the Present. bhi (fswrnbibhaydm). In the tenses the First and Second Aorist. ^ and J hu Pan. the Conditional. of the Only the verbs Chur class preserve their ^R dya throughout. *vedh. GENERAL OR UNMODIFIED TENSES. to cough to go. to whatever class they belong in the vanishes. the Imperfect. and to be bright. after taking redupli(^^jihraydm)^ bhri i. to praise . such as Causatives.) So do likewise (Pan. i. to pity. to burn. CHAPTER X.) all verbs. which remain. Pan. Verbs which cannot form the Perfect by reduplication. ^a 2. know. ^5 richh. the distinction of the ten classes All verbs are treated alike. and Benedictive. in. $ 325. the Peri$323. fas vid. It is treated.-%thri 38). The root in its primitive state ($ is reduplicated. the Future. ^TI day. to grow *T a or jp^indh. except in the Aorist and Benedictive. *TFJ. allows only of Perfect. in. the Periphrastic Future. and the distinguishing features. 302319. to wet. tft to wake. in fact. The Reduplicated Perfect can be formed of m . Reduplicated Perfect. . (fe^T viddm). fail.. to shine (Pan. and. 37). I.M0T cation. except Monosyllabic roots which begin with any vowel prosodially long but to light . in. optionally ^re ush. phrastic Perfect. &c. 39). Desideratives. *u 9 7ft ni. the Reduplicated Perfect. Verbs of the Chur class derivative verbs. J 326.

3. DUAL. if followed **F^budh. but generally it is on the . PH jflfavjjy iv-itha. the initial ^ i of certain terminations will be given below. 3. ^IT ima imahe or These terminations are here given. Here the following rules must be observed Roots like impat. ^ iva ^rgt athufy ^BTgj ivahe 2.2. f^3*1viveja. a if followed by a single consonant. Guna in the second. under there is As certain circumstances. in certain verbs. Parasmai and Atmanepada. nindy-a or PHHH nindy-a 9 PHH^ ninetha or ninay-a. 3. i. f^T^ bibhed-a. 1. the accent may fall on any syllable. i. ^ hanS3&K*{jaghdn-a or Wttjaghdn-a. singular Parasmaipada. ^qfaRjaghdn-itha. a long medial vowel not being liable to Guna.) a tendency to strengthen the base in the three persons 328. ^rrtv bubddh-a. be without Guna. fa^ bhid f^T^ bibhed-a. fsftf^q bibhed-itha. forms Pfflcf jijw-a. the accent falls on with ^ZJ itha. so there is a tendency to weaken the base. Vriddhi only in the third person singular. Guna in the second. : Vowels capable of Guna. 9 Guna throughout the singular. before the other terminations of the Perfect. Note (Pan. aw# PLURAL. and which in their reduplicated syllable repeat the : consonant without any change (this excludes roots beginning with aspirates and with gutturals. Final vowels take Vriddhi or Guna in the first. which therefore is strengthened according to the 327. termination. In this case the radical vowel may. bubddh-a ^ftftTO bubodh-itha. except in the three persons singular Parasmaipada. 2. 1. roots in which ^ a is preceded and followed by a single consonant. and initial . on the terminations in the Parasmaipada and In these Atmanepada. i. without any regard to the systems of native or comparative grammarians. roots beginning with 'Zv. P*|fl^ jijiv-a. ^r PfHP*4"i nindy-itha. take by one consonant.2. e. Vriddhi only in the third person singular. but P<P=I PiT^T vivijitha. takes Vriddhi or Guna in the first. the accent falls on the root. the root f%*(vij. If the second person singular if Parasmaipada is formed by ^ftha.160 GENERAL OR UNMODIFIED TENSES. v{*FRJaghdn-a. falls The accent following rules 1. j^fai t But *fatjiv. in that form in which they may be The rules on the omission of mechanically added to the reduplicated roots.

Sn^&Aram. ^\ richh 1 forms xim^a dndrchchha. TBF^srath (Pan. do not drop their nasal in the weakening forms. ^ r. "*m$ jaghnatuh. roots take ^ au for the termination of the first and third persons singular Parasmaipada. 2. 3rd pers. ifl^pat. WTS^bhrds. WT^iAr^/. maybe krethatuh. 4. But according to grammarians the forms $|<&jvjg: sa&ranthdtuh &c. if&Rt sasramst. 44I uvdha.) '%z{han. Trf^Tf tenimd. 4. IPj: uchiih.) . i. (Pan. Pan. The roots Tp^gam. ^fR dra.. vart. before terminations beginning with vowels. ^fqH pechimd. TF&H papdktha. 4. p. vi. a.-f 330. (Pan. see $ 311. ^f^ dad-ivd. In a later passage the Prasada (p. dfdvi tenithd.. 5. and ^5^/ras (124) may do so optionally. and many roots ending their final vowel before all terminations beginning with a vowel (Pan. 1. TT^ ghas. as* and 161 forms as ^ dad are likewise excepted). ^5: &c.chakh- ndtuh. q^vach. mlai. : *nfa|: mamanthdtufy . 6. The same ^T da.weak form. 120. vi. verbs ending in diphthongs are treated like verbs ending in WT d. W^ to. and form 'staij: ^ dambh. *rf^ maml-ivd. GENERAL OE UNMODIFIED TENSES. dual ^fM^g! dnarchchhdtuh. f 3rd pers. irygt maml-dthuh. imA some sasvaje (loss of nasal and e.) I Prasada. change their vowels. (including repack. 4. TTT^ uvdcha. dual WSjtfj: babhrajjdtufy . form their Reduplicated Perfect like TT^r4c?A. and The in the sense of 'killing' (123). ^: pechufr. 3lf^T uhimd. such as wi^manth. *{n*$jagmdtuh. into *T y. T^: jakshdtuh. and^^^va/i. 121. VfTS^bhlM. i. ^ dad-au. 5). 98. Note The roots TJ M. J 330. are more correct. TtTjft maml-au. 13 a. ^(^svan. The verbs ^^ranth. 64). ?hj: te/iM/r. ^han t *f\jan. ^ < roots J jrf. Pan. 122). ?T*np grethdtuh. W^trap. Roots ending in ^ ^ iy ^ ri t if If preceded by more than one consonant. ij^granth. ^^bhaj. nf|ft maml-ire*. weakened. 2.. but ^fan pechithd. 17 b) decides for both. ^^khanf^yf. ^Ef^syam. particularly in consonants preceded by a nasal (Pan. 3rd pers. H^*ra/?w. Roots mentioned in $ 311 take then. TT3Trq/. Ttf^gam. In the general tenses. they change ( their vowels into 221. &c. ^^15: debhdtuk. contract such . Roots ending in more than one consonant. t Except ^vye ^ hve. T&^khan. in diphthongs. vi. dual ^ ^TO drdtuh. Roots ending in ^srr a. 3. Hfc^Aa/. TR^ghas drop their radical vowel. dad-dthuh. i. drop J 329. Vl^pet.). vi. vn. ^RJ/as and ri forms the perf.) into before the accented terminations. cf. Ex. 4. preceded by one consonant. ^t dad-ire. vah. 4. and likewise iPFF^Aan. however.

and "^ pri a further shortening may take place. two have done. you two have praised. Perf. ^ ^ eg p chakar-dthufy.) . originally beginning with consonants. has not yet become * In Sf fixed. and to give the rules which require its omission. state the exceptions. vn. it is necessary which in the Reduplicated Perfect and in the other unmodified tenses has to be inserted between the verbal base and The rules which the terminations. 331- change these vowels always into f*(w). gpr duduh-re. originally beginning with consonants. g. ^KJJ! sasardtuk being shortened to $RTi sasrdtuh. <[ dri. you ri**K^t two have joined. keeps the intermediate i 35 under all circumstances. this e. Atm. the general rule. In the Veda. ^ u. and is occasionally omitted. fyfeiftra 6i&riy-ivd. change the vowel to "^. e. Most roots ending in ^ri. ^tire. 12. instead of denning the cases in which it must or may be inserted. allow. you two have spread. we two have gone. 4. 3[ i.162 Roots ending in THE INTERMEDIATE ^ i. fri.vn. or prohibit the insertion of this difficult ^ i form one of the most chapters of Sanskrit grammar. too. form the paradigms of the Reduplicated $331. *f kri. we two have led. you tastar-dthuh. to in the vast majority of verbs. it But will as the intermediate * S{ has prevailed purposes. 4. so far. 7 u. One termination only. #/. ^m^l chakr-dthuh. is The general tendency. for practical the cases in which the ^ Hs not employed. u). you two have scattered. however. (Pan. and from an historical point of view it would no doubt be more correct to speak of the rules which require the addition of an intermediate ^ i than (as has been done in $ 326) to represent the ^ i as an integral part of the terminations. be easier. and it is the object of the following paragraphs to simplify these rules as much as possible. &c. niny-ivd. CHAPTER XL THE INTERMEDIATE ^ i. fa ri. that the terminations insert the vowel of the unmodified or general tenses. Before we can proceed to Perfect by means of joining the terminations with the root. stu. i. require.ar (Pan. plur. 5 yw. to consider the intermediate ^i.. ^fJTJ! yuyuv-dthufy. ^ i between base and termination . "^f^l tushtuv-dthuh. that of the 3rd pers. and. stri.

22). minute. are verbs. 1841. monosyllabic roots ending in *5u.to grow Pan. to fly (22. T9JJ kshnu. is. and $ft 4. 36). anuddtta). to sharpen (24. except *fyu. 104?). (23. or. All monosyllabic roots ending in ^f. which have been carefully collected by native grammarians (Pan. TSJfoAt/. to laugh. not allowed to take the intermediate ^ in the so-called general or unmodified tenses. vu. 29). general axiom (Pan. 26. to attend (21. to praise (24. 31)*. Taking as the starting-point the 35) that every termination beginning originally with a consonant (except represent as a portion of the termination. THE INTERMEDIATE ^ t. although. When When When it is it is it is it necessary to omit the \i? i optional to insert or to omit the ^ necessary to insert the \ i ? all i. 2. 3. vu. that no rules. All to rest (24. and particularly a beginner. for in all cases except those in i which the necessary. 72 . and at different periods of its long history. that a student is obliged to know When is necessary to omit the ^ Even for writing Sanskrit this knowledge would be omission is sufficient. ^t must on no account be inserted. 3. not 31. know the verbs in which the insertion is either Native grammarians have indeed laid down a number of rules. (Note see 1. vu. must be cut from the beginning of the termination. 2. to mix (24. 2. would suffice to register all its 332. ^ snu. vu. except ft* sri. (Note *J stu. take ^ Aorist Parasmaipada. to praise. The following vu. as we should say. takes ^ in Parasmaipada in the First (Pan. according grammarians. ^rw. which we the cases off we proceed to state the exceptions. Pan. may be equally right to omit it. 334. except si. The reduplicated perfect and its participle in ^^rcrs are not affected by these rules . 24).) All monosyllabic roots ending in ^f[d. 3.-$ 332. and to pour. 28). 2. in which the ^ y) takes the ^ i. that the literary language of India differed so much in different parts of that enormous country. ? For the purposes of reading Sanskrit. before terminations or affixes beginning originally with a consonant (except *(y). * These figures refer to the Dhatupaflia inWestergaard's Radices Linguae Sanscrit*. nor will anything but extensive to views of native reading enable him to optional or necessary. is safe if he only knows the cases in which ^ i is necessarily omitted.27). ". A student therefore. 26. but both before and after Panini the language of India has changed. 72.) to flow (24. ^ df.41). e. 2. 28. All monosyllabic roots ending in ^ t. 74-) (Note ftRsm*. Y 2 . 23. and even native grammarians are obliged to admit that on the optional insertion of ^ i authorities differ. 2. however freaks and fancies.9). *} sw. 10). 26. fa 4vi. must take ^ in the Desiderative. "jjnw. to sound (24. 163 : Let it be remembered then. the ^ may it safely be inserted. that there are three points to be considered i. to sound (24. that is to say.

to evacuate (23. to bind (31. (Pan. to go (23. n). as mentioned above. &c. or 29. 2). 5) to cut (28. 52). 50). to droop (28. fa^sich. In the Benedictive and First Aorist Atmanepada verbs ending in with a conjunct consonant may take ^ i (Pan. 8) ^^ skand. 60) f&^khid. ^ to hold. sad. ^(bhaj. to speak (24. its and Cond. to grow (26. 2. 17). 16) 13. (25. 31 26. 140). to fight (26. and Cond. to strike (26. 5). ^ svri. (28. 10. (Pan. . t&(rabh. to bake (28. ^ ^H(ya^. to ri go. to cook (23. fft*{tip. to heat (23. 4). to find (28. Of substitute 'Q^badhj *&[man. n). to clean (25. 83). 9. ^^bhrajj. 142 29. achieve (27. 44). vn. V(dh. T5H* kshud. 63) . . STU/op. to break (28. 68). Of roots ending (Pan. to leave (23. vn. TS^yo. 27). 2. to ftr^sz'dA. 14. chhid. *^vach. f^w/.]. fo^bhid. 75). 139) . f^vid. 59). ft^n'cA. . to sleep (24. to colour (23. 49). except ^t?n.164 5. likewise in r^w. to go (26. 7). >jc?An. 72). 30. to carry. must not take ^ 15). 62). 13. 136). and ^^drip. to throw (28. 2. i) j in ^ d. 8. to leave (29. 64) . ^TTVsadA. TT^rddh. 123). 2 . in ^T sya. to perish ^ ^ (28. 16). to regard. to reach (27. All ^ and beginning monosyllabic roots ending in TJ e. according to Pan. vn. not 24. 17). 134). Of roots ending in *(J. to embrace (23. 60) . 12). to sprinkle (28. to take (23. (29. 27. to worship (23. W^svanj. except Part. All THE INTERMEDIATE i. It must take ^ i in the Desider. aww. vowels. in the Fut. sanj. to sow svap. ^f^pach. to meditate (26.. to pound (29. 29). 7). dri. all Thereforej with few exceptions. 2.) 15. 78. "fe^sm'd. lfc(bhafij. i) . 6). to adhere (23. 43). ''Srr^ap. 45. Ijftyudh. 14) . ^JVswdA. to love (26. 121). 120). *n^sn)'. roots ending in \p. to anoint (28. vn. 28. Of roots ending to eat (24. . 23). 58). . (Note which are generally included. to protect (29. 70). to choose (31. ^ ch. to strike (28. to TfT^ fak. Of roots ending coire(23. "^fcrwdA. to step (23. 79). to push (28. take ^i in the Desider. T^ranj. to keep off (29. 2. ipf much. 55). ^1 kshudh. 125). 27. ^ ri. 16. "g^tac?. Of roots ending with ^5T5J in to know (26. "fa^w'eJ. ^T5T fV^tyaj. 71. and ^n. 80). "55 nu d. sad. 69. to join to let off (26. to separate ^mri. 2. . 122). f^^nij. 2). 37). 1{srip. 74. ^6awc/A. f^ 12. to clean (26. 75). . 10) ^pad. "^ chh. *^*{ruj. 2. . 81). monosyllabic roots ending in i. 18). to be (26. 28. 2. JR^han. i). 16). to bend j Desider. "&*Xlabh. vn. to divide (29. 61 . 34). to loose (28. to sweat (26. to be hungry (26. *3p(budh. f&{lip. to sacrifice (23. 6) vii. 124). all verbs in ^J ri take : ^ i i (Pan. Of roots ending in Of roots ending in cjf Jc. "^ had. 56). to sound. 138? 29. 82). to succeed (26. 26. 132) . to be distressed. Tf^prachh. 9. to pour (10. *[*{yuj. vn. 5) . vn. f^Jcship. &^chhup. 6. 65). to break (29. (Pan. 67). except the Fut. be able (26. to swear (23. . except to dip (28. 14) . 3) . 'fa^wcA. may take ^ . to kill (24. [Kas'. ^ ad. not 28. V[*{bhuj.) Tr^majf/. except the vowels ^5 u and 7. in >T bh. 33). 12. to cut (29. Jf^tap. to desire (23. to touch (28. "WfVrT kshudhita and Ger. to be angry (26. may take ^ in the Desider. 332- Important exception monosyllabic roots ending in ^Jn". 4. Of roots ending 70). 2. 1 1. i ?) . ^ bhri. rudh. to think (26. may take ^i (Pan. ASlfVlr4l kshudhitvd (Pan. (23. in to ask (28. 36. 133) . 38). (26. 137) fflj/np . vn. to separate (29. 'SRvap. 28. ^ft o. ^ ai. T*T yabh.

'5j&fKvartsyati. Part. to hurt. Cond. ^!M. Fut.^31Q3(avartsyatj Desid. 20) to see (23. . 128). . to smear (24. ^ * naA. small (26. 38-41. in j to step (13. to hurt (28. 50) . to be. duh. In the future and conditional (formed by **T sya). ^ rn t^akalpsyat. 44). ^? ruA. Fpjaprtf. 2. 13). 73). 2. to .) Participial formations. ^n. *J: gudhah (cf. 1{4. Fut. to dry (26. (Pan. Part. ^tc?A. to be fo&S^Ji/. except Part. 59. vn. tiq. to lick (24. vn. (29. 26) . T&^ghas. ushitah and Ger. ft^vtsA. to enter (28. (V|^i%rn cJiiklipsati.. ^^i3i^ asartsyat. rule. Tfttush. 47) J "^sA. Par. 22) . In the future (formed by ITT td\ the future and conditional (formed by *ya). 130) . vn. ^Wft syantsyati. Of roots ending fg^dvish. 77). 56. ^fSf: sriddhah. 5). to cease (23. not 17. T^nam. giTK kliptah. the verb Jf^klip must not desiderative.Other roots there which must not take ^ in certain only of the general A. vii. 54. fq^pish. ^J^rfftl. Cond. ft^rftV. to shape. Part. to bite (23. 126). Pan. to pervade (25. Desid. But these three take ^ t in Aor. to dwell (23. 2. 76) fe^tftsA. 3) . to show (28. TfoFTT ushitvd (Pan. do not take 7w. to draw (23. to carry (23. in and Desider. 'SfflQfftjughukshati. vu. to nourish (26. 2. ^(vridh. 21 ^push. Cond. to bind (26. 65. 131). *prfa:$rn"AftaA (long by special Pan. not 17. in the participle in If ta. Fut. f=H ITf i/rraA. 2. 3). to shout (20. spoil (26. in 18. fo^ miA. Mritsati. iJSJmrtf. vn. T^ram. the following four verbs must not take ^ *. to eat (17. 31). vn. Roots which may be without the ^ it in must be without any one of the general tenses. 19) . vn. 87). 36). to milk (24. 15). (Pan. 127). 12. Part. 36). ff^krish. to embrace (26. h rWI kdlptd. 12). 29) . monosyllabic roots ending in ^uA. "J^Jtri^. 2. t (Pan. 70. . B. 23) . ^^syand. to 2. Atm. THE INTERMEDIATE J t. Part. and ?T^^A. fq^wfn vivritsati. "yjjrfiff bubhushati. Fut. to separate (31. fjf^uA. If^cm. 6). 75) J^dusA. 32) . 2. the and the participle in cT ta (Pan. and the participle in IT ta. 15. 4. Part._$ 33316. 314*) fri tartsyati. Also W^kram. vn.) to exist. if used in the Parasmaipada. to hide. cf. 165 Of roots ending in *^ro. ^^t?as. ^H| fAjighrikshati. to burn (23. to distinguish (29. 23) ^ ^ J^ dah. to hurt (28. tenses. Par. to grow (20. to take. as substitute for W^cwJ). 28. $J(daih. See 337. to shine (23. Fut. to touch (28. to play (20. Of roots ending . the desiderative base. roots ending in ^ A. take W ^ . . Cond. but it takes ^ before ^* of Put. 35). 2. vriddhah. ^GRF!(avartsyatj Desid. ut. ^!(vrit. 13). 37). and ^ ^ i. 126). 52) .to grow Part. to sprinkle (23. to hate (24. (Pan. Cond. to rub (28. (Pan. 333. 15). 5f D. 60. i. if used in the Parasmaipada. 28. f<^ dih. Pan. syannah.) ^L&Att. "TO^fa vartsyati.) vivritsati.. ^IH MtftaA. 2. rq^rofn 15. and in the participle hi W /a. go (23. vn.) gr^^/ip. . 73 . fc5^ are. Desid. vn. 14) 19. lih. ft^rtf. vah. not 17. Desid. oF^rfif kalpsyati. (Pan. ffr^tvish. ^: ^: vrittah. 58). guh. ^^4i^^asyantsyat . In the desiderative bases. 44). C. 6) . ^rl. f Part. 2.to 5J^ drop. j Jjf{4ush. to pound Of Of ^s. ^Cnn. roots ending in 20. to please (26. (Verbs ending in ^rt and *J0ri are liable to exceptions. 17. (Pan. to incline (23. 57). sisyantsati. 2. 74) . Cond. vn.

WIWi abhyarnnah. if means arrogant. it means to be confident . sound . ^. to . virebh. if it means lord. '^nm^vri-tavdn. See 332. 17). means attached.) "fa w. f>i (**=! t. 44) the future *frfWT#qp-i-fa or to protect. if it if it refers to a note. 2. 2. its participle TOTt guptak only. vii. its may form 44) the future as W^M gdh-i- hence . HfY<|<sJ parivridhah. See 332. 14. ffn?J mUshtah. 7gl dridhah. 2. 20. as the reduplicated . vii. to labour . . List of Participles in If T na wJ^ic^ for special reasons and in special senses do not take f^T sri. to prepare Tfife: means without an excessive. oFlft Jcashtah. T3^ svan. 21. vii. . u. (Pan. 16.) most disposed to the admission of Monosyllabic roots ending in ^fu. vn. if it . plagued. vii. ^n". vii. eSFTT Zw-taa. 2. to fTOT be near. ^rfa aZMy causative). 2. JIT: yu-tah. vii. fFTT yu-tvd. means if it difficult or impervious. n. vn.) it (as WJ vrittah. to swell SHT: sMwaA. ^jf^l^yu-tavdn. *> to be ashamed (marked ta or as vTlwil H^J lagnah.) ^ saw. do not take 3[ before the participle in 7T ta.2.) if it See 332. (Pan. ^r^T vri-tvd. nor before other terminations which tend to weaken a verbal base. to sound . to join. 22.) * to sweat (marked as nishvidd). (Pan. with the prepos.i 2. though having a technical W a. ^I^arc?. to ft. 2. vii. . it vdh. vii. vn. cgT: Zw-wa#. ^u. (Pan. 2. ^flTt svdntah. to speak indistinctly . vn. T'JdqT fritvd. grow . ^rfh arnnahj samarnnah. olaji}. 25. tVsfUjcU visastah. if . f^T wi. to enter. 19. if it mlechchh. (Pag. W?T* lagnah. effort. ^1 dhrishtah. . with the prepos. <&HIl lu-navdn. n. drill. (Pan. if it means strong. (Except ^pu. 2.) parwrih. 2.) 335. if it means bold.) *i*i<5t ^T^ ard. means the churning-stick. ^ri. II. to grow . ^"art Jcshubdhah. in certain senses. to sound ScJTlf J dhvdntah. vii. (Pan. 2. participle as iP^nJ meditah or fa^J minnah (Pan. 23. 2. K ta. go . dhvan. (Pan.) to try . 2. ^Wt vri-tah. (Pan. fetatt viribdhah. 14. vn. (Pan. does not mean proclaimed. f^Ilft fritah. 6. vn. may form hence 2. read. 18. 2. (Pan. means indistinct. .) 2. to ^ i. to manifest TJT?t ghushtah. f^ 1 t?i. 15. (Pan.166 (Remark that the THE INTERMEDIATE participle in L 333perfect is K ta is 5[ most opposed. (Pan. may. 2. if it if it means darkness.) to praise . 3 ^ yu. phdntah. .) to shake.) (Pan. 24. form its The same applies to all verbs marked by technical ^TT a. ^PSTt vddhah.) <Zw. participle TT2't gddhah only. 13^ if it means the mind. (Pan. to cover. to be soft. to . if it means * f*fc mid. "^pr kshubh.. Ptsrq* svinnah. 2. vii. cut. if it means near. or Roots which by native grammarians are marked with technical ^TT 5f \t do not take t in the participle in 'c?.

g*W tush^o-tha. 5. which are necessarily without vn. 5[ in the future (ifT td). to choose. is skri). See No. he drags . to go . &c. (unless t^a(Vq 2. may be derived from another root "^vri. has the use of the prohibited from taking 1. 6. to flow. 38) ^WW t?nn. ^ i become in the perfect. 3JH>ftVJ srw. Most of the verbs it just enumerated which must omit ^ in all other general tenses. 2. except root ^ which are necessarily ri itself. it. sing. In roots ending in consonants and having an ^? a for their radical vowel. ^^^vavaritha considered the right form. vn. 3. besides ^I iyashtha: ^ftnr yayitha. it If kri. Pan. Tf^pach. Fut. vn. *TT yd. where these roots are given. Pan. ^irtt. The preceding i rules. ?*J stu. 2. that eight roots only are absolutely These are (Pan. 2. changed to ^f samchaskariva. tjtaTiv J5^ tjt^ dudru-va. but t^WX** samchaskaritha. f$3 babhri-va. 8) ^TTET t?arane. do not affect the reduplicated perfect. ^MPiiN iyajitha. Hence he allows sf'H'q pechitha. however. require ^*. vn. 4. to go. susro-tha. . J^T dudro-tha. ^Kfpaktd. being Veda. f'UfilVI chichayitha. ^p^ vavri-vahe. 2nd pers. to do. So general. In roots ending in vowels. 'qcuPHN chakarsh-i-tha. verbs with which ^ i is either optional or indispensable in the future * (31. HMTH papak-tha. in fact. restricted to the (The form is <*H vavar-tha. But pH(V without ^ krishati. (Bharadvaja requires the omission of i ^i after roots with ^ ri only. 13). ^ to hear. 62. Atm. in the periphrastic future (Pan. enumerated before. 7. the *T /Aa 1. See 332. and so do (ltt to). ^4 ^ vavri-she. ctff T karshtd. where these necessarily without ^i roots are given. susro-thn. f% cA. Kri. 167 ^ i in the Reduplicated Perfect. IJJ^T tushtu-va. ^vri ty^vrirl and ^rnVi*). 63). tlljq sasri-va. 2. which are See in the future (iTT td). SMsrw-ra. 3. to cook . ^ rrt. 332. to gather Fut. (27. ^UT chetd. do not omit in the perfect. t The form <H(M vavariva y which Westergaard mentions. the rule of Panini being restricted by the commentator to ^Trrin and . to bear. ^ bhri. 61. to praise. 4JJJIVJ yayd-tha. ^t?rn. All other ^ a. 8) SHN<jJ dvarane. ^ sri. in the Dhatupatha. 335. \i before must necessarily be left out. dual ^pf chakri-va.) verbs ending in consonants with any other radical vowel but all 4. sambhaktau. P'l'S'q chiche-tha. Chur.I Q tne second person singular of the reduplicated perfect Par. Fut. "5 dru. besides also MHT^ papaktha. Par. Su. 142. prohibiting in a number of roots the ^ t for all or most general tenses. Mini ydtd. (34.-$ 335* THE INTERMEDIATE J Intermediate i. 334. to run. Fut. ^^ ram-rat. 8. ist pers.) 2. In the eight roots. ^^^T 4usru-va.

For the Reduplicated Perfect. f<3 the Benedictive. ^nf^T dd-i-tha. Optional insertion of ^ i. ^ rt.) fvq dr-i-tha. In eight verbs. Before Ttta. fc5^ In the verbs enumerated 332. 333. *'. In Iffisrij and ^S^drif. (exception to No. or the usage of different writers. "3! if Parasmaipada. it is sufficient to know when it would be wrong to use the intermediate different ^*. Before all terminations. 2nd pers. the omission or is optional. *fi^sare. (exception to No. : THE INTERMEDIATE ^ i. have been at much pains to collect the cases in must or may be student * inserted. ^ grah. ^H^ saw In monosyllabic verbs ending in T. 2. except the Reduplicated Perfect. ^?(vrit. ^ i. 337. sing. fti^sich.: All verbs of 332 ending in vowels All verbs of 1 if without ^ in the 332 ending in consonants with ^Ta as radical vowel /periphrastic future. which ^ i As native grammarians.) ^ri. Before "Htha. B. TO? sasrashtha. lin : 2. if Parasmaipada. \t. ! i 2. HT td for the Periphrastic Future . rTT td. and J^ guh. *?? sya : In 4. 'Q^san. ^TTa. ^(srij. as was stated before. 2. ^T vye. ^(sya. 336. . 337' F r practical purposes. 333. (exception to No.) Tables showing the cases in which the intermediate ^ i must be omitted between the Unmodified originally beginning with a Root and the Terminations of the so-called General Tenses. Before Ttta. The verbs ^rf% atti. u. 333. Consonant. ^rflf arti. which the early may safely pass by. l&^syand. Before a. . 5. Before IT ta. In these tables Jtta stands for the Past Participle. I. ^sya. Tf ta: All verbs which by native grammarians are marked with The verb fwfri and others enumerated in a general list. Omit 1. WT td: In y^klip. mentioned 2. ^. The technical "ZRu shows that in the other general tenses the ^i is optional. a short abstract of their rules may here follow. 333. lin for for the First Aorist . A. 7. D. Before 7f ta. ^fivridh. 1. tive . awfff vyayati must take ^i. For all General Tenses. fa M PHV vivyay-i-tha.for in all other cases. 3. or ~&u *. Omit \ 1. ^Tad. b. 3. however. 338. *R^san. safe to insert the ^ i. except *^y. UtjfaTVI sasrijitha.168 Exceptions 1. 2. whatever the views of it is grammarians.. yfts^idh. II. C. except ^C ire : 334. ff^san stands for the Desidera^T sya for the Future and Conditional .

-$ 337- THE INTERMEDIATE J ^ i t. vn. &c. 2. Pan. 71. The participles in IT ta or na are treated separately under No. 2. Thrush. to love. vn. 2. "^P^ridh. 91) ^Hni darp-i-td.) . 44). "91 tf 2. ^yw. 44..) 3. or vtlfT &c. ft^rwA. vn. D. or ^TT snedhd. 88) (26. ^ffXill svar-i-td. which must take ^ i. 57.) In all verbs having a technical *\\<z\ (Pan. to play. to kill. or *ft7T modhd. n^lf^nr snoh-i-td. ^S^bhrasj. *H^san. wfatilsav-i-td. and or all verbs ending in ur. 2. or ^t^VT drogdhd. 85) (26. (Except aorist Parasmaipada. Hence ^?J 2. of the general tenses not requiring the modified verbal base) beginning with consonants. ^y . The ^ i* is changed "^ In verbs ending in "^ n and beginning with a conjunct consonant. Pan. (Pan.) (as 2. 169 : may an or affix may not be inserted I. (Pan. 49. ^fTffTf svarishyati only. or gddhd. (Pan. *ffr>n mogdhd. ^^dambh.) ^ T sah. 2. 2. vii. vii. Per. as Tud). or cHIT traptd. but this denied by others. Vftrf! dhav-i-td. is According to some this option extends to the reduplicated perfect . into ^r 2. (26. 7. UTT namshtd. i. (Pan. 70. but not in the aorist : In the verbs to cut. "^jiiap. vn. *Af^nf moh-i-td. properly In the verb "^^kush (Chur class). 43. rtf5iTT tarp-i-td. but either ^T ishtvd or ^PMHI ishitvd. In the verbs *^svjn.but here the participle with if ta. Per. or "JTH draptd. 2. also J&^tan. (Pan. ^f^lTT sneh-i-td.) 2. or WVT snegdhd. "^T e?rw^. 2. 90) (26. But ^S^anj (though marked must take ^ ^T^ariju) 'wifai'ji dfijishuh. : In the verb ^ vri. or ^J^swwA. and Before the terminations of the benedictive (fc5^ lin) (ftr^stcA) in the Atmanepada In the verb : ^ vri.) ^ is necessary in ^ II.) In the verbs ending in ^V. (Pin. ^J bhri (Bhu class). or IRfttarptd. or 'Wftnsnodhd.) Ad and Div. vii. daridrd.) (26. 4. or y^/ry* to delight. (26. 2. to vomit. 42). Before drdhadhdtukas beginning with ^s. e. (See 333. Ifl^pat first aorist (Pan. *Tf^nn na4-i-td. (Pan. (26. vn. ^cAnV. or ^rtl svartd. 89) (26. 47. 86) TSJ na to vanish. vn. 72. 84) T>J radhy to perish. to strike to dance. "ty^lubh. &c. 3. Before any drdhadhdtuka (i. to be proud. Fut. T^R gdh-i-td. Fut. . > lp wwA. 2. or ^l<il drodhd. preceded by f^ntr. not as Tud). (Except future in fQsya. 1 . or ^Trfarpf<f. ^ rt (Pan. i may or : may not be inserted : Before certain drdhadhdtukas only Before drdhadhdtukas beginning with 7f t : In the verbs ^(ish (Tud only). or *fhn*o/4. in the first aorist (Pan. TT^ptfA. rfAo*rf.) and in f^T^ri. Tfl^krit. except 1. 48. vn.) Jl^nn7. In the eight verbs beginning with T^radh. 41. or T^T raddM. vn. 87) "^Tl^nP. Before the termination of the desiderative base (^J^san) ^ trid. vii. "gp^wrnM. ^ftim radh-i-td. 46 . to be bewildered. to hate. 4. f%^ sniA. vn. ^? chhrid. 45. and all verbs ending in l^rf. ^)f^HI droh-i-td. or ^^VTsno^rfAtf. ishtah only.

i. 7. or ^STSTT*^ dadrisvdn. it is neither prohibited. vti taint dsvdntah or vfi^rrtn. ^TST as. Slftfri samitvd or ^T^f\ sdntvd. THE INTERMEDIATE ^ i. nor only optionally allowed (Pan. .170 5. vn. ris. Before ^^pas. vn. $ 338- Before the gerundial termination T^T tvd : In verbs having a technical 1 "3 u. 30. vii. 51. 2. 27.. 29.. (Pin. 2. 2. ^fH H ll ^jagmivdn or f *l 4 [^jaganvdn f. vii. to hasten. (Pan. to hurt. 2. i In the verb fR^ghas. 2. . (see also 333. ^mA. f Pan. ( Other verbs reject it. 2.) <9^^san. PqP3i\crir|[ vividivdn or V. Ssi I 2. . to Pj \*{jaksMvdn. ta : f^P^RK Misitvd In the verb ^pu. to touch. (Pan.) n\*tt*\ pavitvd or T$t31putvd. participle of reduplicated perfect: In the verbs ending in ^TT d (Pan. vii. to go. or "JTTt putah. 74). IT Before the gerundial termination r^T tvd and the participle in In the verb (Pan. 68. ia to . ^itcH sdntah or ^rf'TrfJ samitah. 28. I (Pan. (See 333. to go. hush. 2. WrH ^i(*irtt amitah. < ^TH^irMnt apachdyitah *. to shout. chhannah or (i(^fT! chhdditah. to perish. to tame. ^^Alpavitah 2. *TT pd. 2. 2. 1 ^^ Aaw. dsvanitah. ^jSt purnah or "%ftjK puritafi.) fjfR^klis. D. IT^J turnah or rqf^nJ tvaritah.) 3I*/am (flQgamu). In the verbs reduced to a single syllable in the reduplicated perfect (Pan. ^ P q \J(jaghmvdn or ^ M i^T^jaghanvdn. 2. fcfc|g^ vividvdn.) to sound. vii. to 7 kill. vii. ^TT?i rushtah or ^PunJ rushitah. 33 8 ^ must be inserted in all verbs in which. * Pan. 67). to eat. to enter. 35). 67). <^ c?5. eat. smF*frrt apachitah or 8. 2. or f^ifT klishtvd. It must take ^ in the desiderative (Pan. Besides these. vii.) : $T*T /am. ^cTJ dastah or ^iftnft ddsitah. to honour. as stated before.) ^?J hrishtah or ^f^W hrishitah. Before the participle of the reduplicated perfect in ^[pas. if applied to horripilation. UMV* sahghushtah or ^'^PMdt sanghushitah. to see. D. 6. 50. to rejoice. vii. apa-chi. D. ^Ijnaptah aw^aA or or ^rPTff t jnapitdh. to inform. note) In the verbs %*[dam. . vn. P^|( i*^ dsivdn. (See 333. ^"T^TTP^ dadrisivdn Necessary insertion of - ^ i. to cover. chhad. ^f cH ddntah or ^f*Trf: damitah. WV%^T^ vimswdn or f%Pq *a l*^ vivisvdn. 56.In the verbs TH #am. 2. to fill. ^re: spashtah or *Mlf$M: "SfflfJ spdsitah. to quiet. ffrfspf: klisitah or fjf&: klishtah. (Pan. the following special cases may be mentioned : i. 2. know. ^Ttpur.) am. Before the participial terminations If ta or "ff wa. vii. vii.

Before the terminations of the first aorist (fa^ sick) : In the verbs ^J stu. if used in the Parasmaipada (Pan. n(V'H dritha. 52-54. also to ^ vri. avdrishuh . c(0in varita or Tfcn varitd. and ^Ti^ attrshta. vn. to worship 2. 2. ^pu. qf<M*l8 takes the long The verb desiderative. except in the reduplicated perfect. dji. avarishta. to cut. reduplicated perfect : In W^arf. ^n. and in In the verbs 5. 75). and fR^prachh (Pan. vn.) In the verbs '3R(vas ) to dwell. atarishta. Par. if used in the Parasmaipada (Pan. Aor. ^ 2. 3. 3[ to go. Before iftha. vii. i J 339. n PvHl 9 tarishishta. ^dh^-i. against 335. but Perf. sing. PqcMPM^ vivyayitha. fnii(V.-$ 2. Inf. not have (Pan. &c. and ^T^TT avrita. ^^ ^Tq<1s avarishta. 3. 74. to confound (Dhatupatha 28. vn. 2. ^ vye. I. feiqOHfi vivarishate. ^SHifoj: In the desiderative and in the aorist Atm. vii. and benedictive Atm. Per. ^fift^ atarishta. 72). *J su. Bened. to cover. ^unlfqM astdvisham. I 3rd pers. (Pan. inserted is Wlty"! dditha. (Pan. il^HI grahitd. too. Par. $ i. 2. certain tenses of the passive. 2. is liable to be changed to ^ t. *lffrt. vrishishta. TpT^am. 'cifWte varishishta. varishishfa. but Perf fjf^T jagrihima. except in the reduplicated perfect. 3rd pers. 2nd pers. . (See Pan. the Parasmaipada.) <y^/uA. : Before the terminations of the desiderative (*P^an) In the verbs ^f krf.M: atdrishufi. ^H H PI. a. vii. 2nd pers. wrong. and the benedictive. TtftriT taritd. ^[jrt. astoshi. if used. 42. 'rffimlif tarishishta *. The vowel thus never liable to Guna or Insertion of the long J 340. 22).irir titarishati . Before the gerundial WT tvd and the participial termination K ta. ^jdhH in the Parasmaipada (Pan. Bened. tirsMshta. Per. and ^HT a/. Ijftkshudh. these verbs may ^[ * or may tri. 58).. 55. ^ n. vn. In JTl^am. vuvurshate. fFJ Thus from but in the Atmanepada. vii. to hunger. 3. Vriddhi. MOMlV varishishta. Per. ^*^ otij. sing. ?T^ grah.) Z 2 . 2. Des. vmflfM 4. ?^ and ^rraA. 34*. to praise. Fut. 341. (Pan. vjij Des. which. 39. nrfaT taritd or teritha . 335. 171 Before T*T*ya of the future and conditional ' In all verbs ending in ^ri. (Pan. Aor. not. 2. and in ^ han (Pan. to eat. 2. plur. ^^ afich. 41-42). 58). note.) 2. may be substituted for the short when subjoined 38-40. Aor.) to a ri. Aor. 2. rddOMPrt titarishatij frtiflSfif titirshati. as far as "ff I can judge. 37.) . the 2. ^^^<v| vavaritha. * The forms given starishishfa. vii. '^{vras'ch. however. Fut. 6. fqqfVMci vivarishate. Atm. Fut. Bened. First Aorist (First Form). in the benedictive Atmanepada. . but Perf. stu. vii. sing. are in the Calcutta edition of Panini vn. ij^lij grahitum. Long ^ verb ending in ^ aorist i \ i. Bened. Before FTT tvd only : In to grow old 7. ^ vri. vii. Atm. THE INTERMEDIATE ^ r i. (Pan. ftiR smi. vn. 70).

make known. DUAL. '^sTlfVjMMohK &c . to do. bodhaydmchakdra. PLURAL. the auxiliary verb is conjugated as *j\rff Hence from N Atmanepada. ^ i. dsa. 343. (_ Mti^ r*iH*( nindya ninyivd Prj^fq: ninyimd frf^T ninyf ninyivdhe ninyimdhe \ nin&ha or 2. SINGULAR. and adding to this the reduplicated perfect of ?. chakdsdmchakdra. i. J ^^ as and ^ bM f in the Parasmaipada. or to be* ^r?(as. ?. dsa. Periphrastic Perfect. take it before ^srf dm. Verbs which. *^bhu f to be. but ^*j$ babhtiva and ^TW dsa. . preceded by one consonant.172 PARADIGMS OF REDUPLICATED PERFECT. kri ^VT^sR edh-amchakre . After verbs which are used in the Atmanepada. babhdva. ( 339. ^hWHehTCj ^^. DUAL. PLURAL. But chakdra &c. babMva. affixing ^rf form their perfect by abstract dm (an accusative termination of a feminine noun in wr d) to the verbal base. 2 ^ and f*T^ niny ninydtuh * ninydte 335. requiring intermediate to place. <5[ 2. ^ira. In the passive all three auxiliary verbs follow the Atmanepada. ^cinflM<*K. ^J?. bodhaya. he grows. ^TTH. Intensive bases which can take Guna. "cfkri. ^T^T^cUR bobhavdmchakdra. nindya Pi**i^[J ^*5* ninyuh 335. SINGULAR. PARASMAIPADA. dsa. 1 ^ fff^^ nmyishf fiMi<i ninydthe f'f^T'if Prjf^^ or <s vy 4 ( ion) ' L P*llP<4^wmay^a* ninydthuh ninyd f*frfl}J mnyidhveor-c frfpsq^ ninyire 3. but edhate. g^NcFR. ^u dadhati dadhdtuh dadhuh dadht dadhdte dadhirf i. ATMANEPADA. ^rrer. 343- $ 342. dadhwd > dadhimd dadhtf dadhivdhe dadhimdhe or 2t1 \3$W dadhitha* _ dadhdthuh dadhd dadhisM dadhdthe dadhidhvt 3. to babhuva. ' s r*$$.) w^bobhu. Verbal bases in ^TT a. bubodhishdm- Paradigms of the Reduplicated Perfect. to shine. frequentative base of *^bM. Verbal bases in ^i and ^. ^J^frfVr^ bubodhish. and requiring intermediate *ft ni. according to $325. desiderative bases never admit of Guna. to wet. 3. cannot form a reduplicated perfect. unddmchakdra. i. to lead. desiderative base of ^V budh.

chakdra or chakdra 2. to hold. f ^VTT dadhdra or dadhdra dadhrvod <r^3* dadhrdthuh [f^rt. Verbal bases in ^ ri. to buy. Verbal bases in ^ t or \f. J ^MII ' to join. Verbal bases in TM or "31 u. Verbal bases in "^J //. * 1 J f^rWT chikrdya r . and Westergaard. vn. (See 335. . to praise. 173 t. not admitting intermediate ^ * Art. yuyuvuh yuyuve' yuyuvate yuyuvirf Verbal bases in^M. 46. fWfliiiJ chikrdya fatHH$i chikriydtuh r^fju^t chikriyuh f^f^W chikriyd Pi r<4 in chikriydte P^rjrM< chikriyire" 6. 3. *J stu. T -T f \^%*\ chikrdya or chikriyivd chikriyimd f^fjli^ chikriye' chikriyivdhe chikriyimdhe fcfsfiJJIVf chikre'tha or ' fa fdiJJ VJJ f^f^if^ n^f^ifm? or ^ [ f^r4^ chikrayitha chikriydthuh chikriyd chikriyisht chikriydthe chikriyidfivtor -dhv 3. and requiring intermediate "aft krt. note. p. 13. dadhrimd dadhrt dadhrivdhe dadhrimdhe * <prQ dadhdrtha ^ dadhrd dadhruh qiMM dudhrishe ^WTM dadhrdthe ^Tw or dadhridhve' or -dhtf dadhrdtuh 4. 2. preceded by two consonants. ^^T chakrivd ^BT*J* chakrdthuh 1 '^'^ chakrimd lf ^^ chakrt ^*^j^ chakrivdhe ^p*f^ chakrimdhe 1 ^RTO ^fSRi'C chakdrtha " ^"^ chakrisht ^JIN chakrdthe ^'? chakrd chakridhvf 3. dadhre" dadhrdte dadhrirf t. to do. . iffl3 yuydoa or ^^Pqq yuyuvivd ^*jfaH ^^^q^ yuyuvivdhe ^^fqi^ yuyuvimdhe yuyuvidhve* or -dhv L^^ yuydva yuyuvimd yuyuv yuywsdthuh yuyuvd yuyuvishe' yuyuvdthe yuyuvdtuh 7. 3 yu. and requiring intermediate ^i. preceded by one or two consonants. preceded by one or two consonants. and not admittingthe intermediate ^. Radices. I Bharadvaja might allow fJHfq'<| tushtavitha even against Pan.) may form JpffaywyrffAa. preceded by one consonant. preceded by one consonant. ^ t. it t 3 yu taken from Dhatupatfia 31. 2._. 9. PARADIGMS OF REDUPLICATED PERFECT. 2. L (H^ tushtdva tushtuvd tushtumd tushtuve" tushtuvdhe tushtumdhe tushtuvdthuh tushtuvd tushtusht tushtuvdthe tushtudhcf tushtuvdtuh tushtuvuh tushtuvt tushtuvdte tushtuvirf * 335 If 2> is and 335. and requiring intermediate ^ Vdhji. chakdra ^3>^ chakrdtuh ^"5* chakruh ^ chakre" ^J^iH chakrate ^l^K chakrirf 5.-$ 3433.

cJiaTcdra or [ ^ofT^C 2. TWyo/. . ii(i"iJ tatdna rfT^[J W^t tenuh tene 12. to stretch. tastdrtha tastardthuh tastard tastarishe tastardthe tastaridhve or -dhve' tastardtuh tastaruh tastarg tastardte tastarirt 9. and requiring intermediate ^ i. dMV( tenitha tendthuh tend tenisht ?T*f tendthe tenidhve 3. 343. Verbal bases in consonants. I rift 11 tatana or 1. having Samprasarana. to sacrifice.174 8. or 5pPH? iydshtJia ^'T^J ydthuh ^*fij* ^5f ijd ^ftf^ ijisM i(TTT ijdthe ^ftT^ ijidhvt '\^f3[Hiyajitha ^Tflifiydja t[5* ijuh ^ tj<? ^TTn ijdte ^fR yire tjdtuh . having 1J e. chakdra chakarivd chakarimd chakare* chakarivdhe chakarimdhe -4 hCI ^nKT^f chakaritha ^R^t ^^f^ ^^Ttt^ ^ H <*R. ijm^ tut6da ^5*^^ tutudivd 33'V** tutudimd &$ tutudf: ggfq^^ tutudivdhe ^4^*'^ tutudimdhe tutuddthuh tutudd tutudishe tutuddthe tutudidhvt tutuddtuh tutuduh tutude tutuddte tutudire' ii. and requiring ^ *. and requiring intermediate ? UK stri. ^[ i . J 5[^rr5f iyaja or 1 ^TTT^ ijivd *fTT ijimd ^w tje S^Wqtj ijlvdhe '^f^'H^ ijimdhe \^lf*fiydja J 3. to scatter. i. requiring intermediate to strike. 3[ *. Verbal bases in ^J ri.SET or e chakaridhvt or -dhve* chakardthuh chakard chakarishe chakardthe chakardtuh chakaruh chakarts chakardte chakarire' 10. requiring intermediate cF kri. Verbal bases in consonants. to spread. lf^ tud. PARADIGMS OF REDUPLICATED PERFECT. Verbal bases in consonants. f ^fom*.4 |_ fTfTrT tatdna tenivd tenimd tene" tenivdhe tenimdhe 2. Verbal bases in ^T n. preceded by two consonants. f I f^tTR tastdra or fftrtX tastdra "cTCcr^? nwf^q tastarivd 'fi^cffiJH HHT tastare cUtlTi.^ tastarivdhe tastarimd tastarimdhe 2.

be strengthened or cannot be weakened. Verbal base ^JbhH (irregular). moods. 175 13. by lengthening of the vowel. and which therefore are liable to change in one only of these sets. all derivative bases. far as their bases will allow. . The weakening takes place by shortening. by Vriddhi. to their taking the conjugational previously terminations. Verbal bases in consonants. however. ^ ri to ^ ir. by Samprasarana. and intensives as (in the Atm. minute details. XII. ^^ han.-$ 344. STRENGTHENING AND WEAKENING OF THE VERBAL BASES GENERAL TENSES. The strengthening takes place chiefly by Guna. without entering into to dis- tinguish between two sets of general tenses. or by There are many roots. babhuvimd babhuvt babhuvivdhe babhuvimdhe **$yv<4babhuvitha HJ5^. ^*? babhuvdthuh babhtivd ^<J5TM HJJ^H babhumsht babhuvdthe q'JJ^ufor^ babhucidhvor-dhi. ^\jaghdna or "^fiji-i aiiHM Ifn flii^^ jaghnivdhe lfHH jaghnimdhe *\n<\jaghdna jaghnivd jaghnimd jaghnt "SfflT 1^ [fpfajaghdnthaoT WIT^I [ *\ M PH Vjaghanitha jaghndthuh fH jaghnd 1HIM TfWT jaghnidhvf jaghnisht jaghndthe jaghndtuh jaghnuh jaghnt jaghndte jaghnirt 14. Some resist both strengthening and weakening.). which differ from each other by a tendency either to strengthen or to weaken their base. but. likewise or by nasalization. causatives. to J [ *! *4 1 kill. requiring contraction. desideratives. which generally have been strengthened. to ^T ir. under special circumstances. for instance. which either cannot dropping of a nasal. and intermediate ^ i. by changing before consonants. babhuvdtuh babhuvuh babhuce babhuvdte babhuvirt CHAPTER IN THE SIX REMAINING J 344. and verbal derivatives. babhuvivd 2. PARADIGMS OP REDUPLICATED PERFECT. as. or. It may be useful.

1. Conditional. (Except verbs in Per. Root. n. and not taking interm. 12..) The Gerund The Passive. The Second Aorist. (Except bases ending in cons.. is not strengthened. 2. 5. The Participle in K i). vn. 6. bU tud bho ift^ bhavishydti dbhavishyat bhavishishtd dbhavishta tod dtotsyat tottd (tutsishtd) dtautsit VHtjP|*Mi^ div ^Pnu devitd ^P^ifte ^Hfl ddevit dev i ddevishyat devisMshtd chur choray chorayishydti dchorayishyat chorayita chorayisMshtd krt kar dkanshyat ^T^fhUT^ karitd tTlrtT karishishtd dkdrit su so dsoshyat sotd fiPniti ^dPi*Ui^ tan tan dtanishyat tanitd tanisMshtd % kri kre dkreshyat dkraishit dvish dvekshydti ddvekshyat dveshtd 1 hu ho dhoshyat dhaushit *H rudh rodh Caus.) First Aor.. *). Itm. ta (unless it takes 2. or ri.) The Benedictive Parasmaipada. II. (Except bases ending in conson. &c. f^T^"^ f%c|HfH^ttPrf chiMrsh chikirshishydti dchikirsUsJiyat chikirsUtd chikirshishishtd dchiktrsMt Int. The Conditional. The Benedictive Atmanepada. ^ '. possible. weakened in : The Future. intermediate ^ 4. 2. Ben. 1. rotsydti VUrUlfl drotsyat drautsit -. ri. The Periphrastic Future. The First Aorist. 5. 3. of verbs ending in conson. strengthened in 1. Base strengthened. ^ kri -(rfil^ ^"SftP^^n ei^unlPM'Mn ^wtftRfT ^rfTIPM'Oy -ef-qjn^f^ chekrty chekriyishydte dchekriyishyata chekriyitd chekriyisMshtd dchekriyishta . I. (Except First Aor. ^ 4. or 350-352.Fut. I.^-.Atm. IV. ^i. Pan. II. II. 42.) Atm. : The base i. ^ ri. ^ . in in tvd 3f (unless it takes intermediate 3. not taking interm. 344if The base if possible.176 STRENGTHENING AND WEAKENING OF VERBAL BASES is. and. 364. Future. 1.1^ ^ kri <*i<^ ^KP*iMPff kdrayishydti ^ToFRPH 1^^ dkdrayishyat kdrayita 1 kdray kdrayishishtd F kri wf^olftfH^ni f^offtf^ WT fWohTT^tftv Des. The First Aorist.

WT/tx?. Ben. like all *p^sn/. Per. vn.Fut. by nasalization. Base strengthened. 2. Aor. without ^i. 'p^mry. 3 Pan. A a . Aor. Conditional. drop these marks of strengthening.-f II.f^^f chikirsh fq^ftflTf: f^ chikirshydt chikirshitdh chikirshitvd chikirshydte ^ kri Int. IN THE SIX REMAINING GENERAL TENSES. like T3^nos. in the I. Future. by changing \i into TSRd. First Aorwt. 114. without^. not strengthened. by lengthening. chekriy chekriyitdh chekriyitvd 345. Base Part. Ben. f5T mjij Tm 4 mdrj or HIVSfirH vj*iiYs<<rt Trtl ITMIMIK mdrjishishtd ^eftun/Tf^ mdrkshydti dmdrkshyat vfHrHn'M'n mdrshtd *nhnrtl dmdrkshit uln^flff mdrjishydti (*j/l) (mrikshishtd) ^tfiiTt^ dmdrjti dmdrjishyat mdrjitd M3- 2 Or 4 tanitvd. like fa mi. bhu bM tud bhdtdk bhutvd bMydte pr?r bhuydt 4UM dtutta Wfffr tud "* tunnd/i offhSt tuttvd Afclr^T tudydte <*)3c$ tudyd't Vfa Hr iv kri kirndh kirtvd kirydte 1 ktrydt dktrth{a IjTCdyutdh VfjRldyutvd'faWdtvydte 'pushydte (*$Atf() ^"W^A. Ger. Par. like by Vriddhi.Certain roots which strengthen their base in a peculiar manner. 177 First Root. Aim. Passive. and Sec.IV. 345. Root.TT/a. weak forms. by transposition. like ^$rwA. Second Aor. dchuchurat cAur (choray) (choritdh) (chorayitvd) (chorydte) (chorydt) su su sutdh THT: sutvd suydte suydt /an tan & ta tatdh tatvd tanydte t any at dtata nfter kri kri kritdh krtydt fsv: 55!^ dvish dvish dvishtdh dvishydte dvishyat ddvikshat hu hu hutdh hutvd Mydte Mydt drudhat rudh Tf kri ruddhdh ruddhva rudhydte rudhydt druddha Caus. kdray kdritdh kdrayitvd kdrydte kdrydt dchflcarat * Des.

































srams srams
















Ben. Par. Sec.Aor. First AorJV.

not strengthened, without ^i.








































4, 89.
4, 24.

2 6




Pan. vi. Pan. vi.

Pan. vi.


Pan. vi.


