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Typography in Graphic Design

Typography in Graphic Design

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  Typography  in  Graphic  Design    
  Typography  is  a  word  that  has  its  origins  in  the  old  Greek  language;  typos  means   form  and  graphe  means  writing  in  Greek.  So  typography  is  a  technique  and  an  art  in  the   same  time  that  helps  us  to  communicate  visually  our  language.     In  order  to  understand  typography  we  have  to  know  about  typeface,  point  size,  line   length,  leading,  tracking,  kerning.  Therefor  I  will  give  a  short  description  of  these  terms,   bellow:   • Typeface  is  a  set  of  characters  that  have  a  similar  design.  They  are  so  many  typefaces   existing  on  the  market  today  and  new  ones  are  being  developed  continuously.   The  art  and  craft  of  designing  typefaces  is  called  type  design  and  the  designers  are  called   type  designers.  In  the  world  of  digital  typography,  which  is  so  much  developed  today,  the   type  designers  are  also  called  font  designers  or  font  developers.     • Point  size   • Line  length  is  the  width  occupied  by  a  block  of  typeset  text;  it  is  measured  in  inches,   picas  and  points.  The  text  inside  the  line  can  be  flush  left  (aligned  to  the  left  margin)   and  ragged  right,  flush  right  and  ragged  left  or  justified  –  all  lines  are  equal  in  length   and  the  text  is  aligned  along  both  the  left  and  right  margin.   • Leading  is  the  distance  between  the  baselines  of  successive  lines  of  type.  In  our  days,   especially  in  word  processing  software,  leading  is  known  as  “line  spacing”  or   “interline  spacing”.   • Tracking  means  adjusting  the  space  between  groups  of  letters.   • Kerning  means  adjusting  the  space  between  pairs  of  letters.   • Letterform  means  the  shape  of  a  letter;  also  means  the  “study  and  design  of   individual  letters”.   Letterforms  are  designed  for  metal  print  or  computer.    

The  origin  of  letterform  

In  the  ancient  time,  people  used  pictures  to  transmit  their  messages  or  to   communicate.  They  are  called  pictograms.  A  series  of  pictures  found  a  couple  of   thousand  years  ago  BC  demonstrate  that.               2600-­‐1900  BC      Writings  from  Indus     Valley  civilization           The  earliest  script  in  India     so  far  known  is  the  Indus     Valley  pictographic  script.     Over  4000  symbol  bearing     seals  have  been  discovered     in  the  Indus  Valley.    

 

                                     

  After  a  while,  the  pictograms  were  replaced  by  the  ideographs.  These  are  the  symbols   that  represent  an  idea,  a  picture  or  a  group  of  pictures.  They  were  used  especially  by   the  Native  Americans  and  Egyptians.   Some  say  that  Chinese  alphabet  is  based  on  ideographs  or  pictographs.  But  this  is   wrong  because  most  characters  contain  phonetic  parts  too.  Therefore  it  is  recognised   today  that  Chinese  characters  evolved  from  “earlier  form  of  hieroglyphs.   For  many  years  people  used  to  communicate  their  ideas  by  drawing  pictures  called   “pictograms”.     “A  San,  or  Bushman,  pictographs  found  in  the  Tsodilo  Hills  of  Botswana.  Some  of  the   paintings  have  been  dated  as  24,000  years  old,  making  this  one  of  the  oldest  such   sites  yet  discovered.                                   300,000  BC  –  50,000  BC  Paleolithic   70,000  BC  –  African  Python  God   70,000  BC  –  Python  Worship   70,000  BC  –  African  religion  Predates  Hinduism   38,000  BC  –  32,000  BC  tusk    

2  

 'bread  bun'.  viper.   3                                         In  South  Africa.  On  it  they  discovered  also  three-­‐to-­‐four  hundred   indentations  that  could  only  have  been  man-­‐made.  in  the  remote  Ngamiland  region  of  Botswana.     Hieroglyphs  were  first  introduced  by  Egyptians  and  they  represents  objects.  ideas  but  also   sounds.  This  was  a  “mysterious  rock”  that  looked  like  “the  head  of  a  huge  python”  and  was   “six  meter  long”  by  two-­‐meter  tall  rock.org/wiki/Hieroglyph                   .wikipedia.  3-­‐strokes  (plural).  cloth     http://en.     sculpted  in  Relief.  it  was  found  the  oldest  cult   object.     Glyphs:  owl.                                     Egyptian  hieroglyphs  typical  of  the  Graeco-­‐Roman  period.

 72.9  cm  thick.  crypts.  trying  to  decipher  the  principles  of  hieroglyphs   writing.               Image  Rosetta  stone  at  the  British   Museum  London                               Image  Rosetta  stone  close  up                 .  hieroglyph  means  “sacred  carving”  as  the  characters  were  in  craved  in  stones.  This  stone  is  114.  weighing  almost  760  kg.   In  1799.  during  the  Napoleon’s  reign.     In  the  1st  century  A.D.   4     In  Greek.  a  broken  piece  of  rock  with  carved  text  written  in  3  different  languages.  It  is  said  that  the  hieroglyphics  were  used  in  the  Ancient  Egypt  for  more   than  3.  they  were  difficult  to  make  and  learn  and  because  of  this.  It   was  supposed  to  be  initially  of  granite  or  basalt  but  today  they  say  it  is  made  of  granodiorite   of  a  dark  grey-­‐pinkish  colour.3  cm  wide  and  27.4  cm.  scribes.  his  army  found  near  Alexandria.  mainly   royalty.  in  a  pace  called   Rosetta.  burial  chambers.  the  hieroglyphics  weren’t  used  any  more.  the  English  took  it  to   their  country  in  1802.  but   meaning  the  same  thing.  This  Rosetta  Stone  was   created  in  196  BC  and  not  long  after  it  was  discovered  by  the  French.     Two  of  those  languages  were  Egyptian  languages  scripts-­‐hieroglyphic  and  demotic  (a   cursive  hieroglyphic  style  of  writing)  and  one  in  classical  Greek.  priest  and  politicians  used  them.  Today  it  can  be  seen  at  the  British  Museum  in  London.  However.  on   papyrus  scrolls.  inside  pyramids.  The  british   scientist  Thomas  Young  and  the  French  scholar  Jean-­‐Francois  Champollion  were  stydying   the  hieroglyphics  craved  on  this  stone.   Hieroglyphics  are  found  on  the  wells’  caves.000  years.

