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OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE IRISH GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH SOCIETY
Vol. 13, No. 3 CONTENTS News about the Society Chairman’s Report 2011 Steven C. ffeary-Smyrl Tributes: Randal Gill; Desmond FitzGerald, Knight of Glin; Betty Dwyer New Fellows – Dr. Terrence Michael Punch, Randal Gill Spanish Archives of Primary Source Material Samuel Fannin The Rich Murphys of Waterford, Málaga, Mexico and London Martin Murphy Roger O Ferrall, his Family Background and Linea Antiqua Tomás G. Ó Canann Roster and Genealogy of Emigrants from Ireland in Chiloé (1700 to 1900) Pablo A. Pérez The Irish Community in the Basque Country ca. 1700-1800 Ekain Cagigal Unlocking an Irish Paternity Case from the 17th Century: the Merediths of Sligo, Stansty and Leeds Abbey Lex Johnson Apprenticeship Records and Power of Attorney – Armagh, 1803-1856 David E. Rencher County of Armagh Jury Panel, Spring Assizes, 1857 Peter Manning Electoral Roll for the Borough of Ennis, Co. Clare, 1876-1878 Peter Manning Reviews Report and Financial Statements – Year ended 31 December 2011 Submissions to the Journal – style rules How to find our library at the church of Saint Magnus the Martyr 2012
177 179 182 185 186 210 212 226 238 242 253 257 259 267 269 272 IBC
The Irish Genealogical Research Society
Registered UK Charity No 235886 President Fergus Gillespie, MA (former Chief Herald of Ireland) Vice-Presidents Sir Christopher Coote, Bt. Walter J. P. Curley (sometime US Ambassador to France and to Ireland) H. F. Morris, MA LlB PhD FIGRS The O’Conor Don J. C. Walton, MA FIGRS Sir David Goodall, GCMG FIGRS Members of Council The President and Vice-Presidents, ex officio The Rt. Hon. The Lord Ashtown, BA, Editorial Committee member Lindsay Bellhouse, BA DipEd FIGRS, Hon. Librarian David J. Butler, BA, HDipGIS, PhD (NUI), FRGS, FRHistS, FRSA Editor-elect Mary Casteleyn, FCILP FIGRS, Vice-Chairman Linda Clayton, Hon. Secretary, Ireland Branch Rosemary M. E. Coleby, BSc FIGRS, Hon. Secretary Prof. Bruce Durie, BSc PhD FSAScot FCollT FIGRS FHEA OLJ, Hon Editor The Irish Genealogist Steven C. ffeary-Smyrl, MAPGI FIGRS, Chairman Máire Mac Conghail, BA FIGRS Peter Manning, FIGRS, General Secretary Rosalind G. McCutcheon, MA FIGRS, Newsletter Hon. Editor Nick Reddan, MSc GradDipStat BEc FIGRS, Webmaster Christopher Richards, MA MB ChB MRCGP FIGRS, Hon. Treasurer, Editorial Committee member Edward J. Rowland, BComm, Assistant Hon. Treasurer: Ireland Branch Claire Santry, E-Bulletin, Public Relations and marketing Jill Williams BA FCCA HDipEd MIFL, Facebook editor and Manager Ireland Branch Committee Chairman, Steven C. ffeary-Smyrl; Hon. Secretary, Linda Clayton; Treasurer, Edward Rowland Members: Des Clarke, Gay Conroy, Cat Delaney Mona Germaine Dolan, John Dyer, John Hamrock, Máire Mac Conghail, Hilary McDonagh, Hilary Tulloch, Rosaleen Underwood. The Society’s Library at the Church of Saint Magnus the Martyr, Lower Thames Street, London, EC3R 6DN, UK is open on Saturdays from 2.00 to 6.00 p.m. (See inside back cover) Subscription: £20.00, US$40.00 or €26 due on 1 January, 2013 Bankers Cater Allen Private Bank, 9 Nelson Street, Bradford BD1 5AN
Vol. 13 No. 3 (2012)
THE IRISH GENEALOGIST
Roster and Genealogy of Emigrants from Ireland Settled in Chiloé (1700-1900)
Pablo A. Pérez
The presence of Irish outside their borders
Emigration has been a constant theme in the development of the Irish nation and has touched people’s lives in almost every part of Ireland. This article covers the Irish presence in the southernmost inhabited part of the Spanish colonial territories of the New World: the island of Chiloé, second in America, and possessor of a famous culture and history that surpasses times and frontiers.
