CHAPTER III RESEARCH AND SOFTWARE DESIGN
This chapter deals with the methods of research used whether it may be historical, descriptive, and experimental or a case study. The techniques used under Descriptive Research Method as well as the data gathering tools and analytical tools used will be further explained in this chapter as well as the methods used in developing the software and for evaluation.
RESEARCH DESIGN Methods of Research Used
The proponents have used the Descriptive Research Method wherein the study is focused on present situations. It involves the recording, description, analysis and the presentation of the present system, composition or processes of phenomena. Under the Descriptive Research Method, the technique used is the Survey Method, which is otherwise known as normative survey. The results and findings of the study should always be compared with the standards. With the survey method, researchers are able to statistically study the specific areas where the proponents must concentrate. Findings regarding the common practices being done and the methods which are commonly adopted by the employees are obtained with the use of the survey method.
RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY
The respondents of the study include the employees wherein the proponents prepare a set of carefully prepared and logically ordered questions. This respondent focuses on the company’s employees for they are very important in a sense that this study is all about them. (See Table 1.)
Table 1.0 Respondents Distribution N = 61
Position/Status Percentage (%) Agents Secretary/Staff Managers TOTAL
No. of Respondents
46 8 7 61
76% 13% 11% 100%
The questionnaires are being answered accordingly to the priority of concern by using predetermined sets of questions with predefined ranges of answers so as to avoid any conflicting series of response.
Sampling Design and Technique
Sampling may be defined as measuring a small portion of something and then making a general statement about the whole thing. It enables the study of a large, heterogeneous population more economic wise, meaning not too costly, and more realistic and possible to make. The population to be researched upon is quite small; hence scientific sampling is implied to each member of the population since the number of population is attainable for sampling. The proponents decided to use the unstructured random sampling technique since the population is well in the reach of statistical evaluation. To justify the point, the use of Sloven’s Formula was utilized in the formula of: N = N / 1 + N (e)2
n = sample size N = total population e = level of confidence (.01 to .05)
Data Gathering Tools
These are the instruments or tools for gathering data in research used as basis for drawing conclusions or making inferences. Some of these tools are questionnaires, interviews, empirical observations, research and analysis used by the proponents as they conduct the proposed study. Interview. An Interview is defined as a meeting of two people face to face to confer about something or an act of questioning to receive a desired answer that is necessary in solving a specific problem. This is where data gathering occurs by asking questions for much needed information from the interviewee verbally and directly. Observation. This technique is used when the researcher cannot secure adequate or valid data through the use of the questionnaire or some other technique. It is considered to be the most direct means of studying people in so far as their overt behavior is concerned. Observation of a current operating procedure is another data gathering tool seeing the system in action gives you additional perspective and better understanding of system procedures. Research. Research is simply, the systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic or problem. It is systematic study or investigation or something for the purpose of answering questions posed by the researcher. It includes reviewing journals, periodicals, and books to obtain background information, technical material, and news about industry trends and developments. Questionnaire. A pre-written series of questions used in gathering important information’s from one or more persons. This will be given to the individual who have a direct bearing of the study and in
order to satisfy the proponent’s goal that is to get and measure the opinions, polls and attitude of the respondents of the study. Analysis. Analysis is the process of breaking-up the whole study into its constituent parts of the categories according to the specific questions under the statement of the problem. This is to bring out into focus the essential feature of the study.
Statistics is one way of getting the information’s organized. To have a general view of the whole scenario of the study, statistical tool is used. This also includes the scaling system, which is used by the proponents as a technique to monitor the respondent’s interpretation of facts. (See Table 2.0 & Table 3.0)
Table 2.0 Scaling Systems of the Existing System and Proposed System Rating Scale 5 4 3 Interpretation Excellent Very Good Good
Table 3.0 Scaling Systems for the Problems Encountered of the Existing System Rating Scale 5 4 3 2 1 Interpretation Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Undecided
Below are the Formulas used to arrive to the computation used by the Statistical Tool: 1) Frequency Distribution = n / T * 100%
Where: n = Number of respondents in a single gender classification T = Total number of respondents including all the gender classification
2) Mean() = F(X1 + X2 + …… Xn) / n Where: F = Frequency that a given X was chosen by the respondents X = Represents any of the numerical ratings 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 represents, excellent, very good, good, fair, poor n = Total number of respondents
3) Weighted mean(x) = f(X1 + X2 + …… Xm)n / N
Where: n = Total numbers of criteria
Where: T = Computed + Value Xp = Overall rating for proposed system Xe = Overall rating for existing system
Np and Ne = Degree of Freedom
4) CBA(Cost Benefit Analysis) P = F / (1 + l) n Where: P = Present Value F = Total Savings l = Bank Interest Rate n = Number of Years
SYSTEM DESIGN Analytical Tools
The analytical tools used in conducting the proposed study are the System flowchart, IPO (Input Process Output) and HIPO (Hierarchical Input-Process-Output), which are precisely discussed in this section for the development of the system. System Flowchart. It is formalized graphic representation of a program logic sequence, work or manufacturing process, organizing chart, or similar formalized structure. IPO or the Input Process Output. These are the components or elements that make up the system. It is also described as tools on the design of the entire software.