 The  table  also  provides   the  equivalent  Phoenician  letter  from  which  each  Greek   letter  is  derived.  as  well  as   their  forms  when  romanized.”   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_alphabet               .     • Greek  Alphabet           5   “Below  is  a  table  listing  the  Greek  letters.  Pronunciations  transcribed  using  the   International  Phonetic  Alphabet.

com/wiki/Ancient_Greek       Facts  about  the  Evolution  of  Alphabets     (from  “History  of  the  Alphabet”  taught  by  Prof.   Even  the  word  “alpha-­‐bet”  is  made  up  of  the  first  two  letters  of  the  Greek  alphabet:  alpha   and  beta.  from  ca.  myths  and  legends.   In  our  times.  stories  and  plays.     What  we  use  today  from  the  Greek  alphabet  are  the  vowels. shows  the  abstracted  glyph  in  archaic  monumental  inscriptions.  This  is  how  the  Greeks  started  their  written  language.  They  have   left  us  wonderful  fables.  The  image  below  shows  the  development  of  the  sign  SAG  "head".  people  changed  the  Greek  alphabet  so  the  letters  we  use  today  do  not  look  the   same  as  the  one  of  the  Greek  alphabet  and  they  are  pronounced  in  a  different  way  too.  2600  BC   .  they  saw  them  writing  things  down  and  thought  that   was  very  clever  so  they  decided  to  add  a  couple  of  vowels  to  the  Phoenicians  alphabet  and   start  using  it  themselves.         Stages:   1.  The   order  of  letters  is  also  different  from  the  one  of  the  Greek  alphabet.   “The  cuneiform  script  underwent  considerable  changes  over  a  period  of  more  than  two   millennia. shows  the  rotated  pictogram  as  written  around  2800  BC   3.  Robert  Fradkin  at  University  of  Maryland)     • The  evolution  of  the  Cuneiform  character  set   “Sumerian  pictures  evolved  into  syllabic  symbols  used  by  many  languages  for  almost  two   thousands  years  before  the  Phoenicians  developed  the  single-­‐sound  symbols  we  know  as  an   alphabet.  huge  epics.wikia. shows  the  pictogram  as  it  was  drawn  around  3000  BC   2.   6     The  Greek  alphabet  is  over  2500  years  old  and  it  was  borrowed  from  Phoenicians.  They  used  to  write   to  each  other  letters  to  share  their  daily  life.  While   Greeks  were  trading  with  Phoenicians.   Look  at  the  picture  bellow:                                       http://uncyclopedia.

    4.  ca.   The  line  running  from  the  upper  left  to   lower  right  may  read  mt  l  bclt.  as  adopted  into  Hittite   7.org/wiki/Middle_Bro nze_Age_alphabets         . represents  the  late  3rd  millennium   6.  and  until   the  script's  extinction.   http://en. is  the  sign  as  written  in  clay.  ca.  contemporary  to  stage  3   5.  ca.  2400  BC   7     • The  evolution  of  The  Phoenician  character  set  from  the  Prote-­‐Sinaitic  glyphs   There  are  the  pictographs  found  in  the  Sinai  peninsula.  24th  century  BC.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuneiform                                               A  list  of  Sumerian  deities.     A  specimen  of  Proto-­‐Sinaitic  script   containing  a  phrase  which  may  mean  'to   Ba'alat'. represents  Old  Assyrian  ductus  of  the  early  2nd  millennium.     http://en. is  the  simplified  sign  as  written  by  Assyrian  scribes  in  the  early  1st  millennium.  1500  BC  and  are  assumed  to  be   the  source  of  the  sound  symbols  developed  several  centuries  later  by  the  Phoenicians.wikipedia.         Cuneiform  tablet  from  the  Kirkor     Minassian  collection  in  the  US  Library  of   Congress.

    8                                                                     The  evolution  of  The  Greek  character  set  from  its  Phoenician  roots   1.                       •   .  The  eventual  evolution  of  the  Arabic  Character  set  from  its  Phoenician  roots   2.  Not  pictured  are  the  developments  of  Aramic  and  Nabatean.  which  led  to  the   modern  Arabic  script.  which  is  Greek  rotated  90  degrees.     • The  Phoenician  characters.  or  the  non-­‐ symmetrical  characters  that  flipped  horizontally  when  the  direction  of  Greek   switched  from  left  to  right.

  •                                                                                                       The  evolution  of  the  Square  Aramaic/Hebrew  character  set  from  the  Phoenician   character  set   9   What  we  call  square  Hebrew  certainly  *was*  the  Aramaic  script.   http://www.     http://www.ancientsudan.com/2010/06/22/the-­‐beauty-­‐ of-­‐typography-­‐writing-­‐systems-­‐and-­‐calligraphy-­‐part-­‐2/   .org/images/14_articles_ElephantinePa pyrusCol6cmh.smashingmagazine.   which  is  itself  a  descendant  of  the  Phoenician  alphabet.gif   The  Hebrew  alphabet  is  a  descendant  of  the  Aramaic  alphabet.

org/wiki/Dipylon_inscription     .                                       The  text  of  the  inscription  runs:       ΗΟΣΝΥΝΟΡΧΕΣΤΟΝΠΑΝΤΟΝΑΤΑΛΟΤΑΤΑΠΑΙΖΕΙΤΟΤΟΔΕΚΛΜΙΝ     Literal  translation:     Whoever  of  all  these  dancers  now  plays  most  delicately.  such  as  the  Old  East  Slavic.wikipedia.  They   belonged  to  a  private  person  and  were  dedicated  to  God.                      http://en.wikipedia.  800  –  750  B.C..  to  him  this  .  .   An  eg.     The  early  Cyrillic  alphabet                     •   The  evolution  of  the  Modern  Cyrillic  character  set  from  the  Greek  character  set   10   А Б В Г Д Е ЖЅ Z З И І К Л МН О П Р С Т Ȣ Ѹ Ѻ ФХ Ѿ Ч ШЩ ЪꙐЬ ѢꙖѤЮѦ ѪѨѬ Ѡ Ѯ ѰѲ Ѵ Ц Capital  and  lowercase  letters  were  not  distinguished  in  old  manuscripts.  perhaps  in  Euboca..   There  were  found  Greek  inscriptions  from  770  –  750  B.  after  Crete.umd.org/wiki/Cyrillic_script   The  evolution  of  the  Latin  character  set     (  http://terpconnect.edu/~rfradkin/alphapage.  that  matched  Phoenician  letter   forms  of  c.”   It  is  said  that  this  island  was  once  part  of  the  mainland  and  an  earthquake  separated  it.  “Euboca  is  the  second  largest  Greek  island  in  area  and   population.   http://en.  being  adopted  for   writing  local  languages.C.  Is  the  Dipylon  inscription  and  the  “Cup  of  Nestor”  both  from  8th  century  B.  Its  adaptation  to  local  languages   produced  a  number  of  Cyrillic  alphabets.  discussed  hereafter.   •   Cyrillic  script  spread  throughout  the  East  and  South  Slavic  territories.C.C.html  )     Some  scientist  said  that  Greek  adopted  the  Phoenician  alphabet  at  the  beginning  of  the  8th   century  B.