4 Pan.





But with ^i,

Hlf'Sfll mdrjitvd, not

Hf^r^T marjitvd.
1. 2.


As to the long
Roots which

3iM, see

Or 'jf^r^T guhitvd,





may thus drop their nasal, are written in the Dhatupatha with their nasal, while others which retain their nasal throughout, are written without the

but with an indicatory i; ^f^ nad, &c. (Pan. vi. 4, 24 ; vn. i, 58). Two verbs thus ^ marked by ^ i, c3fH lag and fif^ kap, may, however, drop their nasal, the general rule notwithstanding, if used in certain meanings, f^^fTTT vilagitam, burnt ; f^cfrfiTfT vikapitam,

deformed (Pan.vi.4, 24, vart. 1,2). vrih, ^fftvrimhati, drops its nasal before terminations beginning with a vowel, but not before the intermediate ^ij ^"t^ffT varhayati, but sjfsg d'T


if it

T^raw/, to tinge, may drop its nasal, even in the causative (i.e. before a vowel), means to sport; TJrfirfff rajayati (Pan.vi. 4, 24, vart. 3, 4). The same root, like some others,


nasal before sdrvadhdtuka affixes




means to worship, must retain its nasal (Pan.
2 > 53)

vi. 4, 30)

if &c. (Pan. vi. 4, 26). ^^(anch, it and take the intermediate ^ i (Pan. vn.

^N^ff* anchitah, worshipped ; otherwise ^T3u aktah or ^f^lfj anchitah, bent.


-f 347.



The verbs beginning with


ku( (Dhatupatha 28, 73-108) do not strengthen

their base, except before terminations

which are marked by *^fl or

^n; fT hif,

to be
2, i).

bent, Put.


kujishydti, Per. Fut.


kutitd, First

Aor. *^f\J(dlcuttt (Pan.
Per. Fut. Alftlfll

3 a),

to fear, never takes


before intermediate





to cover,

may do so optionally

or ^Nijfqni urnuvitd




2, 3).

J 346.



can distinguish in Sanskrit, as in Greek, between two kinds of

Aorists, one formed by means of a sibilant inserted between root and termithis we call the First, another, formed by adding the terminations nation,
to the base, this


call the

Second Aorist.

Both Aorists take the Augment, which always has the Udatta, and, with some modifications, the terminations of the Imperfect. The First Aorist is formed in four different ways. J 347.
Terminations of the First Aorist.




^^ isham

^^ ishva

^QR ishma



^^H? ishvahi

^**if^ ishmahi





ishdthdm ^$4 or


idhvam or idhvam

In this

^^ishtdm ^lishuh
first set



^'mni ishdtdm

^TT ishata

of terminations the intermediate ^ i stands as part of the terminations, because all the verbs that take this form are verbs liable to

take the intermediate ^
differ, in fact,



and second forms of the First Aorist


this only, that the former is peculiar to verbs

the latter to verbs which reject intermediate ^

(See $ 332, 4, note.)


^ sam

^ sva

^R sma

Second Form.

ft? si

^f\| svahi

Wf^ smahi

\ or







[or HT



^IHI satam

THT sata



a 2





Third Form.

There are some verbs which add




end of the root before

taking the terminations of the Aorist, and which after this ^ s, employ the usual terminations with ^ i, viz. ^4 isham, &c. They are conjugated in the

Parasmaipada only.
s-ih (for (for

ftt*i s-ishva

ftro s-ishma



fav s-ishta
ftnf: s-ishuh


faST s-ishtdm


Fourth Form.
Lastly, there are

ri, by ^ *, mediate ^ i (ksa). PARASMAIPADA.

T u,


some few verbs, ending in ^ s, f^sh, ^ h, preceded which take the following terminations, without an interATMANEPADA.

tTTq sava




T^T si


TT^ vahi


~_ ^fTHT^ samahi
f 4


_ ^Trf


f hah




or Ml J


^?4 sadhvam
or *^





4 [


W ta


^K santa

Special Rules for the First
$ 348.

Form of the

First Aorist.
c3 /w, to cut,


final vowel,
2, i).




dldvisham (Pan. vn.


final vowel,




dlavishi. <^ hi, ^r??f^f^

For medial or





possible) both in


and Atm.


budh, to

^r a,

Par. ^Vf\ni dbodhisham


^TTtfafa dbodhishi.

by a single final consonant, may or may not take Vriddhi in Par. if the verb begins with a consonant f. F^T kan, to sound, ^ToFTfollowed


dkdnisham or
Except f^f
2, 5).


dkanisham (Pan. vn.

a, 7)





(Pan. vn.

to swell, to wake, ^TT' i.1 f^ ojdgarit ^Tni*lTf^ asvayit; vTFIjdgri, not take Vriddhi; Wi "^l^wrwM, to cover, may or may ^iTi^ aurnuvit, or

^TRV^J^aurndvit, or ^rr^qRT^aMrwat?^ (Pan. vii. 2, 6). t Roots ending in ^c^aZ or ^:ar always take Vriddhi
to burn, ^'*n<ft?(djvdKt (Pan. vii. 2, 2).

in the



to speak,

Parasmaipada and






Roots ending in A, ^ ^,^y, the roots T5prjA;sA<m, to hurt, ^R^&as, to breathe, and verbs of the Chur class, roots with technical TJe, do not take Vriddhi (Pan. vii. 2, 5).
(Pan. vii.
2, 3).


to take, ^lf^J[^dgrahit j

^^ifl ?^ dvyayitj
stt ;

fQ^syam, to sound, TSR&*ftf{dsyamft; '&F{vyay, to kshan, to hurt, ^"SHUI ?^ dkshantij "^^ svfls, to breathe, "3iT^Mway, to minish, ^n*flf('f(jiunay(t ; TJl^rag, to suspect, *Z(T?f\J(aragtt.


to shine,

^ft vet-


to desire, and

^fr^T daridrd, to be poor, drop

their final

vowels, according to the rules on intermediate



; ^ft.^[T daridrd,






No Guna takes

place in desiderative bases,



Aor. ^TJ^tfvfrnt dbubodhishisham.
Intensives in
If the intensive

drop their


preceded by a consonant, must, certain denominatives in *Jy may, is preceded by a vowel, is left between the



vowel and the intermediate ^t.

to cut; Int. base 4&iv{bebhidy ; Aor. fal^bhid,


TO'^faf^ftT dbebhidishi.

*^bhd, to be; Int. base



Aor. Atm.

^^jftrfa dbo-


base lit*^namasy, to worship

Aor. VSprf^CR dnamasy-isham or <8MHfiHM


Special Rules for the Second
350. Vriddhi in Parasmaipada.

Form of

the First Aorist.

f^^kship, ^Brips dkshaipsam;


^fhi dsaisham (Pan. vn.

2, i)




v*(pach, *rmfa(dpdkshU (Pan. vn. 2, the verb ends in ^, ^ z, 7, "31 u (not in





otherwise no change of vowel,

f^r si,

^r^tfo dseshi



^rftff^r dkshipsi;





Final "^r^ becomes f^

J 351. Terminations beginning with ^ET st or ^sth base ends in a short vowel or in a consonant, except nasals.

drop their





2. p.


dkshaip-tam, 3. p. dual ^T%>rf dkshaip-tdm y

2. p.

plur. ^fr%R dkshaip-ta, of

f^^kship; 2. p. sing. Atm. H<$VJT: dkrithdh, But from JRT^ mdnyate, *HHW dmamsta.

3. p. sing,

^fudkritayof ifkri, Atm.


roots FTT

/^^, to stand, ^rc?a, to give, VT

dhd to

place, ^rfe, to

dhe, to feed,


do, to cut, change their final vowels into ^
i. 2,

before the

terminations of the

Atmanepada (Pan.


WT sthd,

3 \\ fal d updsthi-ta


In the Parasmaipada they take the Second Aorist.




roots iftmi (mindti), to hurt, fa mi (minoti), to throw, and



Atm., to

decay, instead of taking Guna, change their final vowels into ^TTa in the
cl^fr /*,

to stick, does so optionally (Pan. vi.



Atmanepada; and Thus from *ft mi and fa mi, w*iiw

amdsta; from



'W^i^cf addstaj

from c5^


aldsta or



In the

Parasmaipada these verbs take the Third Form.
354 "%*{han, to



nasal in the

Atmanepada (Pan.




ah at a,

ahasdtdm, &c.
355- 'T^^ffm, to go, drops its nasal in the Atmanepada optionally (Pan. i. 2, 13); JT^cT or agamsta. The same rule applies to the benedictive Atmanepada ;


stshta or ^t^fh? gamstshta.



y am drops



necessarily or


according to




3<;<<n udayata,

he divulged (Pan.
2, 16).



<JMi^n vpdyata, he espoused, OP

updyamsta (Pan.

* Prof. Weber (Kuhn's Beitrage, vol. vi. p. 102) blames Dr. Kellner for having admitted
^1*1 1 (Vi M*T

amdsisham and similar forms, and denies that these forms are authorised by


Dr. Kellner, however, was right, as will be seen from the commentary to Pan. vi. The substitution of ^TT d takes place wherever there would otherwise have

excepting in Sit forms.



357First Aorist.
^TT d,

Special Rules for the Third
f 357.

Form of the


verbs taking this

form of the Aorist end in
their substitute.

or in

diphthongs which







d remains


In the Atmanepada these verbs take the Second Form.

The verbs

mi, to hurt,

fa mi, to throw, and
^SRT a.



to stick, in taking this form,

change likewise their final vowels into

Ex. ^faifViM amdsisham,

threw, and




aldsisham (or ^Trt 1! alaisham).


359. Three roots ending in


take this form


to hold, to rejoice, T^rawi,

nam, to bend, Aor. ^Hlftre ayamsisham, &c. (Pan. vn.

2, 73.)

Special Rules for the Fourth
$ 360.
see, cf.

Form of the
must end

First Aorist.
in SI ^ (as to to ^j(dri$9


roots which take this form

Pan. in.

47), T{sh, 1(s,



preceded by any vowel but



They must be verbs which
(Pan. in.


reject the intermediate ^ z; Their radical vowel remains unchanged.



^{f^renT aslikshat.

takes this form only if it means to embrace (Pan. in. i, 46) ; fig^sUsh Other verbs, such as "tjftpush and sush, are specially excepted.






to milk, f^TeftA, to anoint,

fe^ lih,

to lick, to hide TR^guh,

(Pan. vn.

3, 73),


take in the Atmanepada
^rf^ vahi instead of

1RI thdh instead of *T*n* sathdh.


^Trf sata.

?4 dhvam
of the
first aorist




TOI sadhvam.

They thus approach
Ex. gf] duhj

to the Second


in most, but not in all persons.

2. p. sing.

3. p. sing.
1. p.

Atm. ^g'^Tt adugdhdh or ^VTSpITt adhukshathdh. Atm. ^^V adugdha or 'STV'^fT adhukshata.

dual Atm.

aduhvahi or

^V^T^f^ adhukshdvahi.

2. p. plur.

Atm. ^npl! adhugdhvam or


First Form,
with intermediate

Verbs ending in a vowel; c lu, to cut. Vriddhi in Parasmaipada, Guna in Atmanepada.












^Tc5T^J dldv-ih

^?rtlf^^ dldv-ishtam

^Ic^Tf^F dldvi-shta
^TrtlPq^t dldvi-shuh

3. ^Ic^T^fT didv-it



1. ^Tc4'Plfll


^TcoTqwif^ dlav-ishvahi

^?<5ft^Tf^ dlav-ishmahi
^?c5T%l^ dlav-idhvam or




m qT dlav-ishdthdm

^ -dhvam


^rafel? dlav-ishta

^r^f^^TUT dlav-ishdtdm



-$ 362.



Verbs ending in consonants; wvbudh, to know. Guna in Parasmaipada and Atmanepada.
^WTttV1^ abodh-ishoa
WqlP*! 1!? abodh-ishma

1. vi anPt<M



2. ^Bnfftfh


W^tfVn? abodh-ishtam
^H<riP*4i abodh-ishtdm





^TTtfv^: abodh-ishu/i


^BpfVfvftf abodh-ishi

vi^P^t^p^ abodh-ishvahi
^T^tfVmxji abodh-ishdthdm
^ToTlfMmrff abodh-ishdtdm

^T^ftfv^Rf^ abodh-ishmahi







VH^PyMrf abodh-ishata

Second Form,
without intermediate

^ i.

Verbs ending in consonants



to throw.

Vriddhi in Parasmaipada, no change in Atmanepada.




fB|MS akshaip-sva
^T^fff akshaip-tam

s^K|^3k akshaip-sma




^T!pT akshaip-ta


v^^tilf^ akshaip-sit

^I^Trt akshaip-tdm




^TTTSfftl akship-si



"iPe$M3Hn akship-smahi

2. vfPBj^xflJ


^rft^Tnrt akship-sdthdm
^P^tiifli akship-sdtdm



3. isfPsiN


^TPnjtirt akship-sata


Verbs ending in vowels


^ z,


^ ^)


tft wi,

to lead.

Vriddhi in Parasmaipada,





^Tn *f anaisham
vfiHiJ anaishih








3. ^sH'fli^anaisAft

^T%1T anaishtdm

*I^Jt anaishuh


"SfrPH aneshi

vffiw^n^ aneshvahi




^MiBit aneshthdh

vt'imMi aneshdthdm
vifiUmt aneshdtdm






to do. ^f Arz,

Verbs ending


^ n;

Vriddhi in Parasmaipada, no change in Atmanepada.


xt'cRm akdrsham



rM=fl^ akdrshma


%M<*|5 akdrshtam

xM4l^ akdrshta

^nfinll akdrshtdm

Verbs ending in ^jr?/ ^ to stretch. ^T^fFTJ asrishthdh asrikshdthdm asrikshdtdm vujsc asriddhvam asrishta ^W^ITft ^ti|n asrikshata .. ^T^i a&rzta Verbs ending in Atmanepada only j ^?r a. ^ff^rn adit hah ^rf^m^qi adishdthdm ^rf^^TrTf adishdtdm ^%& adidhvam vif^qn adishata */r^j 3.) PARASMAIPADA. 362. ^rf^lT ac?^a e. or *nsi*3"n? astarishi or astarishi or ^RarfanJ astarishthdh or astarishthdh or vitclO? astarishta or astarishta "wWliM astirshi vtwIeK astirshthdh ^TOft% astirshta DUAL. Pan.H nT or i ^IwOmin astarishdtdm or astarishdtdm PLURAL. then ^n changed to ^T2r. In Atmanepada the insertion of ^ i is optional. II. 1. Vriddhi in Parasmaipada. ^TT a changed into ^ ATMANEPADA. ATMANEPADA. 1. ^i tsl U. with intermediate ^i. ^eiWlW First astdrisham. to give. no change in Atmanepada. ^SMHlX^n^ or -^wO^Hn^ astarishmahi or astarishmahi ^n^l^\k astirshmahi 2 . Second Form. ^T4df^c( ^ or ^HWtHf ^ astaridhvam -dhvam or astaridhvam -dhvam "iWic astirdhvam vjtflUn astirshata 3. ATMANEPADA. Peculiar Vriddhi in Parasmaipada. ( 350. V I? rf akrithdh fepmfT akrishdthdm ^TOi^TUT akrishdtdm d. ^njfrSf asnJfo^z ''H^iyr^ ^^VijIVjl asrikshvahi ^^*if^ asrikshmahi 2. 42. Verbs with penultimate ^ ri / ^ n/. &c. ^JMriPlXri or ^r^cTirt^Tf astarishata or astarishata f. then Guna ( 348) and optionally lengthening of ^i. to let off. ^^f" akridhvam ^TOi^ll akrishata 3. 1. ^wft^fifJ or ^^TT^^f^ ^Kri'fXmvjj or astarishvahi or astartshvahi viWl ^"f^ asttrshvahi 2. vn. SINGULAR. 2.184 AORIST. without 3[ i' with ^ i. PARASMAIPADA. 1. t. '^wOMfifi astarishdthdm or astarishdthdm ^HWlSl^l astirshdthdm ^tfliHtclT astirshdtdm 3. ( 341. like First Form. (See 337. 4. '^ifa ^I^i akrishi 'ST^i^f^r akrishvahi vi <y m fifc akrishmahi 2. 1. ^Hl^iM adishi ^TT^^f^ adishvahi ^?f^"^Tf^ adishmahi 2. Form. asrdksham \l ^^TSS asrdkshva ^t*H5^ asrdkshma asrdkshih ^TFT? asrdshtam ^TWrKf asrdshtam ^H5m asrdshta 3. 'STOTSffa^asra&s^ ^T^rr^t asrdkshuh ATMANEPADA.) ^i is inserted.) If If ^* is not inserted. ^r da.

fii adhagdhvam adhakshata 3. ^H^V adagdha FIRST AORIST. aydsisham aydsishva aydsishma aydsishta aydsishtam aydsisfy&m aydsishuh tenant. g. Bb . PARASMAIPADA. Fourth Form. PARASMAIPADA. 185 to burn. adikshi . viMf| adhakshi adhakshvahi adhakshmahi 2. 1. in yd. adiksham adikshah adikshdva adikshdma adikshata adikshatam adikshatam v*f^K!^ adikshan TMANEPADA.A01MST. PARASMAIPADA ONLY. aghukshatam aghukshatdm 3. adikshdvahi adikshdmahi adikshathdh adikshdthdm adikshdtdm adikshadhvam adikshanta adikshata irff ^rwA. i . s. ^RpVTJ adagdhdh adhakshdthdm adhakshdtdm *Mvr. Verbs ending in rfaA. to show. virjtil: anamsishtam anamsishtdm 3. < to bend. adhdkshva 1 . wijf anamsishat* anamsih anamsit TlT anamsishva anamsishma anamsishta J 2. to go. addydham addydhdm 3- udhdkshuh ATM AN Ei> AD A. "f T*i anamsishuh FIRST AORIST. ^i4if adhdksham ^nrnsft: udhdkshth adhdkshma addydha : 2. 1. to hide. PARASMAIPADA. 2%irrf Form. MM>f aghuksham vi^|J aghukshah aghukshdva aghukshdma aghukshata VH^V5|^ aghukshan 2.

adhikshathdh or adigdhdh. adhukshanta PARASMAIPADA. &c. &c. Verbs adopting this J 3^3- form take the augment. 41 ^ H|'V| [laghukshathdh or^PJcFK agudhdh aghukshata or gHj VJ 1 aghukshdthdm aghukshdtdm *icr * 3. ATMANEPADA. $363- ATMANEPADA. adhiksham. i. to anoint. ATMANEPADA. alikshi ^av^m^ alikshdvahi or vtrcodr^ alihvahi aUdhdh ^&*i\**\ alikshdthdm alidha or alikshdmahi 2 2. ^rftff^ adhikshi or or 4 adhikshdmahi or ^rfarSEJ 6 adhiksMthdm or adMkshdtdm adhikshanta SECOND AORIST. Division) a verbal base ending like those of the Tud form. ^f^fcT adhukshata or ^87V adugdha ? adhukshdtdm c?^. adhukshadhvam or adhugdhvam. adhikshadhvam or adhigdhvam. I. "i PC* ej n alikshata or w fra Sj I if i alikshatam alikshanta to milk. and of the imperfect to attach the terminations (First in ^r . adhuksham. . WJ^nt adhukshathdh or ^Tt adugdhdh 3. ^nrefcf ^^ agudha vi^im aghukshanta It (I may I- also follow the First Form. /A. 337 > !) to smear. aliksham j ^?fc5^T^ alikshdva ^rfoJ^iT alikshatam ^rfc^^rrf alikshatam alikshdma alikshata aliksJiah . fc^. aghukshi aghukshdoaU or ^H aguhvahi I aghukshdmahi or *Jf 2. ^nrf^ agdhisham and aguhishi.186 AORIST. alikshadhvam or alidhvam. I. adhiksMvahi or adihvahi. ^rfc4H|'m* alikshathdh or 3. 2 4 6 1 3 5 7 aghukshadhvam or aghudhvam. adhukshi f^ adhukshdvahi or ^SI'f^ aduhvahi f^' adhukshdmahi or 2. PARASMAIPADA. . ^f&^l^alikshat alikshan ATMANEPADA. adhikshata or adigdha. PARASMAIPADA.

ahvam . ^^'M avocham. and those marked by a technical "^ /t. >Hd^i ahvdma ahvata ahvah 3. i. 55. 18). P.O. ^ i. Pres. 120 (possibly for xMHH^r anana&am) ^5?%^ a&isham.) fe^Zip. ^^T^a?ar^a/. i. vn.. 53. and substitute "??a^ a base ending in ^ : ^ Ave substitutes 3^ Ava. to throw (^rTO dstham). asichdva asichat am PARASMAIPADA.^feHi^aftpaf. ^mfV beginning with ^^rfyi/^ (Dh. WT Myd. (Pan. to see. speak (^I^T avocham). 73-136). "Q^vach. ^ e. ^rni from (possibly a contracted reduplicated aorist for . 26. Atm. "ftr^sicfc. to call (irregularly ^2^ ahvam). I threw.^ragi<* askadam. 4. to go. from ^n^ ^*. or vifcoH alipta. to call. from ^s. (Pan. in. t iihrumnhi ahvathdh vi Q^ fii ahvethdm ahvadhvam ahvanta alivata ahvetdm 364. d Jive. to sprinkle. WTO dstham. ^365. -wfcaHn alipata Par. General base PARASMAIPADA. Aor. if the agent is implied. from ^^ vach (according J 366. nnchdmi . ^nS asvam. ^^os. i. asichdvahi : s anchdmahi asichat hdh asichethdm asichetdm asichadhvam asichanta asichata ve. 17.vii. Impf. for ^^ci^ avavacham) . asicham asichah asichat agichdma nail-lint n asichatdm asichan ATMANEPADA. see. forms are. I perished. Irregular to Bopp a apaptam. P. Roots which take this form are. Roots with penultimate nasal. AOKIST. f 370. beginning with "$\push (Dh. in. and the root (Pan. ahvdvahi 2. drop these vowels. and then form a base ending ^5T drik t to : ^ ^sn'. (Pan. contracted reduplicated aorist. and optionally in Atm. in short ^? a: Roots ending in H. to speak (Pan. wftK asincham. on Pan. ahvdva aJivatam ahvam 2. 4. ahvatdm ATMANEPADA. I ordered. in Par. take Guna ^^ic?m. Aor. ^STTO^asarfltf. 16). 4. 1*7 Pres. 54).) B b 2 . in the Parasmaipada. to step. ^rqrfH hvaydmi . I spoke. vi. fv& 6vi substitutes ig M. Kas'. VHIMri I flew. 52. The verbs classed as 'dyutddi. Roots ending in ^rr ^.-J 3*7sich. in.) 367. Impf. to paint. drop it T3fi<[ skand. apapatam) itf^pat ^3R^f anesam. to (^af akhyam). "^f^pushddi. ^T^TT ahvayam . . to sprinkle.

58. * Irregular in the ist pers. to give place . ^TP^sas. ^^ adaddm. dual. 57). Pres. or of with loss of initial ^s. marked by ^ir. to guard. 2.. Pres. pers. vjnPrig atanishta or 79). m. These forms might be considered as irregular Atmanepada forms of the the first aorist II. jr^mluch. Verbs which take are. to (Pan. and in the 3rd pers. ii. to be.. 4. to stiffen C^^f^l^astabhat or to go (-Wyi^amruchat or ^rafNh^amrocMtf). 4. PABASMAIPADA. *j^bhu. but or ^5W wl t^ abTiaitsit. to go . 78.. to be. ^T da. to go. (Pan. ^STt o. sing. ^w^l^ &) (Pan. final vowel. to grow (irregularly ^HST?^ agluncUi). There are a few verbs. and ^J to go (^nt tfram). 370. to cut. to destroy. Aor. except before the Tt uh of the 3rd pers. Optionally. rejected. and Atm. before which the final ^?T d is In the Atmanepada these verbs in ^TT ^TT d take the Second Form of the first aorist. and the usual terminations of the imperfect. Wft abhavam. TIT # W. in. i. m. n. ^ScPT Optionally. *l^$rZttnc^. to order. . and change d to 3[ . 368ri. ^R(Tf^a^ ^si^ini ^6^w. 1. before which the final nasal is rejected.) Optionally. >IT c?A. ^Tf daddmi. to give. sing. in the Parasmaipada only (Pan. to drink . to smell V e?Ae. or to steal. in Par. ^T^r: ^^ abhuma ^^ abhuta ^^^abhuvan 3.188 The verbs AORIST. ^ sri.to go. PARASMAIPADA. r^^gluch. Second or Reduplicated Form of the Second Aorist. (Pan. to stand . . reduplicate their base in the second aorist. and plur. ^ c?e. ^S^ abhuvam* 5MA ^*j{abhut this ^*$$ abhuva ^*J? abhutam ^T^WT abhutam form . ^fft 50. 77. 368. to sharpen "sft chho. A the few primitive verbs. ^njf arfaw ^T^Tt arfa/f ^TT addma 2. to cut . 1. The nine A roots of the Atm. plur. ^TiTlf atata. to * stretch. ^mPH bhavdmij Impf. to steal. ^IirfVn?TJ atanishthdh or ^-Nri^i: atathdh (Pan. ^ do. second aorist. to IT #a. verbs technically i. n.56. *U pa. also ^bhu.) WT sthd. 1. roots. to go (^Pcf^ agluchat DU* in the Parasmaipada only. addtam addtam 3. ^fatC^abhidat fail. ^T c?. taking the augment as before.) d. in ^IT: thdh Tan class ending in <fT n or Tff n may form the 2nd and 3rd \ and Uta. ^r^T"^ arfawa iH^Irt Impf. f^[ &z. 4. . *[ jri. to stambh. *J e. They retain throughout the long plur. 369. and the very numerous class of the Chur denominatives and causatives in ^ro ay.) drink ^ft so. If^tan. ^J^mrMcA. to be. ending in ^TT which take this form of the second aorist in the Parasmaipada. .

to lighten. ^H f^i fa M r^ asitriyat. ^?f^f n iadidyutat. Where. live. Ex. to hurt.-$374371. 4. tf*{dip. fa 49). vtffa^ abtbhidam. Aor.cF atilikam. Ex. Those with technical ^JnW^bddh. (or \t^4\<^adhdt or ^MMl1i^a<M<sft. ^ifc<f. Red. Those in which the vowel is long by position. *ff*{bhrdj. i. 2^ hve. In the vast majority of roots. vn.^au t are represented in the reduplicative syllable by mdlayati. ^T d. VX^bhds. ^^kam ^ dhe. to shine. "^PHlfTT bddhayati. ty. takes ^t. alu/okam. } . . tfrSpid. ^rmrft cftcFTrfTT amamdlam. ^ e. fof /ri. to speak. Caus. to run. "SfNyfr. ill. a garland. <\ababhrdjat or ^M futiifi^abibhrajat ( 374). to surround. ^njjj^ amumudam.^ar. 32). ^ sru. is formed the denominative *iioiMrrt mdlayati. 2. ^ ai 'md. he loved.to^H. in. the vowel of the is reduplicative syllable necessarily long by position. *ftc^ mil. Red. if expressing the agent.) ij^ mud.) $^fr mad.) 373. i. "Jrfru. ^?$&\3. to grow. ^ i y ^u ^ri. wt. J 374. 48). also Sec. if expressing the agent. Aor. *H^bhdsh. nftiT^ amimadam. vi. 364. cheshtay. to ^dX^bhrdj. it is not changed into the * These exceptional verbs are (Pan. and (with certain exceptions*) to the simple base vowels wr a to ^ a : . to go. which do not admit this shortening process. however. Ex.) is Their reduplicative syllable. In the exceptional roots. 7. "Wll^afoaytt (Pan. inn^rfyo/ay. reduplicated perfect. Aor. to meet. grew. lengthen the vowel of the reduplicative syllable (amdmudai). (Pan. shorten their vowel optionally. he punishes. to lighten. ^. W*\W{ajuhavat (Pan. Hence all roots in with the augment. forms its Aor. to vex. thus Here the tendency is to make the leaving bases with short ^i a. vn.'?fto. in. $ 372. as far as consonants are concerned.4.) 1 fw^ bhid. t to love (Pa?. zte&folikayati. Optionally. to shine. he flowed. (Aor. either w w or w w reduplicated base. AORIST. to suck (Pan. vimi^fl&af and First Aor. or iH f<4^ 8 ''Z&R'tn^avaveshtat ^aviveshfat. to call. to move. I. he ran. 49). take either i 'SRfc i ^^ " ^ or ^a in the reduplicative syllable . |^ asiiviyat. ^utf^fn sdsayati. i. if^ mddayati would become bhedayati to ^ri. which the shortened vowel is not long by position. (Aor. ^*\*{\<A^amamdlat j "$f\1{6ds. tj formed like that of the he went. the shortening takes place. he sucked. modayati (Aor. as in roots beginning with double consonants. The verbs to in reduce their Guna and Vriddhi vowels n{ay drop ^r^ay. ^ho Thus JTlr^frt *u. Aor. Caus. Certain denominatives : From Hlc4l mala. ^V^arfarfAa^. SH^HIVTi^ ababddhat. 3). t %F^t?es^fy. Wpfltadadhat. lokayati. -wtj^qi^flstm-Hra/. to flow. *eto^i. leave the vowel of the reduplicative syllable short (ararakshat). ^"^ i^ adudruvat. < 31 31 1 t[^aa3dsat. 189 The primitive verbs which take this form are. Caus. "W f^| fvj JJ he f.

If the root begins and ends with double consonants. . ^ftTT^fTT . ^*fl*J1 H dmimrijat. to cut. <? dri. tvar. of Caus. . iq^ tyaj. ^\\^^tindvdyatij Des^^^v^fiKnundvayishatij A or. to throw. ^ 'TO^ gandy and take cFTO^ kathdy ^ i or ^T a optionally. . iHinfrf rakshdyati. followed by a consonant. "^TTTfw Jcshepdyati to fall. 375. Caus. yi'H^fri bhrdjdyati ip. to sound. rit. may the w * w or ww forms. . fQsmri. to leave. skanddyati. ^ i. jft^rfff moddyati rit 9 to exist. and all lengthened. H -M fri pdchdyati ^Tj^bheddyati. (the Guna of ^* in the reduplicated aorist: "^nuj Caus. w w . to beg. to cook. mrad. ^WT<*( fff smdrdyoti j Aor. nants. I. pack. . H-**i Pit prachchhdyatij <tai^<4fii ^RWSSj^dpaprachchhat. "35 as will be shown hereafter "3"w. or 377. -sftwqfn kirtdyati . resist the shortening process. ^. ^ The same verbs which. In the roots which do not ^T a. chyotdyati . mdrjdyati . t The following verbs take *3f a instead of ^i or \i in the reduplicative syllable of the aorist in the causative : ^R smri. because the The lengthening becomes superfluous before roots beginning with two consotwo consonants make the short vowel heavy (guru]. ^t^lfw vartdyati JJTihrfir . . 375In roots beginning and ending in long vowel (achuchyutat . TmRflT tydjdyati . ^ u ^i. by u. ^r^\^lT?(dcMkritat^. to praise. to step. svri. M id. this rhythmical law is broken. .190 AORIST. to shine. ^ Tlinfrf svdrdyati . bhiksh. this metrical rhythm is necessarily broken (achaskandat). where necessary. ^c[ stri.^R ^C J Radical ^R a is reduplicated by ^T a the root ends in a double consonant. ( u. optionally take skand. two consonants. ^*(\*\1&1{djiganat or nW?^ djaganat. to protect. to rejoice. ^TT^ bhrdj. ^Tp^ PH| M i^ dchikshipat. fvnsprfir bhikshdyati 376. not achuchyutat). 13T. rij. Roots with radical ^ri ^n. to ask. to cleanse. reduplicate ^l^av. *x ^ *5h^ dchaskandat. "3 y ^J ri are represented in the reduplicative syllable T(i . Second or Reduplicated Form of the Second Aorist.) in the desiderative by take T if instead of 474). . . TT^prath.

the must or may follow . *n$fi{dsdy. Verbs. with augment and termination. Roots beginning with a vowel have the same internal reduplication. &c. the general rule is that verbs follow the first aorist.) m /f. 379. 4. and shortening the vowel. In the same manner. and that they take the first form of the first aorist. ^nfifllfr d$-i6-am.-J 380. HlAnfrt indrjdyati. j ^W vrit. M/. however minute and complicated. WT to drink. to cleanse. too. and lastly. vn. Thus ^r^as forms the Caus.) i1j i or ^i*ii 1 i^ dmimrijat f^ dmamdrjat. AOKIST. 191 ^iqqflf^aoacar/af. which forms its causal aorist as ^ djighripat or djighrapat. is However. take the second form of the first aorist. verbs which take the third form of the JT The number of The first aorist is very limited. In the preceding or classes of verbs adopt. so in Sanskrit. 4fc)ft^frt kirtdyati. iiI'5tM ds'israyam asifraydva asisraydma uslsrayata 2. vi f^i ^ ^ i^ atisrayat asisrayan ATMANEPADA. which forms its causal aorist as ^Ml*4i^ dpipyat (instead of dptpayat}. to praise. vif^i^Mt a6israyah asisrayatam asisrayatam 3. which will be described hereafter in the desiderative bases. This after throwing off ay. 4. TI V) <y n i^ dchikritat or wfrnflfrl^ dchikirtat. fourth form of the first aorist is likewise of very limited use see it 360. to smell. REDUPLICATED AORIST. three roots ending in m. vii. 4. sthd. are not unfrequently contradicted by the usage of Sanskrit authors. and the rules of grammarians. PARASMAIPADA. and roots ending roots which in ^T d. Are slightly irregular : ({ 476. xi "5SFH dvivritat or (Pan. by general rules from the employment of the intermethus barred. to Pan. I f^ asisraydvahi asisrayethdm as'israyetdm ^ asisraydmahi aisrayadhvam asisrayanta asisrayathdh asisrayata occasional rules have been given as to the 380. this reduplicated. particular forms of the aorist which certain verbs As in Greek. are As to the second aorist. unless they are barred diate ^ i. becomes w^a. unless this specially prohibited. asisraye 2. tli* vartdyati. 'WtfW archicham. . 7. its stand. J 378. which forms causal aorist as ^rnfMi dtishjhipat (instead of TTT ghrd. to be. vftfMir aubjijam. 1 1. practice only can effectually teach which forms do actually occur of each verb. W<jn i^ TOmry.

Guna. &c. ^$tishy6 $*MI^ ishydvahe ^*MIH^ ishydmahe 2. 2. to tear. ^W ^HT ishydse ishydte ^^fa ishyethe sfSTcT ishytie ^f&l ^^TT ishyddhve 3. to conquer. ^mifajeshydmi. the two futures. 3^4 (Vi ishydsi ^3T*K ishydthah S^tQTI! ^wfH ishydtha ^<4ffl ishydnti 3. ku. the strengthening tenses. ^ kri } gft"5|rftT karishyami. Final ^ i and \i. PARASMAIPADA. DUAL. note. and so are the roots which take the reduplicated form of the second aorist in $ 37 1 * Roots which follow the second aorist optionally.) usual exceptions. : Final U e. CONDITIONAL. FUTUKE. AND BENEDICTIVE. ^ budh. The changes . XIV.192 indicated in FUTURE. see $ 340. ^ dri. $381. 1. Terminations. but a few general rules may here be peculiarities repeated 1. that of giving weight to the base. the conditional. f*tji. These See illustrations in $ 344 (bhavishydmi) and $ 345 (mdrkshydmi). subject to the general rules. 381- 367. $ 344 seq. Penultimate ^ i. though their application varies according to the peculiarities of certain verbs. prosodially short. $ 33 1 seq. must be or may be omitted For the cases in which *(i is changed to ^ On On the change of w sha and *r sa. Sf^TRJ isJiydvah PLURAL. of ^snfa ishydmi &c. the strengthening of the radical vowel. are regulated by one general principle. ^u ^u ) j and ^ ri. or in the Parasmaipada only. see $ 100 seq. ^Hjfrr ishydti ishydtah ATMANEPADA. PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE. and the benedictive Atm. 1. ^fXmifH darishydmi or ^^NnfH darishyami. ^ gai. ^tfv^nfif bodhishydmi . HfcujifH bhavishydmi. are allowed to be conjugated in the first aorist. must be learnt by practice. cF 9 There are the (J 345. 3. ^ri becomes %$ir. JllHJlfa gdsyami. ishydnte The cases in which the ^ i have been stated in chapter XI. take Guna . SINGULAR. *%bhu. ^u ^ri. CHAPTER Future. which the base undergoes before the terminations of $ 382. to sound. to sing. see chapter XII. take . $" ai 9 ^\ o are changed to '^ ri ^TT d. 3pR*{\ ishydmah i^*miH ishydmi 2. ^f^RTfT kuvishydmi.

bodhishydte ^Vftn*Tn bodhishydnte \ i> to go. eshytf hydvahe eshytthe jmi^ eshydmaht 2. ft bodhishydmi 2. i. ^fViwifn bodhishydti : ATMANEPADA. SINGULAR. with intermediate PARASMAIPADA. DUAL. with intermediate ^i. DUAL. fa^A. BT atshyam aishydva aishydma aishyata 2. t f^ abodhishydvahi H$ dbodhishydmahi abodhishyathdh abodhishyethdm abodhishyetdm 'SriT abodhishyadhvam abodhishyanta abodhishyata without intermediate 3[ * PARASMAIPADA. ^^(VoT dbodhishyam abodhishyah < abodhishydma abodhishyata 2. without intermediate PARASMAIPADA. <*4i aishyah aishyatam aishyatdm 3. ^H^ aisJiyan C C . iMti eshydse i^Hii eshydte eshyddhce eshydnte 3. <iU^ <HPn JHs eshydsi eshydti t eshydtha t*qfn eshydnti 3. Tl bodhishydvah bodhlshydthak bodhishydtah bodhishyamah PM M fa bodhishydsi t bodhithydtha TtfVTBTfTT bodhishydnti 3. . iT abodhishyatam abodhishyat ^^f^ronrt abodhishyatdm iVfvon^ abodhishyan ATMANEPADA. dbodhishydva PLURAL. PARASMAIPADA. lMn eshy&e Conditional. <MI(*I eshydmi *. dbodhishye 2. 1. eshydvah eshydthah t eshydmah 2. *ffrftnmi bodhishydse *fl(V|*Mif 3.-1 383- FUTURE. 1 . 1. to know. 5^ SINGULAR. 1 . eshydtah ATMANEPADA. PLURAL. ^ftftnifr bodhishyt 4iq^ bodhishydvahe bodhishy&he bodhishydte ? bodhishydmahe bodhishyddhve 2. The future is changed into the conditional by the same process which a present of the Tud class is changed into an imperfect. . by J 383. to 193 know.

On On the retention or omission of intermediate ^ i or the strengthening of the radical vowel. tdsmi etdsvah etd'sthah I etdsmah <ni<J etdrau J etdrah . 1. ^cTT ltd ^rillJ itdrau itarah ATMANEPADA. to see J 331 seq. *ry^ know. 1. PARASMAIPADA. i. is. PARASMAIPADA. SINGULAR. 384. TM ri I bodhitd bodhitdrau bodhitdrak ATMANEPADA. $384- ATMANEPADA. i^HI* itdhe ^fli*3 ^ itdsvahe itdsmahe 3. 3[HT a ^rtl'U itdrau These terminations are clearly compounded of in td (base ^ tfn). and the auxiliary verb to be. The terminations are. ^tfwrf?? lodhitdsi il bodhitdsthah nPviril^| bodhitd'stha 3. i. J*tq aishye aishydvahi aishydmahi 2. M fV ci i Ujf bodhitasmi * 2. no distinction of number and gender ^ in the ist and 2nd persons. budh. PARASMAIPADA. with regard to TTT td. 3- PM n itf bodhitd'se WtfvnTO bodhitd'rau without intermediate ^ '. ^rc^ as. WTTVffll^ bodhitdhe Tl bodhitdsvahe bodhitdsdthe bodhitd'dhve bodhitd'rah 2. the common There suffix for forming nomina agentis. with intermediate ^ i. <B PLURAL.PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE. see 382. ^ruP** itdsi $HIW itdstha 3. 1 . and no distinction of gender in the 3rd person. 1 . ( however. JrofiT aishyata Periphrastic Future. jwfqit aishyathdh aisJiyetdm aishyadhvam aishyanta 3. ^niPw itdsmi ^dl^t itdsvah itdsthah \ 2. DUAL.

terminations of the benedictive Par. TR}:. Ben. 7374. ydsam. ydh. Thus. instead of fs. foa'Ai. : 1 Ben. but in Atm. Atm. *n*r. ^TT^ArresA^ran. Zeitschrift der D. and. siydsthdm. ^bhu. instead of TK. t^> iydtdm. Par. 388. FrT!^ etdhe JgrilH^ etdsvahe *niHC niC etdsmahc 2. The benedictive ^fWN chetishiyd. ^1 4 tt putriydsam . *rnr. G. In the Veda the 3rd pers. ydt. ydsva. Cf. <i"lv. the Atmanepada to the strengthening forms ($ 344). Denominative bases in ^y drop ^y in the Ben.: " Denom. '*OilUHi. by the insertion of an "^s before the personal terminaJ 385. 1T^. siydstdm. 195 ATMANEPADA. sing.) drop ^Tay before the Ben. base. ydsuh. til^P^. faqiti chitydsam. ^n:. Atm. beginning with j(Jt or Opt. ty^> iydthdm. TTT^. first aorist compound of the unmodified base with an ydh and Tffl^ydt we have contractions of n^y<fos is and <t\*(t{ydst. 387. however. sishtd. ^cft? astoshta. secondly. Caus.) In the Atmanepada the e. ydsma. VN^iMtf akreshata. fa/A. *ft^nf chorydsam. ^TTT e/d :niCf etdrau Benedictive. W*l 'il K stoshishta. Opt. l8it. sing. the benedictive seems a of *TT yd. p. &c. ydva y ydtam. ?fh^. x ?ft7. BENEDICTIVE. ydtdm. Par. Ben. trdn. 3:. Trnrf.. 594. i . Verbal bases ending in ^H^ay (Chur. Aor. vol. M. inf. TR^T. 1TTO.- 388. sfshthdh. siy . (See Bollensen. *TR. ^ t^l> we have idhvdm. is sirdn. c c a Exceptions are .^ Ben. yuh. Thus from Atmanepada really an optative of the first aorist. As the ancient optative is a verbal compound In *TH of the modified base with an ancient second aorist similar of the root IT yd. filqf^. ydsta. sidhvdm. 2. being lost. xxii. The provided for Atmanepada generally takes intermediate ^ by the rules 331 seq. but in Atm. the personal terminations originally an additional ^s. ^rtlfi etdse <niim etdsdthe 3711*4 etddhte et draft 3. stuvita. 386. t1^* imdhi. ^IWI. Opt. In the Parasmaipada this ^s stands between the TTT yd of the optative and the actual signs of the persons. fw. #a'. if. ^wfq fa abhavishi. chorayishtyd. ydstam. irer. ydstum. simdhi. we have 1TO. ^ i. HfclMl^ bhavishfya. Ben. *JTO. ^ilqiteqi. ^J stu. ^ft^choray. iya. Hence from benedictive f^chit. Thus. ydh. in the 2nd and 3rd pers. ^ s stands before the terminations of the optative. Ben. benedictive in the ' The Aor. ydt. ydm. g. benedictive Parasmaipada never takes intermediate t. ^ th take f*ft>. ydma. vm. analogy to the It differs from the optative by not admitting the full modified verbal optative. Opt. sivdhi. from "S^Arf. ydta. TTT^. The so-called benedictive is formed in close tions. iTTt. Aor. T&nstya instead of ^IT iya. HI y^. from Atm. Besides this. and Pan. ^cfl fMMll putriyishiyd. $ 351. The benedictive Parasmaipada belongs to the weakening.

because the verb Atmanepadin). to remember .) Pass. ^^fl popury ate. to gather. vn. But the following vowel into \f in the passive and intensive. does not lengthen the final ^. Pass. (Pan.196 Weakening of 389. : WlAd iNcfWft testirydte. i t4j^in 39 1 * The following roots may or may or not drop their final ^w. Ben.) ^smri. though 3[ i. '^1^41^ khdy dt or !?(*{ ^khanydt. generally speaking. Also in Final Pass. Pass. Int. tanydte. VIT. passive. lengthened (Pan. before the ^y of the terminations of benedictive. (Ben. Ben. Pass. 4. Ben. Ben. passive. 28. ^T^falff chechiydte. Pass. Ben. Int. 27. *sl\*\\^stirya[t. 22. While. l$si TJP^s'ay. vn. and. stirydte. to stretch. According to a general rule. 67. 66. <?r*mi ^^Pmf ^*{khan.ur. Pass. ni<qn #ay^e or nMn tantanydte. (Pan. -*ftm'i\chiyd't. vn. "35^ uh. the BENEDICTIVE. tiitiiMrt sdsdydte or orW^^anyat.) . 4. UTnTlf dhydydte. after prepositions. to do Ben. (Pan. ^C(5n ardrydte. Pass. W*\\i[smaryc[t . roots ending in ** ai and ^ o change then* final diphthong in the general tenses into ^TT d: ^TT d retain it: "TT^a. is (Pan. (Pan. Pj**4H kriydte. 23. Wfwflrt sdsmarydte. only apparent. Ben. is ^Tf^purydtj changed to Pass.) Ben. ti^^i IT samuhydt. is Final ^J ri changed to ft ri. . Int. vi. ^Tn to changed to fjfr. Himtijdydte or *\*njanydtej Int. \Hit(iydtj but ^T*\Wi(^samiydt. "^H^ff sayydte. Some of the rules regulating the weakening of the base. 29. ^stri. I Pass.) to understand. 4. however. Ben. after labials. to dig. ^n. to stretch. is to go. 392. 4. to go. (Pan. $\m\i\sayydt does not ^t I occur. vn. which is required in the benedictive Parasmaipada. shortened to . 25). vn. but not strengthened by Guna. 3[ i. fT^frw. samuhydte. vi.. and appears as ^R ar. "Zv&lt uhydte Ben. and ^J ri. 7^ uh. ffrT^Rff Ben. Pass. khanydte. (The Intensive has ^nO^n chekriydte. and then lengthen the preceding vowel. (VhHli^ kriydt. after prepositions. 43. ^ kri. into "Ze in the benedictive Par. are fa chi. Int. to beget Ben. 390. Pan. Final ^i and Tw. there is one important. Int. fill. Roots ending in roots change their is protected. 4.) in the benedictive. Int. to ^. ^pri. may here be stated together with the rules that apply to the weakening of the base in the passive and intensive. beginning with conjunct consonants. T&fasmarydte. and keep unchanged before gerundial 1 ya. samsanydte. ^*{san.) In roots. 4. to He down. "SfT^m^/ay/jf P*ffity'arey<& . *F[jan. ^1^^" sdsayydte. n*\<(^tanydt. vn. **ft*tt chiydte. ^f*fiT arydte. and intensive exercise a weakening influence on the verbal base. 4. Int. <sii*ifl khdydte or chahkhanydte. Pass. Ben. **R*fmft jdjdydte or TW^TiT janjanydte. TTTff pdydte. 69. Base before Terminations beginning with $ 389- T y. "$% purydte. 4. Pass. the terminations of the benedictive. &#[^uhydt. exception to this rule with regard to verbs ending in ^ u. Int. final ^ r* ia actually strengthened by Guna.. WHTI^sdyd't Int. 24.^T'Tfl' sdydte or 'ff^ sany ate.to obtain. he final it "Wf dhyai. 4. is Exceptions ^ft si. intensive. ^KNI^rt chdkhdydte or ^<n In the passive only. ^^(arydt. 5f i (Pan.) .

the radicals Thus of ^. Tf^prachh. the change into ^e in the benedictive Par. passive. glai. 4. 4. and ^ rye.vi.-$ 395six verbs called BENEDICTIVE. . substitutes f^T^ sish.vi. 1. 'vlfljyd. and ^mfin ddy at i. jpffi^ gleydt ^fT^T^gldydt. Ger. 34. ^\*W johuydte (Pan. to send to sleep. i ||. to rule. to grow. f^Gf sut||. e. ^T. 18). ^PHWIn Int. gerund. T^TTT^McAy^. Tf$\H praddya ddy to give mdy to measure to stand OMII 'ffaTfl' diydte dediydte ITT miydte *iil4H memiydte rfulqi) teshthiydte *fami mey<& TFTR pramdya WT s/H Wtan sthiydte ifbfKgtydte TftTft piydte 'Wm^stheydt ^Tf^geyclt Tfrtfl(jpeydt UWHT prasthdya Wmpragdya VKFlprapdya l\ gai. to sound. grihftvd. 68). intensive. ^TT khyd. takes Samprasarana in the reduplicated aorist (Pan. '^ t$l d jarigrihydte. vi. f^t?t &shtdh. ^t?a/ (Pan. Hence fffrnt diyate.29). ^^waptH. VlTS^bhrajj. (31^1 $ishtvd . ^ to speak. all varieties <JT dd and VT dhd. to sing wfanT jegiydte ^Mlqi) pepiydte ^IJInj'eAfyrffe tlH)<u) seshiydte TRpd. 30). also in the second aorist. 33). f^ifvi takes Samprasarana optionally in the intensive (Pan. J J^lii grihydte. 393. % 33-41) i&^yqj. and gerund. fijl tishydt . GERUND. * This term comprises the six roots J^IM. Ben. vi. 1. and intensive. participle. 15. participle. ^Rff. (Pan. gerund. Part. to cut.to cover. to fail. in the 394. In the intensive i. call. Int. ending in ^IT d or diphthongs. rarf. ^^ svap. I.) benedictive (Pan. J|^I I Pass. vc. to surround. to pierce. or ^THlt^H sesviydte. he cuts. to sow .vi. 20). syam. i. in the benedictive. ^*{vap. to finish ^^(siydte verbs take HW^seydt in the HFR pra*/ya 393. ^t?ye||. to sacrifice. and *te. it is cleaned. <JTfrT ddti. As to W^sca Ger. IJT INTENSIVE. ^pydy. Ben.T^ uchydte. see Ben . to ask. vratch. T^ro*. <. i. f*H^. I. ^im^khydydt or wmi(khyeyd't.vi. intensive also (Pan. and the following verbs : 197 The PASSIVE. and the 4iif^ yajddi. J ^fl^svdp. 16. those following *H^ yaj. The following to speak. J i^lfft grihitdh. are. in. ^racA. take Samprasarana in the sesimydte. i. 1. 20). to sleep. Ger. fql^n veviydte. and ^ rye. tftMU^ soshupydte. *ghu*.<{l<4n BENEOICTIVE IpRl^deyctt f. Part. e. The following verbs take Samprasarana | benedictive. to or to call . T1K u^<A . to weave.vi. i. to sleep. Nit. ^TNTT pepiydte (Pan. passive. participle. and beginning with more than one con- sonant. vi. (Pan.) . 395* ^T^ U|| i^ s&. i. ^i\a^Mn so&ydtc % hve forms forms Mcfclnlf cheMydte (Pan. but not ^T^and ^^. Aor. Samprasarana vi. 1. ^tpT i. 19). 4. Pan. 104). but ^mnddyate. to leave ^I^H Afy<ft<? ^Tn^Aey<& HfRpraWya *ft so. Pass. roots. note c^ grihydt. is optional (Pan. to The Mlif^ to dwell. he cleans (Pan. passive. 3$ hve\\. H^t?yacA. . f^PRff sishydte Part.) to take. **F^vyadh. to fry. 4. (23. Pass. is Roots ending in consonants preceded by a nasal (which really written as belonging to the root) lose that nasal before weakening terminations (Kit. || ^f^^asushupat. vi. vi. t In other wither . (Pan. ^ir^im^osisAa^. 24). 21). . it is given. to wish. to ^ cany . to drink ^T Ad. TW tt^t?/ vah. vi.

J W I budhydstdm ATMANBPADA. ^ 4r. . The present. PARASMAIPADA. srastvd. vi. Guna 344). Remember. after labials. Part. optative. 5 397.198 from ^R(srams. $ 344. so that the Atmanepada of Div verbs is in all respects (except in the accent) identical with the passive. TiiT (or tw ranktvd.^B^dsrasat rctoa fromt^ranj. Pass. PASSIVE. 4. penultimate ^ i. 398. tenses they take "3u. to throw. ^tWrf j to steal **TV<*^ chordy> ^n bodh-ydte^ he is made to knuw. 1. ^T^ ay (Chur. Pan. Intensive bases ending in ^y retain much j 1y. Final ri. he binds . ^on. With regard to the benedictive Atm. "JUJTtf budhydsam ^HITO budhydsva ^*HHfl budhydstam ^M I '3p$m budliydsma ^irai budhydsta ^*Hi^t budhydsuh 2. whereas in other strengthening and ^ri becomes ir. fq^kship. too. he is cut much. Denom. he &c. This if ya is added in the same manner as it is in the Div verbs. and imperative of the passive are formed by adding IT 2/a to the root. '^IfM^^ bodhishiyd ^flfVM'HfV bodhishivdhi ^Vftml*tf^ bodhisMmdhi 2. see the general rules as to $ 396. remains unchanged. does not take intermediate ^ i. chor-ydte. 396- &*$: srastdh. Bases in passive. to cut 3fico*sn loluyydte. Special Tenses of the Passive. HWi^ srasydt. to fill. .T&ft&QR sanisrasydte. Ger. 399. that if the benedictive Atm. XV. make one know. Pass. the strengthening of the base. to which the lya of the passive is added without any intermediate vowel. The passive takes the terminations of the Atmanepada. Ben. and particularly $ 348 seq.?$ri are left unchanged. ^TH budhydh TURff budhydt 3. to ^T^ ay is before t ya of the "*tt*n^bodhdy '. Ger. 32). Pass. ftfml4 kshipsiyd. Atm. . Caus. he their stolen. imperfect. ^fFmflaU bodhisMshthdh HtlVll^lW "T bodhishiydsthdm bodhishiydstdm ^tfVT^?4 bodhishidJivdm ^i(VfMii5^ bodhishirdn CHAPTER PASSIVE. rf^ nahydte. Part. ^TR^ srasydte. Int. Benedictive. Ben. <Tl|ri rajydte. 1. (f ^ ^ or. ^pri.) drop is bound. T^fff ndhyate. t3K raktdh.

Pres. preceded by 199 ^y. to shine. The ifya of the passive is treated. The periphrastic perfect is auxiliary verbs ^ as and ^ the same as in the Atmanepada. with certain exceptions. Periphrastic Perfect. qfal^bebkidy. like one of the conjugational class-marks (vikaranas). <fhft to sever . q^ vevt. in fact. as well as ^ kri. which are retained in the special tenses only. it is lightened. to yearn. to be poor. ^ya is dropt. which. 3. so that. I. drop their final vowel. V^f^bhuy^ran ^TiTf bhuydntdm tenses of the passive. SINGULAR. and it differs thereby from the derivative syllables of causative. ^(*iwn bebhidydte. remain throughout both in the special and in the general tenses. as usual. Pres. desiderative. 2. *ng$ dbhdye WgW. e. dbhdyathdh tgWCbMytthdh *j*tt bhuydsva *TqTT dbMyata VgfrbMytta *gllft Opt. vj$bhdy6 $TH* bhuydse 07* bMydte Impf. $ 400.' daridrd. ^Twt bhuydmahai ^^ bhuytdhvam ^^ bhuyddhvam General Tenses of the Passive.PASSIVE. J 389 seq. drop their Intensive bases ending in *^y. (J 342. ^TR^ bhuydmahe ^l*lf^ bhuytmahi *$$& bhuyddhve ^T*J?T5I dbhuyadhvam Impf. In the general certain exceptions to be mentioned hereafter. there is no distinction between the general tenses of the passive and those of the Atmanepada. Pres. Reduplicated Perfect. ^bMya( vgtt^bMydvahe bhuydtdm DUAL. ^teti didhydte. VgWbMyfya Imp. didM. a consonant. q(V. i. for the benedictive. The reduplicated perfect is the same as in the Atmanepada. ^UJTHHf^ dbhuydmahi ^NJjTiT dbhuyanta Opt. it IB severed. see the rules given Passive. ^4*1^ bhuytuahi >J5^Rt bhuyfydtkdm *J^zn bhuytihdm ^Tnrf bhtiyfy&tdm Imp.) . *JJJN^ bhtiydvahai ^iH bhuyttdm ^-qiT bhuydnte PLURAL. ^t*ft didhi. ^T^lT^f^ dbhuydvahi Opt. with f 401. it lightens. Imp. and intensive verbs. ^q^ bh&ytthe ^T^^lf dbhuyethdm *& bhuytte ^J^iff dbhuyetdm Impf. As to the weakening of the base. but the bM must be conjugated in the Atmanepada.