HIPO or Hierarchical Input-Process-Output. A high-level view of the functions performed by a system as its functions and software implementation. Data Flow Diagram. This is a graphic illustration that shows the flow of data and logic within the system. Context Diagram. This is an overview of the organizational system that shows the system boundary, external entities that interact with the system, and the major information flows between the entities and the system.
Methods Used in Developing the Software
At this point, the work of the system analyst will be tested to its fullest ability. This is the part where the system analyst must be able to determine and explain the methods that will be used throughout the entire project. Software Development is a tedious task not only for the programmer but also for the system analyst, because they will decide on the type, size and creativeness of the system. At this juncture, the methods used in developing the software must be explained and defined. The following are the system development methods, namely, software planning, software analysis, software design, software testing and software implementation. Software Planning. This software development method
designates a plan in which a system analyst must first identify. Identify meaning, to identify the product goals and requirement of the system.
System analyst must also put into consideration the capabilities of the programmer before deciding the product itself. Software Analysis. It can be considered as the most difficult phase because in this phase raw materials or information’s must first examine thoroughly before converting it into a software design. Software Design. Design is a visualization of the outcome of a product but then in software design phase, time is very essential because designing software is not an overnight job. It takes a long period of time to ensure efficiency, maintainability and reliability if the software. Software Testing. A stage or phase where the proposed system will be given to a panel of critics and end-users for testing. In this way, the developer can determine the response of the user whether the system works or not. Software Implementation. The phase of the software
development method where software has already been debugged documented and tested. The objective of the implementation phase is to deliver a completely functioning and documented information system. Software Operation and Maintenance. Maintenance keeps the system functional at an acceptable level, correct errors and adapts changes in the new environment to provide new features and benefits.
Methods Used for Product Evaluation
This part consists of the methods used in evaluating the proposed system in terms of accuracy, efficiency, reliability, speed, portability and user friendliness which lead to the integrity of the proposed system. Technical Feasibility. The proposed system is technically flexible since computerization of the existing data is possible and the components needed for the system are widely sold in the market. Market Feasibility. The proposed system of the proponents is market feasible since the respondents will be able to save time in tallying and recording the files of clients. They will also be able to save time and money by not purchasing a lot of papers for paper works and documentations. CBA (Cost Benefit Analysis). This estimates and totals up the equivalent money value of the benefits and costs to the community about whatever projects to establish are worthwhile. Evaluating hardware and software, identifying and forecasting cost and benefits and performing cost benefit analysis are all necessary activities the system analyst must accomplish in preparing material for the systems proposal.
To determine if the proposed system is operationally feasible to apply or implement. Below are the given criteria, which serve as a basis to test the proposed system if it really works. Accuracy. The ability to be precise and avoid errors and the correctness or truthfulness of something especially in the
mathematical computation of sales so that the business will not suffer from any losses. Efficiency. The ability to do something well or achieve a desired result without wasted energy or effort, or the degree to which this ability is used in the system. Reliability. The ability to be trusted to do what is expected or has been promised. The ability to be trusted, to be accurate or correct to provide result. Speed. To reach the maximum or desirable rate of movement or progress. To be or become fully informed about the latest developments, to accomplish things in a manner that consumes less time. Speed is the main concern of the proponents so that the proposed system will be implemented successfully. In using computer based program and the idea of automation, speed requirement should be satisfied. User-Friendliness. Understandable software applications. Easy access and easy to use Windows based system. Portability. The ability to transfer software application to another computer. The proposed system is hosted online so that users can easily access the system wherever they are as long as there is internet access.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter places the current study into the context of previous, related research. It consist of both the theoretical and conceptual framework of the present study, the critique of both related studies and literature that are related to the present study, as well as the operational definition of terms that are based on observable characteristics and how it is used in the study.
Theoretical Framework is a separate chapter consisting of a review of related literature, the theories that have bearing the problem, the conceptual framework and the hypothesis. The study is focused on the System Theory, which states that, "A System refers to any collection or combination of programs, procedures data and equipment utilized in processing information". A system is mainly made up of three components that represent the units of analysis or the variables under study. As the result of the study, it represents Input as the Independent Variable (IV), the Process, as the Intervening Variable (ITV), and the Output as the Dependent Variable (DV).