  studded  with  gold.   Ischia   http://en.wikipedia.  near  Dipylon  Gate.  It  looks  like  the  one  from  “The  Iliad”  which   Homer  described  it  in  this  way”       “Beside  these  she  set  a  cup.   It  was  found  in  1871.  is  one  of  the  oldest  example   of  the  use  of  the  Greek  alphabet.  Nestor  picked  it  up  with  ease.   below  were  two  supports.   around  each  one  a  pair  of  golden  doves  was  feeding.     11         The "Nestor's cup" from Mycenae       The  so-­‐called  Nestor's  cup  from  Pithekoussai.  When  that  cup  was  full.   another  man  could  hardly  lift  it  from  the  table.  we  have  left  today   almost  the  same  numbers  of  Roman  inscriptions  in  Greek  as  in  Latin.  Her  name  was  Julia  Donata.  in  the  ancient  Dipylon  cemetery.org/wiki/Nestor's_Cup       This  is  an  inscription  on  this  pottery  vessel  dated  to  ca.   a  magnificent  work  Nestor  had  brought  from  home.”       Roman  Inscriptions   Because  Greek  was  spoken  in  the  eastern  half  of  the  Roman  empire.  Often  the  officials   putted  the  inscriptions  up  in  both  languages.  740  BC.  There  were  four  handles  on  it.       .   Today  can  be  found  in  the  National  Archaeological  Museum  of  Athens.  old  as  he  was.  one  of  gold.   but.  Such  examples  found  in  Cyprus  and  it’s  on  an   ex-­‐slave  woman’s  tombstone.     • More  about  Nestor’s  Cup     This  “Cup  of  Nestor”  from  Mycenae  is  a  golden  goblet  excavated  by  Heinrich  Schliemann  in   1876  along  with  other  objects.

D.  It  reads  in  Latin  above:  "Julia  Donata.  each  of  which  follows  conventions  appropriate  to  the  respective   language.  lies  here.  the  freedwoman  of  Olympus.  983)   in  both  Latin  and  Greek.   12                             Plaque  with   bilingual  inscription.  1st   century  A."  and   in  Greek  below:  "Good  Ioulia  Donata.   Early  Imperial.  said   to  be  from  Larnaca   (Kition).C.  Cyprus..  Said   to  be  from  the  temple  of   Apollo  Hylates  at  Kourion   Terracotta         .   Roman."                                   Statuette  of  a  temple   boy.  the  freedwoman  of  Olympos.   Hellenistic  Cypriot.  6731  =  IGR  III.   Limestone       This  funerary  plaque  is  unusual  in  that  it  has  inscriptions  (CIL  III.  farewell.  Cypriot.  3rd  century  B.

 Seven-­‐ branched  menorot  sit  on  either  side  of  the  ark.  they  were  placed  in  temples  to  mark  a  rite  of  passage  in  a  boy's  life  and  to   secure  for  him  divine  protection.  usually  seated  with  one  leg   bent.  the  unleavened  bread  eaten  at  the   Jewish  festival  of  Passover.  The  gable  of  the  ark  is  supported  by  two  columns  with  Corinthian   capitals.  originally  formed  the   decorative  base  of  a  bowl  or  cup.  and   Torah  Ark.  have  been  found  in  sanctuaries   on  Cyprus.  like  this  one.  This  terracotta  statuette  is  said  to  be  from  the  temple  of   Apollo  Hylates  at  Kourion.  a  custom  well  attested  in  Eastern  civilizations.  however.      There  were  found  some  inscriptions  in  other  languages  too  like  the  one  found  on  grove   stone  in  Palmyrene.  Surrounding  the  left  menorah  are  a  scroll  and  the  remains  of  an     13   .  One  of  all  these  languages   continued  to  flourish  during  the  Roman  Empire.  The  upper  register  depicts  symbols  of  Jewish  culture.  It  has  been  suggested  that  they  represent  children   consecrated  as  servants  to  a  divinity.  having  first  displayed  his  great  physical  strength  as  an  infant.  To  the  far  right  stands  a  shofar.  although  they  are  conventionally  referred  to  as   "temple  boys"  in  scholarly  literature.  4th  century   Roman  or  Byzantine   Glass.  like  that  of  other  Hebrew  examples.                             Bowl  Fragments  with   Menorah.  when  he  strangled  two   serpents  in  his  cradle.  revealing  four  shelves  holding  six  scrolls.  That  one  is  the  Hebrew  language.  or  ram's   horn.  gold  leaf     These  fragments  of  gold  glass.  and  to  the  left  a  round  object  which  may  be  matzoh.  The   majority  of  the  surviving  examples  were  found  in  tombs.  The  base  was  created  by  affixing  a  pattern  in  gold  leaf  to   the  bottom  of  the  vessel  and  then  covering  the  decoration  with  another  layer  of  glass.  Shofar.  and  pendant  amulets  across  the  chest.  In  the  center  is   an  open  Torah  shrine.  The  great  majority  depicts  boys  about  two  years  old.  The  significance   of  these  seated  children  is  not  known.  The  doors  of  the  shrine  are  open.  Many  are   bedecked  with  earrings.   The  decoration  of  this  base.  especially  in  the  catacombs  in   Rome.  The   use  of  this  gold-­‐glass  technique  flourished  in  the  third  and  fourth  centuries  in  Rome.  This   fragmented  base  is  among  the  few  surviving  works  that  depict  Jewish  objects.  More   likely.  finger  rings.  Herakles  would  have  been  a  particularly  apt  protector  for  a  young   boy.  dating  from  the  fourth  century.  is  divided  into  two   semicircular  registers.  most   remnants  of  such  drinking  vessels  are  decorated  with  Christian  or  secular  motifs.  which  is  an  ancient  form  of  Aramaic.  and  shown  nude  or  wearing  a  short  tunic  that  allows  the  genitalia  to  be  seen.     Some  300  statuettes  of  seated  children.

 Tobias  pulls  the  liver  from  the  large  fish  to  cure  his  father.   made  350–450   Byzantine.  Although  little  of  the  lower  register  remains.  and  the  banquet  scene  below  suggest  that  this  fragment  of  gold  glass  may   have  been  the  base  of  a  drinking  vessel  used  during  the  Passover  festival  and  buried  with  its   owner  to  bless  him  in  the  afterlife.  or  fellowship  meal.  The  inscription.  reading  I  BIBAS  CVM   EVLOGIA  COKP(ARARE)—Drink  with  praise  together.  the  symbols  in  the   upper  register.   ca.  and  Curing  the  Paralytic.                           Bowl  Base  with  Old  and   New  Testament  Scenes.   Both  the  upper  and  lower  registers  are  surrounded  by  an  inscription.  it  depicts  a  banquet  hall  with   garlands  on  the  walls  and  cushions  surrounding  a  table  upon  which  rests  a  smaller  three-­‐ legged  table  holding  a  fish.   Christ  appears  with  a  wand  beside  the  Three  Hebrews  in  the  Fiery  Furnace.  at  the  Wedding   at  Cana.  350–400   Byzantine.     etrog  —a  fruit  used  in  the  harvest  festival  of  Sukkoth—which  can  be  seen  on  the  edge   of  the  fragment.  Terracotta   This  is  one  of  the  few  surviving  lamps   decorated  with  Jewish  symbols.  both  indistinct.  said  to  have   been  found  in  1715  in  the   Roman  catacomb  of  Saint   Callisto   Glass.         Lamp  with  Jewish  Symbols.  They  are  symbolic  of  the  agape.   .  Such  banqueting  scenes  are  also  seen  in  Christian  and  pagan   funerary  art.  honoring  the  deceased.  gold  leaf       14   A  youth  with  the  inscription  "live"  in  Latin  is  surrounded  by  images  of  miracles.  It   displays  a  menorah  flanked  by  an   etrog  (citron)  and  a  lulav  (palm   branch).