Intensive bases in T^y add the passive Int. and without from the paradigms given above. ^\X*T choray. Caus. > J First Form. asrishta. though in may reappear. Fourth Form. ^P^ay the Atm. except in the third person singular. the general tenses. fJ ^MTf% abhdvij or abhdvayishthdh. Desiderative bases. has been fixed in the J 403. ^^nf dbodhi. $403- $ 402. instead of ^fq'ff adita. i. 54. likewise.) drop ^f ay before the passive Hya. adeh-i. akdr-i. akshep-i. alikshata. ^iftj addy-i. 56. ^rfojTT dldv-i. Des. ^MTf^f abhdvi. H V*I bodhay.. ^T^rT akrita. in. Verbs ending in ^*{ay (Chur. . being conjugated in abhdvisM. ^rftrep adhikshata. aleh-i. agtih-i. after the dropping of the passive i. anay-i. the original ^ t. ending in ^ i. Aor. In the third person singular a peculiar form medial passive.e. ^ef^TK achorij TT*fQrdjay. without Guna. Intensive bases ending in Int. H^|ftl addyi. 406. ^^ilVsiJ abhdvishtJidh. and Guna of vowels (but ^r a is lengthened). d or diphthongs. * This would follow extends to Pan. *. adhukshata. Tft*$l(bobhuy. preceded by a consonant. refuse Guna. ^hf^fbubodhishj Aor. 405. akshipta. ^y. followed by one consonant. addh-i." ^^ay or retain it. &c. may be used as passive. instead of^wfay dlavishta. ^fWST bebhidy. 1 abodh-i.200 PASSIVE. we find ^T^tfv? abodhishta. refuse Guna. and ^T^rftrf^ abebhidi. Aorist. not to be used in a purely passive sense *. ^R^rfvfa if Jcartari abubodhishi. Verbs may be conjugated in the three forms of the differing first aorist which admit of Atmanepada.. 404. ^xv adagdha. ^HsTTft astdr-i.. ^Ujfi In the other persons these verbs may either drop either case after the first form of the first aorist. ^T*rf^ asarj-i. ^[ i. aorist The second Atmanepada is Thus. TBrf^Tf adikshata. Verbs ending in ^TT <fT adoh-i. . fc Second Form. take T^y before the passive 2[ da. drop ^y. astirshta. ardji. and requiring Vriddhi of final. ^T^t>jftr abobMyi. Denom.

) 332. Others add ^n^Jtaro. 16). WSlfa aldvi. sing.) bhafij. being identical with the peculiar third person singular of the aorist passive. W^fa alambhi or <No6lfa a/M. Thus from i from this. to yawn. strike. 63. Vffv abadhi. may form a secondary base (really to see. 35. nam (Pan.) passive J 409. 33. and Benedictive of Verbs ending in Vowels. T>^ rabh. (Pan. vn. V^am. May I be known Secondary Form of the Aorist. grah. vn. I shall be Bened. sam.) i. c5^ teM. These formations are identically the same in the passive as in the Atmanepada. ^rilfafii aldvi-shi. (Pan. ^tftnq bodhishye. PASSIVE. Thus the paradigms given in the Atmanepada may be used in the of the aorist. i by treating the final 5 as the we have Wc4lfc aldvi. ^ ^ denominative). (Pan. 3. ( erfl(V|*M flfilriUJ dbodhishye. ^TOfa dchdmi. With prepositions c5^ /a6/i always forms Vcjftr alambhi. to kill. vi. ^rtfv arandhi. J 410. 35. I. forms ^itf*? arambhi. fTT ^n^fleAam. "i&^tam. 182. to beget. SM^ifa ajami. the Conditional. ! Cond. to desire. I. Panini excepts ^T vam. sing. we form. NSMlfcm: aldvi-shthdfy. (Pan. The 201 : following are a few irregular formations of the 3rd pers. (Pan.) W3ffa o/ant. Periphr. (Pan. dns. to break. described before. and the Benedictive Passive. (See p. the Two Futures. 10 . aorist passive i. I shall be known. I should be known. Fut. 69. - WTftf abhufiji or VMlfaf abhdji.). ^ . ^ffrftNta bodhishiyd. vn. and intermediate ^ i. vn.) ^ Tfl*T badh. wtfTfa aldvi. All verbs ending in vowels. vn. W*JTfa aydmi. and likewise to take. to take. *&{jan. ^ >H^ radh. 4. in *r^ay. pers. 1. to rinse. to 411. but IT yam. vn.- 4* I 407. vn. known. to strike. (Pan. Roots ending in their radical vowel. ^wfaai: aldvi-shthdh. 3. 3. ^HrifH a/ami. 3. <g lu Sing. Hence Fut. which admit of intermediate 5[ 3.) ( 408. bodhitahe. which forms 34. with the exception of the 3rd pers. 34. ^Tiffa ujambhi. D d . 61. yf^jabh.) 61. han. the Conditional. vart. by the side of c4rqfM aldvi-shi. do not lengthen (Pan.) See 345. vn. alavishi vjcaTq^f^ alavishvahi ^c^f^^r^ Wc?f%l4 or alavishmahi alavishthdh aldvi ^MrtrmiMi alavishdthdm xt^fciMiffi alavishdtdm J alavidhvam or -dhvam w&fwn alavishata The Two Futures.

hence Aor. Fut. i^ c?^t. ^rc^rfcfa adhvdrishi. c^P^ril^ Idvi-tdhe. ^"^hl cheshiya. 270.4. Per. ^iinP^ aghdni. i9%1% dhvdrtdhe. -?Hc*lP^Hf^ aldvi-shvahi. ^n^tfa adarsishi. f Siddh. Per. aghrdyishye.syif^ Cond. Aor. t^lfc^ dhvdrishye. 3. sing. TTT^ ghrdsye. 411side of Hc*PiHP^ alavi-shvahi. ^TTT% cheiahe. by the side of c*P<^tM Idvi-shye. ^Ifi|f^ hence Aor. ^wsnft adhvdri. hence Aor. ^l drikshiya. vadhishiya).62 tFut. ^f^^ 1 darsishye. seems to allow 332. 3rd pers. Aor. Ben. hence kill. c^TPM^J Idvi-shye. ^P* ahasi. ^ffrt hantdhe. to sq^dhvrishiyaorvstfttvdhvarishtya*.vi. Per. sing. 3. SH^ul acheshye. Pass. Fut. From to see. 3rd pers. ^c-ifMMH aldvi-shata. &(i. 'HoiiVmvjj aldvi-shdthdm. Plur. ^f$t adar&i. hence Aor. Fut. PASSIVE. . Pan. ^"^ cheshye. e3P^*fln Idvi-shiya. -flrtlfciui aldvi-shye. ^r-cftPnui achdyishye. 3rd pers. l||^^ ghrdsiya.n. ^T^P^PM achdyishi. Aor. ^HlPnPK aghdnishi. * ^Jc5p^ aldvi-shye. adhvrishi or ^ruiftft adhvarishi. (c|Pififln Ben. sing. nfbn^ dhvdritdhe. M i P<M^ chdyishye. Fut. MlfMril^ ghrdyitdhe. ^. Fut. Pass. i by the aldvi-shdthdm. From ^ ^?z. oSlfcrilj Idvi-tdhe. UMI^ ghrdtdhe. Ben. ^mfa aghrdyi. Cond. 3rd pers. pers. Ben. nfbrfa dhvdrishiya. ^K&ifasafaldvi-dhvamor^^dhvam MlP<4Mff aldvi-shata. Aor. MlPn^ ghdnishye. 5. Aor. ^iP^Mln chdyishiya. 3rd pers. Per. ^Pnul hanishye. ^TcSTfaTf^ aldvi-shmahi. uiPijtflii ghrdyishiya. ^Pjlrii^ darsitdhe. n. besides ^?^f^ acheshi. i. fiss drakshye. p. sing. SHmHuPM aghrdyishi) besides SHUlPu aghrdsi. Pass. Pass. pers. ~^5{dri&. besides ( ^ 3 Py Pn avadhishi). -5^^ drashtdhe. TfiffTdl^ ghdnitdhe. Fut. Pn ul aghrdsye. ^TcSTfr^Tiri aldvi-shdtdm. Fut. From f% chi. to smell. besides Fut. * See ^P$|*(hl dar&shtya. by the side of swfV^ng aldvi-shmahi. Aor. Fut. xjiPuHI^ chdyitdhe. - Per. Ben. From inghrd. ^roFfesr aldvi-dhvam or ^. Fut. Fut. ^cSfamdl alavi-shdtdm.202 Dual r. %. From to hurt.-Kaum. sing. fyrP^t^ Idvi-sMya. Cond. isrftw dhvdrishye. -4Mipjj achdyi. Pass. Per. i||Pi|u) -*{ || | ghrdyishye. yifHMl^ ghdnishiya. Ben. vol. besides ^rfPf adrikshi. to gather.

Pass. sing. is (^W budhyate. Div. he burns. CHAPTER PARTICIPLES. *<1 same form optionally (Pan. of This gives us the Ahga base. they two arose. participle of the present $414. AND INFINITIVE. Parasmaipada retains the Vikaranas of the ten classes. dyate. it easily The accent remains in the 3rd pers. ^lTf*T ajani or ^enifne ajanishta. weft arami or ^Klfa ard/we .). Atmanepada of a Div 412. From to delight. mfcCM aramishi or ^Tifirfa ardmishi. he spreads.61) . Par. Aor. GERUNDS. >T^HT &c. ^ hence Aor. HI. Aor. 3rd pers. and cases that participle does not take a nasal. Fut. Bhu. he fills. Div. sing. verb). (Pan. Pass. bhdvatd bhdvantam tuddnti tuddnt tuddn tuddntam tudatd dtoyanti dfvyant dirynn divyant am dtryatd D d 2 . AND INFINITIVE. agrdhishi.. o^MWini becomes J^Mlty udapddi. Atm.). besides KHfafo aramayishi. Thus IrqClff utpadyate (3rd pers. he is.-J 414.) 413. JTT^ ramay. and dropping the final ^ i. fM adipi or ^<OrMK adipish^a. Other verbs of an intransitive character take the (<j1u|d dtpyate. yifgiflq grdhishiya. Atm. i. IF&lrik grahitdhe. HWTf Instr. Caus. ^TTtfV abodhi or VJl abuddha. PARTICIPLES. inf^*f grahishye. but it is regular in the udapatsdtdm.) Thus H^f?T bhdvanti Nom.). ^L^frt purayati.)> to beget). cannot be formed from Iffy'an (Hu. apuri or Wjfn? apurishta. Atm. from the present. ^* in the 3rd pers. he conscious. Chur. vi. plur. (TTRff tdyate. then Bha and the feminine H^TT bhdvant suffix receive the accent. 203 hence From TRyrah. Aor. Mlfa atdyi or ^T*. plur. he arose. of t1 ram. present of the he arises. ?rrfT*f grdhishye. &c. Per. I. sing. S. >T^ bhdvan Ace. other persons. 173. 1. he is born. Ben. It is most easily formed by taking the 3rd pers. Certain verbs of an intransitive meaning take the passive Aor. if in the participle deduced according to general on the same syllable falls where was If the accent on the last syllable all of the participle. in. Div. he grows). XVI. he sprang up . Atm. i|^1*rlq grahishiya. to take. GERUNDS. 60. Fut. besides Wil^lfM agrahishi. Trfziri^grdhitdhe. The which the Pada and Bha base can be rules (J 182).. sing. <{{jif]gfa ^nft agrdhi. Atm. 3rd pers. really Div form of Tan). xiqifl apydyi or -*mrM8 apydyishta. it jan (*i\*M jdyate. (Pan. atdyishta.

plur.. only that the s. according to the rules on intermediate ^ i. which. s^i^ addnt addn addnt am adatd aJ^riT ( 184) jtibvati juhvat juhvat juhvatam juhvatd rundhdnt Intens. it must be remembered. before T: uh. Hftra^ bhavishydn H fa *M rf bhavishydntam Instr. chordyantam chordyatd sunvdnt sunvn sunvdntam &c. That. Hfcufri'l bhavishydnt bhavishyatd 416. $415- ^K*J^ chordyan Ace. The participle of the future is formed on the same principle. with the Bha base of the participle. tanvdnt tanvdn "BfalF^ tanvdntam &c. are monosyllabic in the 3rd pers. GERUNDS. ^TCTIT Instr. Ace.) Instr. The participle of the reduplicated perfect may best be formed by This corresponds. all verbs which. qioiifi &c. Sing. accent. Plur. Plur. WtWi^ krmdnt krmdn krmdntam krinatd ^fifrTT&c. babhuvuh babhuvushd babhuvdn babhuvddbhih ninyuh ninyushd ninivdn tJl^SlT^ nintvdmsam ninivddbhih 3^fk tutudvdmsam tutudvddbhih tutuduh tutudushd tutudvdn f^f^t didivuh f^r^ji^ didivushd ^K*(T*Jt4j lit didivdn didivdmsam ^nT^TTTTf^T^T^f didivddbhih ^TIj'nTPgJ ^TKTn^TMFT^T^ choraydmdsivan ^ftonHTfirafg: choraydmdsivddbhih choraydmdsuh choraydmdsushd choraydmdsivdmsam . and Pada bases. i . had been naturally changed into a semivowel. restore that vowel. it is easy to changed to ^ sh.204 PARTICIPLES. Optional ^ Sing. ^fatq-^ bhavishydnti Norn. 8. according to In forming the Anga 204. Ace. form the Anga and Pada bases. 2. both in form and taking the 3rd pers. as it is always ^ Having the Bha base. without counting the "3: uh. (See Necessary ^ i. 338. Instr. is 1. Norn. 3rd P. S. That roots ending in a vowel. Sing. Nom. insert ^ i. S. followed by a vowel. i. of that tense. *TT*J^T^ rundhdn fl*j<if^ rundhdnt am rundhatd "37*j^ni ( ^JTff b6bhuvatam 184) bdbhuvat bobhuvat bobhuvatd 415. 337. chordyant AND INFINITIVE. plur.

ITR mdna for verbs of the First Division (J 295). jagmuh jagmushd jagmivdn or jaganvdn jagmivdrhsam jagmicddbhih jaghnuh jaghnushd jaghnivan or jaghanvdn jaghnivamsam jaghnivddbhih vividuh vividushd vividvan or vividivdn or vividvdmsam vioidcddbhih vivisuh vivisushd vivisvdn or vivisivdn vivisvdmsam vivifvddbhih dris dadrisuh dadrisushd dadrisvdn or dadrisivan dadrisvdmsam dadrisvddbhih is 418. 419. Atm. or Ace. The participle of the reduplicated perfect ire. we get the following forms : 3rd P. Sing. ^R dna for verbs of the Second Division. In five verbs. 3rd P. Sing. present it Atm. plur. present Atm. and replace * by ^TR! dnafy. babhdvire chakrire ^L^M: babhuvdndfy ^?W^n: chakrdndh dadire J ^R: daddnah. and replace by JfRt mdnah.. 8). 205 Nom. Instr. Sing. Plur. where the insertion of ^ before ^ optional ( 337. Sing. The participle present Atmanepada has two terminations. fTO sushnvuh sushuvushd sushuvdn 7ffTTF*^ tenlvdn sushuvdihsam tushuvddbhih v cTjm ten lilt tenushd teniva/hsam P*iftl<iiti tenivddbhih fafag: chikriyuh chikriytishd chikriodn chikriodmsam chikricddbhih ^IJtn dduh ddushd ^Nlf^l^ ddivdn ddivdmsam ddivddbhih *lf '-ffe* *J?^^T juhuvuh juhuvushd ^Sc|[c^ juhuvdn juhuvdmsam juhuvddbhih rurudhuh rurudhushd rurudhvdn rurudhvdmsam rurudhvddbhih is 417. plur. GERUNDS. . Instr.PARTICIPLES. it ^ nte. Nom. drop the termination ^nr ate.. Atmanepada formed by dropping ^T the termination of the 3rd pers. Plur. Instr.. In the First Division we drop the termination may again take the 3rd pers. In the Second Division we may likewise take the 3rd pers. AND INFINITIVE. Sing. Sing. plur. Ace. The same optional forms run through all the Pada and Bha cases. Plur. and substituting ^TTT dna. Instr. Plur.

formed by adding IT: tdh or eft ndb done. fern. Tg^lputvd or. $ 423. Des. ^f?n kritd. The Past Participle Passive in 7H tah and the Gerund in J i^T tva. The past participle passive is ^r?f: to the root. J 420- Second Division. . FTT tva to the kritva 3 ?f kri. "ag^R from Tf^pun. ^^bubhusha-nte Int. (See $ 344.206 PARTICIPLES. most opposed to the insertion of inter- neut. tvd have MfaHl pavitva. Atm. having purified. edhishyd-nte edhishyd-mdnah The participles of the present and future passive are formed by adding *TRt mdnah in the same manner. Put. 422. ($ 332. First Division. which must insert ^ i before if ta is very small. : The in the participle of the future Atmanepada is formed by adding mdnah in the same manner. cut. kritdh. The rules as to the insertion of the intermediate ^ i before ?=rT been given before. always form their past participle without it. ^P^U|Hri!j: bhavishyd-nte bhavishyd-mdnafy R neshyd-nte totsyd-nte T^iMHRd: neshyd-mdnah iftwui^: totsyd-mdnah ^Puu(H|iii: i J 421. rundh-dte %VTf: rundh-dndfy ^ft^l^ bodhuyd-nte 420. bhdva-nte tudd-nte VRJTR: bhdva^mdnafy IJ^TRJ tudd-mdnah sunv-dte ^rnreff dpnuv-yte g^R: sunv-dndfy ^MI^HM: dpnuv-dn* : divya-nte ^Nmr^r: divya-mdnah iJUquUU: chordya-mdnah tanv-dnd krin-dndfy chordya-nte krm-dte ad-dte uhv-ate jfftaiFT: tudyd-nte ^HMt tudyd-mdnah ^f'^HS ad-dndh bhdvdya-nte HN+HM: bhdvdya-mdnah ^JWT&: bubhusha-mdnah "^JtWHt bobhuyd-mdnah ^3^1~*{\ juhv-dnah. <gT: lundh. ^ fai. as we which may form any one general tense mediate ^ i y so The number with or without ^ i. . masc. 7T This termination ^a is. With regard to the strengthening or weakening of the . formed by adding "^pu. D. Jcriyd-mdnafy HTsq^R: bhdvyd-mdnah ndyishyd-nte kriyd-nte ndyishyd-mdnah HT^ bhdvyd-nte Or like the Part. root. GERUNDS. bhiiyd-nte IJJJHH* bhtiyd-mdnafy ^i4^ budhyd-nte stuyd-nte IURT^T: budhyd-mdnah bhdvishyd-nte- bhdvishyd-mdnah ^TRTT: stuyd-mdnah f&q*TO. AND INFINITIVE. epf kritdm. <J[ /i<. is one of those which have a tendency to weaken verbal bases. saw.) is The gerund of simple verbs having done. having always the Udatta.) of verbs so that verbs much Besides being averse to the insertion of intermediate ^ i } the participial termination H ta.

to speak. 8) . drop them before WJ taA and WT fp< . 15). tjiftfrm sramsitod (Pan. to rest. 2. down. as a general rule. avid. ^^srams. "^ror "3". H: t ah "in I F7T 3[ t v. ending in nasals.iii mriditvd. '3R(vas. 18). 4. In giving a few more special rules on this point. to exist. Wi{dyut. T^rfi^T sdntvd. (Pan. 23). 4. ^5^A:m. "31 u. 7). 22) . to bear. i. I and rJ^/ancA. though not altogether. PARTICIPLES. SH* saw. JfP{ Arram. f^ md. II. jH. ai. I. i. is AND INFINITIVE. as they agree to a great extent. vanchitvd or ^f-Hr^ vachitvd. to sweat. it will be conUdatta. vi. 424. If case the ^ft si. 2. 427. to dwell. preceded by ^. 18). ^ff^HI to be soft. attenuate (Pan. vi. Vnti^T dharshitvd. beginning with consonants. 426. to rub. iifVrti granthitvd or 44 fan grathitvat. Kl tah and WT tva. if possible. 18). vi. ^fnn dyutitdm or n dyotitdm.\. See No. Verbs with penultimate TK may iTl Pn or MPii<n^amW. ^ ^ *. 429. 37-) "ZRtf: krdntdh. (Pan. Roots ending in nasals lengthen their vowel before WJ tah and r^T ted (Pan. 2. Guna. 2. to know. i. ^crtV. from ^[^/wn. ^ pu (i.- 430. . (%f<. 26) : Ip^cfyttf. to . 156. may not take Guna before Tf fa with interit mediate ^ *. shine. may or may not lengthen "air^T its vowel before i^T tvd (Pan. to thirst to bear. 22). to f^iS^&fr/. ^ mrirf. and ending in any single consonant except *^y or ^t>. the general rule that WT tvd without intermediate ^ weakens. i. preceded by a nasal. to delight. 425. 2. to dare. nasal before 428. if they are used impersonally. sfqrqi pavitvd (Pan. ^jtyrit sveditdh or (V<lf|! svinndh . ^TV^urfA. to hurt. take Guna optionally (Pan. uditvd. WT kram. 2. 8^1^ lit kshveditdh. i. Roots ending in "^fA or "^pA. 19) . to shine. 1. with It always has the intermediate ^ i strengthens the root (Pan. ^fm^l mushitvd . 4. to cheat. 2. ijf^r^T mriditvd (Pan. *J^ gra. rud. i. GERUNDS. 23). 2. tah takes intermediate is . may or may not drop the WT tvd (Pan. 207 i base. ^fm^fi ushitvd. purify. f^iP^IHI klisitvd. 2. i. 24). it may in certain verbs produce Guna. vftlf* dharshitdh. I. 2. to fall. 2. vartitvd. to drip. i The same applies to the roots ^^vafich. I. (Pan. 25) . to step. tjRrqi ruditvd (Pan. without intermediate ^ i. 2. Ig^mush. ifcmrid. or at all events does not produce any weakening of the base. to pluck (Pan. however. The following roots. In this Guna to lie before r^T tvd regular. jfclHI krdntvd or krantvd. sveditvd. ^f^lf* pavtidh (Pan. a^i^rm kshveditvd. mtrf. 20) . 2.h. also ^iPirGU kramitvd. to cry. JjPviHI gudhitvd. i. tflfriril IJ^mmA. Verbs. it has been shining. If WT tod takes intermediate ^. requires. to Though taking in intermediate weakens the base. venient to take the terminations w ta and iWT tvd together. with intermediate ? i. "jfar^T trishitvd or nf^rqi tarshitvd. cover. 430. i^ni meditvd. 31 fora i $ayitvd. having twisted. IT.rm J viditvd. fftwt marshltdh (patient). to steal. ]^1rli grihitvd. ^TTTr: sdntdh. Guna e. . but. 2. ^|f<4ni fayitdh (Pan. i. dyotitvd or '^PriHl dyutitvL The same option applies to Jfitrish. qfrfrti ^^pun) y to purify. ^f^TTJ meditdh . k thrill. ^vad.) i. rTT tvd does not produce I. Hf*lill marshitvd. to take.

ftfWJ sitah. 42). f^r=lT Az^a (Pan. M! rq pitvd. vi. 23) and Trert??: prastimah (Pan. The verbs which take Samprasarana 3[ t. vin. Hr^T turtvd. f&Tftl sthitah. to call (with Tt pra). 'ffttnatdh. 1. 41). 4. or take the regular sa^a (Pan. ^i^a. Roots ending in "^ rc^A. 22). i. 2. 21. 19. t|rl . to bind. .) "^v. TTtt ratdh. wrqi w^a. to drink. to bear. 431*R nam t to TJ^yam. srutvdj *8*{av. vi. 5toa. TJFI prishtah ( dyutvd. forms fft^lpinah. to protect. f^rfl c?z^a (Pan. 'JJTWo. to ask. l&l sthd. pitah. ^TfTt AafrfA. to strike.) #wr. : f^JHI si'^a or $llril ^ i. vn. vn. "Q^'* sudattah. ^FRii'KJ c^STT dattvd (Pan. lli^R gdtvdj l&^man. wftj turnah. to sport.Tfft[yatvd*. ^ff^jan. ^J murtah. and chho. fftpd. (Pan. forms ^ftTt sinah. in vowels. substitute ^TT d. rolled up (Pan. ^ I into (Pan. 38) : those ending in 1(m may or l^tj the nasal before the gerundial Hya. Iftr5TT i to meditate. *ft?H tjtff J 433. 4. IfFRmatvdj "^^van. substitute %JT: AVa^ or forms ^TTrT: sdtah. vii. Final TJ e and ^TT a. ^t^ khan. pydnah after certain prepositions (Pan. to kill. TlTt gatdh. vi. fpTJ dyunah. 432. 40) .) t After prepositions ending preposition lengthened. ^ft so. vi. vi. sphdy. to sharpen. but "OfR: 28). AND INFINITIVE. too. *{rT jurtvd. to check. (Pan. 4. to dry. 4. to grow. fTTH faa$. ^^J suttah. ^^^. GERUNDS. and 16. 434. The following roots change their final vowel into ^ i. forms Mfeilri: prastitah (Pan. to bend. l^murchh. The following verbs change their ^v with the preceding or following vowel ^i u. "^t turnah. cold . TT^faw. 46). 3^^ and "3i w. 4. vi. sphitah (Pan. t vii. 1JTH wi^aA. f^cf: AzYa^. to grow. i. and lengthen the vowel. 4. ^Trf: khdtah. 24. to obtain. Vhftt dhitah. "UTTfT: dhydtah. to measure. 25). 2. ^^r^Tmw^. to finish. or ^r. T^\rom. Hya and insert may not drop 431. to leave (^*T: Mwa^). and ^ftrT s^a^. 13Ttvar. 437. J&znhatvctj T* gam. TJ^T ratvd.) . The following verbs drop final *{n. to dig. ^JTH srutah. ^ ai T gai. changed to \i. iv.208 PARTICIPLES. to think. 125). to stand. 13. 43). Note Of the same verbs those ending in ^w drop the nasal before the gerundial THTTT pramdtya (Pan. to suck. drop their final consonant. f^T Ai^a (Pan. to stretch. vi. . to give. i. ftlft rnzYa/^. ask. to place. Roots ending in . to faint. ffi^T tatvdj *HTt matdh. TcH yatdh. to cut. and the other verbs of the Tan ending in 5^w. 11*171 pragdtya or WFRtpragdmya. ^Ttfljdtah. to hasten. *T*!fcjurnah. before Kt tah and WT taahave been mentioned * See verbs without intermediate ( 332. 4. ^Tft wtaA. f^Tr^T sthitvdj VT rf^a. to play. 54). 4. f^div. i. *TTma. /ai. v dhe. go. ' ^^[natvdj / '%*fkan. ^: dattah^. vi. ^ do. (*iil! mitvd. 20. forms ai. or substitute t| cM. to curdle. OTtTi sdtah. sing. to ail. to cut. iffl prishtvd. and the final 3[ and ^ w of a H^rtl pradattdh. Exceptional forms <JT da. ^ da may fffil be dropt. $ft so. khdtvd. to ^ dhyai. ^T M. but 'H^flT^J samsydnah. ^TT a. Roots ending in dhydtvd: or are ^ I. vii. 4. f^TTt rf7^. to class. '*Hril sdtvd. 435. prattah. *\\ri\jdtvd: Tsllril W^san. 436.

to wet. broken . VH. in the Verbs which native grammarians have marked E e Dhatupa^ha with . intoxicated. J^: nunnah or pr: nuttah. 44). fQftl syannah. ^ dr. changed into $*. and ^ *yanrf. ^fafijrr. Intensive verbs Atm. 3a>lfqrf: chekriyitah. form the participle and gerund regularly. although their ^ n is otherwise liable to be lost. 2. form the charkarti. chikirshitah. shaken . bebhiditah. 3 1 ). 'j . to 393 as undergoing the same change in the benedictive and passive. W^\ 4. are. cut. tlMI srastvd. to flow. f*T$i bhinnah. Wlnashtah). decayed. to dive.in 442. If^majj. the substitution is optional vid. . participle and gerund regularly . facfcirQ^t chikirshitvd. 441. beginning with ^sti (Dhatupa^ha 26. retain the tT^T namshtvd or nasal optionally before FIT tvd (Pan. viu. wasted 3. 2. Verbs ending in ^ d . Id. *yantarf (Pan. Intensive verbs Par. 440. Causal verbs form the participle after rejecting *R ay a . 10 ) lose it before WI tah and ill tod. ^RrT. otherwise liable to nasalization. AND INFINITIVE. Pan. H^ FT7VT srams. 2. 209 ^WtwicA. to perish. to But chhinnah. and push. ^frf^T bebhiditvd. T15T uktvd. ^ >jtf: dhunah. beginning with lunah (Dhatupatha 31. vi. its But ^fi^ s*anrf. mad. Desiderative verbs Pqofclfiirf: PM*Wrr chikirshati. 2. class. pained dinah. &c. 13 . Twelve verbs of the Div Pan. wA instead of m faj in the past participle do not take the intermediate ^ i. 438. forms gerund 3&r4l skantvd. 32). rahktvd or T1!T raktvd (but only TJKraktah)-. fk^ bhid. to find. and roots ending l{j. 60). Some of them come under the next rule. is dunah. <%: Twenty-one verbs of the Kri class. . decayed. f^ und. speak. ifhr: jinah. srastah. kdrayati. viu. iTO mattah. stirnah. viu. ^R: skannah. T^K uktah. T^na/. lifter: kdritah. Certain verbs take tK passive. mahktvd or HliT maktvd (Pan. provided they 1. 442. 4. loved. 45). bebhidyate. TW ^T nash(vd (but only f 439. ^f3iH: charkritah. In g^ nud. to stride. g?r: 2335 . jrfai: Verbs ending in ^ n. in Part. PARTICIPLES. The most important prinah. but ^Rf^^T kdrayitvd. which . torn jirnah. ^4f<HI charkaritvd. injured ^S: dirnah. *TJ nah instead of IT: tah iw Me Pa^ Participle. . ^f1 is ^m After roots ending in consonants the intensive ^y dropt . 56) 5. . ^ ^ (Pan. to cut. ^jftift chekriyate. of roots ending in vowels form the participle and gerund regularly chekriyitvd.ir or . ft^ chhid. spread ^rtw: birnah. GERUNDS. vi. Roots which can lose their nasal ( 345. to tear. The most important are. 4. i.

T$Kkrisdh. to waste. to protect. or J? e. * Pan. 443. 2. 124). 443- an indicatory ^T7f: ^rt o. i. w?r: dhydtah (Pan.^S: ptirnah. ^^ilsushJcah. . from f^. but f%fww vijitya. 59). and 9^H: sydnah.. is said to be trS: purtah (Pan. Verbs beginning with a double consonant. Verbs ending in a short vowel take m tya instead of if ya. GEKUNDS. having collected. ^ 43) 5 fl ^ fl *> JJW gldnafy.210 PARTICIPLES. 51. vin. and in the neuter fTrepTT^^ kritavat. ^(trai. ^TT %^. 2. and then with an optional form ^fTTH ptiritah (Pan. Native grammarians enumerate certain words as participles which. but ^rftfi^T ajitvd. coagulated. not having conquered. but not verbs preceded by the negative particle ya (without the accent). 57) . drunk. 57) . vii. Except kshi. j 446. only if derived from *pilr. though by their meaning they may take the place of participles. from % play. being in fact a participle perfect active.vi. By in w ta and adding the possessive suffix "^vat ( 187) to the participles T na y a new participle of very common occurrence is formed. 2. ?JT dyuna and <4P<. trdnah or ^nr: fr*a/0# (Pan. viu. 6. declined throughout like adjectives in They are regularly Gerund j 445. ^W bhuj (^ft bhujo. allows tJT cfywwa in all senses of the root f^ div. by their formation to be Thus "T^it pakvdh. ^R: dytinah. to proclaim. expanded. vp^T bhritvd . but generally used as a definite verb. Except ^ dhyai. changeable to ^n d (Pan. except in that of gambling. vi. H tctl 1 prastimdh 1 . 2. having destroyed (Pan. 56. AND INFINITIVE. viu. ^ bhri. f^f div. crowded. see Dhatupatha 26. carry. Thus. i. T* at. 2. come from a different root. . and ending in ^1 d.^H( paridyuna. he has made mat . becomes who has done. or in the feminine sd kritavati. &c. (not to gamble. 7. to bend. instead of ?^T tvd. 4. 206). 56). fartijitva.dit. instead of *3\bMtva. pained. faded. ^Nr: hrmafy or ^tlf: hritah. f*f to conquer. "tflRtkshdmdh. Dhatupatha 33.thiYi'. viu. Dhatupatha 28. is In grot TRghrd. WTW: khydtah. to ^far: kshinah. having conquered. J 444. ^ *rr sa katam kritavdn. dry (Pan. to meditate. classed as adjectives or substantives rather than as participles. to frsy but TOfFI sambhritya. we find H*$$sambMya. to pain. take in "q ya. 49. which forms TRsfaprakshiya. ^T a. vii. Compound IT verbs. also from c*^ $ffa: to be ashamed. one of them being a semivowel. one Thus ^K\ the kritdh. kritdvdn. where /a^. viu. done. be in contact with (Pan. 2.weak'. cIP^Tt lagnah. while the participle of T^pri &s^. ^fhr: sinah 18). to it is inn dyutah) * 2. the substitution 2. isffat kshivdh.) optional . to smell. cold. viu. bhugnah. o. "J^: phulldh. from c^T laj. are s^a^. but ashamed (Pan. ripe . 27). Miscellaneous participles in T: wa/L.

or not go. ^Aan. vi. having caused to reach (Pan. VERBAL ADJECTIVES. Otherwise the causative as usual. TJT pd. to leave. to stand. however. in. CHAPTER Verbal Adjectives in cf^: XVII. which do not admit of intermediate ^ may to bow.-453before VERBAL ADJECTIVES. *TT md. and. 4144). verbs change final f*ll\fff mindti. T^^am. to fail. Ex. i.). faciendus. tan. forms Wmpravdya. to weave. ghu ( 392 *). Verbs ending in vittrya. i. into "3Rdr. Tf^pach. vi. c5^ /I. beans (Pan. having caused to suffix is. $ 448. 4. to ^ft^^I parivJy a . Ex.These verbal adjectives (called Kiitya) correspond in meaning to the Latin participles in ndus. VHMm F^: dharmas tvayd kartavyah. 56): WlWlfri sahyamdyati. i. right t Versus memorials of these verbs : ifH3(*H*i1 ^fcTCg^rWT irfHHfn: I rPJ % Another suffix for forming verbal adjectives rare occurrence. to drink or to protect. of fit to cook. *ft mf. after labials. 4. <*uul4U karaniyah. Tf&lprahdtya. nn\*\pratarya. to T^am. may form Jim*f prapaya or wf\ft praptya (Sar. cfir: <*ri^: kartavyah. to melt. bhidelimali. form ^ ctf. upaddya. Some "^\jyd. Causative bases with short penultimate vowel. Thus % ve. fragile. ^ f^^M *1 parivydya or ^vye. is ^cOT eliinah. optionally flc6l*Ttn/tfy a or f=ic4l*lt?i%a (Pan. brickie. Ex. Certain verbs are irregular in not taking Samprasarana. vart. (Pan. vi. ?f^ khan and v&[jan form ^n^I khdnya or or "SfR j/ya. 453. to drink. ^T hd. destroys. cover. 451. 449. fi*ii*i Thus nimdya. tavyah (or tavyah). he throws. But TRpd. ^n change to fr ^p sampurya. assemble. *TT gd. 450. is to kdryah J. dropt : ifiMifii tdrdyati. ^SMIW| agamy a or WMIi^ dgdtya. ?ft *o. ^i and ^ into ^TT d. rntndti. nnm pratdtya^. 57). to cook. Vk*$+*\prandmya or H<u m pru ndty a . 96. \i. filled. The verbs called "*J UTO prapya and HIM*** prdpdyya. I d M -rt| N upajydya but after ijftpari optionally 452. . OT sthd. sing or to go. having it tr. having crossed . take ^JT not ^ ( (Pan. which is. HWR prasthdya. vi. to measure. may ^m. not admitting of intermediate Tan class. Ex. 69). Verbs ending in drop their *Tm. ^liifff he and fH mi. ^tfhi: aniyah. UHnifff prdpdyati forms having caused to advance. ^ do. 50-51). to d. to cut. to finish. H<**m pravydya. keep the causative suffix T ya (Pan. ^H^TO avaddya . always drop their final nasal. WT thd. or belonging to the "ifr^ Other verbs ending in nasals. a/w/ IK yah (or k yah and yah). be done by thee. ^TT khdya. to destroy. vi. *li*iH sunyamdyya. conveying the idea that the action expressed by the verbs ought to be done or will be done. wf<?J*n TRiC pachelimd mdshdh. 211 ^H{ ay 447.) E e 2 . 4.

to see hs. of course. 3. In order to form the adjective in yah (i&jinyat. and instead of KT td put risq: tavyah. ^tVTfat "3rf*r<*rffan verbs are. ^tvqfif bodhayati. bubhushitd I^T: bubhushyah bubhushanfyah bobhuyitd bobhuyaniyah bobhuyyah Int. yah . rashtd to bite ^FT damshtd damshtavyah damsaniyah Caus. rejected. take the periphrastic future. to conquer *m*f\q:jaya t *. *?ferTT bhavitd : bhavitavyah bhavaniyah karantyah : kartavyah kdryc to grow old kshvid. : $454- 454 In order to form the adjective in ffst. tavyah. ^nl^t aniyah have.to cause to be bhdvayitd to bhavaniyah bhdvyah I^bubhush.212 J VEEBAL ADJECTIVES. to be to do of kri. Thus ^T c?o. Guna-vowels before and putting ^rfa: aniyah instead. the semivowel for their final element. bobhavaniyap. causative and the ^y after consonants of intensives and other derivative bodhani'^^budh. . note). f>?<* bhidy "srftrenr bebhidy ate. TTrf^J gdtavyah STcT^K jetavyah gdniyah 'TO ^eyaA f^Tjz. irt 456. 2 ( karshtavyah or krashtavyah. to give to sing ^THT ddtd TTtfT gdtd ^TW^ft ddtdvyah n gai. to sprmkle .) it is 1 karshtd or krashtd. In order to form the adjective in sufficient to take the root as it aniyah. except before terminations which have This termination . kshveditd kshveditavyah kshvedaniyah ft V*t1 **i bodhaniyah kshvcdyah know bodhitd H f^l H'M bodhitavyah J to draw meeze mih. bebhidaniyah. as usual.bhu. omitting. appears before inq: tavyah. /rl. however. to sweat to ^J>I budh. and The ^n( ay of the there can be no occasion for the intermediate 3[ i.-sft^bobhu bobhavitd Int. &c. nHqt bobhavyah ^i^^rflu: bebhiditd bebhidaniyah ^Trfhj: bebhidy ah it 455. or 4 Never takes Guna is 345. is generally intermediate ^ i. 3 456. ^fftrir bebhidy ^riHff)^. kuchitd '^i Pi ri **|: kuchitavyah ^^lfl<4t kuchaniyah uchyc T^T medhd 'TTfT Crania medhavyah gantavyah drashtavyah darsaniyah to go nV. wish to be ^rcfhr. i.

^J But $r^ sjo. 120). to be able . prosodially short. generally sufficient to take the adjective in ani.) Final ^i and ^z take Guna. is yj^tush. appears ^u before nya. ^"0^ sapyah cyK /a6A. ^ TRH vdhyah. from ^a^. Final different from Tspzn kshayyah. to ^5: chartyah (Pan. T^ ^^ char. ^m: vridhyah. in. after wsr^r avafya. to laugh. to sprinkle. in. i^gu. ^nffar. in). before m yah. qqflq: vay-ani-yah. i. "%$m dri&yah forms W&T. But tf^krip. have here to be cz. wA: trnfc pdryah. 213 aniyah and to cut off ^rfffffar. i. 124. preposition. be pure. different from ^m: jayyafy. 7) includes among the Sakadi verbs. (Pan. 124). i. bhav-am-yah becomes H*n bhavyah. may be or Tmq: ghdtyah. in.-$ 45 6 - VBKBAL ADJECTIVES. be conquered. a Brahman must 7u if it T^ uv before VMl*J anfya. 1H yam. i. however. ^m: : A few more e. take Vriddhi instead of Guna. ^ ^sah. *TRm: . in. 98. no) or ^q: varshyah (Pan. . 2. Penultimate ^ ri. 100) mentions only 1^ gad. Final ^n and ^r ya/t. however. to dig han .) 4. 5. sahyah. ^^: ksheyah. filji. conquerable f% kshi. special rules. i. bodhyah. Penultimate aniyah. 65. %W: chetyah. . * $ *ft o. when a high degree of expressed. c?i: labhyah. before *r: 3. vi. wfN: aniyah. . itaai. to give. e. in. derived from ^ khai. 99). in. to do.jeyah. to sound. Guna before ij: ya/^. unless the final consonant a labial (Pan. ^W. 81). does not take Guna before ^: yaA. 4. no). vadhyah mad. ^itf deyah . ^ t W. 'NHl ^ guvaniya. H*i: bhavyah or ^^^m<: avasya- bhdvyah . kill. 7. c|7^ ferity ^vrish. Thus HqHl*T. kalpyah. in. 6. *m: geyah. with few exceptions i. 120. $T^ ^ sah. 1. to to destroy. The a remains likewise short in ^pw: fakyah. but not before kdryah . as before vpfaaniya. Penultimate ^e and g'w take fs^vid. as f^w Final m^ viprena appears as uchind bhdvyam. ^T rfd. as before w?ffan aniyah. vi. ^f^khan forms WTt kheyah (Pan. in from to bear (Pan. to ^friHl ^n^ dv. destructible (Pan. hdsyah . to sing. and some other verbs*. * Panini (in. ^q: vrishyah Penultimate ^re becomes ^^. ^(^chrit. $fta: soshyafy. become * (Pan. in. under the same circumstances. |i^: kirtyab. . $n: veyah. which takes Guna before vfiMlq: aniyah. i^Qguya. f|i|Hl<j: chet-ani-yah. i. i. The Sarasvati (in. to curse. 98. bodh-ani-yah. i. T u and 15 ^. i. mentioned Final ^TT a. vah. ^ has. but not before WH*N: is lengthened. which. (Pan. if used without s'ak. ^ivedyah. are changed to *r^ av y necessity is or. ^r a. *T?T.

Xt^T rochyam. ^H^ aj. We ^ find : IT inserted before *l f/a$. Mii^i ydjyam. p. bhojyam. which. &JIJ bhuya. to hide./ <ftT?n dohyah. "< ^mt ityah. TR^ pravach. rule. %VcfiTt dvaidhamkdram. ^ftfVTJ bodhitum. (nycit) requires the lengthening of the vowel. TincRTt uchchaihkdram. ^^vanch (to go). having divided . 458. 457. ^ *p^ bhuj. 457- The following are a few derivatives in *tt yah. Verbs ending in ^T ch or change their final consonant into A: or 'T ^ if the following 1 ya are. *J. J 460. '3*{vraj. >rW bhogyam. in. is By means of the unaccentuated suffix ^f am. ^^ricJi. is vfof 33Tfcf agre bhojam vrajati. g^i: duhyah and ^. to go. which has no accent. to drink. in. to cherish. irni pdyam. aor. m*{tyaj. in j composition (Pan. Ex.) Ex. *fltjn Thus ^TJ guhyah and cF n gohyah both occur . *[ Z^ri. from in pd. 106. Ex. to choose. 73TJ udyah. may form iTS'. ^m: bhrityahj kri. to rule. *l^l grihyah. but > ft5*f . * ^WJ vrityah. i. brahmodyd kathd.. This verbal adverb most *ThT rftf ?TffiT eaten and eaten. 55 b). ^Wt drityah. having used at the end of compounds. &c. what is to be eaten (Pan. W3? archyam. formed against the general rules: 1. and must not be considered as supplanting the regular verbal adjectives. a verbal adverb to eat. 114. Verbal Adverb. ^T^ TH* brahmabMyamgatah. to enjoy. op*/ Jf*TT ^ vad. to regard. There however. time to eat. first eaten. sing.214: VERBAL ADJECTIVES. pass. The base has the same form as before the KT ta of the periphrastic future. Thus *TRT ydchyam. pupil. n<4 *! pravdchyam. From *hr bhojam . he goes to see it is Krishna . to take. or J 459. to be. in the following verbs i. 1 jra. 22). in. (See J 454. f^T^T* s'ishyah.&Yr\. infinitive is The before the K*n\ tdvyah of the verbal adjective. having frequently used twice over. krityah. vn. Infinitive in W turn. a story told by a Brahman) . . ^JW* stwtyah. "^Spach. J 403).3^vri. ejfiq: c?n. 3Ji| guh. Likewise the following verbs: ^^^fl/. ^ratf ^ ^affrr krishnam drashtum vrajati. ^fmijushyahj after TTHT prati and ?J^ graJi. ^T^rMcA. several exceptions. 109. he goes. 69). ^pT bhuj. Kasika). Verbs beginning with a guttural do not admit the substitution of gutturals.guhyah or llt^K gohyah (Pan. wirq tydjyam. Hi w pdkyamj 3. bM. as a general added to that form which the verb assumes before the passive ^ i is (3rd pers. '%*{puj. to speak. i. It is likewise bhojam bhojam vrajati. But many of these forms are only used in certain senses. 107. formed by adding g to&. to do. loudly. \ (Prakriya-Kaumudi. in composition (Pan. |*r budh. to bear. formed. he goes (Pan. 4.ved atBrahmahood) in analogy to the gerunds in ^T^sas. in. ^ < S ^M > * praise. >f RTc5: bhoktum kdlah. TR^ydch.

to go. . Caus. 215 CHAPTER J 461. . Exceptions I. SIH*lfH chdmayati. . he causes to scatter. *u^*ffn sddayati. eat. cFTTTfiT kdmayati. cjT kri. he feeds. uv*4rn bodhayati. 'Su and f*3H smi. ^plu. <i*iMfiiyamffyaf*. he makes move. he causes to Verbs ^X^am which do lengthen the vowel are. Medial ^T a followed by a single consonant TfffJ lengthened. which the vowel takes either Guna or Vriddhi are as The rules according to follows 1. ^R4ifl kartayatiy he causes to cut. to know. q^n vedayati. . he fells. ft m. he causes to V^bhu. ai^MPn kramayati. bhdvayati. 3. if it means to see. he sets. to swim. fall. : Final \i and \i. Thus \^bM becomes mfa bhdvi and bodhi and qtaiifri is ^T^Trrif bhdvdyati. to . he eats . he desires. The accent on the a of dya. kdrayati. bodhdyati. he moves ^*T cAam. he causes to lead. so that ^i appears in the special tenses as ^Tir ay a. Tf^fftyachchhati. to scatter. Caus. to desire. but *IH*|(H yamayati. ^V budh becomes ^fv 462. 4rH^?f kdmayate. n4Mfn kalpayati. ^n. Caus. to be. ^n*mf sdmayati. "31 tf. 2. to niMMPn i i ndyayati. : Most verbs ending in W^aw do not lengthen their vowel : ^TPTgram. JSj^klip. he causes to be . to be able. cFK^frt kdrayati. he sees. cBK^fn make. XVIII. 'i*mfii gamayati. ^nrfTT chamati. in desire. q <4 fff pldvayati. he makes know. CAUSATIVE VERBS. "8f ^m^ffl kri. he makes cli^Jtam. to make. unless it means to eat.ri/. Medial ^. he makes swim. t?fc?. he quiets. he causes to know. to stride. he lead. he makes eat. ^SW am. he shows. ^ ri and ^ri take Vriddhi. wiTn amati. makes laugh. he causes to be. he renders is fU budh. Caus. Simple roots are changed into causal bases by Guna or Vriddhi of their radical vowel. take Guna. to to sit. fit. he extends. ^rf becomes Thus to know. The root is then treated as following the Bhu class. but there are many exceptions. ^Tff A. stride. Thus to laugh. Caus. but ^nPjflrr samayati.. ^IIWjflT sdmyati. ^i*iMPn dmayati. "aW kram. sac?. ^TTHifir pdtayati. wi<4<*fci smdyayati. and by the addition of a final ^ i.46 - CAUSATIVE VEBBS. to move. he makes go. "<5& followed by a single consonant. TM. he makes know. to cut.

9. and nothing else. Sing. optionally lengthens its $462used without a preposition . (not to tear) ^i. ^W vaZ. to vomit. and optionally with a preposition. to actf pravanayati prajvalayati or 11. note. 6. The following list contains the more important among these verbs : CAUSATIVE. See note *. to cut 20. to or %i9rftf ajnapi sharpen 1 (?). to cover Hdc^skhal. See. H 1 5e|"I fc^ prdjvali W smn. 5. to regret smarayati <. '^TTjna. 23. i). however. are optionally mit (i. to please. T^ cAa?. to shine "f" 12.to sound. to burn with nr nat. madayati dhvanayati dalayati (optional) valayati (optional) amadi adhvani adali avali el^c?^aw. short-voweled). Pres. TEf<2[ to be famous prathayati mrad. P. optionally lengthens its vowel used without a preposition. 3rd Pers. to be ashamed "^ kshai. 19. to hurry fever W^j^r. Passive. while with prepositions they are mit. 67. to pity FTC yar. 67). ? c?n. Tf^prath. i IT^ ^MHI*i5IT^ft) . to tremble T^ mac?. to dance jvarayati natayati srathayati 8. to drop or skhalayati (optional) trapayati jM<4flT or 'iHjaiPco askhali or ^TGtl PM atrapi or ^HJtP'if akshdpi W^trap. *3c*jval. the vowel always ought to remain short (Dh. Aor.e. he bends. 67)*. do not lengthen their vowel. to wane * kshapayati Dhatupatha -^ 'riM 19. 19. If preceded by a preposition. The same verbs may optionally retain their short pers. II.). Sanskrit Grammar. Par. ^prJtMm. CAUSATIVE VERBS. to rejoice. he makes vomit. P. if it is ^^vam. to kill 10. 3rd Pers. Eoot. A class of verbs collected 19. by a preposition. It seems indeed that the verbs without prepositions only. p. to perceive 6. to fear avyathi aprathi 3. ^T^T vyath. . to boil 15. P. Sing. 1 8. to bend.<4fa darayati srapayati or or asmari 13. adari ^TOTnJ asrapi 14. &c. 4. vowel if it is *f 1*1*4 fr ndmayati or i*f^Pff namayati. ^IT sra. and beginning with ftf ghat (Dh. THf ghat to strive ghatayati vyathayati ' aghati 2. to slay. to respect. sing. Colebrooke. t Without a preposition. . aorist of the causative passive ( vowel in the 3rd 405). 1 . to rub mradayati krapayati tvarayati ' amradi akrapi atvdri ajvari "a^ro. ^<^ dal. the vowel always ought to remain short (Dh. to ring or or 19. 21. 7.216 TH nam. 22. ^T*^*rfltfA. by native grammarians. If preceded q*i<4Pn vdmayati or ^*T*tfrf vamayati. 317. chalayati or or achali 17.

kri. See note (on preceding page). ^ftqfaarpayati.) means to hunt. v Hi(Vl or ^i mifVj aphani Note Some if of these verbs are to be considered as mil. 3. he purifies . 36.togo. Caus. Some all verbs form their causative base anomalously : Nearly verbs ending in *n a. e. sections of the employed in the sense given different above j while they occur again in other conjugated likewise as Dhatupa^ha and with meanings.to approach. he causes to buy. ^tuiimfd adhydpayati. ^ ai. ^rflT daddti. ^ri. and Indian grammarians vary in their interpretation of Dhatupatha 67-68. II. I. they may be ordinary verbs. vii. he causes to tremble. ajari Tfrafl. 463. ^prati+i. isft o. Jg{kniiy. U4{m^ kshmdyate . * If the causative (Pan. ^nrfw ddyati.MPn. he teaches 2. wash ^MMPn flMin or WIHMPfl gnapayati W^ ^mii or *!%HfVj asnapi ^J rant. he pities . *aft 4.- 4^3- CAUSATIVE VERBS. rfHiurfd krindti. to go lh*UMlTT<)r p/twya/* i. vi 1. to fade yssPn or JiMMPn glapayati Tiyl% or ^*|ifM apiapi 28. J Rut -f- understand. he causes ^ de. in T&ffyi adMte. ^m^knopayati y he causes to sound. ^q^ day ate. <nM(TT ^tf^'P* ranjayati vastrdni. M KI1 *W Prt pratydyayati. if as having a short vowel in the causative. The usage of the best 19. t With a writers varies. and frequently 1. Caus. unufnjanayati old n. he causes pity. 36. to cherish or qif^Pn vanayati 4n*UMllf(?) J or ^iqiPn ffan 30. ^m^Prt ddpayati. to 29. TR^/jAaw. to cut. and most ending in * e.) 3.arflya/ <. HHIM^Pri kshmdpayati. nasci 25.(Bhu). ^WT *n4f. !>HjPd *JJ|I^ rajayati mrigdn. Their irregularity consists chiefly in taking \p with Guna or Vriddhi of the radical vowel . he dies clothes. he causes to purify. to give. he causes cutting. to 26.^r&forichchhati. but optionally without a preposition. insert i{p before the causal termination. **[jri (Div). 36. he hunts deer. vi. the 1-1 ^n is rejected . 3. ^rfw ddti or ^rfff dyati. {. vii. <imifd ddpayati. t* dai. ajani grow P< or V 41 ft. ^iMilfrt ddpayati. (Pan. to purify. *{*{jan (Div). ^n^ kshmdy. preposition. he reads Caus. to pity.tohunt. 48. he cuts ^imifiT ddpayati. Caus. new . to buy. ^ *. he gives to give. sometimes in lengthening the vowel instead of raising it to in substituting a Guna . (Pan. Other irregular causatives are given in the following list. arimfrf Jcrdpayati.. change- able to ^na. Jgtffttknilndti.todye* ^i<JPi or Tujfuartf/i 2 7- H 3^t o f flfftoi. I. to go. (Pan. he places.) to sound. forms its causal regularly when it means to make a person Otherwise the causative of ^t is formed Pf . base. . . ^t do. We may also form but vi^iPn ardnji is wrong. 5.3.) Thus ^r da. to tremble. Caus.n *4 fit or Tl| rajayati or raft/a- 217 ^BWfa or^miPn "v i 24.