The upper portion of the paradigm (shown on Figure 2.0) clearly illustrates how the existing system will be processed. The materials used in the traditional method, which is a manual way of recording files using the pen, pencils, papers and columnar notebooks serves as the input; and the manager being able to get the incoming files of the clients serves as the output. The lower portion of the paradigm illustrates how the proposed system will be processed. It illustrates the new method of recording files through the use of a computer, which serves as the input; the process is automated and is therefore faster, more efficient and easier to work with. The manager can now get the recorded files faster by inputting the records.
This section presents both foreign and local related literatures relevant to the study. This relevance is shown by the proponents in order to give more reason and understanding of the proposition. Tom DeMarco & Tim Lister of Peopleware, 2nd Edition, Dorset House (1:58) cited that: "Companies that sensibly manage their investment in people will prosper in the long run" The authors of the book state that if companies manage investment in people wisely, it will reap the rewards in the future as
the company grows. It will succeed in the long run because the people within the company are the ones contributing to the growth of the company. Thus entails the importance of taking care of the people within the company.
Caper Jones of A Practitioners Approach, Fifth Edition (2:114) cited that: "Good estimating approaches and solid historical data offer the best hope that reality will win over impossible demands." The author of the book stated that in business, good estimating approaches and solid historical data are beneficial tools to be taken advantage of. As to with research studies, one does not jump to start right away, but the approach should start with solid historical data so that awareness of the study be met with a hopeful result that will win over impossible demands.
Carl P. Zeithami & Thomas S. Bateman of Management Function and Strategy (3:139) cited that: "In today's business environment, planning has become a widespread management function, involving people throughout the organization
in the analysis, identification, and selection of goals and priorities." Authors of the book state that planning is very important for every individual, work group, or organization because it helps the systematic process during which decisions are made about the goals and activities, just like companies using a manual system method to carefully plan on what would be the possible solution to make the system work faster so that there is less probability of errors in the activities, and in considering the need for a computerized system in order to better answer the problem.
This section presents other related studies by the people who conducted studies similar to the proponents that will also greatly help in the progress of the study. And it will also help the understanding of the proposition. Mark Dominic dela Torre (4:1) stated that: "The concepts of a simple dream, a determination, any business quality that leads and to perseverance are the forefront to successful outcome." Having the concept of determination and assuring quality service to customers, the proponents created an online software program to cater to company employees in making their job more efficient thus delivering quality service and determining a successful business.
Gaudelyn C. Pantilo (5:1) stated that: "The increasing demand gave us the idea how to deal with our ongoing progress. It motivates us to meet their need efficiently." The company needs to continually diversify to meet the ongoing demands of the business sectors today. Thus, proponents created an online software program for the company to have a more efficient work force, easily manage all its transactions and to meet the demands of this ever changing economy.
Kneener Lim and Antonette Goyenechea (6:2) stated that: "Records security is also one of the primary objectives and all the its information received from
clients are confidential." The proponents created and designed a software program for the company to make the system perfect where all the records should be kept, thus giving the assurance that these files are secured and accessible for the advancement of the company.
The caption that is stated on the related studies by Kneener Lim and Antonette Goyenechea and the studies that were conducted are related to the proponents' study because these studies are concerned with the records system of the company. Both studies are related in the area of the importance in keeping all the records and files of the clients of a company and putting into account solid historical data of the company that could be used to further improve the company’s growth in the future. It will give the assurance that these files are secured and accessible for the advancement of the company. It also guarantees that people’s job will be easier, faster and more efficient for the benefit of the company.
Definition of Terms
The following terms below are used verbosely during the study. Operational Terms The definition of terms are based on observable characteristics and how it is used in the study. Client. A person that can receive services from the employees and agents. Company. A business enterprise firm. Employee. A person employed at a wage or salary. File. A receptacle that keeps loose objects such as papers or any collection of items. Manager. A person that manages a business.
Record. A document that contains an account particularly in terms of collection. Services. Non-monetary programs provided by companies that benefits clients. Conceptual Terms The definitions of terms are based on concepts or hypothetic ones, which are usually taken from the dictionary. Automated. The conversion of the process of automation has been already done. Computer System. The configuration that includes all functional components of computer and its associated hardware or software. Database. An integrated collection of data which provides a more efficient way of storage and retrieval of data and is capable of processing large portions of data immediately. Information. Is data that has been changed into a useful form of output. Process. A series of actions, changes, of functions that bring about an end or a result. Software. A computer terminology use to describe the unseen programming codes and running application inside the computer system.
System. A set of related components that produces specific results. Technology. It is the study of practical or industrial arts. Technological Advancement. A technical advancement or progress resulting to a development of another technology.