 are   shown  with  the  short   curly  hair  and  pointed   beard  typically  associated   with  each  man.  shows  a   menorah.     Hexagonal  Bottle.  They  appear   to  have  been  mass-­‐ produced  in  a  single   workshop.  which   appears  much  later.  made  late  300s   Byzantine.   This  vessel.  a  shofar.       15   Bowl  Base  with  Saints  Peter   and  Paul  Flanking  a  Column   with  the  Christogram  of   Christ.  gold  leaf     Saints  Peter  and  Paul.  500–629  Byzantine.  and  a   lulav  in  relief.  Ritual   elements  used  in  Jewish   festivals  in  synagogues   were  typically  used  to   represent  Judaism  in  this   period  rather  than  the   Star  of  David.     Glass  vessels  such  as   these  were  made  for  Jews   and  Christians.  possibly  as   tokens  for  pilgrims   visiting  the  holy  sites  in   Jerusalem  or  for  use  in   burial  rites.  mold-­‐blown     .   Glass.  intended  for  a   Jewish  patron.  According   to  Christian  tradition.  they   were  both  martyred  in   Rome.  from  Rome   Glass.   identified  by  the   inscriptions  in  Latin.  Possibly  from  Syria.  since  the   vessels  for  the  two   religions  closely  resemble   each  other  in  shape  and   style  and  differ  only  in  the   symbols  decorating  them.

  There  must  be  hundred  of  thousand  of  Roman  inscriptions  found  by  the   archaeologists.  such  as  their  age.)  until  the  third   century  A.  These  things  were  inscribed  on  funerary   monuments  and  are  called  epitaphs.  mosaic.  fresco.   The  largest  one  were  dedicated  to  the  gods  or  emperors.  titles  of  rulers.  their  portraits   sometimes  we  found  this  inscriptions  on  bronze   tablets.   An  example  of  this  kind  of  art  called  funerary   art  is  the  altar  made  of  marble  of  Cominia  Tyche.   The  middle  size  ones  were  done  on  coins  and   represented  the  names.   These  inscriptions  had  three  different  sizes  and  were  made  on  various  media  such  as   stone.   Another  interesting  fact  is  that  Romans  used   to  like  to  write  down  a  lot  of  details  about  a  person   who  died.C.     Marble  funerary  altar  of  Cominia  Tyche     .  It  was  found  one  in  particular  that   contain  a  shopping  list.  and  papyrus.  glass.  wood.D.D.  They  all  tell  us  about  the  life  in  the  Roman  World.  pottery.   On  the  street  walls  at  Pompeii  there  were   found  a  type  of  casual  inscriptions  called  graffiti.     16   Picture  with  The  Roman  Republic                                                   Not  many  inscriptions  survived  from  the  Roman  Republic.     The  small  size  Roman  inscriptions  were  seen   on  papyrus  letters.  More  we  have  from   Imperial  period  –  the  time  of  the  1st  emperor  Augustus  (27  B.  occupation  and  life   history.  were  official  documents   such  as  imperial  letters  and  decrees.  metal.  –  14  A.

 his  most  chaste  and  loving   wife.”   The  Times  New  Roman  font  we  use  today  is  a  Roman  typeface  and  has  also  lowercase   letters  added  to  the  roman  uppercase  letters  we  have  inherited  from  our  ancestors.  with  serif  and  variation   of  thick  and  thin  strokes.edu/mjodonnell//cojo256/pdf/type1.  on  the   other  hand.   17   The  woman  whose  portrait  bust  dominates  the  front  of  this  funerary  altar  is   identified  by  the  Latin  inscription  below  her.  Lucius   Annius  Festus  [set  this  up]  for  the  most  saintly  Cominia  Tyche.                         • Carvings   http://courseweb.  The  altar   is  known  to  have  been  in  a  house  near  the  Forum  in  Rome  in  the  sixteenth  century  and  to   have  entered  the  collection  of  Cardinal  Francesco  Barberini  during  the  seventeenth  century.  It  reads:  “To  the  spirits  of  the  dead.  and  also  for  himself  and  for  his   descendants.stthomas.org/Collections/search-­‐the-­‐collections/130014064)     “The  Romans  letters  derived  fro  stone  carvings.pdf         .  are  upright.metmuseum.  who  lived  27  years.  and  28  days.  69–96).  emphasizes  her  piety  and  chastity.D.  The  jug  and  patera  (shallow  bowl  with  handle)  on  the   monument’s  sides  allude  to  the  common  practice  of  pouring  offerings  to  the  dead.”  Cominia  wears  an  elaborate  hairstyle  that  reflects  the  high  fashion  adopted  by   ladies  of  the  imperial  court  in  the  late  Flavian  period  (A.  virtues  that  Roman  matrons  were   traditionally  expected  to  possess.  11  months.  The  inscription.   (http://www.

 moveable  type.   internet     Part of the series on theHistory of Screen-printing 1907 printing Dye-sublimation 1957 Phototypesetting 1960s Woodblock printing 200 Photocopier 1960s Movable type 1040 Pad printing 1960s Intaglio 1430s Laser printer 1969 Printing press 1454 Dot matrix printer 1970 Lithography 1796 Thermal printer Chromolithography 1837 Inkjet printer 1976 Rotary press 1843 3D printing 1986 Flexography 1873 Stereolithography 1986 Mimeograph 1876 Digital press 1993 Hot metal typesetting 1886 Offset press 1903   •   History  of  printing     A  printing  press  is  a  machine  for  printing  text  or  pictures  on  paper  or  cloths  by   applying  pressure  to  an  inked  surface.     18   II  Industrial  and  technological  advances     printing  press.  hot  metal  press.                   Ball-­‐drive  screw  press   http://en.org/wiki/Screw_press                   .”   The  screw  press  was  invented  by  romans  in  the  first  century  C.   In  1440.E.  the  German  Johannes  Gutenberg  invented  the  printing  press.  The  ink  is  transferred  into  that  paper  or  cloth.  A  screw  press  is  “a  type  of  machine  press  in   which  the  ram  is  driven  up  and  down  by  a  screw.  desktop  publishing.   It  is  known  that  this  invention  is  one  of  the  most  revolutionizing  once  of  the  second   millennium.  linotype.  and  it  was  used  for   making  the  wine  and  olive  oil.  His  invention   was  based  on  screw  press  that  existed  before.  fonts.wikipedia.