) and ift mi. i^dhu. he causes to collect. ftRfiff pibati Caus. ^fanifrr didhayati. if it vz. he causes to choose. 55. W*tf%jdgarti. Caus. also f7Te?niffTM/0y^(Pan. to flow. and. he causes to destroy. vi. I. t /z. make conceive.) ctftaw causes to grow. he causes to cover. from gi^ 6Ary. T^frr rohati. to shake.^qqfftvlepayati. ri.$qfr daridrayati.3539). 91. vWFtfnjdpayati. 9. to jj^ f ^ means it Caus. Caus. Caus. he makes poor. Idpayati. to blow. to roast. *nnqP7T chdpayati. ^rfr 5y^. to succeed.) ^ve. 3. tft Caus. ^T^a. to destroy. he rouses. 8. he causes to weave. 3. to shine. Caus. W5*lfTT pdlayati. he makes flow. Caus. Caus. 1 1. to move. ft^rfff ropayati. like ^o. or >TWTfif bharjjayati. Poifflfif lindti and Uyate. 29. Caus. he frightens. oil H H Pd linayati. VfT^rfw dhunayati. T:t *TT m<^. 56. to love. ^^t vevit to conceive. if sad. he causes to drink. ^ft^rfrT daridrdti . . ^[T^?(vydyayati. 1 6. I. ^ he ruh. to be awake. he performs . dhunoti .) also ^faqfif doshayati. vi. *%\favdti. ^ftrrw siyate.vi. m^Pd sdyayati. form c5T /a. bhij to fear5 f^Hfir bibheti. Caus. ^^(vyayati. *wwfajdgarayati. . 2. (Pan. 15. ^ll^^Pri sdyayati. vfi The meaning varies seePan. roast. >JrftflT 13. 28. Caus. he protects. ^fRvayati. he fells .48. ^(X. 27. Caus. ^hnrfir sedhayati. mfa pdti.) 30. ^iri^Pri $dtayati. 10. Caus. vn. fa^Til minoti. Caus. ^fk to #e^ . f^nftfif chinoti. he causes to cut. he causes to shine. or regularly 7. i. ^ vye. 12. iftTprfif prinayati. M^nPrf vevayati. if it means he shakes. $ft s> to sharpen. JJTjoa. Caus. Caus. to destroy. Tnwrfif sddhayati. Caus. also vpai. he causes to sharpen. to 463- fa collect. to protect. Tfanfir prindti . he causes to sin to sin. Caus. >rrT^ bhdpayate or NlquH bhishayate. CAUSATIVE VEKBS. vi. (Pan. iftpri. ^ ^rqqPd chdyayati. to obtain. -ftr/i. 42. 3ft U. (Pan. to drink. ^^qfcf dushayati. fw^sidh. to weave. PHHlfri mindti. *f) so. chi. to be dry. *R*[jdgri. he delights. "SFlfw chhyati . 31. but not. to cover. 4. iCTjt?^. vdpayati or ^nitrfif vdyayati. Caus.218 6.\cnrflT repayati. . to cut.1. Caus. 24. Caus. 1 7. 22. 43. he causes to conquer. TTTPptrfTT pdyayati. <|^qPff rohayati.) chho. he performs sacred acts. ^^^ vevite. g^fff dushyati. Caus. ^J^5rflT bhrijjati . f?Tm^ to throw. ^Tq^rfiT means 25. 51. to adhere. ^hflrf didhite . makes 1 8. Hl^^lfd bhdyayati. fjififnvlindti. 14. he demoralizes. "3ft Caus. 54. also regularly 19. 26. ^ ^ PrT vdjayati. form their Caus. 23. (Pan. to fall. 1. ^m^Prf chhdyayati. to conquer. vn. to grow.vii. ^fr^T daridrd. ^r^irflT bhrqjjayati. tfTOfw pdyati. teqfrr sidhyati. vi. (Pan. Caus. ^irfcf syati. he causes to shake. *wfajayati. and riH^Pri Idyayati. but 32. choose. (Pan. or to go. if the root takes the . ^hft c?^2. ufaff riyate. he ^R3^ bhrajj. ^HRfw vdyayati. Caus. to be poor. <j^dush.

kdrayet. the causative ^n^ ay may or may not reappear. ^m ay is dropt (J 399). FJ*f?r sphurati . -ta Imp. where the n ya of the passive disappears ($ 401). 38. Opt. 198. however. Fut. . note): Fut. ^ w*fb smayate . 33. p. Ben. and they form the perfect periphrastically. ^pc sphur. the root remains the same as it would have been with ^n^ay. 34. except in tfce reduplicated aorist and the benedictive Parasmaipada . Perf. The periphrastic with the auxiliary verbs in the Atmanepada. optative. 219 and Caus. HNfrdlf! bhdvayitdhe or Hlf^ril^ bhdvitdhe. to grow. ^Mlfff hrepayati. ^MHfufa abhdvayishi or ^MtfVf^ abhdvishi. J 465. also 36. to CAUSATIVE VERBS. Caus. Per. thus get two forms throughout (see Colebrooke. akdrayishyat.-$ 466. faff! fid jihreti . <*!Ml? kdrayishishta. sparkle. (Pan. wtfft\kdrydt . and imperative are formed regularly. 1. akdrayat. ^Wli^ abhdvi. 36. he makes (Pan. Cond. to J 464. p. he causes 35. Fut. -ta. ^Rfqril kdrayitd. . and we J 466. -tdm . kdrayishyati. u . Caus. he is made to grow. to be ashamed. -te. ^mfrut bhdvayishye or mfV^ bhdvishye. MHfrtflJI bhdvayishiya or Mrf^mln bhdvishiya. 2. 3. First Aor. miiqqfa sphdvayati. WIM^ smdpayate. The only ZFUMfrf. Caus. i. kdrayatu. Caus. -chakre uifd. ^obKf<Mm. T$fnhanti. ^[^hvayati. 1. WHTUTT sphdyate. Clmrt ropy ate. -te. ashamed. J[.) Arz. In the general tenses. iH^cfc^. grnHTfo hvdyayati. he is made to do . kdraydnchakdra. imnifiT ghdtayati. Ben.vi. 37. 3. 342) Aor. Impf. and the causative. Cond. p. to grow. p. kill. %Ave. iHmcjfijuJi abhdvayishye or ^HHifVuj abhdvishye. Like Chur verbs they retain ^n^ay throughout. ohliVfr kdryate. to smile. from CT ruh. ($ lff. but Hence Pres. cFTC^. he causes to call. ^WNfuai: abhdvayishthdh or ^wif^8T: abhdvishthdh. ^ORnsphdy.) to call. If a causative verb has to be used in the passive. Per. tuUUlfd sphdrayati ^Mttmfh sphorayati. WN^fri smdyayati) he causes a smile by something. . fars?tti. as and Atm. 7fr. kill. achikarat. -^Aa/i. %4<*im^. Thus ^ kri. vu. there is no necessity for giving here a complete paradigm. perfect The is imperfect. kdrayati. -ta ^. he makes sparkle. T^. Par. forms Pres. difficulty in causative verbs is the formation of their bases. he causes to As causative verbs are conjugated exactly like verbs of the Chur class. Red. 57. he astonishes. -ta. Caus. Fut. . formation of the aorist.

to do. to know. (anl^Ta titirshati. f^jfrf^fi didyutishate or f^rftflf^TI didyotishate. These 9 to be. and having 3[ i or "3" u for their vowel. though liable to exceptions. and. to swallow. to cross. to mix. 3. to purify. yj]TO: bubhushdvah. But f^ and div.220 DESIDERATIVE VERBS. DESIDERATIVE VERBS. Thus ^V budh forms 2. (Pan. dudyushati (Pan. and by adding ^s to the root. bhid. though they have intermediate ^ i. final ^[ ri ^ri become t^ir. ?[ i> vii. r^rmflf didevishati or. 2. Certain bases which do not take intermediate ^i are actually weakened . 2. by reduplication. 10). 12). ftrwftRW sismayishate j ^pu. f^ftTf^rfk bibhitsati (Pan. Mt'iT^nr jigishati. f kri. ( 33 I y 34) * as we ^ as those to know. ^^ bubhush. vi. As a general rule. f^fc^flT didarishati. new bases are conjugated like Tud ^J^TTfo bubhu- shdmiy "gij^fa bubhtishasi. it may be stated that bases ending in one consonant may be strengthened by Guna. 49) . is But there are important exceptions. 2. (Pan. 467- CHAPTER Desiderative bases $ 467. cross. f*fl[ri^ff[jigarishatij ~dri. to wish to which take intermediate ^ i. vii. lp^ dyut. ^ yu. ^]tflT bubhushati. (Pan. to wish to cross. 470. i. to wish to be. to conquer.) Verbs which may or may not take Guna. though they have intermediate 3[ *. i. fill. i. In neither strengthened nor weakened . Other bases may be strengthened optionally . ^rnfvflPil u^ div. Verbs which do not take Guna. 26. P^iqi^rn chikirshati IT tri. except TI y or ^ v. n^Ni^MuT vividishatij *|^ mush. *$ritdj to cry. from TT tri. if they take the intermediate also <|r ^ i. to 3{ i.) f*{ji. &c. "3ft ur. 2. *J*J^nT mumurshatij "^pri. after labials.to smile. mri. ^^5^ ^[ i. The roots which take the intermediate ^ i have been given before $ 469. know . 16. ^ rud. kri. to steal. vivritsati. they take intermediate they likewise take Guna. f^U^ln didarishate. fcT^fciUrt pipavishate. !^P*f*lPiT didevishati: But fa^ In fact. no Guna without inter- mediate 471. 4. t^gri. chikarishati. Verbs beginning with consonants. . f^Rsmi. l^jft^frt rurudishati j T3i$vid. Des.) or f^ftfw^Icf ^(^dyut f Pt^Prmfl didyutishate didyotishate. *J"3^frf jughukshati (Pan. ^ If. to respect. to Thus from f%^ vid. many cases the base of the desiderative ^^f^^fw rurudishati. ^^HiTl yuyushati. are formed XIX. without fe<JNirrt ^ *. and ending in any single consonant. to die. bubodhishati . fefef^r vividish. ^dri. 3J? guh. l^rrif. the peculiarities of which will have to be treated separately. ^rnHfn mumushisJiati. 2. The accent roots. *J^*ni pupurshatL however. is Thus from ^bh4 468. 8. on the reduplicative syllable. Verbs ending in ^ i or not taking intermediate lengthen their vowel. finrfT!^ titarish or firRfcttitartsh. f^fiT^TI vivartishate or ^T w. 1.

4. Des. pitsate. vn. . 4. TO^san. ^ITfr day ate. 4. Ps ro n to obtain (-*n>flfK dpnoti). to ask. gup. fd rirdtsati (not (Pan. to go. H^Hfd mokshate or ^g|ri mumukshate. vart. Hi^racAA. ^151^ sikshati. vi. to be able (^T^tflT saknoti. 39 but not ^Tfac?a/. drops (Pan. (Pan.49. m md (TlflT wia^'. Dh. '$*l**M jugupsate. 1&{svap. to free (*J^flT munchati). . (Pan. 51. to go. to change). J{t (Pan. 8. to take (77HTT labhate). it. (Pan. it is do. f<{ rW frt ditsati. ^rfvfn'iitirt adhijigdmsate. rfrfw. he bears. to take. Other desideratives formed without reduplication . Des. to finish (THflfK rddhyati). he cures. to sleep. ^* of the desiderative. to driuk).) IT^ yam. f^Hin ripsate. lengthen their vowel ^s of the desiderative. Des. : fVrofn dhitsati. Dh. The following verbs shorten their vowel to ^ before the vn.sca/>. fi MI* fri jighdmsati. Dh. Des. go (T&XH padyate). Des. 4. P. Des. and f^Aan. ^ he despises. as a substitute for before the ^. nfd Oli^ fd prati-ritsati. frf . 8. frnjf^a^fif piprichchhishati. but also rrtrtfHMfil titanishati. I. he T^han. 2. to begin (T>Trtra&ate). he wishes 5. to deceive (^ftft dabhnoti). 16. titikshate. 25. 54). (^flftfff ridhnoti). TTrf mayate. *1*{gam. otherwise 472. Des. . and reject the reduplication. Des. to cut. i Pn sishdsati . Bhu class are commonly considered to belong to the fafchrHrt chikitsate. tjjjtifii sushupsati. vi. P. P. Des. ful r f^w Pn riritsati). Dh. vart. place. f<Jcfhl ditsate. insert and fatitfif mino/t. to obtain. to give. DESIDERATIVE VERB& 221 to kill. to 9. Tlt^ man. sflnffn jfttpsati. fii its vowel optionally. to fall (Wfil^fl^^).) 6.4. 392. to throw). cf. VT c?A<f (^Vlfir dadhdti. because not ghu. to cut. den. but ftflftncfir jigami$hati. 32. farwfii mitsati. 9. 24. to pity. 71^ tan. command grow ( siJIM ^ Prt jnapayati). 2. he investigates. fco ti n lipsate. v.) cii^fcr titdrhsati or fflrtUfHI titariisati. TX?^prachh.) its *^n and lengthens the vowel before the ^* of the desiderative. . but (VmfnMfn sisanishati. Certain verbs which are really desiderative bases. he wishes to read . 4. ^tifn (psa/i. vii. ^r^fif sakyati). Des. to measure. Des. Dh. Des. .) 3T^ #raA. Des. to to . 17. Vlflf dhayati. to stretch. Iffif c?ya/. 42. ^ da (^rfk rfarfa^'. r*iilri mimite. 22. he wishes in the sense of injuring for spiritual freedom. flT^TKjflT jsgrAfifoAalt. (Pan. *3TR. 54. wishes to go. to measure. P. to destroy. fa r to pif sa*i. shorten their bases by Samprasarana. HlHltlH mimdihsate. ftis 7. 472.). Des. (miTm mitsati. . ^H^san. Des. vfHrfiT dhtpsati or fVr^rfk dhipsati. to kill. 22. lirwn mitsate. 66). and ?T^3TaA. . P. c^w. 26. *ft rni (HTHlfci mindti. dap. ^rSfrf frfsart. lengthens "fl^tftn.

473. i in the reduplicative syllable if^pach. CBSU kanduy. is ^T^ arch. 1. MciiHn chikishati. <l lfl IH i^ apipavat. he loathes. 80). If the root ends in a double consonant. 56).) See 375 f. ^B^ av films. vn. <Z. forms ^f^T5T 477. Tr.} See 375. he sharpens. I. ^d. to approach. radical and ^TT^ dv. vart. or ^ then the second letter is reduplicated. Aor. of ^{svap. &plu. besides ^fsin chichishati. ^\^(ddn. the first letter of which is ^w. (Red. uchchh forms ^fc-cd 4. are represented by 5[ be preceded by ^ p. 4. 1 i *ju. 2) reduplication. ^j (Pan. f<f *4 q f*< H fif yiydvayishati. o*j\ ubj. Besides the general rules of reduplication given in 302-319*. (Red. to run. to fall. ""^T^fVrMHPcl kanduyiy Exceptional reduplication occurs in 3.) yw. he straightens. sisdmsate. nfri sisrdvayishati or tjtsmfVHrfi susrdvayishati . Aor. m. 58) . Hy. ^qr sthd. to hear. to u in the under similar circumstances optionally take ^ * or T reduplicative syllable. ^nrfaRT^ abibhavat. ^^THn Reduplication in Desideratives. 3 But mrimfri bibhdvayishati. Aor. from "N chi (Pan. fnni "5 WM. 474. ^nK^^n & 1*11*1*1111 "^ und. <j^in^antfna0a. vn. TR ph. ^g cAyw. or $/Hifi^fii irshyish-ishati. ^^ badh. vi. 473diddmsate. fri pipakshati . "^WTT bibhatsate. to which allusion was made in $ 378. vi. 79). Roots beginning with a vowel have a peculiar kind of internal Thus (Pan. swim.222 DESIDERATIVE VERBS. + ^fil ais + ishati.) In the verbs beginning with cn^fi Jcanduyati 498) the final ^y is reduplicated. fq<n*r f*ll(lf pipdvayishati. ^t>.) q Pq H (n nundvayishati. . &c. standing as Guna or Vriddhi of in the reduplicative syllable.^^fll uchichchh + ishati. ubjij-ishati. 4. Aor. ^^il "** i <m^ ajijavat. vn. forms ^J^TtrfirqfTf sushvdpayishati. Tpru. Desid. archich-ishati. "ftnrf^ 1 Pn yiyavishati. Roots f^sru. In "^Hrs% the last consonant reduplicated. to flow. "grfrw. ^ji I P*t q Hr jijdvayisJiati. provided they ^u or "SR w. susrushati only. and Caus. J 476. vu. 475. but the simple desidera- tive ^Jt^n . ^rfr^ aA. * -ishati. (Red. at forms + 5[^fTT /^ + ishati. PriKiuPff tishthdsati. (Red. the Caus. ^(^r^Hfn undid-ishati. 3.5A forms ^rf%^ + ^ft achiksh + ishati. ( Pn ir shy iy -ishati (Pan. the following special rules with regard to the vowel of the reduplicative syllable are to be observed in forming the desiderative base : Radical ^r a and ^n d are represented by ^ (Pan. 3. may ^ru. in f^TEThrfTf jigUshati from fi? M (Pan.

or. is generally the final same as in the passive and benedictive Par. he wanders about . according some grammarians. when ri : following a simple consonant. INTENSIVE VERBS. Hence ^fojifaiTT bobhuyitd. ^frqrr dedhiyate. $ 479. after labials. p. INTENSIVE VERBS. to eat. Bases formed in the former way admit of Atmanepada only. This yd has the accent. u. $ 1. 49. When Hya fq ^TT is added. i. The latter form occurs less frequently. sometimes called. to do. : 480. VH^ll^ a&dsyate . the effect on the base ($ 389). It has the accent on the reduplicative syllable.-Kaum. to go. or. Ex. the Atmanepada Ex. forms rt. The Atmanepada would be bobhute. Only bases beginning with a consonant. MdHqii chekriyate. ar: When following a double consonant is changed to we m srtiri^ to . v$J)hu } ^^J5Tff bobhuydte. some exceptions. go. **uTJM^ drnonuyate (Pan. syllable. class cannot be changed into intensive verbs. in. 2. Simple verbs. but '-Hto^faHT sosuchitd. frequentative bases convey an intenseness or frequent repetition of the action the simple verb. roots ending in consonants drop it. to Thus vowels are lengthened: &oruyate. ^prit tfl^5d poptiryate. expressive of motion.~$ 481. ^i^iir: W tri. ^ ri becomes to fill. v^bhu. <enj 5^ ardryate and wrfir ararti (Siddh. Bases formed in the to latter way admit of Parasmaipada also only. however. though beginning with a vowel. is gather. TTiTfinr tetiryate. are XX. to place. and consisting of one Verbs of the Chur There are. There are two ways of forming intensive verbs By a peculiar reduplication and adding *i yd at the end. chi.) $ 481. if used as intensives. changed to tf rt. bobhaviti or 'ql^fri bobhoti. 2 16) . 223 CHAPTER as they are { 478. though. Roots ending in vowels retain the TJ ya of the intensive base in the general tenses . are liable to be turned into intensive bases. vol. ^rvflu^ chechiyate to to hear. sft^d d changed \i : VT dhd. &c. 4. qflHcTird *ft*J7T may be formed. $$. Intensive. By the same peculiar reduplication without any modification in the final portion of the base. ^J 6ru. TO{ a. to Thus ^ 1 to cover. to cross. not to ft it ^ kri. (Pan. Some to meant intensive bases convey the idea of reproach or disgrace.vi. . 22). is Final ^ ri. however. ifl^ tfrnu. someexpressed by times receive the idea of tortuous motion. vui<k|H aldtyate. ^T7 at.ir.

^ tCTjar. These intensive bases are conjugated It should be observed. tdtirati. to raise. 2. . have peculiar forms of their own from a base in ar. T^ftfl bobodhmi or ^t^ftfo bobudhimi. 4. chokroshti. sdsmaryate. 3. 4. 490). PRESENT. Imp. 87). however. and likewise before weak terminations beginning with a vowel.224: INTENSIVE VERBS. TTfwfrr bobhavdni but ^t^t Remark. bases of the Div class in the Atmanepada. f 484. 3. IMPERATIVE. 3. then to reduplicate. 82). 483. to gather. the weak terminations require ^twtfvr bobodhmi. 3. p. and verbs in ^ri start in the reduplicative syllable. cTTTTf* tdtarmi. ^[qkrusya. trauk.. The simplest way to form the peculiar reduplication of intensives. ^tJjftnrT bobhu-y-itd. however. that in 1. sonants do not take "^fanJrfVl intensive bases ending in con- Guna (Pan. p. ^TTfol avevidva 1 veviddva Rules of Reduplication for Intensives. '^Tsfiifft chokru&yate. ^^NNrff chechiyate. or vevedmi or vevidimi avevidam veviddni ^iw or ^%fw or Tf^tfq ^T^?^ or ^nf%^t: %f^fe veviddhi or vevetsi or vevidishi ^f%c(tfir avevet or avevidih ^T^Ti^ ^P|<(lf^ avevet or avevidit or ^T^ vevetti or veviditi ^"f^TJ vevidvahy vevettu or veviditu ^fc|^|'c( &c. bobudhdni. According to the rules of the Hu class. from ^rfozx bebhidya. IMPERFECT. When T^ya is not added. the intensive bases are treated like bases of the Hu class. sing. And remark further. and therefore have are the same. ^R traukya. 83). while roots ending in consonants throw off the *r ya of Thus from ^J?I bobhuya. p. ^ffar chiya. to change it into a passive base by adding IT ya. plur. but ^fawr: bo. is to take the base used in the general tenses.. however. and ^{ a to ^TT d (Pan. the special tenses altogether. to approach. the vowel of the reduplicative syllable by Guna (Pan. where possible. Hence ^tyftfa bobudhimi. Guna ($ 297). Hence from ift^^bobudh. 3rd pers. that before this intermediate ^ i. sing. that in the general tenses roots ending in vowels retain ^ y before the intermediate ^ i. vii. bobhumah. ^rfaf^iTT bebhiditd. vn. ^TT IfTfirtfiT Observe. TTt^l^d totraukyate ff^^ftj totraukti. jTimffii 483like remember. sftoftfa bobhomi. and lastly. budhmah. vii. to abuse. From f%^ vid. ^{<sfl^^ abobudham. 482. ^%fw checheti. according to the general rules of reduplication. ^sffaitffc .2. sing. ^TtfH bobhomi or ^t*f=flfH bobhavimi. Impf. The rules of reduplication ri that verbs with final or penultimate ^j ($489. \i may be optionally inserted : Pres. fq chi. From ^^ bobhu. J^tri.

^\pat ^pad. (Pan. ^^ han. (Pan. TnrrfS pdparti . 92. rfa WJ}y*X\fn sanisramstti. kri. ^K^ skand. 485. roots *F{jap. place . ^purya. f ^ W. being long by position. P i *H n jahgamyate . Roots with penultimate ^ ri insert Tit ri in their reduplicative syllable. l'l*flfw jangamiti. vn. ^*flofcfflfd chanikasiti. 1R(ka8. c|/l^Mlfif vantvaficMti. and is supported by the Madhaviya-dhatuvrittu Other grammarians give Wwfd sdsmarti. 90. <fhf /we. TO^as. MrOsn^a nipadyate. to tear. to yawn. qf^nlfn va ri vritfti. w* skadyate. ^^J^Iff i bambhramyate. VR(bhrams. 'MHlMrflfd panipadtti. vin. ^fhrit dediyate ^T^rfTT c/arfa/. %sfonr chekriyate (Pan. 4. t The roots ^raffcA.^<4n damdaiyate. <^T daA. T w5 smarya. 84. to go. ^TfNr^Trf c^a nf kasyate. ^nrf varvarti.-f 489*r rek. ^ffaxJTTf va nt vachyate. ^SrfS charkarti. 489. VSR^dhvams. to recite. ift^fTT johoti. Mnlmsn^a nipatyate. to call. ft n^ between the reduplicative syllable and the root.vn. varivarti. <0<jiMn va n vrityate. preceded syllable (Pan. to give. 3H retya. ^-sOfn chaftchuriti or ^^fff chartchtirti. . l^rt 1111 (Pan. l4^ dhvams. 4. to fly. to suspect. to go. vn. 4. ^rofft chdkarti. insert a nasal in the reduplicative syllable. to 487. TT^nif rerekyate . lO^fllPn 0a r< vrittti. INTENSIVE VEEBS. nTrftfir janghaniti. bite. ."Tfhj^ftflT bantbhramsiti. to burn. qr^fS t?a rl vrittti. as.) pamphulyate and M ^rt^fff pamphuliti or M^f^H pamphulti. The M M n janghanyate. 4. to go. .) p^tfnV. In the Parasmaipada these roots allow of six formations. ^fg&johuyate . tfHi foVya. <%a. 91. (Pan. . Roots ending in a nasal. to . and the vowel. .) Tft^ft popuryate . da. vn.) W^j'op. 225 irfti rerekti. ^ftt4^1 fd dantdhvamstti. ^?j\n daihda&ti. to remember. repeat the nasal in the reduplicative is vn. * This form follows from Pan. to bind. ^ ^%a. ^^t^rETW cAa H<\\*3i\fa chanlskanditi. to kill. vn. ./. wNfijanjapfti. 4.4. *nm*M sdsmaryate . vn. to step. The roots ^cAar and chanchuryate and TR^phal form theu. to fall. ^OTtfk bambhramtti. rz. 488. ^^T dams.intensives as. kriya. ($ 482. M^l M dl fcf pantpattti. <^cfem. is not lengthened. ^ilw<^W nt dhvasyate. . TTttf^lT 6a nl bhrasyate. ?n5RfS sarsmarti *. n1tf*K sa nt srasyate. >T5^6Aa%'. 4. by ^T a. to fill.) va r vrittti. IZ^srams. The repeated nasal treated like ^w. 486. 86. fall. to roam. 27). 4. 'lO^fH vanvarti. *{*^jabh. . to do. 87.) to go round. 85). n. frw to scatter. *\*\"injanjapyate. ^frrft chekiryate . <. to break.

i. 4. to m^Ps vdvashti. cha cha 491. . he wishes to excite the desire of real existence. and again a new desiderative. if vii. . phanges not affecting the base. 4. vi. because Pan. qfl*lrt veviyate. Colebrooke allows (p. ri kariti.226 490. (Pan.. vii. differ. grammarians i. Whether the Perfect should be periphrastic or reduplicated . vart.) syam. a new desiderative is derived. prescribes chekiyate. sosuyate or ^i*yl*4n sesmyate. ^TWT^lTff dedhmiyate. 19. Par. he wishes to exist really .) vi. 21. to cover. vi. soshupyate. ^TZfajanghanti. to desire. ^nSfflT sesveti. ^?Ptu-Mn sesimyate. 21. Anangakarya. Thus the Prakriya-Kaumudi forms wfff cheketi *flHlPN soshopti. vii. ^TWnfff dddhmdti. he So from the intensive ^jrnr bobhuyate. i. sw. 4. ^P^ svap. 30. 30. to grow. but qiqiPfl vdvydtiT ( 483) n*tPn vdvyeti. other authorities form only UUjlPH sdsvapti i. 19.) (Pan. not directly extended to the Intens. i. such as reduplication.) to lie down. From new derivatives may be formed. the causal of ^ bM. however. the sign of the Intensive pressed by cj^i luk. Par. vii. . or vye. to kill. have given rise to a great deal of discussion among native grammarians. vi. others bobhuva. vi. 63). allows *lPtfffl sesimyate. ^jfj-mP^fa bobhuyishayishati. 31. (Pan. (Pan. vdvasyate. The same in applies to roots ending 490used in the Parasmaipada. declines and the commentary argues in favour of ^fflT cheketi. According to their theory "T^ yah. except certain changes which are considered as About other changes. to swell. 321) to form ^rfiffi sesinte> because it is in the Atm. are distinctly mentioned by Panini. prescribes TFnjpfiT soshupyate. ^H^^Mri sdsayyate.) to blow. i. (Pan. then a new causative may be formed. hf^*trf are peculiar in the formation of their base *. are rather the creation of grammarians^ than the property of the spoken language. derivative verbs ^t^rfrf seseti. 332). (Pan. (Pan. 29.. .) $ 492. ^%fS charkarti. ^Tfarft charikarti. ^^pimrPrf bobhuyishayati. formed ^jfrRfiT bobhuyishati. f^HHf^MPlT bibhdvayishati.) An. 31. Atm. vii.) . but also in the Intens. (Pan. (Pan. but ^T^TTff samsyanti. * The formation and conjugation of the Intensive in the Parasmaipada. i. others ^TT^ bobhdva. he existence. A few frequentative bases to sleep. 'IN^n ^NftiW cheUyate. ^Jll-M^ jeghniyate. 20. 1. lliPn jdghrdti. regard. But Colebrooke (p. INTENSIVE VERBS. has to be sup- By this suppression the changes produced in the verbal base by Tj^yaii would cease (Pan. 82-92. i. is likewise a moot point among grammarians some forming "sffa^facKTC bobhavdnchakdra.) to swallow. (Pan. i. because Pan. %TTta7T jeghriyate. 20. he causes a wishes to cause exists really. to sound.. sdsvapiti. 4. (Pan. 22. Thus from HH^Pri bhdvayati. 9 2 -) krij ^TTtfiT cha r kariti. ^HTtiiM ff jegilyate . ^J n. he causes to be. 2. . vi. Changes of the root that are to take place not only in the Intens. 4. or the so-called Charkarita.) to smell. most o1 which. vus. vi. vm. 4. is wish to exist really . ^ft^ffff charikarti. Atmanepada. vi. only that Pan. 19. ri kariti. M*Pn cheketi. WT^TfS jdgarti. ^fi^jMgrfytife. 31)94*1*1} m*MiPn_p^py^. vn. but ttKflPx sdsvapti.

and they never govern a new accusative. he behaves like from f^pitri. ^ a son. vii.) linga. adding the same Hya. is and ^ ^ ^ fri udanyati. 227 CHAPTER 493. By adding expressing a wish. Denominatives in ^ ya. he is ravenously hungry. however. Grammar. t Minute distinctions are made between ^^"^hrfff asaniyati. between <J^ nT Miff udakiyati. These verbs might be called nominal desideratives. daughter. and ~4i ^| 11 *fif! asandyati.*nfif krishndti. Krishna . he wishes for cows. rfftpati. kavi. Jnqfir gavyati. These denominative verbs. denominatives are formed From ift go. * They are called in Sanskrit *TfiJ fc5>{ lidhu.49 6 ' DENOMINATIVE VERBS.. he behaves like a father. root. son. FV) *l fit he wishes to be a poet. he asks for greedy for wealth. father. and which generally have the meaning of behaving like. master. DENOMINATIVE VERBS. we have 3*H*M syendydte. By a son. he behaves a hawk from putra. a crude sound. he starves and craves for water. like Thus from ^TR h/ena. These verbs should therefore be looked for in the dictionary rather than in a rules. denominatives are formed expressing one's looking upon or treating something like the subject expressed by the noun. may here be given. yflWrt putriydti. (Carey. McflMffl patty atiy he treats like a master. 34. By a similar process imrr^W?f prdsddiyati. many verbs in Sanskrit which are clearly derived from nominal bases*. Some denominatives are formed without any Thus from ifm krishnd. There are XXI. cow. ijcfhrfa fsntf putriyati sishyam. the beggar lives in his hut as 496.) G g 2 . some money. he wishes for a daughter tt and ^u are lengthened. he wishes to eat at the proper time. ^Jdl^PH surfyati. H ya. 4. it is said. hawk. he and VffafH dhaniyati. to means behave as if one were in a palace . were a palace. bet ween V1llffi dhandyati. cannot be formed at pleasure. fmnfn pitdrati. he treats the pupil like J 495. or wishing for or doing whatever is expressed by the noun. (Pan. Thus from "^f putra. palace. from fc^T p. Final ^T a and ^TT d are changed to \i. 543. derivative syllable. grammar. and ^ dhu. son. 494. *pTT sutd. A few on their formation and general meaning. ^ yd to the base of a noun. he wishes for water. HHU^I^frf if it ffigjf firer: prdsddiyati kutydm bhikshuh. however. and many even of those which would be sanctioned by the rules of native grammarians. or treating some one like. for dhdtu. Parasmaipada. Before this I. . he treats some one like . poet. are of rare occurrence in the national literature of India. from mn^prdsdda. kaviyati. or he wishes for a son.

Thus hawk. ^TRlflf ndvyati. A second class of denominatives. e. from ^TT he becomes great. in. he makes a sound. or actually doing what is from the preceding class by generally difference in the modification of the Atmanepada*. Thus i. he wishes for milk ^^vdch. . much. c5Vf^rrr^flf or fl lohitdyati he becomes red. Nouns ending in ^T a drop it before "*T ya. it ( both in Parasmaipada and Atmanepada.) and 4. Final T n is dropt. (Pan. vpfrnfir bhrisdyate. he plots the . dHITilrf romanthdyate. he behaves hawk . 12. 3. from c^tf^W lohita. ^T^Tfcf vdchyati (Pan. 498. xsmi^i^H apsardyate. king. tfoHr romantha. and the preceding vowel is lengthened TTJf^ rdjan. 15).) . ^ au are treated as in J <f4^THW ushmdyate. formed by adding like. he behaves like a king. bases in ^s and i(t treated like nominal bases in ^j a. wise. king. Pc|^||i|7i may. 4.228 3. T au becomes ^TT^Tay. speech. pitriyati. becomes 497f^pitri. i. oFFnTff kashtdyate. and keep through the general tenses under the restrictions applying to other denominatives in Tya They take *T ya. worship.) i. and by a is of the nominal base. he sounds . he worships (Pan. 3. Final 5^ n is dropt. Some nominal vidvasyate or milk. '<M|i|ri rdjdyate. ^i^|<Mri sabddyate. ^1 fl Jjfrf rdjiyati. he behaves like a wise xnTFTW paydyate. and other final consonants remain unchanged. 19). Final ^r a like a lengthened . ^^|i|H brihdyate. DENOMINATIVE YERBS. he behaves like a (Pan. 13. (Pan. milk. The final ^ i of feminine bases instead. 1 vidvdyate. masculine base taken ^pT^t kwndri. sound. Final ^ uchi } pure. from . . others must (Pan. is he ruminates. 496 . T* $497. it sends out heat. ship. iit^ namas. <Jf^ rdjan. vi. ^ft o becomes *&^av. "SJ^t^ suchiyate. 2. OFF kashta. red. she behaves like great. heat. ruminating. apsaras. TT waw. ^ri ^ rt. ^rt o. in. he becomes much . following the final letters 1. 501). the rest by or -te. '$HKl4ri kumdrdyate. *jpjr bhrisa. Thus from ^TT^ agada. i. ^f% he becomes pure. Atmanepada. ^ ri. mischief. "MU^W payasyate or becomes milk an Apsaras i. n) be Hence from (Vg ^ vidvas. he treats like a father. ^T^ kyan. or yd. i. he treats a . from brihat. father. free from * Those that may take both Parasmaipada and Atmanepada are said to be formed by ^T^ kyash. $7)r(m7i syendyate. nm^payas. Some verbs are classed together by native grammarians as Kandvadi's. 4. man like a king. MM^fK payasyati. in. and T u. ^'fcH^ ushman. girl. ^frf syena. i 3641. he wishes for a ship. in. generally dropt. it man . fHmfiT namasyati. They differ becoming like. has the meaning of behaving expressed by the noun. $T^ sabda. beginning with Kandu. Denominatives in if ya. and girl.

he shaves . Likewise WH4 fulfill ascasyati. Perf.) $501. Denominatives in WT aya.. ^HI^IHI^I tyendydmdsa. Ben. lavanasyati. he wishes for fuel . but when the denominative ^y is preceded by a consonant. after all bases. ^i^MPn s'abdayati. the mare for the bull (Pan. from fifW (Pan. &c. mixed. kyendye. Denominatives in ^ sya. free 229 illness. he mixes m. to be dropt. from a sound (Dhatupatha 33. 52). Hence. benedictive Par. from ^Smunda. he makes ^n being dropt). kandu. samidhyitd or ^rfJTfVnn samidhitd. fetter. 25). fuel. Fut. he gives pleasure . Per. he longs for honey. Opt. Aor. 21. milk. a&yendyishiy Fut. love. fii^^fn misrayati. Perf. 222. scratching. 50). JSil^t^fn kshirasyati. 500. aputriyam. ^TfJTvrfiT samidhyati. xH^lfMM aputriyisham. p. he scratches. is not liable (Siddh. vi. i. (the final mundayati. ^Hltj Syenayai. i. the act implied by the nominal base.-$ 502. Imp. armour. &c. fyendyeya. Per. Opt. i Thus ^<a <* i*<< Pn putrakdmyati. 1 ya. H|MPn or n kanduyati or -te. 4. T5|fa kshira. *pwftf sukhyati. Some nominal authorities admit ^HT sya ^TO asya. &c. Thus from lavana. Per. Thus from ^TT^T pdsa. 4). j <a I P*-q n putrakdmyitd. n. vol. that apply to verbs of the aorist. in the sense of extreme desire. sound. mis'ra. VR kdma. vi. Here the ^y. take ^T sya instead of . 50). class in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. TJ y may or may not be dropt in the general tenses (Pan. the child longs for milk from <4*Q wsKUt^fn . ^JHlfrtM syendyishye. he desires salt. ^iMIfi putriydsam. Pres. H^t Pn madhusyati Denominatives in ni**j or TScHmflT madhvasyati. it is said. Thus from *PJ madhu. r^m^iMrn vipdsayati. y dim ft putriydmi. reduplicated their radical vowels are modified according to the rules applying to the class ( verbs of the Chur 296. Impf. ^f?T^ samidh. "J^Hnc putriyeyam. ^P^ sabda. . Per. he arms. The denominatives in ^ ya are conjugated like verbs of the Bhu Pres. Imp. he has the wish for a son Put. a denominative from . In the general tenses the base is or ^Hl^ ^f\\putriy 4. sathvarmayati. g^ftin putriyitd. vf'itirt aaadyati. kamya. 3). which express a wish. shaven. putriyishydmi. Fut. 502. from W from *pl sukha. 4J$i|HHJ asyendye. Aor. Impf. longs for the horse <jm^fd vrishasyati. They may be looked upon as They generally express verbs of the Chur class. ^l^rrfin putriydni. 40). putriydmdsa ( 325. salt. 499. from illness . the and cow longs vn. They are conjugated in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. Certain denominative verbs. he unties. (Pan. he is DENOMINATIVE VERBS. pleasure. honey.-Kaum. It is usual to form desiderative verbs by compounding a nominal base with 4IWJ kdmya. formed by adding ^SR aya to certain nominal bases. From ^nin"S From Syendyate. from w*{varman.) 5 They retain ^H^ay in the general tenses under the limitations Chur class and causatives (viz. some are in the Some denominative verbs Atmanepada and only. Fut.

king. ^R(as. ava. lifts 503 tail. other final and medial vowels take Guna. W( d. ^*tPn mradayati. ^ sam. he from TTf^ rdjan. T^ fVr ni. Some nominal bases take ^T^PT dpaya. and i\p{gam. below. near to. Thus from Tp$ puchchha. ^l(vat. ^rfff vayati. white. i. api. he makes her 3. If ^HT aya is masculine base. before. beyond. AND The following prepositions i. soft. he is like a king (Pan. from fxnj pitri. from f^ kavi. like prepositions. like a father 4. to be. From tsrf'q^ sragvin. except treating the base like a verbal base of the Bhu class. he is up the tail (Pan. Thus from WiQ satya. father. authorities some where it exists already as the final of the in the nominal base . apa. they are generally replaced by the corresponding From T^ffi syeni ( 247). Denominatives without any to Affix. ^5itj ^rfv adhi. vi. Upasarga in Sanskrit (Pan. well. from 5RT?ST maid. Aor. and ^T a is added to the base. of kri.fn pitarati. srajayati. to be. far. 5861 148). flies like vi. effHUfH Jcrishnati. ud. from olffe bird. sense. vi*iic5if^ama/a. term applicable also to the Upasargas (Pan. ^TJ upa. ^Tcj ^rfcf ati. particularly to *^bhu. WinnTfr arthdpayati. apart. poet. Certain adverbs. They all have the except ^rfa abhi. away. is he a bird . 20). called Gati in Sanskrit. upon (sometimes ft pi). he softens g^ dura. cRTPrfff kavayati. from ^TO artha. According denominative verb by adding the ordinary verbal terminations of the First Division. vi. ^rfa abhi. ^srftj over (sometimes fv anu. it is like amdldsit. downwards. do the . 4. back. 60). 15). together. 'Siw down (sometimes ^va). 3<4imfn syetayati. off. g: duh. ijg mridu. to certain verbs. back. ^cf^fcf davayati. to do. ^ f% vi. may be 4. PM n ^. if fa: nih. he behaves like a poet . next. CHAPTER PREPOSITIONS 504. a garland. prati. . true. Trfif "q^ para. he explains. Thus from ^Wt krishna. after. he removes. tjft pari. added to feminine bases.230 Some PREPOSITIONS AND PARTICLES. to be vin. up. he speaks truly. these affixes added to nouns formed by the secondary affixes *H(mat. without. ^KMiMMirr satydpayati. dhi). PARTICLES. called XXII. and are then . around. Certain adjectives which change their base before ^ ishtha of the superlative. Impf. as Bhu class. must be dropt. *Uc*5lflT mdldti. towards. into. he behaves like Krishna. ill. may be prefixed. of these verbs are always Atmanepada. having garlands. where possible. 36). in. garland. a J 505. TTTRflf rdjdnati. w. white (Pan. same before ^HT aya. every nominal base may be turned into a 503. joined with verbs. utpuchchkayate. i. uddtta on the first syllable pra. to go.

PREPOSITIONS AND PARTICLES. having made khdt. Uiqif^ sdkshdt. lG{an and "W^as like ^ ri is changed to "ftri final are changed to ^1. in TQRl(khdt t imitative of g. nishke Mrshdpanam. i. having made king. ($ fin:: tirafy. ITT governed by TQupa and ^rfv adhi. 83). i). i. a is more than a Nishka Karshapana locative is . g. having done it thus. g. has rained away from Trigarta. *n^ and ^nn^ asat. e. having gone to rest. having approached ^nj: 445) . 506. without touching Trigarta. haram prati haldhalam. Words (Here the final final ^BT in ^raft suklt. They are then called Kar- mapravachaniya. e. " govindam not beyond Govinda. . e. Sometimes. to made white. and are then said to govern certain cases. H%: U^iT bhakteh praty amritam. t. sat prddurbhuya. towards. wr ^R f^TTW^ft ^ ^: xrft. e. 507. disappeared. beyond. f^TTW: pari trigartebhyah. ifirj<7T khdtkritya. ^J?* alam.g. ^rfa abhi. Jpffc d it apa trigartebhyo vrishto devah. having addressed. e. . some of which may here be mentioned. The ablative is governed by Tfflf prati. e. II.) Words having assented. g. fir^pj tirobhuya. having dis- g. until death. TTri^[rw rdjikritya. having placed before 89. urikritya y e. e. ^:^?l adahkritya. having to ^ i. having passed e. expressing regard or contempt regarded. Is'vara is ^q upa. he is worshipped after Vishnu . or Trigarta. ^rcr apa t ^rr d- Ex. Final ^ i and TM are lengthened . against. t prati. having ip: purafy . g.mtyoh. Tjft part. Wtir^HJ asatkritya. having known. . vrir^antar. e. the sound produced in clearing one's throat. having ^TCcr astam. Ex. after. Wfei'lfl astahgatya.-$ 57' achchha . Words like iit^ urt. upon. around. changed ^n d. TRgiprdduh. part. adah . between. immortality in return for faith. is The accusative ufiff governed by ^rfir ati. set. round fH^fi 4IMIMIU Ex. the gods are less than Hari. Several of the prepositions mentioned in J 503 are also used with nouns. wfa|jl dvirbMya. venom was for Hara (4 UMH H ^ d vishnumanvarchyate. ^ic^T1' olaAkfilya 9 having ornamented. achchhodya. having appeared. There are many other adverbs in Sanskrit. like e. ^wftW antaritya. but rarely. 4. Brahmadatta governs over the Pafichalas. g. *^<jw sound . puraskritya. ^T*J ^ft ^Ut anu harim surah. is ^r a ofyr$ukla is a or ^TT d changed . g. UlJ!r<sjit<J sdkshdtkritya. e. having become manifest. g. ati ne&varah. g. g. and they frequently follow the noun which is governed by them (Pan. The accusative of adjectives in the neuter may be used as an adverb. SJ^l^d suklikritya. The vpa adhi panchdleshu brahmadattah.g. when made e. ^rg anu. ^nfa: dvih. 231 ($ fUMIfl achchhagatya.

^iv: ace. immediately. ^fff : vahih. to-day. ^^^(sdkshdt. Adverbs of time : nidi. together. ^r^T sachd. rranflf *pn vrz//a. ace. quickly . *nofT sdkam. ty\)ch ridhak. jyok. naktam. near. ^npn adhund. after. quickly. Thus from ^: mandah. 3. abl. now. together. W^samaksham. kdmam. a whisper. early. adhah.. frequently. ^ $% mandam mandam. ^f?r: purvedyuh. '3&R\^(sakdsdt. upari. on all sides. TOffw samprati. enough. ^: JvaA. slow. "Nr^T chirena. g^f dhruvam. ^n^ sapadi. ^rnf say am. ^RT *awa. low. Certain compounds. *Hlt^ sandt. below. outside. ingly. yesterday. gladly. here. WO antard. tft^h above. ^WT samd. ijTS purah. across. with gen. with ace. long. 1 -51%: sanaih. ^Rl^ sanat. exceedcertainly. by 7 day. by night. according to one's power. with ace. ^r5T7r: abhitah. slowly. near. ^rfrTcjf from all sides. with UH'41 between. ^T : ^mi santatam. early. with instr. 4. without. 5^j9wwar. ever. to-morrow. m*r: pray ah. before. |ifi^ ^^/. abl. with ace./a/w. in the presence. or instr. -ei^^ avasyam. Tfii f^T diva. ^TTV sdrdham. in a little. "?r: T^T ushd. ^fftr 2. below. rm. ^RT amd. . with ace. ^re: avah. ^ purvam. far off. ^glfk paredyavi. again. yn mudhd. with ace. with gen. samayd. jowm. with ace. always. Adverbs of circumstance ipn mrishd. and gen. before. Adverbs of place : ^rTT antar. mithah. ending like accusatives of neuters. unexpectedly. quietly. 507. with ace. purd. now. ^ifVf^ anisam. "5rih Tqft. falsely. ^far doshd.. a/am. with nichaih. with loc. 5. uchchaih. and fro tirah. with abl.. 1^<* prithak. abl. from. over. WKTi^ drat. "gtT ^: bhuyah. aft^ ^nfhr ativa. gt duram. *nfa 5am^. *nTTojr mandk. ttghram. ^it perpetually. with dat. with ace. fi^in mithyd. the same time. f^TTR chirdya. at once. and gen. or loud. 'WTrf: ubhayatah. f^TF^T nikashd. fgTTT^ chirdt. *rnj. ace. with abl. For bially. high. once. within.. yesterday. formerly. iwwn^samantdt. and gen. ^rt vdram. with abl. between. josham. before. near. %A. by night. and gen. on both with sides. or loc.. half. such these see the rules on composition. at eve. once upon a time. antikam. cirrt -^fsj updm&u. ^j?r: sadyah. . gj: muhuh. tushnim. prdtar. firo ^^TWTTf akasmdt. now. urdhvam. between.232 PREPOSITIONS AND PARTICLES. t(rT ^ iha. with gen. far. fqt chiram. slowly. long. ^inT ^Tc5 iddnim. almost. slowly truly. to-morrow. with ace. by day. Tzfto^ ^nr adya. -*Hj|i| ahndya. after. apart. -gK ^r^ sa krit. 5ac?a. iren^a^M^. at g ?^ yugapad. in vain. SHiTOl antarena. are used adveras TreT^rfli yathdsakti. fro*T chirasya.

- 5 10


kila, indeed.

t\TT vind, without, with ace.,

*nj khalu,


instr., or abl.

^JTT rite,

without, with ace. or
dush{hu, badly.

iftmndnd, variously.


sushfhu, well,


f^WT dishtyd,




and the



ffrl^ kuvit, really?

^if%T^ kachchit, really

*ri katham,




itthqm, thus.

w0, as


^ftfiu Aarir tva, like Hari.


enclitic; ^fOTf^Aflrivo*,

like Hari.


and other


508. ^ni atha, ^nft aMo,








yadyapi, although,

rt^ifq tathdpi,



a, ^ft no,

cAa, and, always enclitic, like gwe.


kimcha, and.

n f4



sma, not, prohibitively.

TC vd, or.

TTva ^TV^,


athavd, or.


eva, even, very



sa eva, the same.)
tdvat, as

rt evam,

nilnam, doubtlessly,

ff^ tathd, as -so.


^^ydvat'irt^ ?R tena, if^yadj^


inn yathd


and other







kintu, but.



^IT chana, subjoined to
'^fly^ kaschit,

the interrogative pronoun


iw, any,



some one

odvj^H kathanchana,







TcTTfT utdho, or.

ndma, namely.

pratyuta, on the contrary,




n*fy?^ kimsvit, perhaps, nf nilnam , certainly.


rg wanw, Is it not 1 ^rftr ^1 api cha, also, even,

J 509.



^e, Ht

^o, vocative


^n? aye,





are, Fie

J 510.


The power of forming two

more words

into one,

which belongs

to all

of the

Aryan languages, has been so largely developed in Sanskrit that a few more general rules of composition claim a place even in an elementary


which form a compound drop their inflectional terminations, except the last. They appear in that form which is called their base, and when they have more than one, in their Pada base







^cj^iu: deva-ddsah, a servant

of god; IMg^t: rdjapurushah,

a king's



lW*jy. pratyaamukhah, facing west. H h





be retained.

in the prior elements of a compound 511. Sometimes the sign of the feminine gender This is chiefly the case when the feminine is treated as an appellative,

and would



by losing the feminine



vi. 3, 34) ; kathibhdryah, kalydnimdtd, the mother of a beautiful daughter (Pan. If the feminine forms a mere predicate, a Kathi for one's wife (Pan. vi. 3, 41). having


generally loses


feminine suffix


TjffrR>Trt sobhanabhdryap, having a beautiful wife

(Pan. vi.




The phonetic rules
as explained in

to be observed are those of external Sandhi with certain modifications,

24 seq.*

$ 512.

Compound words might have been
and adverbial.




Thus words


Hrg^J: tatpurushah, his man,

blue lotus, f^n^ dvigavam, two oxen, ^rirpjjft agniand smoke, might have been classed as substantival ^"aH^: dhumau, bahuvrihih, possessing much rice, as an adjectival; and iWltyfffi yathasakti, according to one's strength, as an adverbial compound.
ftcSfara nllotpalam,

sion, classing all

Native grammarians, however, have adopted a different principle of divicompounds under six different heads, under the names of

Tatpurusha, Karmadhdraya, Dvigu, Dvandva } Bahuvrihi, and Avyayibhdva.






which the




determined by the

preceding words, for instance, Wr^^J tat-purushah, his man, or
rdja-purushah, king's man.

As a

general term the Tatpurusha

subdivisions of


(I b)

and Dvigu

compound comprehends the two The Karmadha(I c).

raya is in fact a Tatpurusha compound, in which the last word is determined by a preceding adjective, e. g. Tfcyfajcfc ntlotpalam, blue lotus The component words, if dissolved, would stand in the same case,

whereas in other Tatpurushas the preceding word


governed by



of the king, or

fire- wood,




for fire.

The Dvigu again may be

called a subdivision of the


being a compound in which the first word is not an adjective in general, but always a numeral figFR dvigavam, two oxen, or fg^j: dvigufy, bought

two oxen.

Occasionally bases ending in a long vowel shorten

and bases ending

in a short

vowel lengthen

in the middle of a

compound; 3<(<kudaka,

water, ^TT^ pdda, foot,

.hridaya, heart, frequently substitute the bases



T^ udci),

Tf^pad, and



^t*T: hridrogah, heart-disease, or ^^TCto: hridayarogah. (Pan. vi. 3, 51-60.) The particle "^ ku, which is intended to express contempt, as ^WTSr^TJ kubrdhmanah,
a bad Brahman, substitutes

with consonants



a bad camel. ^r^5J kadushtrah,

kad in a determinative compound before words beginning The same takes place before T^f ratha,

vada, and



The same

particle is

^i^^J kadrathah, a bad carriage ; <*^UI kattrinam, a bad kind changed to WT kd before ^f^pathin and ^TCf aksha:
(Pan. vi. 3, 101-107.)


and optionally before ^jTC purusha.





These three classes of compounds may be comprehended under the

name of Determinative Compounds, while the Karmadharaya (I b) be distinguished as appositional determinatives, the Dvigu (I c) as may numeral determinatives.
class, called


The next

Dvandva, consists of compounds


which two words

are simply joined together, the compound taking either the terminations of the dual or plural, according to the number of compounded nouns,

or the terminations of the singular, being treated as a collective term




and smoke


3T$r$3IMr4l$u: fasa-kusa-paldsdh,


plur. masc. three kinds of plants, or 3l$l$3IMc4l3l sasa-kusa-paldsam,
sing. neut.


The next

be called Collective Compounds. called Bahuvrihi by native grammarians, comprises com-



pounds which are used as adjectives. The notion expressed by the last word, and which may be variously determined, forms the predicate of some
other subject.

They may be

called Possessive
rice, scil.



bahu-vrthih, possessed of


^^K desak, country

rupavad-bhdryah, possessing a handsome wife,
Determinative compounds

*n rdjd, king.

may be

turned into possessive compounds,

sometimes without any change, except that of accent, sometimes by slight changes in the last word.

The gender of possessive compounds,
to the gender of the substantives to

like that of adjectives,




last class, called



which they belong. formed by joining an indeclinable

particle with another word.





which the

indeclinable particle always forms the first element,

again indeclinable,

and generally ends, like adverbs, in the ordinary terminations of the nom. or ace. neut. ^rfvfi^f adhi-stri, for woman, as in

adhistri grihakdrydni, household duties are



They may

be called Adverbial Compounds.

Determinative Compounds.

513. This class (Tatpurusha) comprehends the last

word governs the preceding one.
which the



compounds in which generally word may be a substantive
in the Accusative:

or a participle or an adjective, if capable of governing a noun.




noun would be



instead of ^stf ftnr:

gone krishnam sritah.



to Krishna, dependent

on Krishna, duhkha-atitafy, m. f. n.

having overcome pain, instead of JtlsWdld: duhkham varsha-bhogyahy m. f. n. to be enjoyed a year long.
prdptah, m.



n. having reached the

village, instead of ?jn} UTH:


H h 2






usual, however, to


2, 4).





prdptagrdmah by means of

adverbs or prepositions, such as

^fjrflftL atigiri,

past the

used as

an adverb, or as an adjective,

'^frffnfX: atigirih,



facing, &c.



which the


noun would be

in the Instrumental


dhdnya-arthah, m. wealth (arthaK) (acquired) by grain (dhdnyena). : sankuld-khandah, m. a piece (khandah) (cut) by nippers (sanku^l^f-gJTC ddtra-chchhinnah, m. f. n. cut (chhinnah) by a knife Idbhih}.
^ft^Trf: hari-trdtah,

m. f. n. protected


by Hari.


deva-dattah, given (dattah)

by the gods

or as a proper

name with

the supposed auspicious sense, may the gods give him (Dieu-donne). m. f. n. like the father, i. e. pitrd samah. ^frl!*^: fxj^nr: pitri-samah,

asunder (nirbhinnaJi) by the nails (nakhaih). visva-updsyah, m. f. n. to be worshipped by all. svayam-kritah, m. f. n. done by oneself.
nakha-nirbhinnah 9 m.

n. cut



which the


noun would be

in the Dative


IM^UV yupa-ddru, n.