    1452  Gutenberg  begins  printing  the  42-­‐line  Bible  in  two  volumes.  a  Psalter  (a  collection  of  Psalms  for  devotional  use)  by   Faust.  Germany   1423  Europeans  use  xylography  (art  of  engraving  on  wood.  was  the  first  dated  example  of  block  printing.  William     19   .   1437  Gutenberg  was  sued  for  "breach  of  promise  of  marriage"  by  a  young  lady  of    Strasburg   1440  Gutenberg  completed  his  wooden  press  which  used  movable  metal  type.   1440  Laurens  Janszoon  Koster  (Coster)  is  credited.  a  Buddhist  scripture.  Johannes  last  name  was   derived  from  the  house  inhabited  by  his  father  and  his  paternal  ancestors  "zu  Laden.  the  Biblia  Pauperum.       888  The  Diamond  Sutra.  zu   Gutenberg".  Conrad  Humery.  by  some.  Henne  Gänsfleisch  zur  Laden.  block  printing)  to  produce   books.   In  1440  Gutenberg  was  able  to  print  slips  of  paper.  Laurens  Janszoon  Koster.  Bi  Sheng.    was  born  about  1400  and  died  in  1468  at  Mainz.htm         Inventor  of  the  printing  press.  Albrecht  Pfister.  in  Mainz.  Johann  Gutenberg.     1454  Gutenberg  prints  indulgences  (notes  sold  to  Christians  by  the  Pope.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/gutenberg.     1430  Gutenberg  moved  from  his  native  town  of  Mainz  to  Strasburg   1436  Gutenberg  begins  work  on  his  printing  press.  the  first  is  40  lines  per  page.  which  were  sold  by  the  Catholic   Church  “to  remit  temporal  punishment  in  purgatory  for  sins  committed  in  this  life”.  Gutenberg   was  the  son  of  Friele  (Friedrich)  Gänsfleisch  and  Else  Wyrich.   Only  the  wealthy  class  of  people  bought  these  indulgences.   Here  is  a  brief  history  of  Johannes  Gutenberg’s  life  from  this  link:   http://www.   1465  Gutenberg  is  appointed  to  the  court  of  Archbishop  Adolf  of  Nassau   1458  Johannes  Gutenberg  died  February  3.     1041  Bi  Sheng  in  China  invented  movable  clay  type   1400  Johannes  Gutenberg  born  in  Mainz.   1499  An  estimated  15  million  books  have  been  press  printed.   1460  Gutenberg  reestablished  himself  in  the  printing  business  with  the  aid  of  Conrad   Humery   1461  Albrecht  Pfister  printed  the  first  illustrated  book  Edelstein  which  featured  a  number  of   woodcuts.  published  in  Germany.  with  inventing  movable  metal   type   1444  Gutenberg  returns  to  Mainz  and  sets  up  a  printing  shop     1446  Gutenberg  prints  the  "Poem  of  the  Last  Judgment"   1448  Gutenberg  prints  the  "Calendar  for  1448"   1450  Gutenberg'  formed  a  partnership  with  the  wealthy  Johann  Fust     1450  Gutenberg  begins  work  on  a  Bible.  pardoning  their   sins)   1455  First  block-­‐printed  Bible.  Investor  Johann  Faust  gains  control  of  print   business   1457  First  known  color  printing.         The  press  invented  by  Gutenberg  in  1436  was  wooden  and  “it  was  the  first  form  of   printing  to  use  movable  type”.  Peter  Schoffer.  representing  thirty  thousand   book  titles   CAPs:  Johannes  Gutenberg.  Germany.  German   1499  Printing  had  become  established  in  more  than  2500  cities  around  Europe.  commonly  called   Johannes  Gutenberg.     1455  Gutenberg  completed  work  on  what  is  estimated  to  be  200  copies  of  the  Bible     1455  Gutenberg  was  effectively  bankrupt.  Johann   Faust.  Archbishop  Adolf  of  Nassau.

 Poem  of  the  Last   Judgment.  with   major  components  labeled.  built  in  1965  (Deutsches  Museum).                                                                                         Linotype  machine  Model  6.  Gutenberg  Bible.  Mazarin  Bible.  It  was  also  called  a  “line  casting”  machine.gutenberg.   This  machine  makes  one  line  at  a  time.  Psalter.   Type  slug  -­‐  Print  side   Type  slug.  42-­‐line  Bible.  Diamond  Sutra.  Aesop's  Fables       (More  info  at:  www.de/english/erfinder.  Calendar  for  1448.   side  view   .   20       Caxton.htm  )                        Lynotype  is  a  machine  used  in  printing.

  • Matrices   Another  important  components  of  this  machine  are  the  matrices. distribution  mechanism   Let’s  describe  these  components  now:   • The  keyboard  has  10  characters.com  -­‐  a  useful  site  for  linotype  etc   watched  a  video  on  vimeo     http://vimeo.pdf   (I  have  printed  3  page  poster)   • I’ve  watched  on  Youtube  more  videos  about  manual  typesetting   www.html   • •   Add  the  poster  from  The  Museum  of  printing.  which  is  engraved  into  one  side  of  the  matrix.  the  magazine  has  got  90  channels   but  they  are  some  with  28  channels  also.museumofprinting.linotypefilm.       • • 21   www.  hasn’t  got  a  shift  key  and  uppercase  letters  are   separated  from  lowercase  letters.youtube. casting  mechanism   4.  called  a  “slug”.   • Magazine  –  this  is  the  place  when  the  matrices  are  kept  when  not  in  use.  It  uses  movable   components  to  recreate  letters  or  punctuation  of  a  document.                          They  are  many  magazines  for  one  Linotype  machine  because  some  has  larger  fonts   and  other  normal  fonts.  in  a  line.  NorthAndover   www. keyboard   3.org/details/typesett1960   Morevideo  –  www. magazine   2.com/watch?v=5LCESWE1jw0   The  linotype  machine  is  made  of  four  major  sections:   1.  the  upper-­‐case  letters  are  located  on  the  right  and  are  in  white.   .brtitanica.  Each  matrix  corresponds  to  one  letterform  for  a  particular   character  of  a  font  of  type.  In  general.org/wiki/linotype_machine     • Movable  type                              Movable  type  is  a  system  used  in  printing  and  typography.com   Watched  a  video  about  linotype  at   http://archive.  its  corresponding  matrice  is  related.  during  the  Song  Dynasty.  then  the  line  is  casted  as  a   single  piece.  A  slug  is  a  piece  of  metal.  The  matrix  has   two  letter  forms  on  it  and  they  are  two  positions  in  which  they  can  be  placed:   ‘normal’  or  ‘auxiliary  positions’  (the  slanted  form  of  the  character  known  as  Italic)   (the  upright  form  of  a  character  known  s  Roman)   Once  all  the  matrices  are  assembled  together  to  form  a  line.   The  character’s  size  can  be  up  to  14  points  or  even  16  to  24  points.                            Around  1040  AD  in  China.  Once  the   operators  press  a  certain  key  on  the  keyboard.  They  are  molds  for   the  letterforms.wikipedia.  Between  them   there  are  the  blue  keys  for  punctuation  and  digits.  Each  chanel   correspond  to  a  single  character  of  a  font  type.  The  lower-­‐case  letters  are  on  the  left  and  are  in   black.org/MOP_poster.                            [Extract  from  Wikipedia]   http://en.com/resources.  Bi  Sheng  (990  -­‐  1051)  created  the   first  movable-­‐type  system  in  the  world.com/43462615   Linotypefilm.  This  process  is  known  as  “hot   metal”  typesetting.                          The  magazine  is  “a  flat  box  with  vertical  separators  that  form  channels”.