(ddru) for a

sacrificial stake (ytipdyd).



hitah,m.f.n. good
object (arthd),

(hitaJi) for cows (gobhyah).

(V*H: dvija-arthah, m.f.n.
Determinative compounds,


intended for Brahmans.


treated as possessive, take the terminations of the masc., fern.,
e. g. finrr^TT


*RT*r: dvijdrthd



gruel for Brahmans.



which the

noun would be

in the Ablative

chora-bhayam, n. fear (bhayam) arising from thieves (chorebhyah). r: svarga-patitah, m. f. n. fallen from heaven. ^TJJJW: apa-grdmah,


gone from the village. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Genitive




TTTJ^: tat-purushah, m.

man, instead of tasya, of him, purushah, the man*. TTafJ^: rdja-purushah, m. the king's man, instead of rdjnah, of the king, tT5TH^ rdja-sakhah, m. the king's friend. In these purushah, the man.

compounds sakhi, friend, is changed maker (kdrah) of pots (kumbhdndm)

to sakhah.


kumbha-kdrah, a

jft^nr go-sat am,

a hundred of cows.




which the


noun would be

in the Locative

*J<UjU: aksha-saundah, m.


devoted to dice.

TCfa": uro-jah,




produced on the breast.

Most words ending




Hence ^TT^T

^TrTT katasya kartd,

or R ka are not allowed to form compounds of this kind. maker of a mat, not o^oF'ST katakartd; $TT H^T purdm

bhettd, breaker of towns.




exceptions, such as

^llu deva-

pujakah, worshipper of the gods, &c.

514. Certain Tatpurusha



retain the case-terminations in the



done suddenly (Pan.

vi. 3, 3).


dlmand-shashtha/i, the

sixth with oneself (Pan. vi. 3, 6).

swm; parasmai-padam,

a word for the sake of



the transitive form of verbs (Pan. vi.3, 7,8).

$ *4&lgJf krichchhrdl-

labdham, obtained with

^SHp*}^' svasuh-putrah, sister's son (Pan. vi. 3,

(^eitHCri: dioas-patih, lord of heaven.

qi^rMPn; vdchas-patih, lord of speech.

devdndm-priyaJi, beloved of the gods, a goat, an


gehe-panditah, learned at home, i.e. where no one can contradict him.

khecharah, moving in the

tKJVui! sarasi-jah, born

in a

pond, water-lily.

touching the heart.
3, 9).

jfvf^TJ yudhishthirah, firm

a proper name (Pan. vi.


this class a




2, i).

is e.

supposed to take the first place.
the fore-body

are referred in which the governing Ex. ^[5bi<; purva-kdyah, the fore-part of the

^5<lcf! purva-rdtrah, the

part of the night,



the fore-



rdjadantah, the king of teeth,
better be looked

the king-teeth,


the fore-teeth (Pan. n.

They would





516. If the second part of a determinative



a verbal base, no change takes

place in bases ending in consonants or long vowels, except that diphthongs, as usual, are

changed to ^\d.

Soma-drinking, nom.

Hence *Tc$g^ jalamuch, water-dropping, sing, ^ffam: somapdh ( 239).



a cloud;

tftHMI soma-pd t


Bases ending in short vowels generally take a final J(Jt Pq *a fi i(visvajit, all-conquering, Other suffixes used for the same purpose are ^T a, ^tn, &c. ftfj'i, to conquer.
I b.

Appositional Determinative Compounds.

compounds (Karmadharaya) form a subdivision of the deterIn them the first portion stands as the minative compounds (Tatpurusha).

517. These

predicate of the second portion, such as in black-beetle^ sky-blue, &c.


following are

some instances of appositional compounds


nila-utpalam, neut. the blue lotus.



parama-dtmd, masc. the

supreme spirit. 3llomiPlH; sdka-pdrthivah, masc. a Saka-king, explained as a king such as the Sakas would like, not as the king of the Sakas. SHUd: sarva-rdtrah, masc. the whole night, from sarva, whole, and
rdtrih, night.


fern., is


to rdtra; cf. ^trra: purva-rdtrafy,

masc. the fore-night; *TlTra: madhya-rdtrah, masc. midnight; yiwu^: i^TTW dvi-rdtram, neut. a space of punya-rdtrah, masc. a holy night. two nights, is a numeral compound (Dvigu). H^KlT. mahd-rdjah, masc.
a great king.

In these compounds


inahat, great, always



(Pan. vi. 3, 46), and {W*{rdjan 9

king, Tf*fi rajah; as

parama-rdjah, a supreme king but 4}{j*U su-rdjd, a good king, f!m4i: priya-sakhah, masc. kimrdjd, a bad king (Pan. v. 4, 69, 70).
a dear friend.

*T% sakhi


masc. the highest day.

changed to ?re: sakhah. ^THT^: parama-ahah, In these compounds ^5^ ahan, day, becomes




drHl^t uttamdhah, the last day.





^^ ahan;


purvdhnah, the fore-QOon.


TTT^T^: praJcu-purushah, masc. a bad man, or cfirg^: kdpurushah,. a hereditary teacher, i. e. one who has been a teacher dchdryah, masc.
-*\d\$(W. a-brdhmanah, masc. a non(dchdryd) before or formerly (pro). i.e. not a Brahman. ^TTO an-asvah, masc. a non-horse, i.e. not Brahman,

^nT^iTW ghana-sydmah, m.f. n. cloud-black, from ghana, cloud, and sydma, black. ^frXRcS: ishat-pihgalah, m. f. n. a little brown, m. f. n. from ishat, a little, and pingala, brown. srrfo^fT: sdmi-kritah,
a horse.
half-done, from sdmi, half,
518. In


krita, done.

some appositional compounds, the qualifying word



vipragaurah, a white Brahman; TT^TTVtt rdjddhamah, the lowest king; H^if^ro bharatafreshthah, the best Bharata ; ^v^CTTn purusha-vydglirah, a tiger-like man, a great man ;

govrindarakah, a prime cow.

I c.
$ 519.

Numeral Determinative Compounds.

Determinative compounds, the

portion of which


a numeral,

are called Dvigu.

The numeral


always the predicate of the noun which


are generally neuters, or feminines,

and are meant

to express

aggregates, but they



form adjectives, thus becoming possessive

compounds, with or without secondary
If an aggregate



formed, final



changed to ^ i,


or in

some cases


^ am, neut.

Final ^r^ an and ^n d are changed to ^z or

^ am.

Tfarre pancha-gavam, neut. an aggregate of five cows, from panchan, five,

and go, cow.
(Pan. u.

iftgo (in




an aggregate compound) is changed to imgava tft nau to TTR ndva. tNg: pancha-guh, as an cows (Pan. v. 4, 92). flg^fb dvinauh, bought for



ST^cS dvy-ahgulam, neut.

what has the measure of two



two, and angulih, finger; final

dvy-ahah, masc. a space of two days
^GRTTTc^: pancha-kapdlah,

i, 23).

i being changed to a. ahan changed to ahah (Pan. n. m. f. n. an offering (puroddsah)


a dish with five

compartments, from panchan,



kapdlam } neut. (Pan. n.
the three worlds


iv. i, 88).



here the Dvigu


takes the fern, termination

to express an aggregate (Pan. iv.

three worlds


here the Dvigu

<^$l$HlO dasa-kumdri, fern,

f^J^f tri-bhuvanam, neut. the compound takes the neuter termination. an assemblage of ten youths, "^f n chaturi,

yugam, neut. the four ages.

The following


rules apply to the changes of the final syllables in determinative few of them are general as requiring a change without any regard to the Very

water. such compounds being within the sphere of a dictionary rather than of a grammar. the power of a Brahman. hair. 79.) a?. 99. Likewise after TTf?T/>r/i. 1 ^a ^ dhur. 'ifiQft gavdkshah. and ^V andha. (Pan. hymn. a handful. 10. ^JlafiH^I* dkarshasvah. may. a measure of grain. ^TJo5ta anulomam. 4. "WM ^: ardharchah. ship. lake. 97. isf\5f erArsAt. dog. (Pan.) . 4. 3. 92. 100. 76.) after "^^varchas becomes M^H varchasa at the *^( brahma and fH^TAasf/. and 1TR lapta. 4. 81. (Pan. king. not the names of animals.) final ^ a. except cows <l end of an Dvigu. (?). 4. dvyafijalain or si^lta dryarijali. v. v. iJJ^/tfan. ft (Pan. means becomes TT^I urasa.) n nau. (Pan. s^ntt panchanauh. f^ dvi or (Pan. become ^T*T sdma and rtl*i /owia after Unf pro^". v. 85. 12. v. a half-verse. <j*i\nf)'an. charge. (Pan. COMPOUND WORDS. mahdrdjah. (Pan. ship. 74). ^8ft ava. (Pan. add (Pan. (Pan. varchasam. final ^T a after ?JTH ardma and FT7 kauta. 91. take final ^f a <nicoi<4<f kdldyasam. nau. . ^^rich final t verse. 104). substitution is optional (Pan. 4. town. not when it five ships : forms a numerical adjective . 4. v. a dog of a die. 4. a bad throw 9. ^^ni^panchandvam. takes final ^Ta after ^fnT it is and after certain words. *Rf sukha. 75. ^in*i*i andha- tamasam. 4. fTP^tamas becomes !T*TO tamasa after ^T^ TTsam.) after H?^ raAas becomes T^TT rahasa ^"^ anu. as an aggregate. after ^IV ardha.) the TOS*^ a * m w stone. friend. ^I^lt ardhakhdram. with which compared . bought for five cows. regular.a. but t^Jt ponchaguh. ^ffc5 anjali.) 18. v. 11. becomes ^tTZkhara also after ^ PS <s i <- drikhdram : ardha. 4. day. adv. if it forms a numerical aggregate . 141*1(1*3* yrdmatakshaJi.) ^P^khdrt. v. H^KIH* if it (Pan. after f^ tri. ^a.) ati. v.v. becomes "^mndva. HrfJM< pratyurasam. if preceded by the name of a country . 93). path. iron. The general rules are given first.) H\ brahman becomes WCf brahma. (Pan. *}<jgtf: ku and TffT surdshtrabrahmah.) *U1^ sdman. the eye of a Brahman. j^f5J*tlifK| ceases to mean eye. (Pan. if brdhmandkshi. VT^ap. solitary. if Vinftui ascorasam. 8. 4. 17. 4. 4. *j^rt\t* anulomaJt. v. ^Tln^ adhvan becomes ^TUI adhva after prepositions TO*!* prddhrah. ^frft^anas. M'S'iq panchagavam. ^Tg anw. . v. 4. ^J^T^Tt q^t* brahma- anurahasah.) becomes TTO ndva. and ^T i. while rules for the formation of one single compound are left out. rdja. After ^ mahd that 7. chief.) 7T^ wr0s. 6. 16. v. v. become THT ^J^ aha. cart. with the hair or grain. nj^ takshan takes village carpenter. 4. blind darkness. v. v. 94. 4. 102.-J 520. black-iron. vfal^pathin. 4. v. xi^aAan. 4. compound expresses a kind or forms a name. but *i^*J sadayah. ^m^ ayas. regularly. if it expressed. 105). 82). an excellent the locative is horse (Pan. 4. and cOm*^ loman. 13. ^TO^sffras. eye. two handfuls.) adjectival becomes *T3gava. on the chest (Pan. 4. but 5. *rfe sakhi. XIMI aputham or vfai: apanthdJi. 95. 78. ^pur. 'ft^o five 15. a piece of good iron. (Pan. 239 preceding words in the compound. aray e. 101. ^T^TT^ ardhandcam. (Pan. v. take v. a window . This is optional with nfa<\pathin after the negative 2. 1. as an aggregate. v. a Brahman of Surashtra (Pan. 4. afterwards the more special. 4. half a ship. worth five ships. v. 14. becomes ^HSf aksha.

4. y. 21. under the same circumstances. 86. Collective first class (called compounds (Dvandva) The ^tftrR itaretara) comprises compounds words. mother and but in earlier Sanskrit 04 rRl*f I riTT pitard-mdtard. 98.v. finger. n. becomes (Pan. v. a good day. 25). $(ep !lt isa-krishnau. Collective Compounds.) first 5 2 3. after ti<?Min sankhydta. the last taking the terminations either of the dual or the plural. first in pound. father and mother.f^fff pitri I form mdtdpitarau. 3R* dvyahah two days. is an instance of the former. ^uJ o#) should stand *?fenCT hari-harau. forming the member of a compound. . "faj pitri gW putra form f"4 ri yyt pitdputrauj ^orm ^^T^^Tfj hotdpotdrau. Similar irregularities appear in words like agmshomau. 4HI^$! sarvdhnah the whole day but not after a numeral when it expresses an aggregate . thigh. ^rf^ra^ri. dvyahgulam. an instance of the latter class. according to the number which two or more of words forming the compound. cns(<J. numerals and indeclinables. vi. 4.) after 521*Te3 ahgula. demon . punya. Except also ^'^H^ punydham. the vi. 3. ^4-KJHji: hastyasvdh. and *$ purva. ^C%*[ahan.240 after 19. 88-90. Ut Kara . a length of two fingers. after "*f% sarra. 20.Words ending in ^J ri. expressive of relationship. words of greater importance should have precedence kshatriyau. 522. the god and the . night.) "Z^^uttara. 3. white and black : gavdsvam. day. also and bhoktri-bhogyau. Hari and ^ i (gen. Lastly. 87. Agni and Soma. are united. stand "3" SQme Words with rules are given as to a Dvandva comand in ^? a should eh) fewer syllables should stand (Vqon^ni siva-kesavau. first sometimes lengthens final vowel (Pan. 3. ^WS[ hastyasvam. the Hotri and Potri priests. vi. (Pan. 4. or by putra. (Pan. the intention and elephants. becomes ^1^ aAwa. 26). fil potri + 524. and being followed by another word ending in ri. 4. ^N U optf purvasaktham. Mitra and Varuna. becomes TTc? rdtra. in 521. UlVvj sakthi. a cow and a If instead of a horse is to express horses and an elephant. Brahman and a Kshatriya TTrTlftniTr mdtd-pitarau. ^bjfc5fl%w/i. 91 4 fioh ujll * sukla-krishnau. ^frt'y! hasty -asvau. are divided into two classes. that would naturally be connected by and. VST'Ucf dvirdtram. ipl mriga. The second class (called MHI^K samdhdra comprises the same kind of compounds but formed into neuter nouns in the singular. and JJoFI^ ekdham. (Pan. fs'a first : Words ending in u (gen. ^f^yji hastyasvau. and m : a single day. not W^r^ftfT^T kesavasivau. ^fW^T^ft sarvardtrah. or sacred titles. after partitive words. becomes "QW*l saktha (Pan. the compound takes the terminations of which words should stand first : the plural. change their ^J ri into T Wd ^ (Pan. the whole night. son.) II. first : Words beginning with a vowel and ending and Krishna. v. Thus fry N ^H(! mitrdvarunau. COMPOUND WORDS. Likewise horse. ^^TT^I purvardtrah. 1 TTiJ mdtn-\. a : <^^m deva-daityau.) 22. its When the names of certain deities are compounded. father and mother. the enjoyer and the enjoyed. the fore-night. likewise after numerals and indeclinables.i5ir<a<ii brdhmanafather. the elephants and horses (in an army). S'iva Kes'ava. 33. two nights. an elephant and a horse.

of a brindled cow. whom a cart (rathah) rudrah. J 527. 2. 196). A determinative may be used as a possessive compound by a mere change of termination or accent. is but in nilotpalam sarah. anasvah. ^fo pita-ambaro harih.vi. ^tfBSf akshi. Rudra to whom ^H^riMS^ ^5: upahrita-pabii ^HlflO inrih prafallen off. . 4. Prakriya-Kaumudi. here heart. 526. Thus *f1<^rMc6 nilais utpalam. a blue lotus. i. 29-31).) pound. fHinJ pitarau in the sense of father and mother. two-headed two-legged : here murdha stands for iniirdhan. ^M^ft T^T: anasvo rathah. 3. Hari possessing yellow garments. speech and skin (Pan. Pan. if they mean really thigh and eye. Va.*t ^TH: prdpta-udako grdmah. finger. e. V^^ahan. a friend. having a blue resplendent body. a determinative ftr5taje5 JTCJ compound (Tatpurusha. *31TTt soasurau in the sense of father and mother-in-law. : changes of the final syllables in possessive compounds 1. is ^^SH^ udha-ratho 'nadvdn. 2. a piece of wood with two prongs*. 4. 4. a bull by drawn (udha). v. i Man and wife may be expressed by M is cil jdyd-pati. I .-$ 528. COMPOUND WORDS. v. rft?ftT3i75'^g: nila-ujjvala-vapuh. or ^Mnl dampatt. and night. f^MK dvi-pdd. 87). one who has eaten his pad ^^ su-hrid. ^fen sakthi. a bhrdtarau (Pan. v. leafless. sonless. f-*i'a*j. parnah. 106). are always predicates referring Possessive compounds (Bahuvrihi) to some subject or other. thigh. (Pan. a day and night. subdivision Karmadharaya) is an adjective and as such a predicative or possessive comIn the same manner <H*g. JU^jrt ^If* dry angular* ddru. a possessive compound. take final ^ a. 114. a cart without a horse. dviriipavad-bhdryah. v. form the compound vcVuci: ahordtrah. OTTO may be used in the sense of brother and sister. a determinative. (Pan. (Pan. ^T*l vdch+'H^tvach (see vdktvacham. heaven and earth . Possessive Compounds. a water-reached village. cnio5ns$: kamalakshah. The following rules apply to the 528. rdtri. '$& jtutrau in the sense of son and daughter. possessed f?T^5l : murdhah. possessed of a beautiful wife. cattle (pasuh) is offered (upahritd). stands for pdda. a horseless cart.) it ^T^JTc? ahguli. Bahuvrihi compounds frequently take and suffixes. n. cMf dydvd-prithwyau. substitutes final ^T a if refers to wood. alms. 113. eye.) . 24. Jsn*l jampatt. lotus-eyed. ^ chh. then final ^ ch. If the compound takes the termination sA > of the singular. 525. III. chitra-guh. form *(j> T* J h \d> > ^ and ^ h take an additional 4. 241 dawn and night SMIUH* ushdsd-naktam. a tree from which the leaves are : a-putrah. com. (see nilotpalam not-a-horse. Examples : HiwV. a village reached by water. a blue lotus lake. having a good ^fssnrfasn bhakshita-bhikshah. day 90.

4. 4. (Pan. 129). law.) IV. 138-140.242 3. in the ordinary. 4. 4. add final ^ ka. (Pan. V.) may substitute After the same particles. 21. in having many masters. i. 14. Adverbial The resulting comjoining an indeclinable particle with another word. are treated like durmedhdh. 4. knee.) VT dharma. having two heads. v. becomes ""n^^ac? after certain words. having a optional. is optional after ttkurdhva (Pan.e. ifaljambhd. N $*i I c4 <*u many husbands. but not stands at the end of a name . v. iRRljdyd. 4. if it 4. <^cOllftloK sthiila-ndsikah. v. large-nosed. v. or ace. 12. ^^iHcM bahusvdmikd. In names this is ^TV^T pushpadhanvd. ^T^cSt ahalah or ^("cot ahalih.) After ^ . wife. (Pan. 10. becomes (sign of a certain age) . ^iic5it! antar- lomah. v. and words ^J ri.) Feminine words in bahukumdrikah. v. 16. (Pan. 5. jaw. becomes '^fo^jambhanj SfHJ. becomes ^^^dhanvan. (Pan. unnasah. '3T^ uras and other words belonging to the same vyudhoraskah. 4. becomes ^Jnw^ U3J prajnuh (Pan. terminations of the nom. again indeclinable. and generally end. v. kakuda. v. final ^T 5 2 9ffc trij Igfi^murdhan. (Pan. (Pan. This 11. having two (Pan. a hog. like ^T^ nadi. v. v.) becomes "^^nasa. 115. smell. The same change takes place after prepositions. preceded by one word. becomes iHfajdni. v 4 135-1370 - 15. in ^H(asj g^ITt progeny. 151. 153. hair. v. final 7. Adverbial Compounds. COMPOUND WOKDS. 4. (Pan. 4. and HVTmec?Aa. 132). 124. ^a. becomes "3W^ w^aw . or indeclinable compounds (Avyayibhava) are formed by $ 539. bahumdlakah ^Jittc*: bahumdlah. thigh.) Most other words may bahumdldkah or may not add final cfi&a. after Tlpra ^^TT sujambhd. X i 4 6-i 4 8. v. v. 4. cow-nosed. *nntt! gonasah. in which the indeclinable particle forms always the are first element. after *?$& sthula. hump. substitutes a after "% dm and %^VJ dvimurdhah. 4. f?fc3 kali. (Pan. ^J>roBJ bahubhartrikah. with a prominent nose.) danta. nouns ending 8. JHU pro/a. (Pan. broad-chested. ^ foot.) teeth. 4. 119. pounds. 4. fk^cft dvidati. 117. 13. becomes 'h^^ kakud after certain words and in certain senses ajdtakakudj a young bull before his humps have grown. (Pan. master. ^nfvt sugandhih./awM.) final ^T a after ojta^/omaw.) *TV gandha. or tf su. ^$nft kundodhni. bow. ^l^pdda. substitutes *tfVf $rawS/M after certain words. flT^dwe/an. V^[ dhanus. furrow. 20. udder. 134. 4.) *3\W(udhas. ^. g: duh. 118. 131. 4. v.) 1 8. after many words. 141-145. is treated like a noun ending in kalydnadharmd. head. Words in ^t'n add final cR&a ih the feminine.) class add final ^i kaj 19. (Pan. (Pan. <=qiMi^ vydgJirapdd. . 4. like adverbs. mind. tooth. a snake. 6. v. nose. from Wffo*{svdmin. 154. having the hairy part inside. (Pan. i. after certain words. 122. neut. (Pan. 121. and IT 5aw. <fiT ^c?a# fern. 152.) 9.a. v. e. Hir<H<*lwasz7. ^JH^TTf^TJ subhajdnih. 130). having having or many maidens. 4. v. bow of flowers (Pan. substitutes ^TcT^ antar and ^f^t vahih. and tffflrq sakthi.

^f^an may or may not. in. and mR^irt may river.) final Words belonging sarad take to the class beginning with STC^ about autumn. free from winter. 3MJuu upa-krishnam. after Vishnu. at every verse. 112. rules apply to the changes of the final syllables in adverbial compounds 1. 107. instead of trinena saha. king. inptt sa-trinam with the grass. gh. ace. ITRTfW upasamidham ^B? or zwfal^upasamit. sing. COMPOUND WORDS. no. 4. first some Avyayibhavas the tishthad-gu. e. ipg*i ^ until final delivery. near the Ganga.) upasaradam. b. dh. cji. ^froj anu~vishnu. he eats (everything) even the grass. ^iiiisi^<u1 dgrahdyani. Vfrj^q anu-rdpam. fVrtfgpii nir-makshikam. instead ^ffff^H ati-himam.-J 531. instead of faujj anu vishnum. v. past the of ^HlT f^f ati himam. pradakshinam. at the time element of which is not an indeclinable . autumn. ugmtjfe satrinam atti. near flies. from ^TO sarad.) in 3. T<^ nadf. (Pan. to the right. with or regard to one- (Pan. v. 530. fn8 when the cows stand to be milked M'S'i'i pancha-gahgam. ^rr^f^i amukti. Words ending self. or may not take final *8a. approach of old age . v. at the place five Gaiigas meet. sing. There are particle. instead of ^if^vji baktir yathd. flylessly. v. th> dy dh. samit or <5MHPH^ upa-samidham. the winter. Words ending in mutes (k. p. at the 4. 531. near the fire-wood. ph. 4. 108. upon Hari. t. ^a . g. from iRQjaras. 4. instead of *ftf sing. d. ^N^l* Sakti. 4.j. ^M^H upacharmam ^'H upacharma. near the (Pan. autumn (Pan. jh. old age 4MHPH^M/?a*rfir^ samidh. west The following : of the village. sing. But neuters the skin. th. from fire-wood. bh) may 2. v. in ^^an substitute final ^rnT adhydtmam. after M^fKJilJ i. : 243 f adhi harau. kh. 'Jjvji^ifa yathdaccordingly. near or (Pan. instead of anu rupam 9 ace. <5M^i^* upa-jarasam. ^mf^ upanadi or <im^ upanadam. 109. near the fire-wood . vifij^fi: adhi-hari. 3*431 45 1 l . OTJ ^q according to one's ability. 4. chh. with the grass. ^Tej Examples loc. near the vicjJNi anu-gahgam. where the near the king. *il<5*il4ll paurnamdsi. ^mT upa-rajam. Benares). ydvach-chhlokam. TT^TC]^ upa-saradam. (Pan. after the form. 107). to Krishna. Ex.) 4. v. t. from tr*F{rdjan.) a. and 5. may not take final ^ . (near the Madhav-rao ghat at McM'^m pratyag-grdmam. ace. (J 167).

^ \ i ir shows that a verb ($ 367). vn. Hs-MH mathyate. Pan. Ex. vii. which nasal not to be omitted where a nasal that 10 actually written would be omitted ($ 345. Ex. tfera nandyate. i. i. prohibits the use of the intermediate ^ ( pada from Pan. Ex. II. Pan. 2. Pan. and therefore inadmissible in the past participle (Pan. in. fa\t^sidhu . ri prevents the substitution of the short for the long vowel in the redupli- ^T ^ cated aorist of causals ($ 372*). d prohibits the use of the intermediate ( 3[ Hn the formation of the Nishthas fHMicftI 333> -D. Ex. the former admitting. Pass. 2. Ex. vii. or both forms. 2). nadi 3 Pass. and anuddtta.APPENDIX I. ^rfai^T samitvd or ^nFTT sdntvd from ^ifw: sdntah. 4.44. vii. 2. gravely accented. Ex. 4. ^r^l^achyutat i in the formation of the Nishthas 333> D. and therefore inadmissible in the Ex. 15). or circumflex accent. 2). 5). ^ig samu. "& u renders the admission of the intermediate ^ i optional in the general tenses before all consonants but \y ( 337. acutely accented. vn. the grave. or but from Hr^ month. seddhd or iffwr sedhitd from but ftr^t siddhah. 14. ^u renders the admission of the intermediate ^ i optional before the gerundial tttva ( 337. ih^ first manthati. ^T a is put at the end of roots ending in a consonant in order to facilitate their pronunciation. in order to show that the verb follows the Parasmai- pada. Pan. DHATUPATHA OR LIST OF VERBS. ! 2). may take the 57. 15). past participle (Pan. Explanation of some of the Verbal Anubandhas or Indicatory Letters. vn. ^aftoin^ alulokat from fjffti lokri. "33: unnah from -$$ undi. 2. 2. Pan. 16. The roots themselves are divided into uddtta. The last letter of a root is accented with the acute. ). TJ^: phullah from is niphald. the Atmanepada. but 2. vi. Pres. 2. ^i requires the is insertion of a nasal after the last radical vowel. or second aorist in the Parasmaior "Vjfw^chyutir. Pan. Accent. vii. . 56. the latter rejecting the inter- ^TT mediate ^ i. 24. vii. *f^f?f nandati from 58 .

*mfa Ihdvdmi. *T^nf bhdvatdm. the regular form would have been ^^ bubhdoa. not lengthened in the causative ( 462. ^ij: azA. 9. *T/* shows that the verb follows the Atmanepada (Pan.*&lhdva. 92. aorist in the ffamfi. 2. 2. i. ^IHTR dbhavdma. 245 ($ 367). babhdvuh. 1. Parasmaipada *^R: Ihdvdvah. II A. HfrtTO bhavishydthah. dbhavishyat6m t 9. 93). ^J)hu y to be. i. : 8. dbhavishydma^ t The reduplicative (Pan. *TqTR bhdvdma. >TWlf Ihdveta. 5. Ex. H w shows that the vowel Pan. : P. vi. 5. bhavishydti. bhdvathah. dbhdvam 6. bhavishydmah. dbhavishyatam. 175). *Pl*n{agamat from ng *e forbids Vriddhi in the first aorist ($ thit 348 *). 6. >T^g bftdvatu. 2. i. ^TJJIT dbhuma. instead of irregular 2. 5. shows that the verb takes the second Pan. i. Bhu I. from fowl niphald. too. dbhavishyat. is syllable ^6a irregular. T$]snj: babMvdtuh. *nj<r 7. "^^5 babMva^ (see p. 4. \\ 3. Pan. ^nrt dbhavam. ^Jlff dbMtam. vn. O. shows that the verb follows both the Atmanepada and Parasmaipada. ^ ^ o indicates that the participle is formed in tf na instead of n ta (J Pan. note). ^pTj: babMvdthuh. 45. 9. i. . 9 . C. babMva. 12). H^fif 4. 3 7. dbhavatdm. H^i/iav^. 72). iji. 4. f*T ni shows that the past participle has the power of the present (Pan. 8. 2. 3 2. inrTfyawa442. 4 7 bhavishyavafi. ^f^ 8. ^M^TR dbhavdva. 7. i. vin. F. dbhavishydva. ^W^Trf dbhavata. *^rri bhdvetdm. TJ^: phullafy. VR: bhdveh. 3 8 3. Nfcuifo bhavishydsi. bhdvdmah. is dbhavishyan^ base. Tffa: pinafy from ^ffarnft opydyi. ^w^a^avaw. l. ^*$$dbhutam. babhuvivd. Ihdvati. 2. 6. and that the vowel is optionally lengthened in the aorist is of the passive (Pan. blown. i. in. 4. 7. 5). ^M^ff dbhavatam. bhdvanti. T| Ihdvantu 4. 3. ^r^ i. Parasmaipada Verbs. 75 li PARASMAIPADA VERBS. t 9. ^jfT*T babMvitha. 3.^^: Ihdveyuh. 6. 5. I. 8.CLASS. i. HTO Witt Ihdvatah. Pf. the former if the act reverts to the subject (Pan. (see p. 8. Parasmaipada 55. bhavishydnti. 5. H^T&Mvema. vi. 2. *r^*T 9. I Class). Class (Bhvddi. Ex. H^T^ bhdvdva. 8. 9. 5. ^>J5 babMvd. 3. 3 7. ^ava/.*Fnfolhdvdni 2. Ihdvatha. 3. Ex. 5. H^ Ihdveva. from if^ maths. 6. >i^ Ihdveyam. 2 dbhavishyafy. i. >m bhdvetam.i. HP^uflfH bhavishyami. T dbhavishyam. H^ftr bhdvasi. 4. dbhavishyata. 2. 187). 6. Ex. H^ff bhdvata. I. dbhavah. 2. ^ijj: 6. 8. H^TT bhdvatam. 5. bhavishydtah. 5. 6) . 6. i bhavishydtha. 4. 3. 7. ^f^iT babMvimd.

F. i. 4 7. 2. Adj.vrfacTTftR bhavitasmi. 6. ^jfft babhdvire. *TTfl7 bhdvetdm. F. 5. dbhavathdh. or -^Ave (see J 105). ^f^dWR bhavitdsdthe. Hf^n^r: bhavitdvyah. ^rf^^^f^ bhavishimdhi. 9. bhdvdvahai. ^f^iTT^r: bhavitdsthah. ^^5m Idbhuvdte. 3. Hfaffrftr bhavitdsi.. 3-) in means to perceive. Fut. 3. ^Mfr^rf^ dbhavishmahi. 6. 8. bhdvethe. 4. H^TRt bhdvamdnah. 1 babMvdndh. Ger. TT^f^ babhuvishe. ^Jjf^m% babhuvimdhe. 2. 6. P. ^forTO bhavitdrah. 4. 4 ^rns 8. 2. F. 4. HW^Tt 8. 6. 9. lMye\ 2 ^PW bhuydse. 6. ^WRTT dbhavanta. i.. ^f^i^ or ^ "sn^rre babhu- babhuvidhve 2. ^^ aM%e : &c. ^T>WEJ dbhavadhvam.*f3TP^bhdvdmahai } Pf. 3.HT 2. i.HTR^ bhdvdmahe. >TTO^ bhdveran. HfaflW bhavitdrau. vadhve. dbhavata. 7. 6. vishdthdm. bhavitasvah. ^TT^ bhuydmahe. . i. i. 1. ^ ^%az Even by &c. 6. 3. 3. \\ *gn: bhuydh. vr^irt bhdvantdm \\ 245). *t bhdvai. 9. 6. ^f^ril^^ bhavitdsvahe. itself it is used in the sense of obtaining P. 6.^^ H^W 4. ^ijf^t babhuvivdhe. 7. : ^ 9 .. bhdveydthdm. 8. Passive P. tdrah. 4. ^f^Ml^ll^i bhavishiydsthdm. ^THftrsir dbhavishye &c. ^swi^TTf a&Aa8. 7.246 BHU CLASS. *R7TT bhdvatdm. ydvahe. JJITO bhtiydsam. i. Pres. 5. 7. VR*i bhdvase. 3. ^^rf^ bhdvevahi. i. yfarq'*^: bhavishydmdnah. bhdveya. 7. B. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. H^fti: bhavaniyah. 3. . ^Tif bhdveta. HW^ bhdvasva. *r^ff bhdvate. ufarfiw: bhavi- tdsmah. ij^ng: bhuydsuh bhuydstdm. lhavishishthdh. HT*n: bhdvethdh. Pres. 9. bMydsta. Jjrra Ihdydte. Fut. JJ5TRR bhuydsma. 8. 3. 9. ^swf^f^f^ dbhavishvahi. P. bhuyeya &c. bhdvante. $?fir 5. 2. 2. i?^ bhdvan. bhavishirdn \\ HP^D^4 or S" lhavishidhvdm or Perf. I 4. 2. u be used in the Atmanepada after certain prepositions.^^ Ihuyethe. C. -dhvdm. 6. shishtd. 9. 5. bhdtvd or ijTr -bhuya. P. 7. O. A. ^nm^f^ dbhavdvahi. >TfVffTWf bkavitdsmahe. tf^TTT bhavitd. ^*4 bhdvedhvam. he obtains happiness. *RJ*ff bhdvemahi. page bhdvadhvam. 4 Jjm . dbhave. Hf^TTT^ bhavitddhve. 5. ^wfe4 or ^ dbhavidhvam or -dhvam. 5. HfmM^ bhavishydn. >j. B. I. 9. Hf^TTO bhavitdse. vrfr^ bhavishye &c. ^M^THf^ dbhavdmahi. I. 9.^wf^Tcrf dbhavishdtdm. and may yield a passive. vdthe. O. bhavyah (J 456). bhuydsva. >r^ bhdve. . Hf^hj^ Part. 8. i. ^TH^Hf dbhavetdm. >rfVriHW bhavitdstha. ^wf%mr dbhavishafa. ^ fmd^f^ bhavishwdhi. i. 5. 8. 2. 4. ^^T^ babhuvdn. ^SM^r 5. y. "^^ babMve. ^fi-^bhuydf. Perf. >J?n^r 9.^W bMyddhve. *fa!TRf lhavitdhe. ^wfaft dbhavishi. 9. HTTTTlf bhdveydtdm.. 1. Jj^ij bhuydnte. 5. I.4. dbhavishthdh.>J^ bhuyete. ^^f^?r: ^nrf^? dbhavishta. i. 8. 3. *T f^R *T^ sa sriyam bhavate. (Sar. 3. 8. m*T bMydstam. 4. 3. ^nnvji. ^fViTR* bhavi- HMfar lhavishiyd. : Atmanepada'"" bhdvdvahe. H^ bhdvete. 9. 7. 7. H^JT bhdvethdm. 6. 1. 5. HfVtfT bhavitd. 2. ^WT*TT dbhavethdm. $inw Part. Hf%WT bhavitdrau.'f^ babMve (see note f.

0. Pf. P. O. like Atmanepada. 7. I A. I. dbibhave. Fut. bhtiydvahi. ^t$inr lobhuydte. '3nftinri dbobhdyetdm. F. . wfofo or ^wrWw dbhavishi.. ^rygfw dbubMshisham^ Y. mm dbhdvaye. dbobhuydmahi. B.^^f^snf^bubhushishydmi. I ^%MN*ft bubhushdiichakre. 3. : bubhusheya. I. "yj^rfa lulhushdmi. dbubhushi (see J 406). ^TJ^jf^ A. I. -babhdve. B. ^ijf^ : P. bhdvayitdhe bhdvishlyd. Passive 1. ^R$ftF dbubhushishta. Atmanepada 8. ^nrfr$5iT 6. B. HR*d'*n* bhdvaydiichakre. I Desiderative. *f?n& or mf^ bhdvishye c. P. dbubhilshishyam. B. chakdra. 5. m^fTO bhdvayishyt. F. Parasmaipada P. 6. ^JJ5T^BR bubhtishdii: A. l. I. like ^swfatfi: or ^wrftm: dbh&vilhjhdb. ^XFTQ dbhavayam. CLASS. ^fq^rhr bubhiishishiyd. 4 ^wf^fif dbhdvtihvahi . sftjJTT'R^ ^t^J^ bobhiiyethe. 4 . WNf^rilfw bhdvayitasmi^ B. B. I. F. ^t^TO bobhiiyddhve. i . : P. 3. C. ^^^?T dbobhiiyanta. ^*jfaiq dbubhushishye. &c. F. 5^^ bubhushishye. B. *^)jTxn^ bubhushydsam.^$^ bobhuydnte. I. Atmanepada P. dbobhuye. ^ijfq^ bubhushishiyd. Mi^ifa bhdvdydmi.. HTCfirofr Ihdvayishye or C. II c. : P. F. ^ivg&lobhuydse. lubhushyeya. I. bhdvayitdhe.-z^bubhiishye. ^^jwr: dbubhushishthdh. . ^wreftr^ dbhdvayishye or wrfa*T dbhdvishye. "^J^W bulhusheyam. dbubhushishye. F. HN^I^rii. 2.^^f^raiiwiA^A^icAaArre. 3. 7. P. 2. bobhuydmahe. Causative. ^ryjw dbulhusham. Causative. -sft^bobhuye. F. ^MT^ dbhdvye. HIMmfH bhdvdydni Pf. ^$5 bubhushe. P. C. : Causative.BH& Pf. I A. 9. Intensive. bhutdfy. C. \\ nm bhdvdye. ^^jjwr: dbubhushishthdh. ^t$5*U dbobhuyethdm. 3. "J^mftT bubhushdni u Pf. or Hlf^ril^ bhdvitdhe. lubhushai \\ Pf. i. A. ^t^-q^n: dbobhuyathdh. 9. F. 4 ^^JirT^t bobhuydvahe. Parasmaipada P. ^rmf^ TT^. O. P. HfqqjHm: bhdvishyd- mdnaJi) Past $TT. 5. O. -dse. i. ^^. Hreftnfal bhdvayishiyd or Desiderative. Atmanepada. HN^ii bhdvdyeyam. ^fwf^ bubhushitdhe. wr^T^ dbtbhavam. HN^i^^iTC bhdvaydiichakdra. I. I. dbobhiiyata. bhdvdyeya. 2. m*nr bhdvyeya. wfro or dbhavishye &c. ^^fMrfifiH bubhushitdsmi. WHnf'nQ dbhdvayiHT*TW bhdvyasam. gflfafn^ bubhushitdhe. i. tgiJHM: bhdydmdnah. P. Atmanepada HT^I bhdvdyai P. Pf. HT^ Ihdvyai \\ Pf. F. *wrfa dbhdvi.. Ihdvaydiichakre. ^TMNfauj dbhdvayishye. : \\ II A. g^5 C. Pres. u I. shyam. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. 3. 0. dbhdvishi. ^WRftrfa dbhdvayishi or bhdvishye. HT^ bhdvye. Hfadl^ or mfcirfig bhavitdhe bhdvishiyd &c. 247 *n*$babMve &c. bubhushishye. UNfamifa bhavayishyanii^ C.^-^lubhushyai dbubhushishi^ 2.. 8. ^^5a&MtAz(5A6. ^f ^ dbubhtishye. Passive P. HNf-M ifl^ bhdvayishiyd. ^^fff bobhuyete. 2. ^R^JjW dbobhuyadhvam. Desiderative. II A. F.. I. dbubhushishi. F. F. Hfrifa or Part. O. I O.

F. ^^JJT dbobhuta. ^rwt)J|: 4. dbobhuvan). O.248 lobMyeya 4. Imp. Wt$5 bobhdvd. i. 9. I A. 7. t The second the first aorist is the usual form for intensives. ^pfrjlfafa dbobhuyishi. ^I^ft^ifrf dbobhutdm. 'sjfaf^rilfw bobhavitdsmi. &c. P. ThT^f^fR bobhavdmchakrima . Fut. 8. ^tvrVlTf 6. ^sft'JW dbobhuta. ^Mv. ^t^Jrf 9- bobhutdm. 9. lobMyetdm^ \\ ^*J5Tm| lobhuydmahai) sfrj^&sj i. i. ^fa^N^ 4.^fa^HroFTT bobhavdmchakdra. B. ^t^FT bobhutd. 194. 8. ^HWTf^T bobhavdni. 6. 1 ^J^l Pf. dbobhutam. ^[^ dbobhufy i. dbobhuta. dbobhot or ^Rfarh^ dbobhavit. ^ft$% bobhute. F. 9. F. ^t^Jjrrf dbobhutdm. 3. 'rt)?R bobhdva or ^$^ 7. ^nft^ftrf dbobhuyishta. bobhuvdh. ^rsft^ftrsr. bobhotu or Tfrsft bobhuhi. 2. B. -sftsftpfta bobhuyishiyd. ^TTt^5 dbobhuvam. bobha- vdmchakriva. *frp: bobhutdh. p. i. also i. Cond. 5. bobhuydm. "sft^HT bobhutdm. 3. Perf. sftiJTriri lobhdydntdm PF. bobhuvatu 7. 1. Fut. ^^Trfa ^ dbobhdvishma. Per. ^rijtrr^ lobhuydsam. 191 seq. TtHf^^ bobhamshishtd. first aorist ^5M (Colebr. dbobhu- yishthdh.) * The form t$^ bobhuviva optionally for is not sanctioned by any rule of Panini. F. 9. 2. ^nA^5 dbobhuma. give the following forms Pres. ^t^: bobhumdh. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. ^ftjlTT bobhutdm. bobhuva. 5. 7. "sft$5: 8. dbobhilvuh (not ^TT^5^ 7. ^ftnt: dbobhoh 4. *ft$ifcrf ^^in 2. 6.f ^r or ^T^)J5^: dbobhuvih. 3 9. 193). bobMthdh. I. bobhuyddhvam. ^RtH^ dbobhavam. 'fiHm bobhdva or bobhuva. Note Grammarians who allow the intensive without Tya : to form an Atmanepada. ^nsft5 a&o^R^ijif dbobhdtam. Tta^teTfi bobhavdmchakre. 9 sftg^fiT bdbhuvati. ^H^ra 8. ^>^fT bobhomi or 3. P. 1. 'SI^Tf^ dbobhavishta. II A. 3. ^T^TH bdbhavdma. I. ^t^: 3. ^t^T dbobhuma. 4. C. Intensive. admit The conflicting opinions of native by Colebrooke. 7. 6. ^^5 \\ sftarfc| bobhavitu. ^t^f%JT bobhuvimd. (See Colebrooke. sftsjnra bobhiiyishye. ^nfta^t dbobhavuh. ^rwtHTf^B^ dbobhdvishva. 5. bobhavishydte. ^?^t)Jlf ^iwt>Th^ 6. -sfhjTnri lobhuydtdm. Wt^J^t bobhdvdtuh. Aor. however. bhuva. Opt. ^frnn^ bobhuyitdhe. ^^jg: bobhuvuh. bdbhavdva. p. 8. Parasmaipada 2. ^hff^T bobhuvitha. 4. . *fh*T bobhuthd. Some grammarians. dbobhdyishdthdm. -sfr^^bobhuydmchakre. WNTfrHnT Ben. ^^ 7. bobhuvivd*. I A. . 5. 2. ^nft$^ dbobMt or ^T^t^Ttl^ dbobhuvit. *ftJTO lobhdydsva. ^ffartf*? bobhavimi. or wqto^h dbobhavih. 7. 2. -aft^rr IdbMyat. 5. WTtijftrsor or cT dbobhtiyidhvam or -dhvam. ^rwVHf^Efif dbobhavishyata. 6. Per. P. p. C. 4. ^TWt^JW a^o8.. 2. bobhuyethdm. Tt^T^: bobhuvdthuh. ^l^iflfwiT dbobhuyishata. grammarians on the conjugation of intensives are fully stated . but in ^5M it is superseded by the aorist. i. 1 dbobhdvisham. 5. i. 8. BHfi CLASS. 4. ^r^t^fVa} dbobhavishyam. 3. . ^^ft bobhoshi or ^ftaTfrfa bobhavishi. Impf. wfojTjret lobhuydvahai. "^fafranft bobhavishydmi. bobhoti or TmrtilT bobhaviti. Tt^hf bdbliuvita. this being enjoined for the simple verb. ^t^ft^ : dbobhuyishye.

O. i.. or fafwr^r. Aor. Hfwr. ^?^?rh^. Note This verb is sometimes written 5. 2.) nasal throughout Roots marked in the Dhatupatha by technical final ^t keep their penultimate This root can take no Guna. aftirg u i. 8. 2. Impf. 4. "fafaljt. m: m4% Roots ending in consonants preceded by a nasal. ^tf^ni. F. ^T^fifF. I. I. 8. C. irfapn or nfv (Pan. ^ftfinTT. faf^fTW. less JT*nrg: (J 328. i. ^nlftnr. Native grammarians admit a verb HVjfd (mathe). :. F. correctly. P. but not roots written with Anubandha ^. O. 23. P- fTrfiT. 10 i. 'QBI^schyut. TH^JT^ or ^fwi^ 395. or ^^^ftflT. however. F. strike. Int. P.^frTr^. ^finnr:. 3 wajrn^. 2. ^ref?n^. I A. ^pr. ^pjfrf. 'Hlrt^. wfinqr^. 9. wrfif^fiT. 4 f^Pqn^:. 9- ^^> l A - K k . 2. 5. ^TiffiT. however. flP^rf. Des. or ^q>%lT:. 3 nr^. 7. i. Aor. F. 6. 6. 5). fa^lff. 5) or. mfa. 3. 2. ^aftfiraT or -^fiTr^T. w*rfrr*T. Ger. -^ftiffff. *J?n^. ^VfrofTT. ^ftroifTf. I. ^farnr. ^fw. fniT. Adj. ^rirfrfFf. 2. *f^. f 428). 4 ^gfirf. need not take ^ instead of reduplication Prakriya-Kaumudi. Caus. . i. -^ chyut. 2.^firti^. . 557^11 Pt. Pass. 7. ^ftfiRfiff or ffrafii. ) Pt. 2. I. 2. ^frnn. w^ftrftir. 9. u Pass. ^: ^rnrfir. Adj. ^^fTir^.JniT. C. 2.TOJTT. 9. unTvjn. . nit) terminations (Pan. O. Caus. to flow.CLASS. ^IHJ II Pf. ^finqfiT. ^jfinr: -j^jH!^. I. ^T^^Jtn^. Aor. Int. IA.vS>4lflHi^. I. M^: (Pan. Note except after roots ending is double consonants (Pan. Hftnr:. B. Int. fa ^ fall. (^fllT. P. or f^f^Omfir. B. 9. Adj. Ifl The Anubandha \t shows P. ^tftfnrf?f. f^^Tf. (^fa. i. ^T^farn^.^^^.wtfinn. the weakening I allowed even after double consonants <5 ^ff^ffiT 1 M*flMl<<f%fliTiJ< I TT5JT ^ foF^TT I <AiijJ iA^jWrt II Roots. ^xiftfrvj. -f^. 249 f^ chit. J^IThi:. ^tj.^^Trim^. Ger. which thus drop the penultimate : nasal in the perfect. fMftj^flf. C. f^rwr^ u Pt. F. I. 4. ^tr shows that the verb may take the Pf. B. ^^fw.^r^fVfinT. W^fdM. 7 b. I. lose the nasal before weakening (kit. qi^manth. 2. 4).i. that the participle in tah takes no intermediate ^i. P. to sprinkle. F. 3. f*f**r^. 5. or II A. fra?*. f^fif^fTr 3. The terminations of the reduplicated perfect in the dual and plural are weakening in (kit). wWhr. ^jnrhi:. B. 6.) first The Anubandha P. &c. which supply a to "f^ kunth. to think. P. Jhrfir u Pf. ^fWVrftj. I A. 7. note). Des. to shake. F. $^r u Pf. 8. and second aorist. and another variety of verbal derivatives. ^r^ftfTnxnT. **ftfrfiTM: u I. PAR ASM AI PAD A VERBS. i^ifn. (Vifarijj:.^^^:. (cf. ^ngn:. virf?nr. HlHanw. p.'Wvftir. or II A. 9. 3. ($ 345^ i. . 1.nTv|d'*M. vi.^*5^. Des. v^fir^:. Ger. : According to some. fro. on account of its final conjunct consonant. 4. u 3. i. 24) . i. I A. F.vftiT^llPf.. O.

. 2. 9. 2. 5. ^^:. I . -si^fw. P. i. ^rf^'orfiT u Pt. Adj. wfrrf . or fafasT &c. "f Wff. ^faitfTT. ^nfir ii Pf. Des. Int. J 99> . Adj. Hf^'M. wfim^fif) u Pf. II it) u Pt. F. F. ^Em^ u Pt. *fTf^r. ftnff. I A. P. T^fw (nftpr^frr). f^^f^flT. to pain. 4. U ^HT. ihnrfw. i. -f ftmr. Des. ftrefw. ^f^jtt. 7. r^nad. II. Int. irfVnn or 3. ^ A ^H ^K I - trace. B^nim^ w Caus. (Pan.) 2. 4. TTT<? (&). 13. *vfn (fMwftf *). P.% Ger. I A. P. 4. to scratch. to go. The Anubandha <T is sometimes added to to go. to ask. ^^^t. P. in^rfw. yi^fii. P. IT^ gad. (a). Des. Des. i. ^fTOff. ftrfafire marked by technical Thus Pf. and hence the intermediate ^ may be omitted. I. TT^. -q^gt. viSr*3. when ftfV means admitted by the Sar. i. The change ^ into ^ forbidden by Panini vin. 'sitr^T. I. nf^wr. 9. ^ I. 9. 2. SFTg:. ^rf ard. 2. This verb must change ^ after prepositions . T^ rad. 7. ^Tfjrff *r.-fTrefir. ftFrf^fir. ^Rr. I A. P. II n Pt. I. ^f^r. Pass. to ftn{ sidA. Des. Int. P. or () (J n. ^^f^. (Pan. $ 348). see also p. but is "ftr^ explained to be for the sake of pronunciation only. 3. I A. of ^. ft** 2. ind. or ftre^. 3. V^T. ^^f^fT. 2. Caus. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. ^rf fif. ftnsr^. 5. P. 9. i. HII^ (). 2. u Pf. H Pf. ^T^rtl^ (as before). . kill. ^Srtt'lf^. ^^rfif. vn. O. JJ. 2. irftrofir. F. to speak. F. ^fir. Pass. wnfFf^. 166 Caus. II 9. ftr^r. ftftrar.-ffzm^i: 7. this root gj is (f^v ). or TO^i: Int. 5). ^nn^or ^SR^(a). 'srirg: Pass. ^T^TT^. * It is 1.. F. f 348). ^?rw.250 BHfr CLASS. ^ khad. (^. ftr^. Its proper meaning would be that intermediate ( ^ is optional in the gerund. P. is ^rg ^pq^R (I 325) or ^m( or to go. In the sense of commanding or ordaining. M'l^. and fav sidh. itfvnrfir or %wfiT. 7. C. 9 fttfw. ftrefVmfif or ftff^rfiT ( 103). 113. F. 6. Colebrooke marks it as erroneous. ^rentfh. Ger. B. ^nf^TJ. Caus. irftn^r or 8. ^^. vfi< or 12. T^f7r (iro^fir. 'sri'Tjt. I. I A. *&I?T( (THRITT^). ^rf^ir:. ^rite. n^g u Pf. as Carey gives Adj. B. The forms without intermediate ^ belong properly only its initial to ftr^ to command. A. ^fif II Pf. ^T%W. O. not with lingual ^.^^T^ 9. to eat. ftnflff. and forbidden in the past participle 337. i. F. ^^ go (fto )."^. ^fff 8. ^rnf^n^. 7. Caus. to hum. to ^^ft^r. or . ^^T^^ or W^(fi). vn. F. x " pf 1. 9 ^j:. to 10. not ^rra*. F. to command (fan*). H^fe 8. to be steady. P. to govern.

(may he worship). 30). ^Nftuu: or "^JTR: or (fiffft. farf%. 'srnH 10 ( C. PARASMAJPADA VERBS. 313). ^ its Distinguish between ^faff! worshipped. C. Wflfli^ F. (Pan. F. VHrf^mf^. ^T never seems to lose nasal when it means to honour: Pass. to go. Des. F. to worship.FfH. 17. ^niT (a).. anchitvd or "wm\ aktvd. i. (j 431. ^id^fj K k 2 . (33. vn.BHU CLASS. not RffffSffrr. The two roots. 4. ^nTamfd u Caus. HfBR^T. II to go. 'sriWlc^. j% hurchh. fctfsWT. ^ftf%f^nrfTT. to go. I A.^in. 2 ^^ftriT. P. 14. first or second aorist mtfiWli^ or Wj*l^ II Pt. but the Anubandha ^t of ^Tfafac/iirequiresthe nasal throughout (Dhatupatha 7. B. P. I A. 26). 7. 16. I A. ^finT 328). i. ^ii^Mfn. f^Tf^TTT. wpefit n Pt. ^finwu^frf. 367 take optionally the Perf. B. 8. Ger. 5. or Wlf4|1^. F. (^1^^. Ger. to go. I A. w*mrX ( 34^*) Pt Caus.) ffanind. firKJU4Pn. J^favj. Perf. 53.) P. Des. viiPira. go). w*l andi. note). 345. I A. <q Hn ^ vrq. Caus. ^f?HfT. P. JlflSH. $ 98. 43). WSrfTT II Pf. i. B. ^lUjd. "Pro niksh. 251 IA. jf*r or |* 21.^fff F. Pass. qjpqmfw. 2) u Pf. however. is moved (Pan. 3. snjwz/. . to go. a*MH he not always kept distinct. P. frltt^m.) i The Anubandha "7 w of ^^ aficAu allows the option of intermediate 7 its in the gerund. iH^Mri he is moved. vftwfrf (litarrf.Vf^nf. fa H| fa (R^^ITT. 2. ^nr (a). F. J 98. n Pf. 2. Des. ^^TT and ^NjTT. C. i.Hrn. TGukh. to blame. 9. (fiin^. mruch. . <iPMd!. 6). and vi.) P. y&U44|^ Pf. except before weakening forms (see month. Caus. P. fchjfir (uftfrsT or nM<i. F. PNo. B. wf^tir^. 19. and nasal remains. P. ii Pf. fHfHHf. I A. B. F. T^T (J 314)) 2. i.jim^ n Pt. ^^^|t^. frfrfc. P. Int.5). fTOT^. jfijTn. 2. to kiss.) ^|*. ^M^fd. I A. ^Ml^ w^ (J 313). ^rsrfiT <fif. ^rnf^t (but see No. I. 2) II Pf. (^^ and ^rfv. or ^IRT. P. Pass. vPqrii having worshipped. or to stretch. 15. ^r^dnchh. P. Perf. fomfr. ^n^fH. . (f P. Des. F. honoured. (5%. a^W:. 20.) $ ^tafir n This and other verbs enumerated .F. 1 ( Mnf7f. are 1 8. to be crooked. TnTft n Pf. ^fHTfy F. ^5:. 2). i. fAfir (J 143) H Pf. 8. <nfl^ or F. P. 22. I A. w ^TT^ (may he Pass.