wikipedia.     In  1377  was  printed  Jikji  –  a  book  using  the  same  movable  type  system.   • Lead  (a  soft.   The  great  invention  of  Johannes  Gutenberg  around  1450  of  the  printed  press  was  a  great   help.  malleable  poor  metal.  This  book  is  a  Korean  Buddhist   documentand  its  title  means  “Anthology  of  Great  Buddhist  Priests’  Zen  Teachings.”  In   September  2001  UNESCO  confirmed  Jikji  as  being  the  world’s  oldest  metalloid  type”  and   included  it  in  the  Memory  of  the  World  Programme.  just  78  years  prior  to   Johannes  Gutenberg’s  “42  time  Bible”  (1452  -­‐  1455).  Pb.  in  Korea.  lead     lead  (from  a  molten  state)       • Tin  (Sn.  stannum.   22   Around  1230.  a  heavy  metal  used  in  building   constructions)                              http://en.  After  that  the  movable  type  system  spread  in  whole  Europe  and  in  many  countries  the   type  was  casted  based  on  a  matrix  and  hand  mould. lead                         A  sample  of  recently  solidified     Galena.   used  to  coat  other  metals  to  prevent  corrosion)                   Silvery (left.   These  movable-­‐type  systems  was  very  expensive  because  the  thousand  of  ceramic  or  metal   tablets  needed  for  the  scripts  were  hard  to  carry.  plumbum.  malleable  post-­‐transition  metal.  silvery.  tin  and  antimony.org/wiki/lead                         Metallic. beta) or gray (right.  not  easily  oxidized  in  air.  especially  in  the  case  of  Chinese  writing   system  that  has  thousands  of  characters. alpha)   Droplet  of  solidified  molten  tin   .  Gutenberg  was  the  first  to  create  his   type  pieces  from  an  alloy  of  lead. gray.  during  the  Goryeo   Dynasty  appeared  the  first  metal  movable   type  system  for  printing.

 we  will  understand   why  the  movable  type  and  printing  press  spread  so  easily  in  Europe.  lustrous.  a  toxic  chemical  element.  the  main  ore  of  tin.  silvery.  gray   Native  antimony  with  oxidation  products     Stibnite     Woodblock  printing  was  a  slow  process  especially  for  alphabetic  scripts  whereas  movable-­‐ type  process  was  quicker.   If  we  think  of  the  low  price  of  the  Gutenberg  Bible  and  of  its  high  quality.       Antimony.  in  ancient   times  was  used  for  cosmetics)                                                     A  21st  century   reproduction  barn   lantern  made  of   punched  tin.     • Antimony  (stibium.  Sb.  a  lustrous  gray  metalloid.       23                       Sample  of  cassiterite.  more  durable  and  the  lettering  was  more  uniform.     .  leading  to   typography  and  fonts.

 The  texts  produced  could  be  up  to  36  points  in  “large-­‐composition.   Before  DTP  appear.  pivotal  and  others  casters  but  designed  to  produce  single  type  (including   even  larger  sizes)  for  hand  setting.”   The  Super-­‐caster.  bath.   In  1985  Apple  created  the  Laser  Writer  printer  who  made  DTP  flourish  even  more.  Linotronic  are  high-­‐quality  printers  that  permitted  to  print  files  at  up  to  2540   dots  per  inch  (dpi).  was  similar  in  function  to  the   Thompson.  the  display  on  the   Mac’s  tiny  512  x  342  1-­‐bit  monochrome  screen  wasn’t  good.   The  use  of  the  PageMaker  –  LaserWriter  -­‐  Macintosh  512  k  system  was  at  a  time  an   important  discovery  but  it  had  also  its  faults  like:  suffered  many  crashes.  “another  machine  produced  by  Monotype.   In  1980  most  newspapers  and  print  companies  stop  using  systems  like  Atex  and  start   working  with  DTP  –  based  programs.  people  could  print  pages  with   text  and  graphic  elements  at  300  dpi  resolution.”   In  the  19th  century  they  were  two  different  systems  of  type-­‐settings:   -­‐ monotype  composition  caster  system   -­‐ super-­‐caster   Monotype  composition  caster  system  means  that  the  lines  of  texts  are  casted  and  delivered   with  the  aid  of  perforated  paper-­‐ribbons  produced  on  the  keyboard  and  all  characters  are   cast  separate.  Now  Adobe  made  scalable  Post  Scripts  -­‐  fonts  which  were  saved  into   ROM  memory  of  the  LaserWriter  and  LaserWriter  Plus  printers.  In  this  way  the  quality  of  the  files  printed  on  Linotronic  exceeded  the   quality  of  the  majority  of  phototypesetting  systems.     In  1983.  having  its   headquarters  in  San  Jose.  This  was  a  revolution  for  both  the   typesetting  industry  and  the  personal  computer  industry.   The  resulting  sorts  and  slugs  are  later  used  to  press  ink  onto  paper.  a  very  basic  machine     Desktop  publishing   The  abbreviation  of  Desktop  publishing  is  DTP.  we  know  that  people  could  produce  typed  documents  only  with  a   typewriter  which  was  limited  in  terms  of  the  size  and  type  of  font  that  could  be  used.  kerning  (the  space  between  characters  in  proportional  font).  Soon   Aldus  introduced  PageMaker  software.  California.  produced  in  Germania   -­‐ The  Monoline.  A  step   ahead  was  made  when  with  the  help  of  desktop  publishing.  This  was  the  1st   personal  computer  of  the  Macintosh  II  series  in  the  Apple  Macintosh  line  and  offered  colour     .  which  became  the  DTP  industry  standard  software.  couldn’t  control  well  the  letter   spacing.   The  American  multinational  computer  software  company  founded  in  1982.  James  Bessen  developed  a  program  called  Type  Processor  One.”   Another  way  of  printing  the  texts  was  to  cast  a  whole  line  as  one  slug.   The  technology  advanced  even  more  when  the  Macintosh  II  was  released.  This  system  was  used   by  at  least  five  enterprises:   -­‐ Linotype   -­‐ Intertype  Corporation   -­‐ the  Typograph.  Because  of  these  PostScripts   the  designer  could  test  their  files  on  a  local  printer  and  then  go  to  a  DTP  service  bureau  to   print  them  at  a  higher  resolution  (optical  resolution)  600  +  dpi  on  printers  like  those  from   Linotronic.  The  Linotronic  printing  was  too   expensive  to  be  used  at  home  or  at  offices  but  were  able  to  fulfill  the  dreams  of  many   designer  in  term  of  printing  very  good  work.   24   • The  Hot  metal  typesetting   In  the  19th  century  a  new  invention  called  “the  hot  metal  typesetting”  made  movable  to   decline.   In  1984  this  program  was  sold  on  the  market  by  Bestinfo.  that  run  on  a  PC   using  a  Graphic  card  for  WYSIWYG  display.  US  was  started  to  develop  really  good  technologies  that   took  DTP  even  further.   • Hot  metal  typesetting  (1886)   “This  method  injects  molten  type  metal  into  a  mold  that  has  the  shape  of  one  or  more  glyphs.

   It  was  designed  by  hardware  engineer  Michael  Dhuey  (computer)  and  Brian   Berkeley  (monitor).   But.  This  happen  in  1986.namethatfont.  graphic  designers.  The  text  also  can  be  linked  to  an  external   source  of  text.”  They  are   designed  by  typeface  designers.  What  type  of  font  is  used  in  the  google  logo  type?   The  font  used  in  writing  the  word  “google”  is  Catull  and  it’s  a  commercial  font  and  can  be   bought  from  this  website:   www.  Publishing  Partner  (now  PageStream)  for  the  Atari  ST.  Embedded  images  can  be   modified  with  the  layout  application  software.  CD-­‐ROM).   Ventura  was  superior  to  the  PageMaker  because  offered  the  designer  the  possibility  to  use   tags/style  sheets.1.  not  only  for  text.e.  However.com/search/catull/fonts   • A  font  is  composed  by  a  “set  of  characters  of  a  single  size  and  style  of  a  particular   typeface”.  (long.   Graphic  design  styles  such  as  colour.  GST’s  Timeworks  Publisher  on   the  OC  and  Atari    ST  and  Calamus  for  the  Atari  TT030.   Still.  DTP  is  also  a  secondary  skill  to  art  directors.   • The  typeface  is  a  “set  of  characters  that  share  common  design  features.  and  appeared  in  1993.   Sometimes  images  can  only  be  modified  as  an  external  source.  spell  checking.  The  same  happen  with  early  Web-­‐Publishers.  the  Newsroom  and   geoPublish.  They  can  reflect  to  the  border  shape.  they  can  experience  code  bloat.  The  layout  engine  used  by  some  of  the  web  designers  who   used  WYSIWYG  editors  (like  those  in  Dreamweaver  or  Microsoft  Frontpage)  are  similar  to  a   DTP  program.   25     display.   transparency.  indexing.myfonts.  It’s  SCSI  (Small  Computer  System  Interface)  allowed  the  users  to   attached  high  –  capacity  hard  drives  to  it.net  where  they  are  a  couple  of  logos  that   belong  to  famous  companies  on  the  market  and  I  have  to  guess  what  type  of  font  they  are   using.   “Desktop  Publishing”  moved  into  the  home  market  in  1986  with  Profesional  Page  for  the   Amiga.1.  margins  and  line  spacing.  even  for  8-­‐bit  computers  like  the   Apple  II  and  Commodore  64  software  was  published:  Home  Publisher.  filters  and  parameter  designating  the  way  text  flows  around  the  object  called   “wraparound”  or  “runaround”.  colour.   The  word  processors  we  use  today  offers  us  more  then  DTP  software  used  in  the  past  in   terms  of  layout.   Macintosh  –  based  system  continued  to  be  the  most  used  computer  on  the  market.  the  images  are  displayed  on  the  page.  generated  inches  so  was  used  mainly  for  long  –  format  documents.  Kiosk.  transparency  and  filters  may  also  be  applied  to  layout   elements.   multimedia  developers  and  marketing  communicators.”   “Typography  styles  may  be  applied  to  the  text  automatically  with  style  sheets.  slow  code  with  compilation   errors)   I  also  looked  at  the  website:  www.   Page  layout  means  the  way  in  which  the  text.   The  last  version  of  Ventura  Software  Inc.  In  this  way  more  than  one  editor  can  change  it  in  the  same  time.   Eg.  the  professional  web-­‐designers  will  prefer  to  write  HTML  code  by  hand  because  if  they   use  WYSIWYG  editors.  appeared  a  new  DTP  software  called  Ventura  Publisher  for  IBM  PC  compatible   computers  running  the  GEM  extension  to  the  DOS  operating  system.”  They  are  also   style  sheets  for  images.   Fonts   .   There  are  some  common  aspects  between  the  DTP  publishing  and  Hypermedia  publishing   (i.  Web  design.   Though  in  the  beginning  desktop  publishing  had  a  bad  reputation  because  the  designer  were   professionally  trained  and  created  bad  layouts.   in  this  time.  slowly  Desktop  Publishing  became  a  carrier  and  people  who  wanted  to  become  a  carrier   and  people  who  wanted  to  become  a  desktop  publisher  had  to  learn  the  technical  skills  and   the  creative  skills  too.  was  4.

html   .wikipedia.com/news/typeface/anselm.org/wiki/Typeface   An  important  link  from  where  I  also  did  my  research  is:   www.com/20th/index.planet-­‐typography.html   http://abc.planet-­‐typography.     26         •     http://en.

  Other  terms  to  describe  the  weight  of  a  font  are:   -­‐ hairline   -­‐ Demi-­‐bold/semi-­‐bold   -­‐ Thin   -­‐ Bold   -­‐ Ultra-­‐light   -­‐ Extra-­‐bold/extra   -­‐ Extra-­‐light   -­‐ Heavy   -­‐ Light   -­‐ Black   -­‐ Book   -­‐ Extra-­‐black   -­‐ Normal/regular/  roman/  plain   -­‐ Ultra-­‐black/ultra   -­‐ Medium     A  font’s  slope  is  the  angle  to  which  the  font  was  slanted.”   Metal  type  Letterpress  was  a  form  of  printing  that  starting  with  the  first  invention  of   Johannes  Gutenberg  in  the  mid.  extra-­‐bold.  An  example  is  the  typeface   Bulmer  that  had  fonts  like  “Bulmer  roman”.  He   was  an  Italian  painter  and  etcher.   The  Monotype  technology  was  invented  by  Giovanni  Benedetto  Castiglione(1609  -­‐1664).  those  for  writing  the  text  were   light.  they  become  more  cursive  in  style.typesoffonts.  Regular  fonts  are  upright  but  if  they   are  slanted  to  the  right.  in  this  case  they  are  called  italic   fonts.   The  fonts  designed  to  be  used  in  poster  were  often  quite  bold.  “Bulmer  italic”.  Line  spacing   called  “leading”  because  the  strips  for  the  line  spacing  were  made  of  lead  rather  than  the   harder  alloy  used  for  other  pieces.  fine  letterforms  of  Italy’s  Bodoni  and  France’s   Didot  type  foundries.  15th  century  and  continued  till  the  19th  century.   By  condensing  the  letterforms.”   Because  type  did  more  than  imitate  the  starkness  of  the  modern-­‐style  Didot-­‐Bodoni  types.   I  watched  the  video  “Letterpress  printing  process  with  a  Heidelberg  Windmill”  from  Youtube   account  of  “ajalonprinting.   (www..  computers  fonts  “broadened”  the  definition  for  the  term  “font”.  “Bulmer  bold”  and  “Bulmer   extended”.  bold.  either  piece  by  piece  (as  in  Monotype  technology)  or  in  entire  lines  of  type  at  one   time  (as  in  Linotype  technology).   • Font  Wight   When  we  are  talking  about  a  font  weight  we  are  referring  to  the  “thickness  of  the  character   outlines  relative  to  their  height.html)       .  giving  the  strokes  higher  contrast  and  bracketing  the  serif   slightly…”   Etymology  The  font  comes  from  the  French  word  “fonte”  which  means  “something  that  has   been  melted”.  This  type  font  was  designed  in  1792  and  was  named  after  the  printer  who  used   them  so  well  in  his  Shakespeare  Press  editions.  These   fonts  were  made  of  vector  shapes  that  could  be  scaled  freely  so  different  sizes  that  could  be   scaled  freely  so  different  sizes  of  a  single  style  were  generated.  “hot  lead”  typesetting  was  invented.  he  normally  worked  from  black  to  white.   In  1880s  –  90s.   27     Starting  with  1980.”   Another  video  abut  letterpress  is:   “Unique  tips  for  the  Weidelberg  Windmill  from  the  Youtube  account  of  boxcarpress”   metal  type  was  used  in  traditional  manual  printing  to  typeset  an  entire  page.  the  only  Italian  to  have  invented  a  print  making  technique.  This  is  because  of  the  old  way  the  type  was  produced:  casting  molten  metal  at   a  type  foundry.”   When  a  designer  creates  a  typeface  he  can  produce  different  weights  for  that  font:  ultra-­‐ light.  Its  designer  was  William  Martin  who  wanted   to  create  “the  English”  answer  to  the  sharp.com/font-­‐characteristics.  This  meant  that  the  type  was  cast  as  it   was  set.   When  he  start  to  make  the  monotype.  normal.