^rf^TfTT. 9. ffiTTxr (a). jfimrnHi. rmfw 2. Tin. * 3. f^Wrr [^ftTf^frr]. Adj Tft or TU^K Caus. i. Perf. "^TTT ^an. /r/i*. ^ff^r: [^ftnr*i:]. wm. fafai* [^TTftnr]. 'HjT^H.28. [F. to go. The participle Hjf^ri: is equally impossible. Adj. 3). F. Pf. 3. u. *oh^(no Vriddhi. if^ tap. w: is u ^7T. P. they produce no authority for it. B. ^JqFffa or 28. to go. f^^Tir ( (a). f%T5pr or f^^ffiT^r. Pf. TfTam^ Pt. II 2. (J 332. H Pf- i^m^i^auK 6. to burn. WnfxjwTfTj 'T'TTnT^nT. nVftrf^T. because the vowel long). and should always be changed into .. cfffTtT. to protect. 1. PAKASMAIPADA VERBS.) The Anubandha P. ^fw?n] Pt. ^ur^ u or nir:. 26. to wane. [jsrrftnr]. II. I. f^i^r:. 3). f^ro. Des. The causative cannot have short a. F. to warm. 4. T{(/up. ^'ItsPrt.) I. ftr^ vichh. Caus. 56. 2. F. f^j:. to warm. 24. C. ^ftftnrr.) P. F. Ger. f^j or ftnrftro (I 335. ^TTfhrnft^ . or Tf^rr. Int. -ax^rfiT. or JTRT. (oF7. to traffic. 14.252 BH# CLASS. W^dhilp. to guard. F. 4. I A. 9. Des. 9. -si ^ tfl r^. fq^lMfrf. faaiij:. Int. e. 6. vart. to praise. jilMif^Hi. ^tinr^ 390) Pt. to 1J e encompass. or ^H'itmlrt (J 337. vqmNcFTC or ?WTJ (no Guna. (Pan. wrwt:. vtmrfir U Pf. to throw. ^terr [^ftr^r]. C. or 'ftTnrg *i\m*n^. I A. tfir: [>ftTff:]. Trttrrftnr: II Tft^FrfiT. and though both Westergaard and Boehtlingk Roth give the short a. (Colebrooke. oFT kaf. I A.) The verbs ^J^^M^. I A. -cf^H^:. TOfir (1 332. both and may be used ^ ^ II f^nmr (a). fafofft. TrVqiftrofff. 25. ( 325^ 3) "snmr. 23. ^rf^ni. 1. -qTHJ^frf. 2). Caus. 5. take W^dMp. I A. ftp: or -^tan U Pass. jplm^iri or . rTH^ or wfxR (f ( 335. fafere 334). Thr. B. ?3tTR (WlT not sanctioned by Panini). tJ^ JJOTI. P. *mfw. and take it optionally in the rest. %%fif. 3. nty. F. P. n ^nn^. or Pt. I. The Caus. Ger. wftum^. 23) *. P. 7. Des. II Pf. ^nrTrrt 351). ^Sjfaffir. jfarrafir. I A. to diminish. ^qnfrt belongs to % (f 462. 8. ^%^ [>nrX]> Pass. JTfairflT or JntjTHnfjT. 3JH4Hfri. "spfhr. consonants except ^(Pan. F. in the general tenses before all terminations beginning with vowels. 6. ^^TJ. -sreffT II prevents the lengthening of the vowel in the aorist. B.) this substitution is optional. B. 2. 27. or *FftTTftrefff. m. F. (n^. H^fff u Pf. 3). ^RViffy P. $ 348 1). 31. fs? ^Ai. ^n*fi^ II tf must be substituted Before i. [^iftre]. to rain. n i. -^BTflT. ^nn^il^. Int. ($ i. fa*r. Ijsnftnn^]. i. ^T5T/. WI aya in the special tenses. P. is P.) P. O.

to tire. >TT5T 6^/<w. also ^Tfifif . kldmati. #wA. or WTftf bhramati. J 461. ninM?T9 fimfw. may take 1 ya i. 3. I A. -afar. ^&: j^i^nlfri The Sarasvati decides for jnu-qPn. Tfcqfir. (Pan. to shine. ^IHMfri 30. ^^ or Adj.e. 145) ^iii<{lii ql^i H^fTT McniV "Rl and enumerating as ^ITrf^. but some grammarians admit but wti. to rinse. F. Note fTfUTff Iftj: it With certain prepositions TH^ takes the It . In the forms the Aor. 37) (i. to go. vn. 70. to tremble. Div Atm. (J WMIHfr II Pf. . ^ H5^ kram. JK$ kram. ^^T^ or ^^i^^ u Pf. ^n. ATM<lfff. ^T^cT. 3. ^f^T ( 429). WRflf. has an active sense in the passive n*Mri Atmanepada (Pan. (Pan. in the special tenses. F. f^aif*T^flT or f^^^d. (after prep. refers to austere devotion nmxtiH: it sense of regretting (being burnt) distressed by a sinful act. to stride. ^^RT^. 76) : ^T cham. Caus. ^^TRTT^. the Atm. Ger. W5T bhrds. to desire. but after the prep. vn. I A.) W1 kram. if it . -afar.) ( P. lengthening instead of taking Guna. mjT. the devotee performs austere devotion. -sniiirl^ 348*). to wish. ^wh^($359)> TTW. but adds. 348^) i. 35) . XS^HII iJTn. Adj. to cut. I. and instead of "a*T we ought to read UW. v*w<^. to stop. to fail. ^nr:. Caus. TO: (short. to hide.. fRTHfiT or -jRTJsifr. iThlfiff (see No. 74) valid. F. 2. I A. substitute ^5 chchha tenses.irow(5). ("^55. Int. follows a different rule. 30) ^H^kfam. Pf.. fliT*tffT krdmati (see ^No. ^fr^r or ^farff. 76).).-rarfir. B. i. 76. Des. F. its vowel. < Hence jMHfrf. Hence ^IW^fd bhrdmyati I. B. shines. u Pt. 77. Int. 3. 75. ^tnw . THT yam. It takes (a) or ^fHr^T Pt. (*nj. Des. It Note has been doubted whether "3RH in the Div class also lengthens . . ^i*iqinN MIMI *ui he was (Colebr. to roam. Rajaramas'astri supports jni*^fff. for The roots T*T gam. *nRT*. ^ftro &c. -ai^T^ n aw lengthens its vowel in the general tenses (sit) of the Parasmaipada (Pan. a$*IF. THHTTf. 9 . Adj. fffn^fn. %:. Taranatha in the Dhaturupadarsa gives ffMjffl. 4.CLASS. " vn. to eat. (Pan. ^TTR (a). 89. JJffrf guhati. But "aWis not a Samadi at all. shthtvati preceded by ^TT d. no intermediate ^ in Aor. "^TTT. 462). FTO:. i. 3. in. (J ^ftnw (Pan. Fut. f^^shfhiv t to spit. P. ^IJT^^HH^^'^'aiHR^. to cease. HH yam. 3. ir^for ^fni. if vn. p. in. Ger. PAKASMAIPADA VEKBS. 31. vii. to stride. tyan no longer I The Prasada 'gives a^Pii . Ger. 126) Caus. because it ends in ^. 253 456. ^T trut. 6) u Pass. their final in the special and "S^ish. P. ^ifw: u ( 429). c5^?asA. Gflft tras. "affq^r. -aifinqfif. is It is not one of the eight S'am verbs (Pan. TH Pt. ^jPTiT ^44x4 fs i. Ger. iMi'^iHfri dchdmati . "JITTfiT its vowel P. I. Adj. *Rfw. tfJJ bhram. to shine. 3.) P.) The following verbs lengthen their vowel in the special tenses (Pan. F. and in Pan. when a vowel follows. to stride. vi. rUMff. *I^T. a fa dm: n Pass. Vf cham. ailHqffl). giving the general rule (n. 2. intermediate ^.) throughout. Perf.) 29.

or ^TTP^T^.) P. twin or ti^'iw. (*PT. F. MifaHl ipr: (Pan.) < P. 4. (f 45^ 2)9 ftw* only with ^fe: (Pan. 143). TOT: (fifinwr:) u Pass. ^^l^*iri. ^IifliMr^ vin. i. 4II I A.f*nrnr.) Pt. reflectively . ^^fiT. 2. means to espouse he heaps together his own rice. TTOc*. i. I A. to burst.. II Pf. ftn^rjt. TrfrofiT 338. and Pass.H . F. 2. with the its prep. On the Causative. "qi? tfiTT. ^5?T. O JTTT. II ^ft^. Int. 2. finfafiT. 117) Caus. B. TfanajTT or iRfiT. Pt.) P. F. n II A.) P. TKcfphal. i. f^ji. 35. 2. (a). f^tfifj^fiT. . or ^rf^. Des.f^rrnr (). ^H. s. 3. nMPff 6. Initial sibilant unchangeable ( 103). Perf. . <3nNfy F. The Caus. to excel. -^fw n Pf. II ftrfnur. ^TTRfff.) TH nam. %rf^T:.) may be dropt in the Aor. inn. imfr. ^TT. TB^TW. like HT. I A. 87-89. ^%fif. Int. Caus. firnfH^fiT. to go. Ger. 29). *fn^ TTFT. J|Hjrl. ftfnWff. II A. ^nf^HTi^. n^fiT 5. to spit. : 7. 36. and Ben. flfSrT. 3T"rg: &c. P. it if intransitive. ^I'ii1^ TTT^wait a little.254 Bffft CLASS. &g: u Pass. P. f?^ shthiv. 2. ^f%^?fiT n Pt. Adj. ( The change of l^into Tx in the reduplicated perfect anomalous 319). 89. Note *PT t may be used in the Atm. ^HRhi:. F. . in. or governs as object a member of the agent's body "3^. ftrnr. Des. 4. ^Urtilg or 34. 49). TBTT^irfff. 'sfhlTfl. B. ^fn^n^ prep. No Intensive Parasmaipada. with the prep. With ^ it follows the Atm. flTff:. vn. TT^foff. Likewise with the prep. ^J|*^ri or Note S5TT. 55). Perf. F. may also be OMIMH. 2). 5. ^^^ (J 350). 2).. 4. 33. 3. . i.. TfifoTirfH Pass. in. Des. It follows the Atmanepada with the prepositions TO is and fw. if it is he puts forth his hand. F. inr:. ?T. ( 461).) The Anubandha ^ given to it by some grammarians declared wrong by others. Int. Aor. Caus. 9 %. Aor. vn. (fHMWI. JTRT. TTTTO:. 9 fsrg:. 'ril^l*^ like ^<JNrt he divulged another's 32. B. in special tenses (see Vowel lengthened No. Ger. (J 3. P. (Pan. II. 3). Caus. when it TTTt *f)ril*JMH4ttf Rama married Sita: here the Aor. i. Tmnfa VEfcBS. if it is either intransitive. TTH^aw. fff^f^fk or g^T^fff (Pan. j|*Hfn. (Pan. ^nfiTc^ (I 348*). fuDNl^. Likewise after 1"*T. the final (See 355. is may be conjugated in the Atmanepada. Pass. (fi^. ^Hfi^ (f 359). used ^od. -STHrfVpz? (IT*. ^TITR (a). (J 328. ^ffTC II (f 336. F. r5ff"?"=r. to bow. qij^ri. ( 356. JTWT Pt. -JR^T or ^firo. the Atm. f^nrg:.. ^riT^ ( 367). 2. Des. *iT*rff. -qTRTH (d). TTI or Adj. too. tfic5fff || Pf. Aor. see $ 461. if *T means to have patience. Des. Aor. -sWff ({ n Pf. Int. may follow the Atm. It does . In . i. faults. ^n* (). ftnhr or ftH I A. Ger. PARASMAIPADA Caus. Int. n Pf. f|j|vr or f^Jifiivi. the tree spreads. Tfnrn^&c. ^17??. iftnw. P.

F. 11 3. ^nirnsflfi^. follows also the Su class. i). 2. *snfat|i^. P. Caus. ^^rush. the two forms would be. 7. 2. id. F. VMfyq OF i. ^p|l4. mih. f^f^zr. II. I A. ai^frf or 7. 2. TCjrfrr. ^rrf^jf or ^msfri^. 40. 7. 4. (v^.^d*. or 2. 4. 4. i. ^T?:.. 9. i. VHIVSJ'):. ^qr^ Pt.^^:. 5. 6. 71 to rejoice.'sftrh^. to see (Pan. ^fVre (f 335. ^wrfiejg: P. *n*t. i. I A. ^S?^f . 11 f Bt. V^T?T. df^n P. &c. If used in the Atmanepada. or I A. ^TPTSf. 7. 38. 6. 'STWT'^rh^ or 39. 1 or ^ror. i. i. xM^ohMH Des. id. ^^fif. and V^UJjIlT 59) '> : optionally in verbs with penultimate ^. ^ft^tlr. vj|fiPB|X4 or xiitK. i. ^it. I A. Vt^jllftOl akshnoti 3. I A. Ger. to furrow. necessarily in '&*{. fifWT> 2. Mgr. P. Mr ii Pf. wrftf^ or II ^BTTF. F. I A. mftsfri! or ^??T Pt. -viiiGf. *i$KfV|i:. Caus. 4. ^9T^TT^. viomefT. 4. I A. instead j of ^T^ and WIT. vi. 2. F. Aor. ^0*1? or The peculiar Guna and Vriddhi and of ^. to burn. I. ^HS( aksh. f^Effff. vtni-^flTi^. F. i. SH^Mfri. 9.CLASS. 5. 4 *?^rsf &c. <*f*ren^ ( 360). 3- I A. ^O^f^lrt.) ^^uksh P. 58) "^ST.. ^rrfsr* or ^m?. 2. to kill. . vnisj^. or ^nsr?| &c. krish) to drag along. 3 ^IcRn^. -winsjg'j 3. take place "JFT. lA. 4 .Wn. Vf H||(ff.^CiMX. 3). 9. reduplicated perfect flT*ii. Su to hew. id. TOT or ?R|T or ^T^^i^i^. s. 255 ntllT. 3. ^cyGlixif. vi. t^. or lA. 5. which reject intermediate ^ (Pan. 'sftfafinrfiT.^>ftir. 6. P. Aor. ^rref. ^fteNoRn: or gr^r^ (J 326). "sfrm^ u Pf.WfflSf. ^TE|fTT II Pf. ^nr?r. 2. 4. ^ . ( P. VNI(H|H 8. ^T^VSINf^. ^ir. 4. I A. &c. to obtain. 3. Ger. vfujviffl or or ^?ft|?^T n Pass. F. ^Kii. vnf^nsjMfk 476). 2. *t*iS. <3TTT or tT^T. i. 9. 8. to emit.^df^r. F. 4. Des. 41. 5. take place in 7*n to wither that root after it PARASMAIPADA VERB*. F. i. i. 9. TT u . ^fr u Pf. "S^ush. ^and TT. 8. F. P.. ^sTRfepr or *urif. wrrcr. although the rule of Panini might seem to comprehend i*n forms its has taken Samprasarana. 2. follows W^ throughout. ^T " Pass. to sprinkle.dft^fir. ^ejT^f^r. 6. -Hc(ilSJIHflf. 2. 5. K^.'sftfTOfrr. Aor. *! or ^rrep. ^TT. 6. P.tt^fwu Pf. (I 337. Pt. also in the optional forms of the class. VCIIIQI. or 425) u Des. 2 q^ft^. 9. Int. viz. 7. (J ^T or VTTJ:. I A. 37. ^MWKT. B. 8. ^fmy. F. P. vHifHf r. . ^fw.

^Hrmi^or 'c5T^. wfe. 9. F. P. r<3T^ ^ri^nT^fTj Pf.256 Pt. vrrfif u Pf. ^PVT. P. *fte:. P. 19. ^f<5Tftr^=r. r^TF^T. 47. 1 to the initial lingual sibilant. i. til With regard i. PAKASMAIPADA VERBS. ^HnrffT.^755:. ^Trf: Pass. i i <*ii^rM brti t^'" i im (*jtT*T^>?J"^ HT^i'mopr^^^^ imr " 3TTw*i ^^fira m flT W 31 ^*i M n MI K. fuFcsrefrf . ^mr. ^qfw. Int. ^Tcjrftr-q:. ^ftw. i. (&). Aor. Adj.^0^5:. ^miTJ. 9 . ^^^. '1T*lftf II % kai. u Caus.^c7. ^STWT^T^IT. to cleanse. P.^. Westerg. THTW^:. It admits I 4. Jllril. Note Pan. I A. Des. 2. 5. TOJPT:. TOnrT. ^RTf^ II Pt. the Prasada quotes the Varttika to I 64. M Pass. ^>Tg:. . THU^ (J 3921) Pt.*tffai. Caus. ^m. and does not substitute \i or TJ e for ^ST a. . 357). 68).) in the general tenses This verb is one of the six so-called ** ghu roots ( 392). mir^ ( 39 2 )' Mark T. 3. T^i^rfF. II ^. Pt. Pf. Pf. P. I A.^:. Ger. Caus. to II droop . the same. II ($ 103. ^3ff. *f trfrr. 5. to fade. as ^SkTT^W^'Kfif^^T ^r^frf^Vi A marginal note says. Hn. jft^T II jf^T^(fafaa^). ?TBTr. F. ^nrfff u Pf. ($357). I A. F. ^T^n^. Tl^nfrf. P. 8. the difference between ^ and U T in the Bened. i. u to croak. 2. ^Tc^. <pvr. 2. to bark. B. <mir1. also "\rctf. 3. 2 . to drink. B. 2. ($368). Ger.. Des. ^nn^r. W&t (I 329). ^T^ft: &c. it takes the first aorist (3rd form). 'srvTEf. F. 9. F. Wifift^. (J F. This verb is dai. 7. 6. vsgfr 5.^V. 8. f^T^fk. TcSlWhKj ^WT. JTTtTSJ^ TT^T^:. P. Des. B. n- 44. i. ^r^cyrfti'?} ^PTSTftreij 7. (TIT. I A. i. ^rm Pass. O. P. 43. ^TOW. 45. Te^rinrfk or T^q^rcT (Dh. 8. ^irfrc^r. Aor. F. (impers. vi. ($371): 3. 4- F. ^Tj:. Int. or to burn. ghu verbs 392*). B. P. 7. ^ dah. ift^H.) KMirti) KMiMfifT (^ 103)? ! ^TPrnTW Pt. ^iv. P. CLASS. V 6?^e. Ger. also J mlai. Des. ^f T V. P. 7 II A. ^ft .) 42. ^r^frr.u?5Tftw ^r^:. 3.) Caus. STfroFZI or !Tc5T^. HWlTt 443). and Red. ^FV. I A. BHU Perf. 6. ^TTCrfa^. Int. irfrcW. ^mor ^VTO. (*frfe. II A. T% glai. 6. Jlimfrt. 5. \f^ 3. F. 185) u Pt. TcSnrfiT. >HJ||f^. *fWff. Caus. It is therefore not comprised under the ^ i. ( like <fT da &c. jf)HI Adj. ^rftnr. (J 118). to sing. B. ^.fn i MC*<n 46. 9 ^rorer: (see p. w shtyai) to or INMIr^ H sound. also TO styai. (J ^P"c5nT^. distinguished by a mute ^p from other verbs. f^rayfir. II Pf. ^^^TftT^Tj n ^T<3Tftre. 5. wrcfttj ^visf)^ ^rorw. ^Tfif. KMitMfn. ^T*r 2. wiHlr^ Trcrt7fl. 8. A. *ffa:. roots which have for their base ^T da or VT dA<l P. to gather. ^nsr. Int. Aor. 4. F.

^rvfif. ^vhrir. ^TRIJ:. 6. -5^. -^TT: ^ufff F. 8. 9 . 9. VTfiT ^JT. ji8i. ^HT. 2. ^^. F. vir. ^(^rri. P. ftnfttfrr. ^n^fif. wy. 51. ^Xl5rt 5 ^RfS. 7. 3. T* to swallow). special tenses take the I. 5. WI^. instead of Int. 4 <$fyif. VT^rfw always means 2. 8. ^a[f?f. ^TJTF. i. P. ^rftwfTr 338. 6. Ger. 8. tft^frr. 3. : different bases in the special tenses (Pan. F. Caus. wi^ ii Pt. or. I. ^8 ($ 335). O. W^i^. vnr H Pass. f^K|H (Atm. (^ 360. 50. the Second Aor. ^ n. ^ JIG|1^. s^tWj Pf. or Ger. B. pu: Pass. iflRfir. ^nr. sH^pjjri. >eii3f1:. H Pf. 390) u ^rarrt. "^IT. . ^finr 41 P. T?3Hp5 4. ww: u Caus. ^T. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. 257 2. 1). VRfw. F. (%*. ^$nj:. wpT ^r. HHfif ^T. ^ sri. 44). ^. ^r. (dm SO. <ji^N or 9 TfS}:. *r^him^ DCS. This root substitutes H^ pasi/a in the special tenses. H ^^ni^ u R. -5*1. i. 9. 3 ^IR. "^nrrtf:. I. .). F. . ^rftmfS. ^rr^:. >far:. or Aor. I A.) (The P.) i. Des. ^nr. P. xi ^jfijm. ^^l*l. P. ^rr^ffr^. P. . to go. 6. Other verbs which substitute 3> 7*0 UT. m^fd. *^. with the sense of moving tortuously). 5. 8. ^nrw or L i . ^rrti^ u Pf. 2. :. P. ^T^ Int. **p 9 5 . ^w Pass. F. *raR(<). 2. JIK. to run. to go."^^:. (^rjj. -5^^:. 4 . vrWir (Atm. vhnr. ^"^TTT. ^fhnrf u Atmanepada. tosee. F. ^rnj: . H^. 38. VHr^OHn (exceptional intensive. Int. 7. P. ^r^T. ^TH?:. ^pr. ^ft^W (Atm. ^ forms . vi. { 479. F. "^^r and ^^ take ^ and IT? ^T and i. or ^n. . 49. 9. 2). pldrtf. or II A. ^rrfr^. '^TjAfif 5. ^Hjlg. ^f$rf! or "^T. i. as their Guna and Vriddhi before consonantal terminations (Pan. ($ ftnm^ 490)- Pt. *r. i. 3 **TT. 2. ^fff . 7). ^TR^:. Wt% 7. TO^TT. f. I. . Caus.. 9. F. 5151 1< ()? 2. ( 390) u Caus.^fl. B. 364). ^. ^ tad. u C. while ^rcfk is used likewise in the sense of *rar$ (I i. ^fXCmfo. ^. i. with the always optional 48. fvwfir. ij^hrnr. ^ifXvj (^ 338. See No. F. Int. I A. vi i. 3nr. Adj. the Second Aor. ( ^. Des. . . 4. I. . Ger. ^HifuH. vrofiT. xM^^^lf^ ^T^^. 3). B. <*<n$r. B. 9. frtHPn . 6. ^ftm^. ^. . O. -j^rfir.BH6 CLASS. ^rrt ( is generaUy referred to the ^ of the Hu class. 3. I A. ^r^mfri. ^rat is generally referred to the (I ^ of the Hu class ^Hi*(T^. 335. ^fN:. ^f$rts or Aor. vm. going 7.). fiMPn "NTT. to wither. fM^fd . 58). B. Des. Pt. \flwr. Aor. 3. u ? Pf. ^rnflf:. ^ijfif. -piT. ^fhrpr. 2. ^rvrfir. ^O^^Mrf.

F. * After the preposition *T may be used Atmanepada. 2. ^fTMlPri. ^pm. ?re sad. u Pf. ^r^t ^rarr'zr. ftnn^. Int. ftRfrr inirr. 2. WT^?ff. if it means to worship. Aor. OTiT. 9. B. Pass. i. Aor. Des. ^nr. Int. 55. ^re^R^. Int. if it to affirm. (FT. ^d^K 0). T^rf%. "WTRff. Note After *t. u Pf. ^ ql m^ (Pan. ^Rlftr. ^rP5rn?^TfT or vi P^i pjj| 4 n (Pan vu. ^T^rrf^. 5^ hvri. CLASS. i*mf* u Pass. vu. "ftr^wflT. Int. T^fanr. Aor. nisiiuPfi. Pan. Int. ^w? I A. 'SRTIT. TOTn^ u u Pass. IRT dhmd.) P. f^rHfri. Aor. ^rnrn^or #m^ OTTCfr. Caus. II A. P. nid r. T^R. Caus. ^T^rfH . i. F. Aor. P. ^T. iRm'Tfrr. and f^T. P. tysi m II Caus. 9. > Tsn&m (**0> 9Adj. O. B. U Pass. mnijOT (or Vii. f^znr:. P. TtU(lri. itPiif^.258 9. 392) Aor. ^TT^ilfir. B. &c. TTfiT II Pf. mnl^it. to perceive odour. USM. Des. ^ftfif^rf. Ger. firefr u Pf. 54. im^jPd. 56. ^i(t<fPfl. Aor. ^TT is used in the Aim. "^rt u to swallow). Ger. ^nTTj 2. fVnrwfir. : with means to strive. TTTiT: or UTOt. ^TWTTftr. Des. ^rwWlf^. 52. TOt. TT. (j i. BHU II A. 357)5 F. HMiin1i^. ^i: n Pass. 4? . d. nrr. F. B. wnl^:. Ben. vrfrr n Pf. ^srnfff ('MH^r^). 200. "jf^r. : - ^ -?H^j|ftr. Pt. II A. 3- W*. ^mr^:. F ^rr^fw. ^'ifl^rf. to smell. fH^iqfff. *TW? 2. f^urrafff. 6). ITR^". tflqPn (Pn^l^Pn) tutttPft. *irxf or Pt. f?r&W. Tn^rfw. Adj. 57. WRfte. iflni. ^irn^j ^* til i^ (j 368. ^r:. Des. Fut. F. Des. ^r^. Caus. tfhfF. ^r II 58. ^q: H Pass. f^Tr^T. ^n sthd) to stand. ('*&) P. Caus. ymiri or TTTr^T U 392 1) H Pt. Aor. ^. m^iPn. ^nT^t. i. Pd8rfrri. P. Frm^fii. 53. W^". F. Pres. O^lrMPrt. not to rise . $^:. in ghrd. or ^TTTH urnni^ u P. to give. ^[^t. or I A. 9. ^hlW. II A. Adj. Ger. or with "3^1. P. u K^ (^rfVfir^). I A. 4). ^Tfi*unTH. $|l$(Pr(. P. Des. 334). Caus. ^T^ it (J 335). i|i(1^ri. Red. 9. mmPrf. Aor. i. to drink. Caus. i I. (see No. if it means "3"^. Int. ^TTftiT:. 4. tnTT^rt. Aor. Jj*j|p{{. f^yg u Pf. in the 4- ^fe (J 330. F. ^T mnd) to study. Pt. ^in^ (f 392) u Pt. 1 59. B.^rH^M. ^ijjj II A. "iffan. d^fW II Pf. ^rf^^i or Tqrer. r^'iifrf) I. Des. -fl Pass. . TOTT^ (). Tjr^T. Aor. ^fdfs^r^. ri^/l^rf. iPiivi or ^vi^. F. ^aiiT* (Trftr^^fw) n Pf. ^i^iejn. B. Des. ^f^*r or Pt. Perf. 2. ^IMMfrf. to perish. 46). to blow. B. P. P. 9. ^rfWiT. Caus. $(lrtHfirf (^fl^'Mfa he drives). tn pd. ^^^fi . *fw. OT*?. II A. M*in^ 392) u Pt. HltiNri. PARASMA1PADA VERBS. ^T^T. . F. Int. B. also after "33T. 4. to bend. Int.

4 ttftm. 9. 3. I. rig:. ^1^1 U(H ^rr^ (to he straightens. 25. Ger. ''st^i. ' ^RH ( 438) TOKrafl^. (faff. tnm: (a). ^(dams. ^r. II Pt. HI. 10 P. *nfi*: *raj: (see u 9 *mifRr: ( ( or II A. ^tn^. "fau^JhV. Des. ffffrr^TT he endures. Ger. belongs to the Chur but \ class. according to Vopadeva. Pf. 73. fatorfir. B. *nfi?zr. iT5^:. if it means to dwell. ^nnr^. to cross. 2. ^Hl^MI'ri (J 485). T3i:. Des. he loathes. *lldgqrf. . In the same way are conjugated i . 74) u Pf. irWh.) This and some other verbs which are referred to the terminations. Also used 2. *TF( (to revere). in the Atmanepada P. it is Pi Pen w Pn chikitsati. or M^frt Pass.Hj(H. F. rtfW^. 103. TTtf^i 63. Ger. 2^. 10 and in the weakening forms ( 344. 6. and T?T5{ to bite. n^TT (Pan. if^. 4. 26). ^swr. B. ^ft^rNrfif he sharpens. ($ 390) u Pt. i. 60. I A. F. rrtdfimfif finrfrtfir. jJjmrf he despises. 2 . F. Caus. 3^fl^n.CLASS. B. ^lfd u TT^. Kftw^ (?). {tarUri he investigates. to stick. 259 9 . ( to embrace (Pan. F. 62. Aor. *ni: u Pass. 5). if it means to cure. w?nt. if Bhu class always take the desiderative used in certain senses. Int. 'rSfl!'. 4 inihrT. : t^. ^urn^ ($ 345. Adj. :. IJT^ 2. i. <a*rffy 9- **rf F. I A. "^ (to bind). or irrNfTT In the Atmanepada ( 340). vm.niVcMn^. ^sir>. wftin or B. . f^ kit. ST. Int. ^Hl**ffl. F. P. vi. Des. ^fr^fir (f 338). or. TUT (Pan. P. Ttfnr. or frirtOMfd or Pass. Mfri. 1 A. t^r. <^ (to cut). ^f?r (tfba^fw 9. or Ht ^mto u or ^nnrte. (to sharpen). ) u Pt. I A. Int. s^mrfff. . or or Trfccfr^fir. 3. B. verb used as Tudadi. wfW? or ifWft? u Pt. 9. O. No. ^r^f. ^rr:. 6. irnrfS. . r*i 14111*1 ril. iK^^l. ) drop the penultimate nasal in the special tenses 345. F. n P. F. I A. tfrfiT u Pf. 3. Aor. M^Pri fM. $ 438) to hunt (J 462. P. mdvsfl^. . i^iflT. ^fawn^ &c. P. 6). we generally find the P. 31. ^a:. 26). Pf. Htaitiri 4. P. to approach P. L! 2 . svafij. Aor. ^w. Int. 5. Ger. ^Oif^ or VHUif^. sharpen). i. 90). fir^ 472) (to conceal). TfiJ II Pf. TT M. Pass. I. P4n. Caus. "^ skand. I A. Pf. ?K^. TT3T. 61. TW or Caus. Tinr. ^qfr. dimfa. Jsfcwfir. F. fa- P. Caus. ^nnft. TrtSnj. 3. (J : 3. t^ ranji to tinge. 395. I. may be regularly conjugated as a Bhu verb . 374) D GS r*llir^rH. vi. ^3^saf?j. f^fawrNsRK. wrft^w. firo. note). ifHiw. . TTT. to it cure. F. or . 7^11^. Aor. F. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. This verb and 4. i. lAPfV| or ttpzr.

-sHirHl:. ^r. irfMrr: Pass. UVmm*. P. i. Des. I. 126). Des. C. 5. 7T. Ger. 8. ^srff. F. B. ifffquiftr. U to speak. ^m^^T^. f[3nri Pf. "3^:.. F. Aor. Tr^fw. Pt. Caus. <HIU. ^f$n3R^. Aor. I. F. Tf. n ^ u P. 9 -95:. P. ^ufr. Cond. ^^c. Int. 3 ^ (j 328. 1 "^1* r I A. ^vad. ^f\^w. ^Tf^. F. 9 n . Aor. i. 3. ^IW. f*$ svi. MltmPrf. tfiptfa. and ^^J5 are used in the Parasmaipada. ^rf F. |f^F 70. $f^>^. B. 2. i. ^wfif. Des. 6. *TTHT Pf. Des. uvMte. ^^w? I. or 337. T^ (a).260 BHU CLASS. ^r^mPri. WT. Int. ^ ^ c?0c?. T. f^c(P^Mri. 44144 (a). P. faf or i4. 9 I. ir. ^fir u . or %y<j||i| (a). . F. Perf. 9. Atmanepada Verbs. P. B. Aor $fv. 68. to swell. $^IT. ^?f. 6. and ^T%f^R(^ ^T^Tji ^. B. P. umw. O. "Sprf^I or f^mrMM. TI^OT? *^R%. ^15: u Pass. ^PeiftjfMH. Tj>nri7r. 6. Aor. 2. B. ftrofirefir "qflT^fff R trfrnr: Pass. B. ^nm( u 'md^H ^ren^ Pt. vi. Pres. ^TrfTr. n=Ni^MfH. F. JJWTm. Tjvfinrr. Tf^r^T Pass. SrfvF. . 9. r^pat. Des. Aor. B. ^fvfw. P. ( tnrfff faftnTrrfff) n II Pf. ^^rf^9 Caus. Wff. -gnr^. ^wz$. 65. 6. mqftct. $fwr:. 5J5jP=|^ ^^"^i or f^lf^M^t. "3n|i. or f^P^T'T? 4. T^I Pass. Pass. II. 8. I. ^^rf^. P. 4. ^VJT. Aor. 64. i. Caus. n ^(VtTqi. 9. (Pan. 3. JjfVnqTT. or II A. P. . 4. F. u 7. 9. i. 69. Des. iksh. F. P. ^imftr.) P. Aor. ff. . T$. ^fv^rf^. F. '^ifta. ^nrrfw.. %&. ^fVpft^ Pt. Pqmri. irer. I A. ^nn^^. u Pf. II A. P. 'cJ'uPri II Pf. 2. ATMAKEPADA VERBS. pf. (4?) fry. O. ^T^^l^. Pt. to fall. II to grow. Int. I A. Caus. ^f^ff: u Caus. 3. to dwell. l^W. ^WT. Ger. C. II F. I A. to see. inrRfir. *y^Pri II Pf. -3-faH:. H. Pt. I. to give. 'snntf ($ 132). ijftnfiT. $fVHHT. P. II A. ^f^zr. ^"35 in the Atmanepada. IA. ^qi%ri (J 351). Tf^TT:. dufw. Aor. ^f^^f^. ^nnr. 3). Int. Aor. ^ftr^T or T3W 5 3. 5. tjmff. T&s^edh. Caus. -s^ni^ II Pt. It is only in the passive that ^n*T and ^$5 take Atmanepada terminations. $%?. 4. Des. ^%in. Pt. 2. WW (f 366). O.^f^. i. F. Tgn^fff. ^^r. 2. 67. ^^ ^*r?r. 66. F. or "^TR () or f^rf^f^W. Caus. Wff. i). ^Nf^Tf. 5. I A. 7.

does not follow the Atmanepada. ^nrfr. "^P^. oh'ujri i. TO L/1 mil rj . tf|l^ Pass. Note p. 3. *inair. W|f3*1^. 30). P. 63. 219.3|i*fltf. *rr^?r u Pf. vf 73. f*T*{svaflj drop their nasal in the special tenses (Pan. F. but. Other grammarians. 25). crnr. ^HHK|l^i. with which it shares but the meaning of to praise. F. I A. wnpfr. vart. <*l*^fd. to embrace. chfHMlg or ofimftnft? -SF^rHiTr or^FmfWr. Hnrfif. Or. frifdKfi^^. ^mnjTftn? or ^iiiy*riT. 2. 48. vi *s | if. F. 75. ^Tcffwn or ^Tcf'-'m:. fdfdfymri. P. I to go. Note . ^-rtlri. 122). XS<*I(H (). vart. Des. Caus.). I A. A. to go. vi. Des.CLASS. 2. fa HUM. ^H^nnr 4. P. as it is mentioned by Panini HI. Caus. applies mtM he traffics. or ^OR^. ^'iMPn. H|f<jr*.) The initial ^is not liable to become ^. (Pan. P. ^nSr. vn. 26) takes ^TR. 62. WRff. Des. rflfdP Caus. 4. i. (w%. 4. ^^JofV/i:. 'Mftyujri. ^sr*rtai*ra II ^W This verb in the special tenses takes ^HT. I. f?T5^ ^y. in. It is likewise argued that ^T. Aor. g^/ro/7. ^M^n. 3. **cfair*. Pass. P. I. however.) 6. in. ftft. and Vriddhi (Pan. 9. i. I. F. (^p. ctrta^ P. or XICIM. because the Anubandha. ifar*. u Pf. to praise. 34. miimNlfi or Miilif^uiii Aor. qMmrt Pf. i. or Thus likewise (without ^TT^). TO^ 5. Note See No. B. &c. Aor. B. pan. i. ^h^f^. ^RW u Pf. 2. ^^VJ^f^. *f^r. 31. VH^fm. i. fimflUMrl. F. *nftre. II or *^nr (Pan. it is argued that it does together not take WT. ^T^rfr. 7. *!p3inr. 77. Caus. xMfdfrimv. 3. Int. "^ T II Pass. I A. Miuif^^K or Ruimltf H Caus. Colebrooke. ^Hr wanj. ^-i*Jd (wi-r^ri). This verb (see No. *^'>rHn. to gain. requiring the Atmanepada. fTTfffT|K n Pf. w^ (Pan. shvashk. to forbear. B. 64. B.). c^TMUjd or B. P. No 45 . i. ITI. (Pan. mrt*di. -SBTO^. *|Pi. Note the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. ^fMMlg or dufly. See No. if we admit two roots. I. I A. 6. vi. The simple verb 76. 7 1 ATMANEPADA VERBS. (See 72. unless it means to praise. I. (Pan. vi. xN ^rtrJT^rg . the one would be defective in the special tenses. ^reT*nra n Pf. '^safij. with T^. 6. ^y^ rij. rfV*nr.). ^TWTCH 1 II Pf. ^f^nnr. p. F. ^HBfldf. F. ^T^^J.) P. i. B. W\ kam. 261 . dams. w^rqfM or ^?cfftf. 3. to be ashamed. Pan. 74. F. allow both only to the simple verb. Aor. or (without *ni) B. vart. 8. while the other ^RTH^is conjugated all through. Des. F. like a verb of the Chur class. In the general tenses ^H^ is optional. ^nrqf^ to love. 28. Int. if it takes WTTf. 9. TTCT is said to form if Tcf he sharpens. T. I A. i.) The suffix ^TR may be kept in the general tenses. flll^Tt|H.

P. 3. 6. 9. T3% II ^ ru. i. SJMhWr^ (f 372*). I. ^PmMH 82. ist pers. ^ i PM H7T. ^ntnr u Pf. Des. ^^q?r. B. P. (Pan. i. ^TTtinf. ^^. i'iin. ^^IJIM^? Des. si'iiw &c. (^BTST. irm. i^. I A. to shine. f. 'snfag'j ^Tlftr^f^j vnPMm'qi. F. tt(^dyut. ^^chi^i^. ( Des. i. ^nrff. U Pf. ^M^mffT. i. 2. with H. ^ 87. u 3. ^ft. a*riftf. (^.) Caus. ^ II Pf. in. F. TTTTT. JTTTif J With tflCT it forms *Ic3T*nf he (Pan. Int. i. F. ^nftflc} or ^. TTff. ii Caus. Des. Aor. ?ftf?r^ Caus. 37). sing. jffafif. P. Aor. ^c*5lf . ftref^w. "Sfimff II Pf. to speak. to kill (?). ^rftr^?^. m^i^n". TTItmfif. 4. Int. 7. to go. and with TTfr. i. ^ftrf^ff. ?rfff*nr or ^flf. I A. ^T^H^ Pt. ^m^Pn. I. 5. B. Pf. F. Aor. ^1'iiff Pf. . &Rfr. ^nr ay. ftr^. ^fanr. rfhT. 8. 2. I. t*Nfc> I A. ^^7T^. I A. Des. vn. ^T%BTff U Caus. ^f^. to aim. SRTST Ms. 3. *FW. 9. ^nrNn* (Pan. ^ff?. 85.) u Pf. TT^W. sing.) ft. "SRmf^ ( 326) Caus. but follows ^ in the general tenses. to protect. 86. forms ^RTT in the present. Ger. 4. ^w: u Pass. Aor.) P.) fa^siv. ist pers. ih. '^iiTf^ Caus. f^frift. 83. Caus. B.'^rertfTTF or u Pan. -(P*(flg U flees ^nfqmrfl. Caus. 5nr.^^Nt I A ^ffe? 84. II to cough. f^firf^ff. (^. ( to shine. SRHRfiff. ^nrfre or ?n.sftfinirff. Pf. O. ^TSRTf^re. sftiRfiT. I A. to go. (^. 78. B. ^eftfw. -^r^rf. 6. SRT^TW || Pf. lA. Int. P. *5<|imPri. 2.) P. II ^vrit. mSJrit^ 367: Aor. L imrt. Des. 55). F. Aor. ^tf Pf. 3. 9. ^fNte Caus.. P. Note It is one of the 1| verbs . to Aor. 80. vin. ITT yd. 3. it. TTRrt? i) Pass. Des. Int. (m^.262 BHU CLASS. I A. ^i&mff. Note ^The verbs beginning with ^T^ optionally admit the II Aor. 9 II iHJiPir. vn. ^nftr^Rfi^. i. 8 1. 2. ^^Hff. m.^nftrftr. Jjftnr?^. B. ^TTTWTJ. ^GRT^T or ehl3rMa 326). t^rfif. F. to go. P. 67). F. 19). wftrfir^. to be. |f^ u Caus. 3. SRT^ Ms. ^TT. 4. 79. F. to protect. wriff? 9. ^. ATMANEPADA VERBS. P^aiirtfK or P^silPn ^|^. ^. Aor. f^re (Pan. P. f^ ^ ^e. (uiT. I. I A. ^m. 9). 2. Int. ^i^Mtf. 91. Parasmaipada 367). P. tftaK 3. ^rftnmfj B. ii 6. 3. ^ II (TTf^w) u serve. 6.

XTT^ or "^ (Pan. ^. it . <*^ or Par. 9193). Note pada The verbs beginning with ^.Tqf^T or ^TWT (Pan. Caus. F. vi. Caus. p^^rrMMff or II Int. ip^krip) to be able. 4. 68). to sprinkle or drop. ^T^av. H^frt < ( 5n^ft4 or *wfi^*. vi. Pan. 88. 8. 6). *fte:.tcwjTT. 3. F/nPiniri'ii Pt. 3|V. wr^ftf^ Note ^T? and ?[ ^? change ^T into 'Sn when ( ^ would be followed 3. fanrfTT (Pan. Int. VERBS. r^T tvar. ^nqfa (). or ^tenr or 59. F. ^ir:. i.) The verbs *^jvar. e. or ^f^eR^orn or to fear. 1 Hri. 31) u Caus. ffer^m>.) P. 3. ^in 1 or *ter (J 337. TJ^: 462. ^I^^H. ftRfihw or f^pwfir. or ^hf (6. F. uiviqfri . (FIJ. ^r*mirtl. Caus.^pftF or wnrfte u Pt. ^raf^r. frwrf^TT or j-MimPri (Pan. (*T*|. optionally Parasmaipada. Pf. Int. and i. Int. are optionally i. I A. Int. 4. ^fMrWIdi). 93. ^5*ffif. TnfrfiT. (PHH^I. 3 ^Hft. fcf^nqMrf. rfi^t. ^TT. 112. after prepositions 9|l1^. or *nnrff ITMANKPADA 7). Tg^Trfir. *mfvjK. vi. The same see Pan. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. ^ftnqTT n Pass. to sport. 462). TJJ tur.g. Caus. to bear. vn.) 4. 89. 1 P. vn. to hurry. ^^r^MMT t. II. II Pf. *r?r: (^ 456. by ^T. or II Aor. 6. ^dH^ ( 375 1). I A. (TJ. vn. 91. 59) as to J^. tsnr U Pt. .Mrd. Adj. 20) 7nih turnah. ^. P. in the aorist. III. 263 (Pan. *JP<^ or *U4rt). vn. THTorTjq A. ^^ syand) 2. ^TTT 6. r^ "3\ u. 94. (J Aor. P. before weakening terminations beginning with consonants.) ^T ram. with fa. 3. chfgMMl? or ^ft^ u Pt. 4.) P. F. ^nprff. TH^. tvar. sah.) Pf. <+f^4riIW or fc-Hl B. fTOT^ftr^fir. vi. 2. trft. *f^ni7r. I A. or ffc^TWfiT. I II ^r. Ger. ^^. vn. F. Tnffff. P. **iP<<! or *mbr?. TTTrW^if. ^*!M^. 4. ^CkHi^. or II A. desiderative (Pan. 2) n Pt. ^cfcfVjy or ^TR. not take ^ in their Parasmaipada tenses (Pan. ?^ rdj\ to shine. Des. srznr n Pf.CLASS. 83) u T^. l^mu (Pan. II. Des. Aor. Des. ftr^f^M^. f^g^ (Pan. Des. off^mrt or 4htmiH or cfc^^iifrf. ^w n Pf. Ger. 2. Des.iror 432) or n Pf. Hence "3JT&: jurnah. Int. substitute ^/iir. Caus. future. P. (^. . 4-^ fa. i. lf^ i|fw. Aor. I wftlT: H A. ^TH mutah. 3. the result of the amalgamation of with a following dental 128). Des. . Aor. . ^JfH srutaft. Parasmaiverbs do 2. I A. 125). F. ^|"^) I A. and if used as monosyllabic nominal bases. Des. 3. (^g. P. conditional. Des. 92. ^rw: u Caus. i^ vyath. 9. . 4. 60. 87).tKH^. 2. ^.frt^TT. "^Rfft utah. *TO^ (not w*q^). 93. B. ^TOT. w<|Mi^. 6) u Pass. see No. F. ?T II Pf. P. m^P^. T^HT. ^Tc9nmT 90. ^r^^r^. to suffer pain.^R. iT^mat?. except semivowels. i. fRftf.

irff^ &c. JsrfVrrTT. TTf*i *MflTj ff. inrfflr u Pf. Aor. ^nn?9 ^*n?. ^^rfw. JjRfff* Pf-3. s. F. ^MIK. ^RTff or ^n*?T ff. I Aor. F. F. n? B. u Pass. -TO u Pass. B. F. ^fi|V| or ^ cjisj. to weave. ftnj^flf. ^ff^T^^Tr^9 371). B. but Atm. 2. 3. ^nrfft. (a). ^: ^f guli takes "3i u before terminations beginning with vowels that would require Guna. ^MH or ^n?rmw 96. Pt. to take. i. ^^9 or 2. ^ nftr. '^mnfirii. T3"Hffi^ or 391) II Pt. T^^. tT*nrfJT. u 9. i. Int. ^fi^ (^ 393) u Pt. "sft'j^fn. ^fturr. ^Hnwt. 7. Caus. I A. ^: u (f 328. Des. f^r sri. I A. n^n or P.264: Birfr CLASS. f^l^rfn^PrJ or f^T^ft^flT (J 471. J^Prl || Pf. ^rciflfj Des. . TTT y/9 2. 6. 1 Des. ^?^f%. 9. ordinarily P. Caus. P. ^iftnj or ^ir? 335^ 3)? 4- ^Pi ^9 5. Atm. JjP^uiPrt "^^9 "^"5% ^|]f%^ &c. ^r%f^ir^ TSITI^rflf. 391)9 Aor. 5. Aor. ^rrf (). PARASMAIPADA AND ITMANEPADA VERBS. ^t^vo/?. Atm. ^q: 456. 3. (J 124). Int. II P. Ben. m<Pf|g only. ^^H^. 391). Pgmi^ Aor. ^irfir u Pf. 98. 2. Pt. P. Aor. 100. to serve. 470). "35^:. f^i^jnr. Tf^TT (a). 3. ^rerrfr. ^TW (J 351). 2. ITFT *{ \ B. ^plF. 9. ( Caus. nff $% or gHfl^ (J 345) n Pt. -^T. Adj. Aor. F. Int. II F. ^^9 4' "55^^' 5' 'J'vJ^* ^ C> ' Atm. (fa^. ~f*rse' r. ^fVfiqfir.^rf^JH or 77^19 i. ^. i. I n t. or I Aor. Adj. see J 362. F. . F. ^i^rr&T9 4. Pijpjrftpzr. ( i. ^TT:. to worship. Ger. ^T^T^. * their The Atmanepada forms will in future only be given when they have peculiarities of own. ^my P^. ^cfTT U Pf. (^ P. 5. < An. ^I jf^9 Caus. P. Caus. ^ftim^ u Pass. v*"*ii*f. I. 5. ^T*TTi^ ( ($ 348). 9. or are otherwise difficult. ^P^ffafiT. HJJJ^H. 'g^ffcRTT) Des. fficoifrr. Atm. to dig. B. 7. ^qPir. ^j^fli(5fffT. 4. 3). -<WIT. ^f^ khan. Caus. F. Ger. 6. P. II A. 3. I A. ^jWtfe. F. JT^:. ^H^ii^i. Atm. to go. f Int. ^^r. ?^Tff. Aor. Aor. F. frjpsrrpf (). 4rtfli^(a). 2. rT.) P. ^7jf^^I Or pft<?. 6) Pass. Des. ftT^^fif. 6. (^311). Adj. jj 3379 3)5 H 99. ^:. miW? 95. 8. jft^l (^ ( 457) II Pass..^3:. Ger. ( B. . ^nrBstrf^j i. Tj:. to sow. or r. -^fimfif. fVftlPHtPfl? Int. II Pf. ii P. f^jforftR. 41 UN 1^9 Des. (not 2. II Pass. (f TfTiT:.

3. TOTf wf. ^.^"3* II Pf. 7. Int. 4. ift^r. -gfi^. 6. F. F. Int. fftwfir. >m. (or BWj:). 3 -^r^. f^^Hirrf. Aor. ^ftf. ^ranraft:. ^: (or ^5:). TO*. 47). i. ^: 6. f^n^. i^w. Des. Atm. F. i. ^jn. the same as p^vyadh. P.5). ftf&l or i. 7. or wt. i. ^RT8{:. ^RT^rh^. ^wrer. TTtTS. Des. vi. wqte or ^Tfe n Pt. Aor. TRrh? II Pt. 3 . *fter. ^fw. B. 105. P. 2) U Pass. 104. The terminations of the special tenses of Tud verbs are never strengthening. 265 ^ I A. ^refN. *ri1t*fl^ Atm. F. Des. *f^vyach. ^N*wf*. "315:. - r. *ritaf. 1 02. Ger. ^iwfrt. ^f^r or -. vir>. 2. 9. -37:. K^prachh (Pan. 8. P. or f^fir u Pf. ^?: u Pass. 3. P. chM^fifj Caus. 3. but weakening. ^rftr II Pf. . Atm. (? 3 11 )* I A. Int ^rorc^ ^^ 106. psn u Pass. 6. 7. 2. xiqtaf. ^R. P. 5. F. Des. I A. ^rufrf. ioi. 9. B. vi.) P. ^nrraj. viqW. f: n Pass. ^iMMfn. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. P. to emulate. 2. ^te u Pt. F. i. P. in^. ^. 4. P. 2. l^|f7r. srer or . or &c. 9^3:. WT. II A 3 6 3\ ^tm ^TT> or I A. TO^Jt (Pan. ^nra: u Pass. ^^if^ 1 ^. I A. F. I Aor. (See No. ^mJjfri. w*n0^. grf^r. SH^lHl. 4. ift^rfiT. Caus. ^vsjrvjf. ^ tud. B. Atm. W^*. < 5RT^. 5. F. ^^^r or ^f?. F. (s$*T. 4. Aor. P. F. 16). Int. *fa. rq^ittfri. 9. ^HHi^ m^lfd. ^^^^ ( 371). to call. Tud I. Atm. Aor. TOfSR or w*. (d). Atm. Caus. 2. prff. Caus. ^ hve. ^m. or H^fff. j takes Sampras&rana before weakening terminations. Int. to draw a line. S!M<*M!^ or ^r^fi^^. fw?|fff or fw^fir. i. *prn^. P. or swrcjf^. ^A:mA. ^mfTcri. ^w u Pt.TUD CLASS. ij^fir n Pf. ^ftr. Aor. Des. Caus. Trf: (Pan. Ger. 38. 4.pta. \=R^ bhrqjji to fry. to carry. **fir 6. vi. Class (Tudddi. *jtm( n Pt. ^?fTf 9. 'Z^vrasch. Des. Adj. W^TT. Caus. PARASMAIPADA AND ATMANEPADA VERBS. Int. ^Tni^ Pass. -sufr or -g^r. ^i^JWor ^^>ntl. ^msrfir. VI Class). 2. B. ve9 to weave. 5. 2. F. ^Hitft:. f^^vsjfH. 103. 8. T^T. to strike. ^^1 if possible. vat. u Pt. B. Aor. *j^re (S). ( asTTfir u Pf. (Pan. Atm. wrfir. ^tn*i. WT. ! 9. M m . 8. mim(r^ or *aiK/lf^ Atm. vah. or 3. TicTlc. I A. II Pf. 9. 3. 6.) 4.

Caus. "^af^^ or TOr. 9. (^ift. 107. I A. F. If^much. (J to paint. yv. or ^r*fhfin^9 Des. f^ fc5^/p.q'ff. No. Pf. P. II A. 109. note. to find. ^JFSS. to be crooked. Aor. Certain verbs beginning with ^ ^7 kut. 108. 1! 9)- f^ vid. f^^ifS^ftT or f^^rfk (J in. 1 1) u ft*. Atm. f%^ II Pf. II A. ^fd^fff or cF^flT (J 337. n). II. 2. TT^rfw.<*^fy to cut. ^ff(kritt cf^/Hjp. After ^^T and Tlflff.F.Tj^nr^ n Pt. 112. to touch. the causative.266 TUD CLASS. -sifhS: u Pass. qO^^rt to ask. Also he drops (Pan. Pt. F. i. P. cF takes an initial ^ if it means to cut or to strike i. TOfif or ^firvrfk (f 332.funi^U Pt. to cut. ^cfin:. to sprinkle. II A.^pite. if*: Pass. vi. to paint. B. 2). II i. 105) 1. 2. -SR^W. T9^. fa ^ 1 sich. ^rWTTj:.^fradTT. ^ much. i . vi. ftFflT 115. vn. P. B. no. ftR?. 142). B. vaifaMW or I A.^m^.) Pf. Caus. ifSjfw (see . 9' MM'-^J (} Trssnrfrr. Atm. Int. ^ripn^. P. OF B. omrfff. ^^ 367). : 3M oM'qtaK. They are. Int. vftnr. ^ro:.' II. 2. to find. wft^rfif or 113. Parasmaipada Verbs. *hlOr^ F. 'Z^vrasch. ^q^T spris. to loosen. ^-qohS^ 337. and the intensive Parasmai- pada. U to scatter. 141).^Sfrfrr u Pf. I A. II. 3. 59. I A. to form. ^nf. 345.) P. H^prachh. i. 140. fc^ fej. *hrfff Pf. (f^f. F. 2. P. Note he cuts. W. F. to pain. ^T^mTT. 'jw^ n Pt.) %fw f^ft u Pf. ^q^li n Pt. to cut. (5 u Pf. wftr^ ^^F^: (Pan. n^HiBfl'?^or P. to cut. i. ^rfc5^ 367). u (Pan. f*fw Pf. 105) II Pf. ftsi pi f^TrJ khid. Int. 1 14. vii. ff^fff or jftspr C$47 P. 2). f rTflf (see No. I A. 4. 5 UfTT(VpfHJV he cuts or he strikes (Pan. ^d^fl ^ or 1 rcfh^ (f 337. giv^Pir. *TlTfe*r or trfflF. ffrin u Caus. except in the reduplicated perfect. 73108) do not admit of Guna or Vriddhi. 2). Des.^ft^. i. ^rfo* 3*7). P. Pt. (Pan. to bend. ?: II Des. ^jfir (see No. u Pass. 6. fo^t?. 107) n ^FW. Caus. II ^Toinff^. Atm. u P. (} i. kut (Dhatupatha 28. F. 3^)> Des. SfifffrTT. in the special tenses. I A. F. Des. nwiHjTr^or ^trMi^. PARASMAIPADA VERBS.<3ffH IA. V . F. Certain verbs beginning with *|^[ much take a nasal vid. B.) P. (f or onrhiflf 340). *pfN. i|44|$i. ipa.