 Bodoni.  We   can  say  either  for  reading  or  display.   condensed.  ascender   height.  blackletter  and  italic).  descender  height.  “Sans”  comes  from  the     French  word  “sans”  that  means   http://en.  narrow.   Therefore  the  font  sizes  can  be  classified  as:   -­‐Poster  (larger  than  72  point)   -­‐Display  (19  –  18  points)   -­‐Subhead  (14  –  18  pints)   -­‐Regular  (10  –  13  points)   -­‐Small  text  (8  –  10  points)   -­‐Caption  (6  –  8  points)     • Serif         Serifs  are  the  details  on  the  end  of  some     of  the  strokes  that  make  up  letters  and     symbols.         Swashes  marked  with  red  color.  Times  Roman   and  Garamond.   It  is  said  that  low  screen  resolution  makes  serif  fonts  very  hard  to  read  but  these  type  of   fonts  are  used  in  traditional  printed  materials  (books.   • Font  Width  Most  typefaces  have  proportional  character  widths  or  are  monospaced.   Very  well  known  roman  typefaces  are:  Bembo.  like  an  exaggerated  serif.   The  width  of  a  font  describes  how  much  each  character  has  been  stretched  or  compressed.   • Optical  font  Size   The  font  is  designed  to  meet  different  purposes:  either  for  a  writing  a  book  or  a  poster.   • Front  Metrics   When  we  talk  about  the  font  metrics  we  give  details  about  the  x-­‐height.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serif_font   “without”.       Sometimes  sans-­‐serif  typefaces  are  called  “Grotesque”  (In  German  “grotesk”  )  or  “Gothic”   and  serif  typefaces  are  called  “Roman”.       A  swash  is  a  typographical  flourish  on  a  glyph.   When  we  name  a  font  from  its  width  perspective.  we  can  say  that  they  are:  compressed.  bounding  box  of  the  overall  font.   (They  are  three  latin-­‐script  typefaces:  roman.  Caslon.  newspapers).   28     When  a  font  is  italic.  wide.   A  typeface  with  serifs  is  called  serif     typeface.  the  edges  of  characters  become  so  closed  that  they  touch  other  and   therefore  ligatures  may  appear.  Baskerville.  The  Upper-­‐case  italic  letters  may  have  extra  swashes.  cap  height.  These  basically  are  the  values  for   the  size  and  the  space  of  that  font.  ultra-­‐condensed.  extended  or  expended.  Some  of  the  magazines   use  sans  serif  typefaces  stating  that  they  are  “cleaner”  because  of  the  lack  of  serifs.         .     A  typeface  without  serif  is  called  sans-­‐   serif  typeface.

 Frazier     “Wouldn't  it  be  interesting  if  there  were  only  one  typeface  in  the  world?  Designers  would   really  have  to  think  about  the  idea  behind  their  designs  instead  of  covering  ir  up  with  fancy   typefaces.  Georgia  and   Verdana.  embellished  or  abstracted.”   In  our  days  we  read  more  from  the  computer  or  mobile  screen.  No   argument  or  consideration  can  absolve  typography  from  this  duty.  their  complexion  and   peculiar  twists  and  turns  of  line  identify  them  immediately  to  friends.  A  good   typographer  aims  to  achieve  excellence  in  both.”  —  Erik  Kessels     “Anyone  who  would  letter  space  black  letter  would  steal  sheep.”  —  Emil  Ruder     “Faces  of  type  are  like  men’s  faces.  that  one  typeface  would  have  to  be  Helvetica.   In  1996.  to  whom  each  is  full  of   identity.  They  have  their  own  expression.  it  is  a  matter  of  typeface   design.”     —Matthew  Carter     “Typography  has  one  plain  duty  before  it  and  that  is  to  convey  information  in  writing.   And.  from  our  Kindle.   “The  typeface  chosen  should  be  legible.  of  course.   Legibility  and  readability   29     Legibility  “refers  to  perception”  and  readability  “refers  to  comprehension”.  it  should  be  read  without  effort.”  —  Frederick  Goudy   .  One.   Good  typography  can  not  be  handcrafted  anymore  therefor  we  need  today  better  skilled   typesetters  and  designers  who  can  adopt  the  thousands  of  typefonts  for  the  web.”  —  J.L.  expanded.  even  a  legible  typeface  can  become  unreadable  through  poor  setting  and   placement.  Sometimes   legibility  is  simply  a  matter  of  type  size.  In  general  typefaces  that  are  true  to  the  basic  letterforms  are  more  legible  than   typefaces  that  have  been  condensed.  not  a  group  of  beautiful  letters.  just  as  a  less  legible  typeface  can  be  made  more  readable  through  good  design.   I  would  like  to  end  my  essay  on  typography  in  graphic  design  with  a  collection  of  quotes  I   found  on  the  web  this  weekend:     “As  the  saying  goes.  More  often  however.  Microsoft  released  the  “Core  fonts  for  the  Web”  programs:  Arial.  type  is  a  beautiful  group  of  letters.  That  is.  has  to  take  into  consideration  the  type   of  browser  that  will  be  used  for  displaying  the  pages  with  the  fonts  that  he  created.  or   tablets.   “However.  Nooks.   A  typographer  or  digital  designer  designs  for  the  web.  universal  typeface  would  really  strip  away  all  the  flashy  emptiness  in  design.

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