It is chiefly used with the preposition regard. to observe. 11*1 TJ*J 8. ( Caus. (*J^. 28). Parasmaipada Verbs. 9. mr C *1 117. to let off.) I. HfVmfrf. ^Tj 9. *mP$"i or TOU (see No. 3. *mrsr:. and benedictive. except nasals and semivowels. ^njfa. 2. ^Kqfd. 2) II Pt.4. in the special 119. ffHri. F. i. HPRvjPn or *if^Tn (} 337 II. 122. Ger. f^^P<=mPn or g*Pir 474)5 ^HliT. F. consonants. Aor. 2.) ^T^majj and *n^na. Atmanepada Verbs. *nrrc. Caus. 267 P. Jpcn? Pt. HH-nJ. ^TTJ Pass. wuiuflj^ F. 2. *JH*n/. IV Class). Pf. f^ div 9 to play. F. I A. ^.) ^[ mri. P. i. O. B. *n5nrfff. fa*m*. il^Ad ^j|*. i.) 6. f^t^n. P. i) or Caus. ^q^. 1 1 P*iHjPrt. TOrif. 48). 1 20. M m 2 . i. Afterwards ft again becomes ft^. according to Pan. i) u Pt. the aorist. ifar Pt. n Caus. PARA8MAIPADA VERBS. Pt. FFT or ^iMrti (^ 337 Pass. **m. F. Des. Des. 31).1^. ^^*T. ^tf: or f^^> I A. i. ftnl u Pf. to die. iUif . (Pan. 3. P. ^faifiT ($ 143) u Pf. ^HJIT. 5). 431. Div Class (Divddi. Int. TO: Caus. n 9. 'snPTWcT? Des. "j dri. 5 F. HHP|VJ or n HH4-VJ. ^ifir. $*dPfl (see No. f^ u Pf. 3. Caus.. u *WK? II I A. Aor. P. (j 7). ftnfif. Pf. ^f^T. Aor. ^^V|it. (Pan. vi. *TJ3J> I A. Ji<|Prf II Pf. I A. likewise before the of the passive and benedictive (Pan. to sink. ^H*> ^ ^ ^*^fl> u II. takes Atmanepada forms only tenses. 4. ^^Prtj Des. ifl^nrit. Des.9 (Div) P. III. ^Pcfrii u ^1mj^ n ^K: (J 442. ^ft^ff 'WT to F.) i!Hrt7^. HK^frt. *J"^PiT . ig^Ori. u Pf. 6. ^fmHffl. -^rt? u Pass. 4. 2. ^T^TWrT or mlddii. I. 4. 8. ^ II L ish 9 to wish. Int.ijr^T I nt ( ^f^uifH. 1 1 6. F. umfn \\ Pt 1 t. F. (TOrt.) P. 7. hfl or TOT ($ 438) 3. I A. I. ^?: Ger. P. P. vn. F. i. H-njfrt II 60. Pn^fdNPri or * Final *T ^ is changed to ft ( no) in the special tenses of Tud verbs. vn. 121. though an Atmanepada verb. P F. ^HJK/1^ (J 345)1 Ger. ^fa. Aor."PI DIV CLASS. to die. B. Hl^ m/. I. P. ^yr or ^?n ^fMV|. ^r. nv^fd. ^^. ^rftnnr. smjfa. 3. (Jlft. 77. (f^J. 332. insert a nasal before strengthening terminations beginning with i. ^Twn. 5. ^|Tr.^n^ir. *inifw? B. P. to consider. %ftr. ijnr:.^PMHI. 3. F. to dance. WlifW. 2. ^fbRff. 61.

^m\ 9 F. $nw: or Des. ^rp^ (J 367. 25). Pt. F. firaFoifrf or firWlSPir (J 337? II. P. as. t The Sarasvati gives besides the second Wlsfh^ ( ( 337. or *J?fiT. Caus. irfbufir or ^rcftafir (f 340)5 B. -rTfcNrffl or in^flT or ^x^fir. <ft do. * Final ^. ^N^fri. Int. Sometimes the evasion of the strict rules of Panini may be explained by the admission of different roots. (f 124. . u F. to finish. P. -^w. ^(hm 392). ^^P^Pfl r *i^^ 4 ^? Int. WWT or ^WT. Int. ^. *imr*9. W3ffi:. P. ^r^fw. II -imr9T. *ft^TfWj Des. changed to ^. Des. ^rf^) t. ^rnrffj Caus. vn. 39^) u Pt- ^^ ^mr^. 1 26. ^r^rn^ft*. r*i to grow old. ITf^WT. F. marians frequently admit forms as optional which are opposed to the grammatical system of Panini. ^U 50. F. snwr. 'Ull'imfifj Des. P. srrafiT. Pf. F. f^t f^m. or ^Tr^ II Pass. q^fn II Pf. 7nr. 38) or II A.^TWfrT. 4. ^|^T. B. ^Hp? to delight. f%ftv:. 9 . f^rafFj Int. I A. Pass. Jf>vr or jffer ( 129) or iftfigHT Pf. but later gramor ( ^^ aorist the optional forms of the first aorist 360). Jj4jHjf7. giftfi^ or gjftm or yf^. to strike. 2. Caus. I. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. Des. is wrong in the Div class. 1 nqTMH I A. - II A. yv: or ^: u iftf^BTftr. to cut. ^ifr u Pf. 105) 2. B. ^^mi. II Caus. P. and lengthened before ^. x^ruO^ or II A. 31 P. Caus. to sharpen. VTQITI. B. i. *Mfir* u Pf-s-^nrn:. Pt. (J 311). ^HHMTc^ ^wmflPi^ ^Tdl^lf^ F. BV 50. F. 6. I A. 3i^ (} 329). 125. 330) or w^: (f 328. 71). Hl^fri or Pass. in No. ^H)i(ri. where the first aorist Parasmaipada in the Sarasvati. Aor. the forms of the first aorist According to Pan. srcqfcr (J 367). 3). -sffii^ 462. in. II A. Pass. Div class (Pan. $ft Jo. 2. 127. P. ^f^ziff. TTiTf^T or rnn^r or rid ^ Tnrt5 4. frofir (see No. ^rfk. smn^ (J 392) n Pt. tylJWffi. irthrfir. or II A. which ^TSPfti^ given Kri class. might be referred to the . f?nnr^ Pt. OTf^) 3^7). ( ^mi G er ^nir II Pass. 3115 n Pf. P. to cut. 9 snrs: (Guna. ^TT^nTff. 3. f^qm 5. O. '^i^uWli^. *nn. 3 . %r: (j 435) P. Des. frijHtfri or flOg<Hfl* 128. ^snr^tfi^ or Winh^. i. %tm^|i. fhS: n ^nro^ Caus. to finish. to be foolish. B. P. Int. for instance. P. F. I. 8. 55 are allowed in the Atmanepada only. Pt. I A. e.268 DIV CLASS. Verbs ending in ^ft o drop ^ft o before the *T ya of the ^ft chho. 7. 3. 130. I \\ A. ( *rcft. F. n tqv vyadh. F. i. fcj ^4 rH Pff. SET^. f^n^rfrf. g^rfir u mw^. (J 337. 2). 9. I. yft^. 3. i. 3) or (see No. or I. g.

F.^i!. Caus. ^JrMI^I. (Pan. Caus. II. ATMANEPADA VERBS. P. ^rmifff Pt. 79. 82. *V^mad.) (fH(H<l. IC^tam. to perceive. Hi^fri. wj^rr:. i. F. TO u Caus. ^p^. Pt. Tflir TO. vi. Atmanepada t 132. Jinqfif ($ 462) he 19. f^midf be wet. ?T?T u Pass. P. 3. (^. to cease. ^ST.^. 117) 130. Caus. III. 9. see J 332. tTJI 269 nas. I tnrtasra 485). 70. i. Pt. ^t. 3.^nrwnfff. vii. 12. ^5: '^T^sr^. irf^rir. fqwir ($471. 3. ^rro. II ^Jrwf^. TT3 or ^f^T. HITITITT. 'jv budh. Aor. viniSl. jrftnrr 11 429). ^JrWIril. sitm ( ii Pf. Beitrage. but he sees.) P. 3 . 9). ^H^J ? 4. 9 Atm. ^RtHf. p. Verbs. vol. yz& u 6. 2*). ^l^Tr^j 5. ^fr((r^. 5TTRT or ^rfar^T $TT*nnr or ftr Pass. Ger. Des. fp(4am.^nrr. P. 4.F. ^irfng or ^rftr 413). (Dhatupatha to 131. II *^nn^ F. n Pf. F. Int. *R^ (ynfi?) ?Tyi or w^n^ ( ( 366). 3). . rfT. A. 6am. vllr9Tj 6. u 5. (*n (Pan. f^mtrf P. xsn^i:. 2. ^irfir n takes Guna in the special tenses. Pt.) quiets. 3. 6. ^T^. see also Kuhn. 6. fHHrHF? Int. 2. 9. Des. J^TOTT ^Ert? U Pt.TTWTr.DIV CLASS.^nrfw? 8. $3:. F. ^TOW. P. |^ n Pf. F. II A. A. '^^kgham. Aor. vfTtlwIt) 3.) (f an substitutes in the special tenses. ^3^ or ^fHv. Vfi($ram. 129. 104). vvirai^Yy ^Rf . TCT . (313. II II A. 8. D.) (Pan. (J 130) 7. irnn. P. Caus. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. I A. W{bhram. i. ^rfTOfir. or ^T 438). B. Des. ^MlM^.^nrwir. Tntfte n (J Pf. TRrfTT or 2. HMIMH or 133P. or aflpi: (J 333. ?Tf?nqfff or HVSflfd (see No. P. in^nfrt. vn.) P. B. 2. ^ u (f 328. "T^ nah. r^HrnMd. Jf^klam. . fr^rfir. Int. (3^ of the Div class can never take intermediate 5. Pf. wrfr^f^. *$fw. ^>nrfw. i. f^Pd ii Pf. vtrnr^li^? 4. 8.wnf^(^4i2).F. J 35- to bind. Aor. TC:. (*U3T. I 7. 3 . ?T?TO 9. ^^jan IfTj'tf to spring up.-quir ii *$P a *9 t0 g' B. TpfTf. F.) Eight Div verbs. F. ^fTi^. fro: wet. Pt. 5. F. Ger. HWff. rfiMl8 Pt. 9 ^nranr. Ger. ^TOW .) P. %^j:. 134. to perish. Des. Int. I A. Atm. ^v. 74. 3. Ip^dam. P. 3 9. lengthen their vowel in the special tenses. vii.

^ifiT.vn. vir. to gather. Wi^krit. II. Class (Svddi. to collect. <ui fn II Pf. Caus. I A. facT>T. 33 (j 321 *) ji Pf. to make known . qflfafrf (j 463. ^^n^fif .) v e \ ' P. tj^^ or 'p'^sf j 53^^ or ^p*l*r? same rule applies to the Tan verbs. II. ^irr. ^. 2. Chur Class (Churddi. ^frfr. H^CK. Parasmaipada Verbs 136. ^Ml^Mr^ or 'sreffa^. are sf^to know. f%^NfiT or (Pan. Pass. P. 2. ^^.vn. P. No Intensive (f 479). or *f. <*ftn. ^R^fir. ^TCJT*T and ^TCp^T and Atm. V Class). B. PARASMAIPADA VERBS ONLY. 2) II I A. f^R or N or chili. This explains the . may form P.) c Atm. X Class). The "N chi. verb. Note requiring The ^ of . f%*ftf7r U ^nJ^f* or ^*J*^Vj i^jHf^ or ^TCprf^. 6. Atm. ^frrTT fa ^?T. ^ 40. "N^^I or (V^nf or. 2. (j or f^Pjt. P. ^r%^. *HT. verbs. 58). allows also ^raf^^ (but see Pan. -^r^nrif or -qm^fn 463. F. means to feed ^c 138.^torhnRR. B. ^iffi. (*pT. (f%>^. 2. vii. Atm. ^f^JJ^ and ^TCp^. e. I A. the ^PEutfh^ (but against the Sar. F. ^Mfl^y (not . u ^ ll Pf. <sffarn^ u f^^J* Caus. 72). and No. ^wrf%. 58). B. I A. ^ffrqfif. to praise. '^mTTh^jJ Sarasvati allows also Pan. vN^fcli^. -OHHII^ Note Several Chur verbs are marked of which were mentioned in or as folj.:. <f*rkftrefif. B. ^t^to pound . ^.F. 139. Atm. 140. I A. ^NtfTfr^ or 'SrfagftS^ ( 377)- Su I. e to cover. as not lengthening their vowel. if it Such . Aor. riWK. Caus. to among the causatives. . to live. 4) ^fw.^fkftnn. ^cT stri.) Pf. 72). ^chrir. as a Chur said to be f*n^($ 462. pound . cfo'. (fa*r.) The changes which same roots roots undergo as causatives. 3. 332. 3. Int. g^. 137. remaining short because. J may be is dropt before terminations beginning with if J is and not Guna but this not the case ^J*jTt preceded by a consonant. F. f% as a Chur verb.^f^rfir. 6. f^f'O) or f^<^ (Pan. Ger. note) u I A. Aor. the vowel. F. only. Atm. P. 137)9 Des. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. Des. P. ^ su 9 to distil. P. Int. Atm. 141. chur^ to steal. however. take likewise place if the are treated as Chur Hence according is to f 463. ^tprfTT or -mmCd. double forms ^J*J^ and ^*^5 and tjHj.270 CHUR CLASS. rTT ll Pass. 1. F. i. 3. some 462. fq ^TOTr^. according to Bharadvaja ( 335) 3)? fM^fMM f^oRfrnzTj 9. (J 386) n Pt. Des.

Int. F. 9. 143. 145. ^TTg^nff. Pan.^H^. *mifa. 5- UTHP' B. ^Hiiycuvjf. of ^^ to the Veda in Pan. ^TTRfiT 4- . 3. . F. is sufficient fix HPi. . ll I. (J TO.^r^ir. 4. ^nrft. 5) u ($ PflfefliiPd. ftnrR (Pan. 3. 4. 3!i3(<mri. to be able.^n^. 3. a rule which applies to the Atmanepada only). would sanction The special restriction. to obtain. ^*Mri (Pan. Aor. ^TCpn:. 5). ^T^ as. ^Hi^cjP^. foiflMfii. vn. wfty or *rofa ($ 340) or . ^IT^Rif or ^r%^Ti^(J 475). 4 ^r. 2. 4).. F. 63. 56). DCS. I A. to grow. II. 5- I. Des. ^rrftrm^. Caus.^r: n can be done). Int. 6. ^ ru. . 3. $M*^frt. Atm. Aor. 6. vn. spg^: 6 or ^?p: : ' u 7" Pf. This verb is by native grammarians classed with the Bhu substitutes 5T sri for though as irregular. Int.F.^TT^. ^T^TT. Int. ^^. F. *n|:. f^ Az. ^ftftr 8.^mr: Pass. we might form ^T& .^TTTT Aor. verbs. O.$^:. 9. -^sftin. to go. P. 3. ^ vri. 7. III. ^^^i^i. * According to Pan. 3. or 6. 9. vn. ^5TR. Aor.) P. Atmanepada Verbs. vii. 2. ^fN. P. F. TOt (a). P. 57). i. ^rwl. ( F. xM^mri^ 6.^nsnir. Parasmaipada Verbs. l^fTT. if 271 wrfty or ^rwff T*rfb*fir ^riffi. 2. It ^ s'ru in the special tenses. 3 . 3. O. ^^t. II.F. 332. '^^ II VH^Itfl^. however. P. f^ft n B. Caus. $r^rff (^rw ^T^Tff %8(riT. P. Des. to pervade. F. ^i i. ^TT. B. ^TTR^I. I. Aor. sjwtfw. B. Des. . (^TTJ. *H*fl^ii (Pan. P. n Pf. 4. ^i^*iir\. to a. Aor. . '^w^i^tj 2. . T^Tr^ Pass. (^rf n Pf. lA. *tfr. *rfT^. II Atm. ftnrif. (?334>8). Aor. >snNli^.^r^^Pri. 39) Pass. VMIJgP^. j. F. i. P. Caus. I A. choose. F. P. I. it 9. 142. Caus. 146. Des. Int. 7. I A. H Pt. but Pan. 9. ^T^R ^rro.^rrgj4. tcfYurPff ^nr*. P. (not tf'Oiflv. 147. 2. ^^0^1*^. 5. 9.^rarn. 5). ^N^ri!. 3. i. *rm dp. 3. wufti^ 332. 5. ftnrn^. ^renri. to hear. 6. ^nfi 6ak.t| as the proper form in ordinary Sanskrit. ^Tfr. ^i^c. 5 TW^. 8. ($ *pp. P^clOMffr or Mfrl. vil. rt 3. *jprfa or *rfWfr ( 332. VHI>jifH. ^fir. rfqRMfrt. 13. 5j^N (5). 2. 4. . x II 144. Des. 3ngir:. F. VH. I A. f 3. 2. Atm. ^TntftfTT. 56). n Pf.^ftin or *flwr. 64. ^hrn^ Pf.^HRT n Pt. i. 2.SU CLASS. 4- ^i^nf^. i. 332. Pass. or qOmPfl. (^1^. 337. -^ft^TfTT. '^^.) P. WKljPri.) Pass. Caus. I. PABASMAIPADA VERBS.

F. 2. 4- ft'? 4.^i^t^. PARASMAIPADA AND ATMANEPADA VERBS. ^nivyfV. 5. T^ftfw vnsjPiyBit n Pf. ^nf$|$li^. P. f^ir: ^if. ^r^T'fr. ^fRfr. TT^JfT. ^dfa? I. ^Tf^ir. ^Tf^lT:. Des. or I. II cfff:. wf%. 5. ^rrfifre. B. F.) P. TSfUT ^TT "faffr. 2. f ^ fi^ to do. 7. 9 -^|: 5 9.i. ^U4*ii\r. I i. CRTT. P. ^oRr^f:. B. if *ftg . TTf^rfw. P. vin^n.) I. wfiftr. f%7T. ^Jf ft. 5- f^n. and the "^v *f ^^ kur. but the "3" u is not lengthened.^r^T. 9. ^ToRrf. '3. Tf^ tan. TOfffW or ^ftflT. II ^ 2. F. 9. fffTfffiMfrf or finrf^fiT. ^m. vowel by Guna. 9. 3. 2. Tnrre.^reyftre or ^^ 9 2. f^vTrer. 7. ^If ^F. ^reffa? or ^rf^i'tfh? u Pt. 3. or vft. 151. I. .4. 8. trrf Pf. 'anrftre ft-jnr n I Pf.x4n. 3. farer:. 1. to kill. TTprn^. 2. Tan Class (Tanvddi. 3 . 8. O. Int. fH:. to stretch. 2. 3. ^rreprrf. 8. TnTT^^VTTr 149. Note Verbs of the Tan class may raise their penultimate short : to go. vmsjn . i. f% ^^5R F. Pt. Des. L^rar!. 4. 8 6. ^Hfftiiy or ^rftjw. ^rar^:. vi. ^i4. ^li^Mn. Pf. P. ^nnftf^. 2. u I A. or i. 5. w*n:. vt - ^5 T^. 9. 7. ^^fT? or ^T^rnr (Pan. ^g:. ^snftlfrl ^. 2. TrfVn^T vriCHl^ ( F. i. 3. f^. ^M^ (a). 2. ^n%. : P. 148. 153.) Atm. %^. ^rard:. n. ^Tf u . i. 4. 1. 4^^. 1 Ger. 7. i. i. cT^n or Pass. Sar. f^^nw. Cans. O. . ^rdfrr. HTnmf. the Vikarana 7w 5 is rejected. 6. 9. P. -^$r. P. fspn kshin. 6. ^rn?. Atm. 7- O. I. i. fopsrVfrr or ^'iinfrr I A. ^rei or ^tfyrft. 4. **R. ^Hjiifl^ (J 348*). f^Miwi. f^^Tf. 7. 42). f ^f 6. . P. 4. ^^JT.79. 8. ^"g:. ^^ ^afg** ^asg:. kshan. I. 11. Atm. ^rr^4. 5. Atmanepada 8. (a). II 3. (^^. Atm. "Q^san. I A. or 348). Atm. rirflTri. Aor. 2. TTnTff or in?m (J 391).272 TAN CLASS.f%". 3. f^^TTO. 9. f^TT. 8. tinf. Atm. Class).) kar. A. f^. VIII Atmanepada Verbs. ^Trrf^r^T: WR^ II ^TrTiT ( ^ 3^9). to obtain. ^R?d^. (sopr.^ujiri or ^fyWffj B. A. 8. All verbs belonging to this class are Parasmaipada and (fT*J. 5 6. wf^rBK. 6. 150. Before radical y of the optative. ^^a?. Tif?nrT. ^GFI^. 4. 3. 5- f^> 6 5. ^5R7. KT^wt. Aor. 3. [TTrft n. or fr^rr^. (^. 6. grwftir. 7 P. . -^ ^ iiil H Atm. ^rrerrcrf. but before strong terminations ^ A:n before weak terminations becomes and Hm. F. to kill. 4. ^nfrfk II Pf. 9. ftfw. Caus. Int. *re: Pass. 3 ^?^rn%. ^t3W. Aor.

The more important ^pri. /u. TOTCT Ger. to fill. PHWJVJ:. (rN. 9. 9 to buy. ^vrt. 4. ftrft^. rrtwf*mfff. 5.Hvrfir.U|rt. u to shake.. or ^T3JT II Pass. 8).) The roots ift wi^. fa^nr. or Vriddhi. H Wf MITlf. I A. 4. s. ^qiT. Int. ITTTT or irftro. 155. MfHmfd. (^. F. f^fi^^:. Aor. B. nfhr: u ^?%n^. WITT. ^pre. Aor. CZoss (Kryddi. ^mTFh^ Atm. 6. Caus. F. ^TVfT^. F. 6. 9. n II A. Des. or ^irflfic &c. 3. f^rarftfr. rrcrnr. HTWT.KRt CLASS. (f 353). PqffliHg:. to cut. 50. ^pftj n Pt. 'TO*fj F. W>TTfTT. Atm. mt. 6. Int. TJti:. 3. nfN^. ^Tiifif 7. The Kri verbs beginning with They stand Dhatupatha cover. 7. mMMfff (f 463. I. Pan. F. 3. Des. II H^rtlT. Pan. I. r. u *nS. 19). 12-32. vn. 80). PAHASMAIPADA 4. I. Atm. BhA class. <*fl. 4. 5. P. vi. wn^ Pt. ^ftnn. AND ATMANEPADA VEBBS. ^HJWIf. 8. (w$. ON am (). imperative in wij 321. TOfS &c.) The verbs WH stambh. ^rffct. (pftR. trfVjn Pt.. r^^lMfrt. Caus. P. y. -. 490). fH mi (Su). note 2. 8. A. ^fty u Des. f^r*^. 156. Caus. Int. Des. see $ 333. 2. Caus. inft. sing. ^r Pass. ^MlMM^. (J 353). ^T U (*Tfan: and MP^HI 424) belong to (Bhu class). ^Kjmiqi. vn. ^ifl^. 3. P. *rnr^ u Pt. Ger. D) Pass. N*nivi or iV^r. ift rff 154. ^^r?. Aor. B. 9. r^rwrqi. and ^ (Div) take final VT <i whenever their %t or ^t would ( be liable to Guna Pf. Pf. iniT u n^. 5. 153- ** M 8. tprre. P. 74). Caus. f&^skambh. 31. ^fhm. W^TOfV. and in the gerund in Tya 452). B. tfUMMfn. Int. 3. Atm. W*ftiT. I P. IX Class). F. TOft. P. 6. F. *nntf n. fafWRy. F. to kill. F. to support. ^nfir.^cron^ O. Atm. ( *TTSfir. I A. wuft. . ^^fri (P^^P^^ri belongs to ^. Ger. I A.) are. W^stamlh. 7. Ger. grffir II ^dhu. rhf:. i. 8. H^WT. v (J 367). Jdtilril. irhm^. i. 7. ^.. ^TVg Pf IRcN. ^pd. TRTT. *T^iT. wr. Ig^stumbh. Pt. 7. to purify. MNJjPri. Des. 2. ^TO. wp-rfy. ^. TOftTT. II. 4. Pass. W^IH. T^UTH. B. fiTT. ^j'H. 273 2. wttifrf or Mtilfri &c. ^TJ. ojiifti?. ^rw:. 8. N n . ?drl. to tear. (J wrf^. af)<uiPn 5. i. Pass. < u Pf. to wither. and ^sfo* may be conjugated as Kri or as Su verbs. i. Int. ftmrflT (J 471. 6. fVarpr. 2. ^nK. ^WTT. i. * Kri verbs ending in consonants form the 2nd pers. ^*/Hi * to choose.^aVhrn^. ^ pu shorten their vowel in the special tenses (Pan.) P. Atm. ^ftskumbh. fafwH. 9 frrg:. P. Atm. . Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.

to This root takes Samprasarana in the special tenses and before other weakening terminations. ^V fiandh.F. TBf'^i I I 5 F. 2. ^MTi^t) ^THiiWln. *J^TO). (See No.^rnWj Aor. Loisel.274: KR! CLASS. F. 9. J^ld't. Ger. B. f^ffsRT^T. Jl^lS. I. 2. Int. Atm. i. I. see Beitrage. and Int. '^lrn II Pass. Caus. 104). ^rPH$m^. ^nft^rnij 3. sirR Caus. B. ]^1rti u < J J 5.*4>Rfrf. u Pt. ^. J l^slPri. 5PT^. vin. I ^Rjd in the special tenses. ^ftjH or ^ftlfT. ^ J]^lf^ Atm. 44 . 8. grah. II Pt. c(^ttTri or ^PCtaft. Vj^flHillTj gtifT. T. lO'^n. ^imjfd. TO:. F. II. i. O. ^Tjfft. Int. O. ijl^^lPri. B. 3. 157. (f^. ^ifl^rf. Pni g I II Pf. $rrif! u Pass.frnrn^or IRT??^ 462. P**H I Prt. Ger. TMitrMirT. ^I^I^H1 60. %in-s 9 6. 158. P*iPa*<xf or Hn-rm^. Int.^^Tf^. P. III.. ^ vri. Caus. F. " P^' 15v? A. . to cherish. i. q^. p. Parasmaipada Verbs. (VnH. Kosha. I. ^Rfts or ^^i!t or Pt. n I A. JpjffiT. $iwPri(). i. ^m^ Pf i. ^^(V^ or ^^^f or ^WTr^?. 9. Des. (Pan. ^R^fVfT. Contracted forms of the Des.) P.I[TMT. but n it occurs in the sense of old (Am. *PJ^iJij 7.*f 1^3*> 6. ij^luui or (not Tnrfe). grow weak. 'fjf *i I A. Atm. This verb substitutes ^TT jndy to know. 161. ^]^"lri. *T T(Vi. I. HiJ^H ( 341 and $ 348 *).fwwfk. *T1r('t3 vn. Wiflqri. Caus. (Pan. ^^V. *rarn ()> 2. I. yqVll. fcmfmrt or Int. ^ft^Nf or ^tF II ^H: II Pass. '%i1<if^. ^H^T^ITj 7. p. ^n4ir^*r5 5. Ger. ^n. Int. 4wfnr. UlffaTj B. I A. ^iftui Pf. I. Jf^ifls iJlP^uif) &c.) tf fl P P. Aor. Des. HHsilUrt. PITH?. F. Kuhn. ^rtrPflj I. II 2. vi. ?i{l<4iii Pt. O. Des. I.) n P. to take. 79. ^T Pass. vol. Atmanepada Verbs. PuM^fifT. Fut. ^wh:. to bind. B. ed. 135). O. Caus. Aor. ^niin^ O. 15)* Aor.) P. and in the Vedic Sanskrit. 3. 1^9. Atm. and ^ffw ^t^jft. I. ll P. P. nTJ (i lift &S participle would be wrong. PARASMAIPADA AND iTMANEPADA VERBS. *wjyd. <K4|fri (a). i. 4. vi. ^ramTTTj ^THirtf. This root takes Samprasarana in the special tenses and before other weakening terminations. 2. 16. J Pf. n^P?^ 3. ^rpjifhT. 157. wn^ 11 Pt. A. -M^sig Atm. -snr. P. see Pan. ftnffaffi^ I I. Des. Des. ^ftw. f^OMW. ^TTmttlfl 9 F. (see llllPlI. ?%fff &c. II. 4. ^irl^mfl..*t4's> 4(2.

^rnm^ or ^m u Pass. i. . Aor. 8. ^iMf^v. WW. 1. I. 7. 9. 4. 4. nrfir.wr^ n Pf. OTT7TT.w^rr^or w^: ($322!). wy:. rMMitifn. Des. Aor. ^nr^. note I. to proclaim. P. 2. is added immediately to the final consonant of a root. 2. n. N n 2 (Pan. uro. WHW. wrfi^TT. win. T^n. 3. ii. ^R$t. B. 276 Ad Class (Adddi. 2.Wfi*. ^^n^j ^> 6 ^> 7- t When f^ 'W^ inserts ^T before terminations consisting of one consonant. Aor. I. P. iPB|c. ^I^PH. 6. Aor. 6. IT. Des. Pm&Ml^fd) Int. j^i. JRR n Pass. wwr. I. vii. Des. 4. f^[:. II Pf. 9. WTO. 3. Caus. 167. ^i^**rir. wr^ifw. ^j 4. B. finl^Mri 165. i. tll^ilftv. wrfi^T &c. ^n II A:%a. wwi^. P.w^rfVf. I. wf%. 120). Parasmaipada Verbs. ITT 164. 1. xiiif^. ^mn. nsr. tiNi^. iftirfr. Int. "^rfty ( 125. O. F. II Class).wi(f7r. to eat. O. i. 9. "^is used instead. P.WT^. to go. 7. II A. 2. Caus. or wg:. wrw. W^ ad. 6. ^Sr.ww:. iw. WTOT^. 100)*. w?j. F. 3. 3. vi. P. 1. 36) u Pass. 36. WTW. B. WTO:. P. ww. . 7. Caus. iTTin. 5- Wr^f. to eat. Int. i. P.) . *IMI. WTO. 2. and in the weakening forms generally. P. 8. "^ vas.AD CLASS. F. - xil^f^. 8.WTJ n I A. O. I. WITR. ^n^ u Pt. ftnr:. Aor. 5. 9. insrij:. I A. wirn^. W^PI. imm^i I. 9. ^\m^ or Pt. Ger. I A. m^O. 5. md.wf?R. 4. Aor. fa^r. Int. || IF In the tenses where ^KJ This is formed from deficient. This foot takes Sampras&rana before the strong terminations of the special tenses. i. vid^fd. ft w fff. 2. in^ u Pt. 3. 3. riimi^Prt. WWlfo. F. 3. F. ^m^Tif. H Pf. WHlf. I. i. B. Caus. WT^nT7^ Des. Ger. B. WT*. 4. wtHT. 2. 3. wnn^. KJIJUJIIM. (Pan. 7. F. II ^^Wh II A. F. 5. wij> 7. WT?^J O. w^rnrfh^. 3.. s. 6. ^TTif : Pass. "^rftf. wn^ imm^ i66. ^RN^. WTOI (a). Caus. ^TTTH ^n^ n Pf.wfa. * O. N^iifH. W^IJ 4. 5. HPflfTI or m yd. **\ psd. 4. *TPTT^. F. mmm^. ^nfir. O. ^ernnr. i. 9. wr. I. 2. 101). ^r^. 9. (Pan. 3. to measure.^rnrn^. a reduplicated form of "^. 8. WTS. iBrfa^niT. F. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. ^nrn^. i. wwf. WT^. 162. F. WS to eat. Des. WVTH u Pt. "ffV. WTO:. n^:. wrrf. in^rfir. WTO. inn: n Pass. 7. P. vmiul^. m^rfw. wrrlf. 163. TF:. ^1*1 1 P*i. 3. HOsi 1 *. WP. is it is changed to (Pan. 9 . 2. 1. 4.^fipr. to desire. 4-'^w> 5. w%t. *<i*4i*4n. 5-^5 6. P. ^||. 7. WTF^ or wg:. irfw. 9. 1. or substituting 6. 321.

5^:. (Pan. 5. ()? (Pan. I . F. or ^ ^'^l"^. *ff^ (Pan. 5. 5. ^TT or ^Thr. I.^!^. 3. ^w: n Pass. . 8- ^9 8. 4. 2. to mix.3^*? 5-3^*> 6. ir$ 5. ^fcT. i. ^TFT. ^TfiTf. ^^5 n 'Wf^Tj ^^TJ ^lrfj ^T? 2. ^1^ ^T^R or ^I^1T. or iXlfa. ^m ^snnrtny u Pass. 4. ^uni^ -sr^fv (^ u Pt. AD 9. 4. vi. 3. inw^fir. ^s^rfifj Int. i.. T^T^. or ^t^n. F. z The verbs (J tu. or iH^ptflff. tfa? 3. ^3^> 5-^3^5 3. intensive. 7. F. 8. 4fw. 4. wftR. Si!*> J A < - Pass. s. 89. ^T or ^fa. vart. rftrT5 8. . or semivowels (Pan. ^ stu may take "^ before all terminations of the special tenses 3. 4. 0. nr. ?r or ^Thrf. i. 5 P. ^in. 4. nHiiiufd. 3. Verbs of this class ending in 7 u take. 7. 4. ^nnf^. ^FIT. Caus. B. ^qff. ufir. vn. ^rj. Pf.. 2. ^ J 332. 9. 3. 8. ^TT.g^r. Int. g yu. s. <tflfd. (Pan. Pf. ^5 U Pf. the causative from P. (J 449) F. Des. irf^in. Des. to go. ^7T or ^hf. ffsJT. 9^^Nlt^. ufa. I A. ^wt or <W>fl'!. Hqifi.^:. 7. vn. itf*. TU^nrfir. F. 77- f*^ 4. ^*^ han becomes f^ghn (Pan. i. ^Pnuirrf. -3^. P. Caus.^1^:. 37). P. ^t.5^:. Des. i. 55). 2. F. 9. 9- 6. TU^ or Ijfhj. . wjrg: 9 6. P. Caus. 2. ^^ IT: u n Pf. cm Pill. to shout. 9. sHfjT.Tfrfor. 4. ^f^ or ^Tlf^. i.g^fir. 170. nrpT. 4. ^nr. ITR. fv. ^fff> 4- and the aorist passive are derived TEff^ghan. B. 7. Int. 3. P.) beginning with consonants. 1 68. 3. ^am. but see Sarasvati gives 'STn^l^j ^t'Slflfj to to praise. 3. -n^fir. 7. 2. ^f?T or 8. PAKASMAIPADA VERBS. tfli Pass. 9 grg:. It likewise 171. Aor. frj. to kill. 9. Note The extends the use of and diTT. ^T^ff or -f^ilw. i. ^nrhnn^. "^fa or <cflfM. i. he 169. Des. or ^fHlnd (Pan.^tfw. Aor. 30. 36). girf. ^r. kills). ^rcni:. "?5 ru.^wrf. 54). the terminations begin with any consonants except nasals Before strong terminations beginning with vowels. 3. I. TETiTJ 2.276 8. 3 . Vriddhi instead of 3. ^flftr. P. ^Tul^or 41^11^. O. vi. In the aorist and benedictive ^{vadh from is sub- The desiderative. "siTrnT ^. ^^fw. 413111 ft. ^temPd. A. B. 1. 4. or ^'4ldt. $w. '^^gJiat. 1. vu.^:. 9. 7. 5- 9- Iffy ! 9. I.4. ^TTf^ or 3. 5-^rc> 6. B. ^si^f. ^n^ u Pt. ^ ru. i. and in the if weakening forms generally. F. tf^in. J - 2. 6. Hvfaq or I A. 8. ^: 9. 7-^1^9 8. ^flft or ^Tc(lHt. Int. 4- f^Kj 5- 5- ^? ~- 6 - ^o 3. THH 6. 9. Aor. Caus."5^f^. ^r^ff or "mgjlti. 2. 7. ^ir. 9. ^fcT or ftRf^fff. I. vn. i.gm. 5. s. P. Ger. gff ing. tfrofir. gw. 2. F. in the special tenses. stituted. 95. i. 3. T^T^T. ^TT^5 ^1*. I. 8. . irem. han. 6. 7. 6. This verb drops its final ^% before the strong terminations of the special tenses. 2. vn. 4. . V5nnrf or ^fil^ri 407). -rshj n II CLASS. ^m. ^H|v"c|^. or ^Hrt. 3. ^ 6 - "^UT. ^n^ u Pt. rt^^nr. f^TTf^.) Guna before weak terminations beginning with consonants.

ri*!*> 5. ^TCFJ. P. 5. to be. *rfa. 6.mft|.. B. ^st^lq. Caus. or 97. i. Ger. F. 114). ($ 368). i. 6. 5.^nrn^. i. JIT:. :> 6 -^ 6. 6 - ^?r. H'l^lfH. ^rarrftr. 8. (or f^hi &c. or ^ST.^Hif. *nj 7- Pf. 8. xutu^i. w. Des. 3.AD 2. $irir.^ipT. faf^HI n Pass. 7. or inf T. ^n^: Atm. ^HI^. ^ 9. f^%. 6. 2. or *nrm. 1. 4. TTf . 2. 6. f^W. 5. 4. 46). :> 277 3. F. 4. ijnii or #1*11 Pni.^^if*! 6. 5. Pan. I A. i. 5. *i*iifnM or JRHT?. %^qfif. 4. . *igfiT. 9. 7. i. ^qfir. ^rrer. $^. 4-^^ 5'W 2.^fWff. 4-> 5'W WTR. 7. 4. ($ 132^). ^TR. 5.7l. fr?r. 7. f^Tft. 41). 8. 2. if But see 463. ^. *rfk. ^iti^. 4. P. 9. 9. 3. 9 . Wre. . 4. 2. n. w. in. 4. 9. 3. ^1^*15. 3. CLASS. i. f^. 8. ^ 3. ^W. Caus. 4. 'Pf. ffnrftrefir (Pan. ^n: 5 3. . mf^rfir or Hrafff. or *i*fifn^. u f^ 9. 1. 4. 2. ( f^ n Pf. vin. w*j: ^n^ n Pt.HTftS. 2. WR. i. P. 6. wsr. Adj. ^rnrf. n 3. or 8. 3. 8. 9- ^f> 3- ^rnr. 9. P. **rnr. 6. I. ^ffc. 4. 2. if^mrij. 'iti^'if^. "fry:. ^srftr. ^^t or jwrif:. H*TT^^I. ^jftro or wri (Pap. 9. 2. JRTPSrtq: used at the end of t The perfect both in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada is chiefly the periphrastic perfect. B. 3. 5. ^rrcnjt. 4. 5.-Kaum. 4. 4. Ger. 'T^'f^t 9. U wn*ff^ or ^HinfT^. *llftlV|. 'Sfttiij 7. 6. ^^lfc<<^. vunfa (J 404). ^r:. 6. 5. F. i. ^BTTFT. ^fh^. Pt. 122). 7. ITIII^.^npf. ^. 6. n.. 3. 5. Ger. saftn. 7. 9. 1. fTOK. f^T^:. mfHHl or iffT. **T. vol. : (a). 6. ^W^' r TTT^gt. 172. ^T. 5- ^in*r. fa<^ or ^f^:. i. 8. Jp. Aor. wrw. p. 7. O.. ip:. 7. ^r^. fcfc^Hfri (Pan. F. and f 471. i. 2. ^. O. 8. 9.^?. 8. WTT. Des. 7. 4. with regard to this and cognate verbs preceded by prepositions. ^T*> 8. ^utilt. ^rw. fron^ Another form of the Present is. Jmfr (Pan. P. "fa*. 3.^nrr^. vnftm^. ij5*TT I A. wf^^. i. n. i. U Pf i. PARA8MAIPADA VERBS. 8. iJafTJ or inifg or I. 6. 2. *cn. 326). ^sTRT^t. ^?rf. ^rrrnrt. B. fo[ vid. P. i. "faro. 47). ftnrf. 8). 173. II.HHI^. %fw. ^rrerf. *W.*H 2. Int. ^H i 8. 2.) it ^nftRt. . t^> 1^ ^HJ 5. n. vn. may takeVriddhi likewise before terminations that would not require Guna. 2. Wj 7. "^pn^ or HT^i^f. F. : > 7. ^ 2. 5. 7. iTTsrfiT. 6. fwnj. 8. 5. wref. ^q n Pass. ^. ^Hl^> O. 6.*. 4. ^TT. 2. Aor. ^rr^Tif. 8. Aor. ITHTR. 2. 3. fan. w^.^: ^if^nf. III*T. 4. if the terminations begin with a vowel (Siddh. W(as. f^: u Pt. i. fVnrr. ^:. 1^ 11' 8 - t* ^m tS * ^ i. ^ftr. ^npf. 3. 4. F. 75). 3. ^nf^4. ^rfroi. (ifSj^. to know. 2. TrfS ( 124). 9. 9. 174. . i. WIT. II ^:. or f^f^rn: ^T^. ^ri%. ^rfw. fr?n. ^r:. vnw. W) 6. 7. WTTW. 4. w%ft. 8. *TJ. :> 7- 3 P IT: 8 -^> 98. I. (Pan. ^tT. 2. This verb takes Vriddhi instead of Guna (Pan. 1. 3.45). ^TTO. to cleanse. 4 I.

^<$vi> ^.^0<1: or 2. 1. Mii(Vifi9 B. ^ I according to others. 9. ^mfrl.278 AD CLASS. U 'IIK^ A. ni'Ki*i9 8. i I. T^JH. ^^:. '3RT [jdgn. F. sHCi<{tf^ 4. TTT5 9 4. ^^an. 1ftft(chakds. 4. Aor. 3. 9. ^*r. ^rfif. ^fNr. present of ^does not occur (Siddh. nfqmfri. 3. i.-Kaum. mrm^:. ^Ifi. 3. I. to shine. ^^I'l^J? O. vi. nfifPif. P. ^rwnr:. ^s. ^IHNIK or ix). 3. 120). Or^fn. i. according to some no 3rd pers. i. to obtain. i. F. ii'iPi. Des. Caus. *ii'i(ij 2. I. F. ^3* 9. q-qifri. $n^ sds. P. 8. plur. ^%. ^fi[Tf. ^TC (J . to speak. Des. F. 98) or. ^nrmt. df^in. 4H'^ 9 Viqe^. %iiHiiP<. 9. vii. Aor. 99). 6. or lifVS/li^ ^^HfT^. 3. 9. to shine. Ttf^fa. F. 7. 5. 2. vu'i^kn. U Pass. i. qiq-oin. wn'ji au^P^. ^nsqw. and ^l uh instead of ^fi^ an in the 3rd pers. F. ^iiiMn5 9. from ^. vn. Caus. TiiM<i-q<=tiK (Pan. *N^ 366). ^T^. STPTif. ^^svas. ^TMlft. Pf.mPH. 1. I. *iO*jTqn. ?(^jaksh. p. 7. 6. 1. ii'|ni 7. 7. ^r^r^. 9. 2. P. n*pn. are called WTCcf abhyasta They take ^ifw ati and 'Snj atu in the 3rd pers. i. ^ . 6. 3. Wfm'O'i^ (see preface. I or O. ^iHiMit^ Pt. is inserted (Pan. ^[ U ^d^. Aor. Aor.^rf> 8. ni'jMii^j 9 ni'mfiu. p. accord- ing to others the whole plural is wanting . 4. i. snrcy. 3. T3: n Pass. ^fs*r. to rule. ^ rud. ! 2. ^T^jaksh. 5. in'ifS.) ?[ The verbs ^rwc?. ^fir or 8. *i^jaksh take of the special tenses beginning with consonants. miR. ni'jflj 9. 4. 3. Caus. 3. A. or frmPmPfl. 9. 3.iprfr. 1. 4.^srorfS. 3. n. Seven verbs. weak terminations consisting of 6ne consonant. accent. 1 iSHVI. plur. 5. dfc(fa. 192. u 2. plur. ^TaiTt^. 3. 113) u pr: or *rnh (Pan. 2. ^<MI*. W*{svap. 4. 5. to cry. 3. T^ft ve^. 8. I in. ^nrRt? I. ^m^ 177. ^3*r:. -*H<^*. P. ftii$|Pri m. 175. B. ^^^ 6 ^Tfri> ^W. ^*ri. 178. 9 *nrw: ($ 321 1) Pf. 5. 76). <fxMi^ u Pt. . 2. Aor. P. to eat) to laugh ||. VSNchl. ^y (Pan. Caus. ^rr: u Pass.n! H Pf. 176. 3. Int. fqms|fWj Int. Pf. ftf^rfir. i. . F. *R*lJagrii to wake. to be poor. 4Hxcf. to wake. ^f ? ^. II A. ^fri. ^P^^:. is formed from T^. . *& a (Pan. plur. 4.) 6. 7- 9. 6. Clt^fd. if^ni^j -wn^lf^ ^nf^fr^. vach. || *TSTto eat. "STWto laugh. -*l^^^. - -si^r^. nriHinnC'iPif. 9. B. (reduplicated). * The 3rd pers. Int. ^fsy. vol. ^Ttfefh or u Pt. except i before the terminations 2. <c(Nt didht. *i*iife. *icjfn. 3- TWTO 9 ira:. iii|fri. Des. P. ^r^i^. I A. fv"^'r^*4fii or ^ttft[^flf. ^R. ^fX'l daridrd. Before . Des. ^[TO. 38). 8. from ^.swO<i. ^r>. ?T^N?. or 5- ^T^I^. No Intensive. imperfect ( 321 f). I. 2. rnpt. 5. m^^fri. O. . (^C. P. PARASMAIPADA VEEBS. vn. 4. (Pan. Aor. present and imperative. "srpprtj 7. Pass.

^fifTF. 9. 4- 3. $11 (\W. vi. vn. ^ft^fif. 54. ^n^:. ^ntufn) II ^iifv ($ 132).^. P. or ^i|1^. VIJIIJJ. in 279 179. n. vn. 7. njf^nftmrH. vi. <*rftre. to ^rcrt Pf.AD CLASS. vn. extend the latter rule to $3& See notes to Pan. ( in the (Pan. Pt. p.^$. ^. 4. {OJgq:. 4. and likewise insert ^ i before the and pers. !84. 2. f^r?. ^m^ffl. 1. ^n the Red. f^T^t. 125). (Pan. 9. 7. iTMANEPADA VERBS. ^iitig A. ia changed to fifl^ sis before weakening terminations beginning with consonants. ^ff^rm^. ^ft^T daridrd. F. ^fcd. ^nfld. e^fVgifti.^ffifTF. to be poor. ^^ w. O. ^rrer. O.) 3. 3I3IIU. 3. 3. ^rraj. n Pf. sing. Caus.^T$. 4.^?. ^n%^. p. Atmanepada Verbs. A. 2. f^pni^ Pass. 3. qftjftmrd (Pan. ^TT^ ds.l daridrd the final ^T? i. 4. f^fhr. n. 3.^TT. II 8. ^llfw.*(^t3. O. ^?f ^%. aorist. i. *%^5 2. 2.-Kaum. 5. P. Perf. ^n?.) ^H^ yds P.) d i* replaced by ^ the special tenses before strong termiBefore strong terminations nations beginning with a consonant (Pan. i.) I. ^irf P g^. ^TR|. and i. 2. 1. i. 9. The other forms wT8jTf. 2. vi. ^nrrN^ (part. 1. i. O. 5. qtsjiff. [imperfect. -swti^.^a. 2. to speak. P. ^rnm^ ^l1. or or FJTT. vol. 7. In ^(V. 188. vi. ^[\\ 132). I. sit. *nim(ri or w. 114). 6. to rule. 5. s. ^iitifn. w^fi:. F. ^T|Tn or 9. to bear. 88). I- 4. 8. 5. vi. (Pan. n. ^wf^ . 6.-Kaum. 112). 9. II II. 3. 5. 182. I I. I. 8. vi. ^ (Pan. O. 78. ^. 1 6. : ^ft a II A. (Siddh. f^rir. qgitf.). Pan. ^ftrr>.] and imperative (Pan. are supplied from Pf. vn. %?. 5" vol. F. (^n^. wrfhr. 4. P. Int. B. 2 A 78). ^nf^. f^i'Mif^. however^ id ^ t^i take ^* before the 2nd pers. 181. ^ftfclfa. B. I A. qfljfrdl (not ^jfl.$M.H^ 183. 2. F. 77). beginning with vowels the WT d is lost (Pan. jTT^&fo. ^pj 1 80. 9. i. 34. ^llfw. 9. present and imperative (Pin. P. 6. present. sfVfcifw. ^nrf. I. 7. I. 55) or Atm. Pf. 4. ^Huei. 2. pliur. optionally. ^icn^.) (Pan. The root and IT^jan do the same.^ftf^?fT. i. ^W. ^T8J chaksh. vart. $^&. to command. ^^. Des. n^fljfl^or j<*(X$itfl^(Siddh. A. second 4. F. 6. 3. ^i4. 7. The commentators. 9. 114. *n^. fifref. or . 6. ^niq. accent. Vjm^. vn. I 3 4- ^nrr. P/x. 4-^S%5 I. 126). 83). 511^1^^.3. fa. ^frf^n^ i. 8.^V$ifu> " r f' ^cfcfl. 192.

5.) This verb is always used with^SrfVa^i. ^nrtifhf. to sleep. 189. ^UJJ^MH.55^9 4. 1. fe'Hrn^. or 3. vn.-Kaum. fsr* dvish. 3ft si. $nr. 3i. 2. 4. ^Wr. ^(i^(<^7T. i. %irf. 1. ^'W ^t^ 9. F. vii. I. vin. 4. 1 18. Caus. ^Wto^. vi. Des. ^tPffif . fgr: 3. ^i^ifn. ^ifir^ or ^rf?"jt (J 321 j). 187. i. II Pt. 4. *pr: (Pan. *farrte or *>trte ^T^nrfcTj II Pt. to lie down. ^ft. n. 8. 4. P. 6. in the sense of reading. I. i. sfat? snn$. ^iffi. ifanr. Int. ^ffrv. I. 7. (tfH^. ^%?r. 3. ^nrf. 4. 4. ^ WT. tymqPri. 5nTTH|. 4. 3 . ^rtqifqxCf or ^wrifhrrc. I. . 9. O. I. ll Aor. 7. 3. . 3. Vl^frt.) 2. ^KNiPtij ^3f^ or ^ti^r^. n.^rfrT) 2. 7. ^fl^SI'j g 7 ^ " 6. 3' ^n(l'5 5 5. ^itq*tit^. I 1 88. 9. ^mnmjfir. F. tre. (fl^lfWj -^ 8. 8. 2. 6. vol. 49). ^i^w (Pan. I. $*!. to milk. jlTT. 3. to hate. 5.* ^nr^Tf &c. ^5^ftw. F. < ^r%i4. Aor. i. 2. -ii$Hr^. Aor. 6. {l(i (see No. ^iV^f^j F. 9. ^iWte u Pt. 3. ^iw. i. rsr^ffl. 3. vn. I %^. i. ^fan. "^I'^i^j 3?^) ^VT. SR. 5- P. I. ^nftt^j ' Pf. ^l^mri. ^?^rT^T. (Vmir^. ^ImoFj O.^5?s7. Des. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 2. ^svhsf. 1 86. s. ^rarfa. 9. ^ncw. to go. ^wnr. I. |?v. P. present. 6. ^ftnfit (Pan. ^frTOf. yriftTr.) p. 2. 4. P. 7. B. firfr. (l^T. vol. 9 . n. f^^. 5. Atm.280 ( AD I. (Pan. I. t*fl'nfj 6. accent. Caus. fir^te Pt. 8. s f4f s-iffe? 4.snrra^. (^. 185. i. 8. ir^T'fiir. fin?. Des. B. ^iqinftl or or ^nfllftr. 6). <3WJT^. 22). 186. P. 5. 6. f^rftn^rT. $d. $t^ 6. ^fiflift^ (Siddh. (see F. rf:. fe m ij. ^tftr. 7. 45) Pass. Caus. 3. ^ 363). 7. ^ff^. 9. 5f| stu. I. III. 4. 2. (Siddh. 42. and imperative. ^^w. ^Tff. r.) (Pan. ^ i. 5^5 5^3 "^^' 5^^5 A. 7. <{Tfi*f. Aor. ^ruivji. ^cTf II Pf. 119). O. 337> II F - *fo*ft or B. 2. 9- d^llri 5^^J 4. ^{JM^ (Pan. wfw or ^sNtfrf. 9. i. p. Pass. ^ 8. B. O. plur. to praise. ^^nfT. fe?9 9. A. ^?^hrnrf. A. grv:. 61). IA. Aor. i. ^njrfa. or vi'tciqlt. i. vrf% 3. 3. P. and inserts ^r in the 3rd pers. ^F. or ^qi^J. 2. ^g. ^^TT: Pass. ^ta^^. t*n<4i'qi. ^?4. Caus. ^T^nTTT. I. Aor. 5.5^:. 5. 3. feMg u u Pf.^r^ ? 2. imperfect.*) CLASS. 6. F. ^rwm^%. Atm. ^!W5fiT or ^?upfNlT. O. Int. wf*T or 9. 170)? ^n(V or ^cilPM. iter. W. ^r^NfV. 4. c?w^. II 4. ^rifir. ^J^J or 9.) The verb Tffts* takes Guna in the special tenses (Pan.-Kaum. Cond. 9. 9. 8). ^"wlii or 2. 2. ^r<r. ^rapffar?rf. 21). *farft. f^^r? n P. i. ^nftlf ^^!Tft?. PARASMAIPADA AND ^TMANEPADA VERBS. "swmri (Sar. 3NMI. ^rfinr: n Pass. 6. vin. n.

1 15. -3^511^ u Pass. before I. PARASMAIPADA VERBS. 326). feftMl? Aor. F. (I Atm. 2. vii.) P. -g^nf. 6. ^w^*rff. vi. 2. I A. 281 3). in the special tenses This verb takes $ (Pan. Des. ^rc|ir. i. 8). 192. is 4. WHf<m 8. F. vi. B. g^fir. gi^f^H. *rfw^. ^fWw ^^5 Des. F. 41 ^f*qq. 3. ". ^ftjTbraf "flT or B. F. 9. **jj^n^ . Aor. 2 . intermediate ^t. DCS. Des. O. (Pan. ^nj^r^. 175) used instead. ^^ u x Pf. 7. In the general tenses the final (Pan. ft&j n B. i. 7. or wr^Tj:. Pt. (Pan. w^Tl ^ or or or gp|f%tRfir. 3. (Pan. Class (Juhotyddi. 90. J hu t to sacrifice. Hu 192. Caus. to speak. ^^h^. ^wsfifrf or iwoffrr. takes the reduplicated perfect against i. I. (a). Caus. i. O. Atm. Aor. 2. Caus. u 6. *jjw: n Pass. Ufir. ^nwf^j O. ^Mlfl. ?TmT Pt. **JJ3# 1 A. and reduplicates the last syllable (Pan. TO^rfMHTd or 3orfaqfir. I. pncre. ijynj:. *mfr. 7.) P. 192. 91). *fjMfi 9 ^^Tn. Parasmaipada Verbs. take Guna P. I. I.HU or *nfcj n CLASS. 6. P. viWTfa. pl^TT. HITT. ^ u. 9. This verb *ft bhi. 3). iprta. ^fttgfw. Pf. ^r. 9 . i. Int. 4. ^ucjfrf. Int. ^af?rf. or ^rjf^v/. T^^. Aor. 6). "gp^ ^rww. $m. P. fsnHir. wi^nfff. I. i. arH'T. where l^vach (No. 6. vi. ^i^r or n ^^^TT ( 326). HT^flf or HTOH^ or iflvni (see j 463. s. I^Tff. fvftim^ or f^rqt^. 6. qw. ^^frr. ^n^rii^ < "3n^^:. tfU: ^T - Pass. 1. o o . ^fwiw or f or ^f^:. ^snpffy O. vii. 3 . 7|% before 191. 190. 5. fwhr: or WHW:. 84). B. 9 353:. ^fq^. Guna weak terminations beginning with conIt sonants (Pan. accent. HI. "gjm^. H^fiT. 93). 9. I. F. vi. 4. Int. (fwt. The may be substituted for five of the persons of the present (Pan. P. ^rg^. to fear. to cover. ^r. wp. except before those that consist of one consonant only. 5. accent. -^tiTT. 2. fir: Pass. F. 193. l|ir. 9.) (Pan. "^fir or *rrj:. vii. 9. may or may not or 5. dcfifM or OTTO. 3. t before weak terminations beginning with consonants perfect ^TTf dha 3. ?^nr. P. Pf. TOT*^ (J 338. ^mfrr. . 3 . fcArtf. I A. Caus. ^reffa. Int. Aor. 3 ^'Hiq. ^HUIJ} <*4}HN 7. H. This verb may take Vriddhi instead of 3. F. It is defective in the general tenses. %^fir. 8. wrtfir or s. ^Wir. III Class). >rhn^ K ^^ Pt.) may shorten the final ^ i before in strong terminations beginning with consonants the special tenses. 1. 9. 325. fowrfiT. ^^^. (J 6. ^5. I A. 18).

5^. T^I. I. '^"5^^. f^ n Pass. Caus. 6. 118). 5. or ir^rf^ (Pan. 2. 8. HU CLASS. 3. fT hd. 198. vn. vi. ^hm ( 481). fM^MFi^. "5T^ U Pf. to fill. ^f. O. 4- '^liii (f). 2. Des. 8. i. ^:. 195. F. ftreft. "5Tf . 2. ^^TH. fiTftr.iffTf^. Verbs. ^rtr. u Pt. 2. ^R<lOr. ^rf^wi. (?). vi. ^fr^:. 6.) Reduplicated verbs ending in ^TTa (except the Jlghu verbs. 6. however. 3. (Pan. 6. to be ashamed. 7). 9. TJ 56) ^fhffy F. 4. 7. ^(W^ii^. ftffig: or r^NdiK. I A. vi. 4 ftr$%:. i^iri. 113). Int. 1. I. 7. ^ftr^w. 2. i. fTTT. fuTJ^m^ ^mtff^. 9. ^far^ u Pt.F. to leave. 1. faxrfff.282 194. 6. vi. Pt. The verb ^T hd. TfTiJ. ^ITT^ Pass. ST^TW.^rftnT^t. see 392 *) substitute \i for ^TTa before strong terminations beginning with consonants (Pan. i. ^w: (Pan. Caus. 1. ^rftR: (or 'srftnro^j 4. 5. ftr^S. f^n (Pan. 9. MMfi. (Pan. (TTT. and ^fbr: are referred to TJT ( 442. This verb. pri. 8. 4. P. ftrfFfij:. ^M)^. vni. ^Nr: or jft: (Pan. (*). 3. 1 4- fr rcre. ^T^ u Ger. far. 7. . 4. 9. B. Des. gimfri. I A. to guard. ^nt^ (1 3^4). s. 7. 3. i. 7. P. f^:. B. ^fn^. 4.^ni^ 3. s. *tf&> ^^> 6 5 - ^*> 'T^'T. 5.^rfTO (or ^rftro.ftr^S. ^hr:. 5. Int. 3 . ^RTTh{. ^hTff. fn^:. 1| Sar. ^mfS. 'STK^. 6. # hri.) I. 1. ^rftnr^t. II. Ger. may also substitute ^i (Pan. i. ATMANEPADA VERBS. 8. -^rmu. 1. "ST^TH. 6. < ^rf^H. %]ffaiw. O. 3. M^Sn. (). ^TR. fiTfmfff. 12). Pnufri. 3. labial. 3 fnifr. . Aor. *\%\*: 8. u Pf. ^nwfrf. and others in which final ^ri . P. ^ffir. 2. ^^rtaifTT. ft *!. 9. 7. 6. Des. ^itf<^. w*ffn. B. ftnm^ u Pass. . O. *if^xf . P. ir^N* 2. I A. (or ^ro^). F. 192. 8. F. (). O. f^TT^.). y^frr or filMf^fri Int. ^f^ ' ^nr^n^. -g^im. P. 6. P. Int. P. 4. 9. 2. 2. "5?^^: (). frwr. s^rif. jvfo. 9. t. vi. 4. W^TT (?). 1. 9. 7i. B<5 7. accent. F. 4. "ST^.) P. 'STfrfrT. is preceded by a changes the vowel into 1. ftr$w:. 3. frlRIH. HT md. trqfbr. 6. i. I. (^ft^Tcjr. Caus. 9. 5-^^ 6.fanfS. 2. "ftTTTff. 5. Pass. r 6. ^nrj:. *nfH I A. 9 ftf&fn (I no). to measure. ^fqM:. 2. vni. 9 . 5. 117). ^rcrftr. Aor. ftrgfafcf. "snrfrrf: (?). 4Hvg: sn^g: or Tni^:. (Pan. 4. ftnift.% 3. -q^: or B. TO 5.f^fC3 II Pf. . S. I. Tj:. ftrrhr:. (Pan. ^ u Pf. 43). 4. 3. fwt^r. I A. 102. 9. fa*ftw. 3 ^r|. ^rr^t. except Guna or Vriddhi. TTMT. 57). 7. ^i^1^ (z). 4 . (*<HlH^.fl^WT. t^^fif. f^tfrr. 196. 9. 1.) where the vowel requires "3^ur. . (?) '^^Trf (?). fmjrit. ftfFTO. 3. 6. B. 116). vn. ^ftcTT or TtftaT. fma ( 390). ijj: TTW. n. fjtr. 4. ij. ^. P. qftwfk (0. or 5fin% 3. . 2. F. Several optional forms are derived from another root with short ^j. ^PM^W. ftr^mf. Aor. Atmanepada (HH)I^. VIT. nrfa (z). ^^o^. ^rfrpjlff. 4. U Thus. 9. II F. i. fffff.

8. ^HT^. P. fw*jirt. ^W. 1. 9. mwr. 9-^C. 9. ^f^(see p. S. 6- ^rf. f*jnrr^. Caus. W4l440g. if lost. ^f^. f%rfS. (i*ii*i9> Pf. P. 9. vw: &c.. *Sr.^. ^ryr. ^HHIWll. PARA8MAIPADA AND ATMANEPADA VERBS. n Pt. fr*p tf 3 . 56. 2. ^TTTT. i. ^pgrfl^. ^. ^: (J 436). ^f. i. <& 2. 3.V^f. fa*j^. 3-^rf. WHI4A. B. if follows the Bhu class (Pan. 1. ^rf*r. fw*jfr 9 f^>ifiT. The Pt. 9.^f^. 9. <^|Vj|.fira. 3. Atm. F. the aspiration of the final v.^nnftf. Ger.*rf*7*i^. II A. 4. Hm^fd. 4. fair:. F. ^T n Pass. it 2. 5. 4. ^sff*jrT. 9. f^^^ifl. Pan. ^T\ 9 Atm. ^ro. i. *rf*ii&. 7. ^p?. is f^in. 6. *s 1*1*1 in.^5:. 3. 4. . ^^ftw. 5. that conjugated like ^T. 4-^%t.*i(*i*in. This verb is O O 2 . F. 49). fwt n Pf. ^nrte ^Ttnrfir. r. 1*1 1*1. Atm. i. f*i*ifl. hence 2nd pers. (Pan. 8. 2. Atm. 8. . (Vif*i. 4. xWlwfjg.) 1 P. ftnj^t. 1. F. "yjtrfir. vi. dual Pres. -wfW*j?r. Atm. 3. O. ^ti*f*ii*<i. *TO. 4. Pf.^. "ftn^rifr.rhr. 4 (iir^i. f?n. 119). . Aor. 3. i. Aor. vn. 8.ufHNlnfig. ftnnr. i. 3. Atm. 4. ^T^. i.^^. i. 5-^^ 5. 2. F.^ff (Pan. P. ^rftr. ^rfff. ^*K 6. 9. i. Des. ^nrrwr:. 2. 7. ^[^t. Aor. f^wfir. ^*prt. to place. 6. F. Pt. 3-^n:. Int. 7. III. 2. 2. 9. 3.^. ^*T^iri^. f*i*i1l4. TtmHlqff . 2. ^T da. I. famiii. fi*i1 i. *r*rnr. v 2. 4. ^*>f&. 6. ^ bhri. *TO. ^TO. 5-^T^> 6 - ^TF. note). 9. ^Rt. Ger. rfTT. ^s *. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.f^T*i7r. (ypr. "ftwf^. 2. ^r^T. when other reduplicated ^J^Att verbs (see No. ^:. iffim. HiX^fy. however.^ir*pn. O.^|. 1. Atm. 5-^t 7. f*i*fliT. *5*r. 199. HrCTflf. ^T or . 7. inwtY Pass. Des. 3. (^T^) The verbs ( 392*) drop WT d before strong terminations. ^jw: u I A. I A. 5.^?^. Ger. i. y. B. i. ^TiJ. ^T. L 3 . \H^!^M. xWIUf. ^. 3. vi. 5. 8. 1. ^. 6. 4. S-'tT^* . 69) u wnfa. VT^M. wf^jnrf.^. 2. 8. S. to carry. or fwft^fir. ( 118. yfa Pass.^. must be thrown forward on the initial ^. 2.. 7- ^7T.^*^5:. Caus. fa*inf n 7. 9. 9. 2.^ff*r:. Twhnfr. *TTO (not Int. 113. Caus. CLASS. ^rn-nffan. 13) or n fir*Kh<*ii ? Pt. S. a. 200. VH^r*.^W%. 283 6. 7. 3. 201. Des. 6. fw*pn. 4-^'^t. ^Tftf. ?[^n 2. ^rr^. 9. W^. 1. Int. 6. (5). 112. 184). 5. 3. It should be remembered. 3. 5. f*fHl*J. O.fw. Atm. WR vn. 7.^^r:. i. 3. II Atm. 334J P^n. ^fw. n 6. <^tfa. ^r^. 4. *TOT^. 6. 5. ^TT. SH^^Irtl. vf^fm. Atm.HU 9. i. a. to give. 9 ^j:. xi *i i<i ml.) 7. vi. 4- ^Sft. 3. Atm. frtw. ftrwr. I. P. ^. 4-^sr. 8. 9. fwH^ilVi.^tT. ^T*T. 4- Atm.^lfinftttf. a.wfir*T^:. 196) change "VI d to ^f. i. 8. B.

3 ^ftm. f^r?:.) P. <gwftr or Wftr A. ff^%. P. to distinguish. 75. *?rf Pass. ^r^ri. 'srf^Rj ^T%H: or ^rf^r^. Caus. f^rs &'s^. ^TSRt. Int. B. O. I. I A. II A. Aor. f^T^TTi^. %Tf Pass. 1. wrfti. 1. Pf. F. %%ft|. ^r%^ or II A. *nr: HT^. I. %m^. %* : n - hims. f^^nr^ ftrf^ftRflf. 5r5?T J 438). > (J 407). Pass. 45?n^. Des. 3. H^ir. 9.) ^5^? I. ^R^T. u to break. ?rft5*n^. 3. %^r. Pt. I. F. TtwfiT. 3.) n P. ^5*Tff. TPJT. i. (^fv^. 32. f^R^rfirr. P. 7. f^WrT. ^TVROF.) Reduplicated verbs (abhyasta. f^nrf^j 2. ^fcnnfil. PARASMAIPADA AND iTMANEPADA VERBS. ^iftmflf P. f^TTr^ Caus. I. . Caus. 2. ^^rudh. Aor. ftrf^r. ^rfi^n^(J 132). B. to embrace. (Pan. ^rfs. F. frfr^frr. mhtfh^or II A. take Guna in their reduplicative syllable.^r%T7. 4. ^dv. ^^^rfiT. "W^Tff. I P. 3. 3. P. 4*T*lTif. ^df>rzr. O. 4. f$s*5 6. ftrwiTr. P. B. vn. f^qw. Pf. 2. $FT. H^ bhanj. 8. ^rf^F.) 2. F.284 KUDH CLASS. i. f^ftj 204. 1 I. f^ftnr: n Pass. 5 2. ^r^nr. Aor. (Pan. ^TT ?^. ^cftftnn. wftnr^. Aor. Ger. 207. (n5ft. 9. Parasmaipada Verbs. I A. O. P. 87. F. 9. Caus. f^H^ifn. <3Rfa*j:. P^HI^ u u Pt. B. f^far:. Des. Aor. ^^:. f^rfjfTW^T? I nt $%^W? $^rf?. to strike. 2. 1. ^TTWfy or ^flfif. 3. Caus. 3. 7. Des. ^^^. I. ^^. ^ft^ Pt. 203. ^frFT. %^{ II Pf. Caus. f^T vij. 4. F. ui w. <3wreffy Aor. 8. Class (Rudhddi. ^H%. ^rf^^r. 32 if) having a short medial vowel do not take in the special tenses. 9. F. u F. II Pt. Guna before weak terminations beginning with vowels P. vn. I. 3. fi?fa. 2. I. O. ^rffr. f^l^frr. ^H(HJT. I A. Des. 2. (or f^fe). II O. i. ^rftff^^. to cleanse. F. ^%^. %%fo. II. Ger. f^^rn^. Int. to separate. ^srffinrf. ^gr:. ^5^ u Pt. VII Class). ^| u Pf. dv^rfw. F. f^ftnqfir. i. 206. ^r^wl. 5-^ff^? 6. ^Rf?R. (^^. ^^n^TH U 0: n Pass. II fTO^. P. i. ^T^TfTf. f^ftnn.^rf^Rw. ^UTT?^. ^TPTW. ^rf^^. ^^ anj. 9. ^rf^fa^. Atm. and f^^vish. F. Des. to shut out. 7. ^^. ^rf^TF^. to anoint. ^ftnrfcT. 4. o. vi. f^Rfi?j 4- 5. 1. i. r. I. ^Tf*I. The verbs fT^wy. ^rflTi^n or ^RT or ^TW (Pan. 2. W^>T^. >RPTfw. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs. 8. Atm. 9. ifinifiT. "fair nij. ^Rfar*. 7. Des. B. B. Atm. ^N^fif. Rudh I. 6. ^if^r^. I A. i. f^ifj 3. frriiTT^fff. f^Rfsj. Int.^r%^7. Int.^R^l U Pf. .

O. 3. yiHVr. indh.) I. 3 . Pan. 3-'l^< 1. VfV*. 5. J51^ifi.WJ?rt. ^Hpf. ^r:. i.) P.^rhr. ^n^T. This verb inserts irr to kill. (fa^ft. i. Trtr. 4. Aor. 2. 6. 209. 77: n Pass. 9. P. ipbfz. Des. 3. P. 2. 37:. F. 285 208. B. ^. 2 . F. ^um. Int. ATMANEPADA VERBS. if^a.^5^. F.RUDH CLASS. ^nrfr Pt. F. . ij'Ul^. v?nff?^or v^nn^. Wdrt or <Wffli. 2. 1. 4-^J3^* ^TJ7. 7.W?pr. Tft trih. ^r. "jfT. or (or Atmanepada Verbs. "5^ ii or ff^frf.^A. Pt."^ or"Vv. ^f: n Pass. VH. I A. Des. Caus. fflflflMfrt or fdi^frf. i. I. ^3f:.^T. III. to kindle. nrfff. 3. 6. frftur or B. 6). 7. ^TT. Aor. 92. 1. ne instead ofHSna before weak terminations beginning with consonants.^f or ^ n Pf. 2. ^n. i. ^ftmr. (Pan. O. n I A. ^ ^. 5. J[m\ H Pf. -^nr. ^nrff. 8. inf%. Caus. 9. 8.

until the accents themat a glance to see cause selves attract his notice. but imdh. did not refer originbut to the voice being drawn up and down in pronouncing syllable. and rational 2. All vowels which have neither of these accents without uddtta. i. in later times. or weakening of the base. immediately preceding an uddtta or svarita sometimes called anuddttatara or sannatara*. spoken. tribus. though in modern languages most perceptible in whole sentences. . without the svarita. to determined therefore it in this new edition of my grammar mark the accent in all cases where seemed to be but in order not to perplex the beginner with the marks of accent. to speak. e. a circumflexed 3. e. high pitch. either on the radical syllable or on the termination. is Although in Sanskrit the accent marked in works belonging to the Vedic period only. the Accent in Sanskrit. The uddtta is pronounced by raising the voice.) p. is The anuddtta. 2. barys. LVIII). tone. For grammatical purposes we have to distinguish in Sanskrit two accents only. produced was and according to the description It meant the really musical. as if * Bopp. Maria! A j Ma Whatever the accent became ri ^F=L a but Ma name ry. ally to the sign of the circumflex. vowel. is The accent called in Sanskrit Svara. I strike . i. and his paradigms in Devanagari. so that a student may still learn his grammar practically useful. and the widewas a musical modulation peculiar to each word. to sink. following Professor Roth (Nir. and that perispomenos. its very it of prosodia. Thus we look at trdyah. but tuddmi. by- song. accentits. Ex. falling of the voice. unconcerned about the accents. i. depressed it is. and tritiya. it of native grammarians there can be no doubt that actual rising and falling of the voice. . opening of the vocal chords. how this strengthening and weakening rested originally on a and intelligible principle. however. 29-31.APPENDIX On i. derived from sanna. the relaxation. at vdktum. the uddtta and the svarita. the participle of sad. was originally musical. low pitch. shows that in Greek and Latin. and it the singing or the cantilena of the speaker. tertius j at emi. from sannata. influences the strengthening but tribhih. tres. we see at once how the position of the accent. oxys. at bddhdmi. yet its importance as giving a clue to many generally acknowledged that even an elementary least the general outlines of the of grammar is now so grammar would seem imperfect without at difficult points I system of Sanskrit accentuation. too. drawn round. i. (Pan. I go. though they might with equal justice be called asvarita. corresponded to what we call it by the tension. we go . which. I have added them in the transliterated words only. calls this accent sannatatara. may also be clearly perceived in the utterance of single words. and enable him and if effect in grammatical operations which otherwise would remain unintelligible. I know. the svarita by a combined raising and are called anuddtta. e. but uktdh. that tonos meant pitch. II.

then e takes the svarita. is marked by A monosyllabic word. must be marked in transliterated words. ^t vah. in Sanskrit 1. If of importance to Vedic scholars only. ^ syllable which has the original svarita. 'MI^Mi dpnuvdnah . R*U f is Hence ^f'it is agnfh. original 6. without grammatical accent. svah. A A word consisting of one Ex. syllable which has the uddtta.. and therefore without any mark. 5. If the Thus in tt avardhanta.. 5. kanyd . Ex. . the anuddtta immediately preceding an uddtta or svarita syllable. anuddtta. syllable is followed Any syllable may have is the accent. ^ kdm. e. ft ydh. mark the uddtta by the acute. I 287 In transliterated words circumflex. VlOtHl agnind. becomes svarita. anuddtta. By of any word in Sanskrit. is Here ^^ ag. into an uddtta called the by an anuddtta syllable. In transliteration this dependent svarita need not be marked. is marked by . they grew. TT ndf originally anuddtta. is called svarita. . to be is described hereafter. no doubt can remain as to the grammatical accent The following is a list of the principal classes of accented words A word consisting of one J nu. word which has the Ex. 3. its anuddtta changed is dependent svarita. ON THE ACCENT IN SANSKRIT. A word which called antoddtta. *tT'^: agnty. : observing these simple rules. svarita on the last syllable. Ex. But what is if *& svdh. but only the svarita. Whenever we find a syllable if left the next syllable. 7. *d*nni agn{nd. A monosyllabic word. marked by _. (whether original or dependent. J nu. it is svarita. a word standing by itself or at the head of a sentence begins with several anuddtta syllables. Ex. Ex. has the uddtta on the last syllable. we know that without any mark. if marked by . Ex. Similarly. and is marked accordingly. if uddtta. if anuddtta.) and the anuddttatara (sannatara). a the two words coalesce into 'vardhanta. 6. Both may be treated as e. ^fir*ffil agnibhih. is 2. the original svarita by the Every syllable without either the . ^ (ndrafi. 4. cnq| kanyd. Ex. nor the anuddttatara. the syllable either uddtta rest of the syllables being anuddtta. A word which has the uddtta on the first syllable. A word which has the uddtta on the middle syllable. it t can be marked by the grams. is called uddtta. is called ddyuddtta. S<V"i4l hridayydyd. is called madhyoddtta. 1$ kva. tf 'vardhanta. is originally anuddtta. is uddtta. become sruch?va. As a general rule every word has but one or svarita. T nah. : In Sanskrit the accents are indicated in the following way The uddtta is never indicated at all. Ex. i. ^ifarti janitd. srucht+\va 4. f^T ni uddtta. A monosyllabic word. mark of uddtta or svarita has to be considered as syllable before grammatically unaccented and an unaccented If the unuddtta an uddtta or original starita. tri+ambakam become trySmbakam. Ex. The sign of the svarita is . T yah. the sign of the anuddttatara. is called antasvarita. Ex. has no mark at all. as phonetically anuddttatara. they have all to be marked by the sign of anuddttatara. i. pronounced and marked as anuddttatara. that of the anuddttatara is __. if svarita. ^tlft hdtd. while their exact pronunciation in Sanskrit. te has the uddtta.

A word without uddtta or svarita. being anuddtta. which need not be marked. originally anuddtta. If ^^ii^tflin indrdbnhaspdti. and became anuddttatara. being originally an anuddtta. is called madhyasvarita. we see that ^ was originally anuddtta. 4). because an uddtta follows. that after a final uddtta. words. is followed by another word having the uddtta on the first syllable. Ex. which has the uddtta. In msfNtjxuT mitrdvdrunau. Ex. and according to rule would become svarita. stands by itself. so is the third. the same rules apply to them as to single Thus if a word ending in uddtta is followed by a word beginning with an anuddtta the anuddtta syllable is pronounced as svarita. the anuddtta becomes anuddttatara. where the mark of the dependent svarita on become *P5T ydscha. is called ddisvarita. Here we it it see that *K yah has the uddtta. the general rule requires the svarita. words come together in a sentence. Tt nah. But is as the next syllable uddtta again. ON THE ACCENT IN SANSKRIT. 164. Ex. of The second syllable is uddtta.288 7. vt*in*i^ djanayat +F tarn become ^I*1l*m djanayat tdm. so that we have to write *T5T Jft^yds cha tat. the sign of the svarita on it ^K hydh showing that hyah cannot be uddtta. which at all. The uddtta. A word with three uddtta 8. last syllable is anuddtta and.cha. ^t vah. The second syllable is is anuddtta. while the dependent svarita would become anuddttatara. would have no mark. without a mark. but likewise under ^a and ^ ru. cannot be anuddtta. '^Tfri^sTOjJ'foT: agnir arunayugbhih. i. to become anuddttatara. would have to be marked with anuddttatara. If a word ending in a svarita. becomes svarita. because otherwise. 10. Here first syllable is the uddtta. svarita. yah -j. If a word ending in an anuddtta is followed by a word beginning with an uddtta or . we put ^I hydh. and would require svarita it on the next following and secondly. If is an original svarita follows it retains the sign of the svarita. its svarita word such as ^^Ijf^HJ arunayugbhih. the first syllable is anuddtta. but it then impossible to say whether that sign marks the original or the dependent svarita. e. has uddtta on the last. which immediately precedes the uddtta syllable. 11. and hence neither them has any mark. because the next syllable Jfi^tdt has the uddtta. it must have the anuddttatara sign. for in that case syllable . dtmd+kva (Rv. and is therefore not marked at all. <J^i<4i hridayyayd. and the last. 8. which replaces an original anuddtta. which has the svarita. if an uddtta followed after Hi kva. we should first. SBHilJI ffi Ex. But if preceded by -stfri: agnih. i^tHPit: brihaspdtih. (see would remain If a I. is called triruddtta . syllable. syllables. the anuddtta becomes anuddttatara. Ex. word which has the original svarita on the first syllable. and third syllable is marked accordingly. 9. A word with two uddtta syllables. it The fourth The syllable. T3"*!]R svarnare. having the uddtta on yug. 9). have to write *?h *P3T ^h yds cha hyah. Only. for in that case it could not be preceded by an anuddttatara. but becomes anuddttatara. because is left follows an uddtta. . is called dviruddtta. the second requires no mark and the third keeps anuddttatara mark . If instead of FIT tdt. As cha has the anuddttatara. not only under TO na. becomes svarita. Thus *K ^. is called sarvdnuddtta. as nothing follows. at the beginning of a sentence. its the first syllable takes the svarita. + ^ cha shows that *T ya has the uddtta. which has the original svarita on the middle 8- A word A syllable.

% 7. *pa+ica 7). Ex. ff + f = ^f M+tm=hlm (Rv. p. we put 3ft tndram. kva would be taken for an anuddtta syllable. two vowels at the end and beginning of words coalesce into a new vowel. viz. ^ + ^= H^ *t?a -f ft i. 24). Ex. fc Uddtta+uddtta jushdndpa. the numeral ^ is inserted.adyuty6'vase (Rv. 6. UiS K^". ^ 112.. = uddtta. : their respective accents are 1. x. and uddtta. in the Utter. 105. 4. n) that the second narita pp . 1. as here indicated. that kva is narita. 4). Ex. In the former case we should lose the anuddttatara required before every uddtta and independent narita. i takes soarita (Prat. t is ^ = ^^t'^ srucM+iva = sruchfva. But the fact is I The statement of Professor Benfey (Grammar. x. This sinking of the is voice. 144. 199). i. 3. and thus enables us to td in tdtra is indicate what was wanted. marked by T^t^. 6. 2nd not marked is against the authority of the MSS. that in rdthyebhih the In this case we should have to write has the uddtta. To obviate this. Rv. followed by of 30. which has the original narita. Ex. *?V + ^* = HV<Ffr mddhu + udaAnuddtta -f anuddtta = anuddtta (Prat. it would be difficult to mark the accent. first Ex. IK + ^T^h become ^ft^s^n J. 45. Here kvo and 'ddhfn have the Rv. : If uddtta the long If. some exceptions coalesces with anuddtta t. x. Uddtta-}. Ex. ed. shaking. Trgj: 157. Ex. T5*rf + 4J"Jfat = T**n^ vi^fot. ON THE ACCENT IN SANSKRIT. + ^^^ = WK^^^ prdti + adrifran = prdtyadrisra*. Svarita+ anuddtta ^. If however.-$IO. 4. tai apsu+d= apsvd. *ffat + + 5$ = *ftn f^TJ y#a+nw+iWra = J y^'<f Some MSS. If an original narita is followed by an uddtta or by another original narita. agnih uddtta on the is first syllable. we could not write either 9 B !GJ( or B TJi TTjfr. an uddtta vowel becomes semivowel before an anuddtta vowel. the second by ^sjff. because there no necessity for marking the anuddtta after a syllable which has the dependent narita. first syllable anuddttatara and svarita. 4- 2. 289 If instead of -wflq. the first is Rv. If the and the anuddttatara ^Wn4t -f- vowel which has the original svarita is long. then we write 45*<*>^f4: indram arunayHgbhih. the Ex. 198). 188). 116. write t Professor is Bopp (Grammatik. 105. is followed by TT& tdtra. the numeral \ is used instead of is marked both beneath the vowel and the numeral. ^Kl become ^TTvft^^Tt. contraction takes uddtta. Thus Rv. = uddtta Ex. the sign of the original svarita being dropt. 5) gives this as an instance ^svarita rlt TT*zrfa:. the or second long. 7. are. There a. ^TT + ^f^ = ^fi /-ftfttss&i. kdm = mddhudakam. which takes both the narita and the anuddttatara marks *. Thus if kva. Anuddtta+uddtta^uddtta. from the highest svarita to the lowest anuddttatara pitch 10. If called kampa. ^fc + ^rt become Bf*lTtf (Rv. the anuddtta vowel becomes svarita * (Prat. svarita. i. 197). 1. i however. See exception b. changed according to the following rules (Prat. 3). li + f^ = ^i^T?ft kva+idd'nfm = kvedd'nfm (Rv. Ex. which has the dependent narita on the last. + ^ETfe-f ^5 become "TOt^s^ffj. 188. ^TO + T^: become TcRQ^^t:. adyutye-\-dvase=. = i 6. 9. 35.anuddtta irfTf W^ + ^H = ^ JMI4UI TR= *JMHUlM jushdni-\-upa-=. ^ + WT = ^T <ndra+d= indri. = svarita.

3. and points to a period these semivowels retained something of their vowel nature. Kielhorn. if preceding uddtta. become svarita. Unfortunately many words lose their accent in a sentence. in fact. *ftStim g6 'patau. IIhydsya (Rv. . particularly the verb which. described in Sutra 212. or noun to which sentence. as medial kshaipra. the accent of two vowels of which the second first the elided a. every student. 5. 137. II. 204). the svarita is by an uddtta. plur. Vaivritta (or padavritta]. in the history of Sanskrit in which preceded by either y or v. a/ 2/ if separated by an hiatus from the preceding uddtta 6. It is always the svarita in the body of a word. Jdtya. however. T?h nadyah. except at the beginning of a sentence. sing. the termination c. By applying these rules we can with perfect certainty discover which syllable in each word has the grammatical accent. Only in relative and and under some other restrictions retain its independent accent. Ex. ii. does the verb Vocatives also lose their accent. I. taken from the 1. and after that na. replacing an anuddtta. svarita preceded first half ending in a an uddtta. Ind. will be able to determine what the real grammatical accent of any * Besides the tairovyanjana and the vaivritta. Kshaipra. 1^ indra*. it takes svarita (Prat. According to Mandukeya all uddtta vowels coalescing with another anuddtta vowel. it when a verb begins a belongs. T?nt nadydh. the svarita. name of the Sandhi that gave rise to them : Praslishta. If a word divided in the Padapatha. then follows the Ex. 4. avagraha or pause of division. which we should authorities. and the svarita first is marked accordingly. but gen. This is also the case in certain Brahmanas . I. 1-31. It may. If an uddtta Ex. in Beitrage zur vergleichenden p. Stud. 187. t See Bhashika-sutra. the accent of two vowels of which the has been changed into a semivowel. that of the jdtya and the kshaipra is said to be identical (Vaj. vol. separated by consonants from the Tairovyanjana. i. the TTrJ^Scflffi^. I. Whitney. the svarita. iv. Here a kind of kampa takes is place. ed. inherent. and the second half beginning with called tdthdbhdvya. because in the former originally anuddtta. accent on the first syllable f. 5. (Prat. replacing an anuddtta. e or o coalesces W + ^raVff = "ffS^Pkhf with an (elided) anuddtta a. also called nitya. 8). ^ ft i*jQa agnim ile. be treated and it is important that where the peculiar pronunciation of the different svaritas is described. which are fully described by native grammarians. see Kielhorn. The accents produced by the coalescence of vowels have the following technical names. which is again uddtta. ^+ is + ^T^T = JJWT i3*f evd+hi+asya = evd 8. 188). is considered as a mere enclitic of the conditional sentences. ON THE ACCENT IN SANSKRIT. call if the dependent svarita. whether uddtta or svarita. Prat. by following is the rules here given. is 2. Prat. Here ta is uddtta. the peculiar accent which fully In the commentary on the Vaj. the accent of two vowels united into one (samdvesa. when they have the With these exceptions. in a direct sentence. nu is svarita. other subdivisions are mentioned by some Thus is compound words are divided (in the Padapatha) by the avagraha. Ex. Bhashikasutra. in the latter uddtta. (120) it would perhaps be better to write asamhitdvat instead of svasamhitdvat j Weber. Also. ektbhdva). Though the it is name tdthdbhdvya meant for is not mentioned in the Pratisakhya. p. te+avardhanta = te \ardhanta. 125). Ex. the tairovyanjana is called tairovirdma. Sprachforschung.290 nvmdra. T^ nadt. vol. Abhinihita.

except the last. J*J J J | sva svar nare. This question concerns the student of the how Veda be only. is Dr. while the last of them. I clearer to the eye. Thus in *II^M*S is ^*OT mdddyasva is svarnare. in particular. In "f^*<M*irflMUfrft ddabdhapramatir vdsishthah. ^W dab ^T is is svarita.). ^ ya is svarita. *TT svarita. and Bhashika-sutras. . which followed again by either uddtta or svarita. the rest like uddtta. slightly different. All anuddtta syllables. P Other Sfokhas vary Pratis'akhyas. by trying to reconcile the rules of the Rig-veda-Pratis'akhya with the rules of Panini. I saw Dr. smaller. J ma JJ J*ggj J d< J*3 ya . This is called the Prachaya accent (205). the anuddtta low. as may be seen from Professor particularly from Dr. ra uddtta. in the pronunciation of the accents. P p 2 . have therefore only three kinds of pitch. xvn. md is anuddtta. immediately Much * Long after this was written vol. and the anuddttas following after svarita (original or dependent) are pronounced monotonously (ekafruti). but the svarita is half high and half low. 7! like uddtta. He gives the intervals much e. and the svarita would rise to This is no doubt and it will be easy to transcribe my own notation accordingly. and particularly in the hymns and Brahmanas of the principal Vedas.) the uddtta is high. in which case the voice sinks is down to the anuddtta pitch. The following short remarks must sufficient. ^a$ is anuddtta. dhaprama are anuddtta. prachaya. 29 seq. in the 291 word occurring svarita in the hymns of the Rig-veda. following after svarita is (whether original or dependent) are pronounced with uddtta pitch (195). Kielhorn's learned notes on the 12. *!TC nare. (no special anuddttatara pitch being recognized in the Pratis'akhya. ^dais uddtta. p. and takes the low pitch of anuddtta (196).-J 12. 2. as confirming my only retain it because view. 799. Haug's difference remark that in listening to the recitation of the Pandits he could not perceive any between the uddtta and the anuddttas if pronounced with prachaya svara. According to Panini (i. uddtta. and. fit ti is anuddtta. This sinking down called kampa. What is very important. but pronounced like uddtta. Haug's description of the accents in the Zeitschrift der D. is The system of marking the uddtta and Satapatha-Brahmana Weber's introductory remarks. ON THE ACCENT IN SANSKRIT. O d dab j j j tir dha pra ma vd sish (hah. TO a is uddtta. both anuddtta. it is is c. the uddtta would be d. anuddtta. and different authorities differ on this point. (in in/tiff a low . but pronounced sish is svarita. G. the uddtta is high. as may be seen from their respective confusion has been caused by mixing up these different systems. According to the Rig-veda-Pratisakhya (187 seq. M.) which in their relative position may be represented by pronunciation of anuddtta syllables with uddtta pitch We anuddtta. so that if the anuddtta right. shaking. the of the svarita one portion is higher than uddtta. except if an uddtta or svarita follows. Quite different from the determination of the grammatical accent is the question the accents should be pronounced or intoned in a sentence. ^T^svar svarita. but pronounced as uddtta.

which may be approximately represented by P anuddttara. and might therefore be intended for mere monotonous recitative*. is lower than anuddtta. . anuddtta. * It is commonly used as synonymous with prachita. uddtta. and hence called sannatara or. This system.g. by the commentators. Prat. uddttamayam pracJiitam ekasrutiti parydyah. though different from the former. gives us only three kinds of musical pitch. Vaj. 138. preceding a new uddtta or svarita. too. ekafruti. e.292 ON THE ACCENT IN SANSKRIT. Ekafruti is described as without any definite pitch (traisvarydpavdda). 12. iv. anuddttatara. svarita.

leading out. ^T$>T kakubh. priest. 169. water. m. n ^ anehas. region. updnah. 197. avt. 182. 189. blessing. ^M fn fire-kindling. . time. 214. an. fire. northern. . . ifHT kdntd. ^st upward. anadud. vHf^arflaw. better than an army. m. 181. i. akshi. n. vf^ ahan. 195. without a foe. Lakshmi. strength. ^J^J^*^ ribhukshin. n. 168. <* udaka. water. 189. f. ahargana. akkd. ^P w^agnimath. 214. ox. aryaman. fern. kudhi. month. soul. at the kir. 227. y. nom. horse. 174. curlew. 149. 206. -iyas. i. a bad thinker. 159. scattering. 190. mother. 189. How much f.INDEX OF NOUNS. self. lrfw kati. 149. 229. 157. mother. t'yaf. 221. is. a metre.f. ^WM-<I avdch. face. blood. eating. beloved. dpahj water. 238. poet. ushnih. 214. 203. 164. bone. 214. reciter of hymns. face. . 225. water. ritvij. 210. vi^'iiijr end of a compound. f. 221. shoe. prop. better than dsya. hurting. girlish. following. 227. 157. 238. not desiring. Tf^-aAan. TSF^^anvach. buying. 161. kumdri. how many. 238. ? xt^ asthi. 180. 161. <j <. not to the page. 172. */. Indra. 191. 163. unnf. 201. name of a deity. south. eye. n. NOTE The figures refer to the . 234. 221. m. such. 196. kri. nail. (. . atilakshmt. w5i^an?a. 231. beloved. m. 198. (. ^HiMi^ avaydj. 230.. 191. day. foe. urj. . priest. 174.. 196. 3<*^\\*{uktha6ds. kdnta. 'sfrt.. SwfWni ambikd. 211. 234. 192. 227. 174. 238. anaroan. 214. 181. UTiT kavi. ijv atichamu. 214. 177. ^n^o/). day. better than a woman. 220. blood. 161.

nirjara.163. man. nadi. f. cowherd. lute. dviddmnf. t. paring. VTJ VT RT jard. killed. painter. Indra. carpenter. iftf^goraksh. OX. sky. 158. . f. 174. 194. 174. 173. H^ft tantri. ndsikd. 205. 221. ft nau. 222. 1 74. giving. ninivas. . J ddrdh. poor. splendour. 191. 174. 219. m. 167. 224. 234. falling. 172. covering. giver. voice. tortuous. 174. t. m. f. 174. **'*f <if danta. desirous of burning. inft tart. T5T nas. tf dM. duh. binding. path. bold. jaganvas. . 149. rish. 174. fern. ageless. wife of a fisherman. INDEX OF NOUNS. dadhi. 179. rich. T1| naptri. 184. 195. 191. 205. 230. ti. 225.294 kroshtu. nyacJi. j^rO. m. 214. having gone. sky. 235. daughter. 221. inteUect. 'gT^ dvdr. 162. n. Ii^ jag ^ 205. ^T^pangu. |o|. sky. 206. seeing. 172. skin. . f. nri.. "*|flmt( thunderbolt. 174. ship. 221. 156. having led. cloud. T^wa5. 1 *i f PH ! ^ jaghanvas. milking. 181. showing. heavier. jackal. jagmivas. 184. lame. lame. iffrf tati. chitralikh. 174. river. arm. turdsdh. 231. desirous of acting. leader of a village. *(\"Hi{jdgrat. splendid. n-tsfn takshan. 184. 175. wife. *H jaghnivas. 220. dhtj m. tooth. 235. 225. . nose. 174. waking. 174. ddtri. 164. rope. 214. 214. f. ^ dyu and fl^div. khanj. a buyer of water. 'tt^taksh. . 214. 2l8. 205. 174- 1l*it. . 205. arm. m. lord. curds. 193. so many. grandson. dhdtri. duhitri. old age. . m. . %\mift grdmani. iv "HpJT dis. dancer. 236. guardian. 184. druh. f. at. 166. 214. shining. worshipper. destroying. 214. nah. 174. tooth. 164. didhaksh. . . 184. T dis. l|)iO dMvari. providence. TJ tftdyo. hating. 174. 213. having killed. eating. hating. 203. 213. . WQl^jakshat. ndman. 181. i having ^fnX dhanin. low. 235. having two ropes. 217. country. 193. tvish. r?^ tvach. 233. 225. doshan. having gone.|Uj^ chakdsat. 184. name. chakds. 235. 237. 157.. boat.f. and ^ dyu. door. nose. f?r iryach. 172. fern. thinkuig. 158. . world.

162. light. joint. . 174. auspicious. father. thinking eminently. f. 161. ifa$ pilu. H (X 4 |l^ parivrdj. 214. Your Honour. 162. . n. *ft /////. matt. 194. 162. . 192. having cooked. ^Jl^ bhrijj.INDEX OF NOUNS. . 205. re-born. 200. Indra. m. name army. 171. a tree and its fruit. . . . sporting. . Ufa ya<. mendicant. leaf-shedding. 221. an offering. . roasting. 214. 174. kings. knowing. 1 74. lump-eater. . 199. 149. ntaO pioari. sacrificing. 230. 181. 174. 161. confounding. liver. . trfl papt. *pTTT pritand. of a deity. i. t. 214. badi. W&prdchh. best leader. 191. diving. 193. month. . great. 158. f. 295 ironj brahman. earth. 195. 185. 224. . . 222. mother. very strong. ^^T bahurj. foot. lord of creatures. brow. 214.'. 188. 227.f. *IM<\ maghavan. 193.f. 231. rajftf. 235. 222. 149. as f. 192. 221. 214. pale. 178. n. w. cleaning. bee. having l many pea-soup. 168. deer. . ri'f. 207. 161. 230. t. . 170. 224. . 235. *rNf mdthsa. 162. . liver. fat. 176. physician. 233. an. -prfrf. 214. ? W *4^H bahusreyast. . 212. 214. 214. fern. fern. madhulih. . atmosphere. wishing to read. n. . 185. meat. 159. worshipping. 230. (pums). . f. f. TTCRfft paramanl. quieting. 235. 214. 214. m. 157. brother. 223. head. shining. du t m. mridu. bhrdtri. asking. prajdpati. 191. 221. 162. sacrificer. young. creator. muh. protector. 173. man. u. queen. ^ bhtir. f. f. m. . f. . Ttt^prdch. foot. 160. pratidivan. desirous of maturing.. mathin. 191. eastern. . road. . 201. many. foot. 194. 221. meat. m. 164. m. town. 214. great. fear. . . Indra. king. 187.. soft. . western. 191. thought. army. churn ing-stick. . 230. HVfl" pradhi. 162. pea-soup. being. 180. 224. shining. f. dark fortnight. 186.

m. well-minded. vishvach. year. well-sounding. commanding. bright. is. -vas. 158. ordure. having good eyes. 239. 149. all-pervading. 162. /. creating. svetavdh and HJrHt^ svetavas. rainy season. sakhi. 214. . is. Tf wishing for pleasure. 157. 174. merchant. disease. 234. ^rf^T sakthi. omnipotent. f. 173. sikatdh. ^^ ^^ rush. suhimsf well-striking. 232. 154. sand. vdch. sras. n. uddhadhi. somapd. 209. . happiness. sushki. ? vis. desirous of saying. 174. 239. varshdh. ordure. ready reckoner. . us. visvardj. 149. visvasrij. 161. all-preserving. well-lighted. 162. 174. sumanas. anger. 222.. 208. 230. 3(h^ sakan. water. 149. sukhi. . thigh. Soma 228. part. f. wishing to enter. 199. m. m. 149. friend. wealth. 184. 221. f. 205. 161. 222. f. 172. ^TT sri. having a good mind. 161. 174. lu. ish. n. 222. suddhadhi. 165. 222. f. suchi. carrying. . suti. risck. rurudvas. 164. J half. vdtapramt. susakhi. 224. . ^T^! vdr. ! 187. crying. j. 174. snu. 174. ordure. 204.walking. 165. stri. light. antelope. 232. 214. speech. 222. sudhi. lakshmi. a pure thinker. . 221. *J^ suhrid. licking. friendly. water. f. 230. wife. drinker. shell-blower. f. vaksh. dog. wishing for a son. sovereign. f^RJTT vibhrdj. a garland. knowing. sadhryach. 205. 174. J right. ridge. 174. ridge. m. 181. 217. . 214. 155. 221. susri. goddess of prosperity. INDEX OF NOUNS. a river. 191. f. tree-hewer. friend. accompanying. 170. well. suchakshus. 225. creator. a good friend. touching. woman. 162. loving. . 159. well-faring. 174. 162. zs. 181. universal monarch. frog. msvapd. sdnu. 220. 230. 174. thinking pure things. having good brows. t. sufruvas. 226. . m. tufa sdmi. nft vdri. 239. vanij. 162. 165. snih. 225. fro? <g lih. iviksh. 204. 226. 181. entering. . "^ rai. 174. sarvasak. perfect.296 ruj. falling. 221. laghu. having heard. it. 172. spueing. cutting. vrikshalu. 214. sankhadhmd. 170. cutting. . drop of water. resplendent. sugan.

dnchh. 149. to stretch. 224. 18. self-existing. . . 297 ^ sruch. . vf). f. ij. to breathe. to rain. to cut. vii^ dha. INDEX OF VERBS. ^JT^ krishf tksh. ^IW Aram. to throw. 38. 37. 87. 221. to go ^nft adhi. self. 80. to gain. to encompass. 49. to bend. to no. 1 6. 12. urnu. . 107. to cough. 79. ri. 191 ri. ^ i. -nV. to wish. to go. Aiuf.togo. sister. to cover. hdhd. 149. 13. it. to aim. . 63. to strike. aftj. (^ft th. 106. to rule. 147. 78. . 183. fl/. hi i'l. ^. 25. 162. to govern. 190. 202. 173. an. 152. 31. . to eat. ( to sit. 118. to pain. 69. to go. ^svayambhu. . to worship. to furrow. ^H^ krish. ^t. to shine. to help. . ^ indh. heart. 176. (^j'^arir ri chhati). to read. to love. to go. 157. be able. 68. heaven. to go. ^9 ish. 171. to pervade. Qq . 197. . 72. as. to grow. to see. green. 92. . 146. to go. 235. 17. in. to kindle. 158. hridaya. f^l f*k W fif chikitsati). svasri. shame. to be. 209. 186. to obtain. *ri. to burn. 77. 207. having good water. sv ay am. 214. ladle. 6. 182. heart. 81. 23. ls. to go. 214. kat . 89. to anoint. 240. to go. to speak. . ad. 40. to do. NOTE The number refers to the number of each verb in the Appendix.INDEX OF NOUNS. . T<^ ush. killing. to cure. lirt. to pervade. to trace. ^ ind. svar. ard. rip.

26. 38t T chur. ^ ^T dam. 177. to eat. 105. 63. 5 *w. wake. to dig. 1T^ tan. 200. 97. Jdgri. "HW^klam. 61. 150. 136. de. to take. 177. 58. to . to bear. I2i. 75. to tremble. to play. 177. 130. to shine. <^T dah. 105. 31. 3. 70. (Vj(pa4) 48. 200. 124. 2. 138. ^A. 104. 140. *J| guh> *t gai. to decay. f^T to wane. to proclaim. to T5f*T kill. dad. to hew. 137. jft kri. 208. to stretch. khad> to eat. to protect. 30. to be ashamed. 179. Trf gad. 159. cut. to go. 1 to suffer. 178. 27. . 1 fd Hf ft titikshate). 73. to languish. cJiam y to eat. to cross. '. \dhu. *t jri. to warm. to grow weak. 43. to delight. 137. '. 85. <f$T dams. ^3TT khya. to strike.. 70. to give. to smell. buy. *$jvar. 156. to steal. 127. *"<% #?az. 30. 74. to give. 38. 42. to to stride. 33. 28.. ]J^ tud. ^rafif diddmsati. 149. l[*{trip. 176. WT kram. to go. 201. 37. to burn. rfl. 63. aw. to collect. to pound. tpff fcsfom. to kill. chyut. kill. 132. f^ khid. INDEX OF VERBS. 157. c?. 148. to vex. 7TEJ taksh. 85. to cleanse. r^ tvar. 137. to tear. to scatter. 120. *{ji. tire. 36. 54. 63. to shake. to tame. ^TJT chaksh. TTT ^r^ra. it^to think. 130. ?T| #rA. to hide. TfT tarn. 187. 8. 124. 29. 153. 95. to burn. to hate. 83. observe. to speak. fcnrft)'. to sing. to bite. to milk. 177. to Jf^ trih. ^^ khan. 107. ^3FT^ ckakds. "5 $^w-class. Trfw. . 158. to 29. ^ fop^fo^m. ^ c?ai. to grow. W^tap. TT 5-0. 130. to to cut. 156. to . 166. to make known. cMo. 113. know. | ?T dri. to hurry. ohah. 92. <^T c?a. to pound. 177. to spring up. 44. <^ *n^Mp. to forbear. 181. i. to give. . 86. rft. to droop. to protect. 62. to sprinkle. 47. . ^fin^T daridrd. to praise. 154. protect. to diminish. 92. 24. is. 156. TFR 0aw.298 kri. to speak. to straighten. to excel. 137. 30. 130./na. to know. to "^ c?n. to shine. 1 88. Arsfo'. to i. 46. 29. rfa. 9. to be poor. . 36. 30. to cut. c^. 29 ift dtdMy to shine. TT tri. grow to old. to place. i. 46. 123. (fii ksham. c|"<? rM. to see.

's. to kill. to ?S^ rudh. 65. ^R ^ bhrajj. 26. to 64. 203. 107. 105. 62. ^T pd. to desire. 131. to kiss. to tinge. to form. to speak. to cany. to shine.)'. ^^t?as. ^ vah. 101. to shine. mJTpan. 92. to praise. 160. to dance. 130. 107. 41. nwfcfl f*f mtmdriuate. 134. TI^ man. to search. to see. <tflHrUr) bfbhatsate. to sow. to blow. TITT to shine. to be. ^j^ rud. to [/. 1 "^V bandh. to desire. to dwell. to eat. . 32. ^^mrwcA. to clean. OT mnd. 70. 105. 156. 105.. n. break. . 175. to . 130. to drink. 119. 167. $ dhe. >rT. >. to churn. to fill. 122. . 109. Q q 2 . to sink. 30. to 84. to hum. 48. 99. to rejoice. 55. t. 299 TT md. 31. wiry. to go. mi. 63. 115. to perceive.NDEX OF VERBS. kill. to cleanse. to h've. 193. to go. to carry. 195. win. to weave. . 6Ara&. to sprinkle. 47. speak. to sport. 202. 30. to sacrifice. to bind. phal. to bow. mirf. 76. 135. 154. to trace. 1R^ ^j rw. 206. 76. fa^ to be wet. to 107. to perish. 15. *nff pan. to traffic. blame. 156. 105. 58. praise. racf. 174. 154. 137. 163. to die. 156. nine?. to feed. 91. T^Twap. to go. . lash. i. ^ ^51 5. to go. 128. niksh. 1^ yaj. to mix. vichh. to shut out. TP(yam. to go. 63. to loosen. 1 psd. 39. to measure. 34. 57. to stop. to fear. to loathe. 93. 117. 3 yu. to ask. ina T*T?T rttiA. r T to roam. to cut. ^J 6Ar. ^^ much. 5T *ft mf. bhi. 117. 198. rad. 129. 1 ^T vach. j. 26. to measure. to fry. to drink. ny. to go. )'. 1^ mad. to bind. 107. 'ip. to break. vas. >. to shake. to cry. 165. p^nnV. 100. to bind. 53. nah. . 19. 6^Z5. 137. to go. 133. 10. 190. WT bhram. to kill. ram. 94. 164. fall. 169. to study. UC^prachh. VTT dhmd. i. to speak. 30. to throw. *^ ^ fS^ wiuA. to burst. to purify. 199. 14. 76. 26. "5 M. 21. *T^ manth. 30. mo. to paint. TT ma. *V badh. 66. to be foolish. to shout. . ^j ru. val.

i. 205. 176. 202. to bear. sak. to be crooked. 155. 4. to distinguish. 105. sisdmsati. to be. to swell. to sprinkle. to weave. sidh. 87. to stick. 3T hvri. 20. to cherish. to sacrifice. 22. 172. to call. 93. sish. 45. 87. to touch. *TT . [^ vid. fat s'w. 155. "^H^vrit. to choose. to cover. 107. 45. fy^shthiv. sri. to sound. 50. *r^! hurchh. 88. 63. 105. ^K^schut. "H? hi. 73. hve. to bend. N*. skand. to go. 139. 156. is. to praise. to fear. 144. to go. 124. vevi. 155. 92. rij. sich.o1 . to 168. to be able. to let off. 151. Parasmaipada. to flow. and "ftW sidh. WT s^^. 56. Sp^ s'ncZA. ^V vridh. skambh. 1J SM. < svanj. f^ stu. ^ff stri. to hold. to obtain. 3 to perish. 194. to support. Tfft s'o. . to embrace. 126. go. 35. 67. to 7. ve. \j. i. "^ be ashamed. . to go. *[vri. to take. to find. ?. ?. 143. 170. 98. to sleep. 59. WH stambh. to flow. ^5T stri. 185. to grow. to surround. J < hu. 87. 155. to bear. to pierce. 184.300 >y. to hurt. 107. 29. to spit. 60. ^ cri. 204. * styai. to approach. 196. 62. 62. to go. 38. ^j sku. vish. 161. to separate. so. to sprinkle. TsfiH ^^ vyach. $ft s% to lie down. JsJ stu. sah. hri. to cease. 73. 102. 87. 189. 90. to suffer pain. tO CUt. to ^^^shvashk. 180. to choose. to "fi|^ hims. to leave. 142 to serve. to distil. 82. 177. hri. 125. 52. ^H" skumbh. to hear. to dry. 141. to go. hd. 96. see ^HTfl/. ^T^T vyath. r^sw. to breathe. sriv. to praise. 145. 48. $() tyl 44 fri ?. 4. to grow. to bring/orth. kill. to support. CT shtyai. 176. 51. to obtain. to 130. to cover. *5T*T sram. ^ sad. kill. to stop. to sharpen. to command. in. frSf s'n. to sound. 156. Atmanepada. to serve. syand. . to embrace. 114. 112. 103. 130. r INDEX OF VERBS. 177. < vid. 105. to go. f. to know. 192. 71. 202. tire. to com- Tt vi. afJ/. to sharpen. to drop. to finish. 124. to stand. TZnj^schyut. 155. 116. 108. to wither. mand. saw. ^^stumbh.





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