Historical events and concepts
In colonial times, the economic prosperity and social life of Ireland was negatively affected, through the loss of so many talented young Irish people, as well as the uprooting and dismemberment of many families. However, Irish emigrants have had a remarkable impact on the development of the countries in which they settled. Through work and social integration, they have brought great credit to themselves and enhanced the reputation of their homeland in many corners of the globe. The principles of Spanish laws, developed in the 16th Century regarding the emigration to America, remained in force even after 200 years, and consequently so did the fundamental provisions governing the establishment of foreigners in Spanish American territories. On several occasions the government of Felipe V emphasized this prohibition as well as in opening trade or practicing it, except those who were naturalized or possessed authorization of the king. Viceroys, governors and audiencias (high courts) were repeatedly censured for tolerating non-compliance with existing laws, while they were ordered to bring all foreign illegal immigrants and force them to return to Europe. Not even with the Bourbons was there any improvement or amendment in relation to the immigration of French to Hispanic territories. By contrast, the king did not change the mandate when the War of Succession ordered the expulsion of the French established in Santo Domingo. Only the subsequent appeal of the city of Santiago de los Caballeros that this would generate a significant population decline, those strangers married to many natives of the province were allowed to remain free and resident in accordance with existing provisions in the Recopilación de las Leyes de los Reynos de Indias1, and the rest were allowed to stay by paying compensation. Also, as the Asiento de Negros (‘Seat of Blacks’) in part favoured the entry of foreigners in America, Felipe V announced to the king of France his determination to prevent the immigration of prohibited items, so that his subjects could not plead ignorance.2 In the reign of Felipe VI immigration restrictions on foreigners were tightened, even including nonSpanish members of religious orders. Very specific instructions were given on the revision of the residence permits of foreigners, ordaining to deliver within one month those who did not submit the required documentation, to the ‘Diputación de la Flota’, under fine of 3,000 pesos to the officers who did not comply.3 It is important to realise that all these expulsion orders expressly excluded foreign residents dedicated to manual works, as long as they had no dealings or business, and only applied to that small number of foreigners illegally established in possessions of Hispanic America. Some French settled on
This legislative package is the entire body of laws issued by the Spanish Crown for its American and Philippine possessions. They regulated social, political and economic life in these areas. The laws comprised a myriad of decrees issued over the centuries and the important laws of the 16th Century which attempted to regulate the interactions between the settlers and natives, such as the ‘Leyes de Burgos’ (1512) and the ‘Leyes Nuevas’ (1542). Throughout the five hundred years of Spanish presence in these parts of the world, the laws were compiled several times, most notably in 1680 under Carlos II in the Recopilación de las Leyes de los Reynos de Indias (Compilation of the Laws of the Kingdoms of the Indies), which became the classic collection of the laws, despite the fact that later laws superseded some parts, and other compilations were issued. The 1680 compilation set the template by which the laws were organized. 2 Navarro García, pages 142-143. 3 Navarro García, page 143.
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the Peruvian coast, forming pockets of contraband which remained despite attempts to expel them in 1708 and 1726. A small number of French, plus some Italian and Irish, were located in Chile, where, aided by the permission granted following the War of Succession to the vessels of that nationality to call at Chilean ports, a number of mariners and traders settled in and around the city of Concepción, in some seaside towns (La Serena, Copiapó) and throughout the province of Cuyo. The presence of some French is also detected in the Río de la Plata, particularly in the city of Buenos Aires, although in very low proportion – most foreigners living there were Portuguese, particularly refugees who had fled the colony of Sacramento.4 Irish immigration was, of course, at the time when Ireland was under British domination. The first waves of Irish immigration to Chile generally began with the remnants of the ‘Wild Geese’, with their long history linking Ireland to Spain. The term ‘Wild Geese’ in Irish history broadly refers to the Gaelic Catholic nobility who left Ireland in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries to serve in foreign Catholic armies in the wake of the sectarian ‘penal laws’ and the general persecution, oppression and discrimination they faced in their homeland from the then Protestant-dominated British government that occupied Ireland at the time. Thousands were deprived of lands and liberty at home. The Rebellion of 1641 and the subsequent Civil War and the decisive Protestant settlements of the ‘Irish question’ produced the flight that continued in full flow for a century-and-a-half and then tapered off5. But it never totally stopped. During the reign of Felipe III for example, many Irish and Scottish gentlemen offered their services to join the Spanish Army. As result of this, six ‘Tercios’6 of Irish Infantry were formed; whose effectives increased so much as reaching twenty-three Tercios (between Irish and Scottish) in 16777. In Spain, with its staunchly Catholic monarchy, they had the freedom to practise their faith openly, and many colonies around the New World presented a particularly attractive option; many Irish went there in search of the protection and opportunities that their Catholic affinity offered. Spain was in the 16th Century the main champion of Catholicism, and most of the exiles hoped for and supported Spanish armed intervention against Elizabeth of England8. The exiles also admired the virtues of the Christian aristocracy in Spain. Jacob Jabez remarked: Their princes glory in giving charity and having compassion for the poor, because of their great and tremendous love of God... Their sages respect one another.9 Following military training in Spain, many emigrants were later sent to Flemish territories and to America to serve in the colonies, from where they later sent for relatives and friends from back home. There is evidence that the English court was informed that there were 300 Irish students in Flanders and Spain and over 3,000 Irish soldiers (including 1,000 nobles) in the Spanish service10. An estimated 50,000 ‘wild geese’ fled Ireland to serve in the imperial Spanish armies in the 17th Century, and the Irish married into elite Spanish families who then served as administrators, soldiers or merchants in the dominions of Spanish America11. The Irish in the service of the Spanish monarch abroad continuously emphasized their services ‘to the [Spanish] nation’ and official correspondence very rarely shows an ‘Irish conscience’. These attitudes of Spanish identity assertion can be seen in the second generation Irish-surname military, who incorporated more clearly a Spanish identity. The signature of the Irish Governor and Captain General of Chile, Ambrose Bernard O’Higgins, is a clear hispanicization of the name (he was locally known as ‘Ambrosio’) and dropped the Irish O’.12
Navarro García, page 143. Akenson, page 186. 6 The Tercio (‘one third’), also known as ‘Tercio Español’, was a military formation from the Renaissance similar to and derivative of the Swiss pike square and was a term used to describe a mixed infantry formation of about 3,000 pikemen, swordsmen and arquebusiers in a mutually supportive formation. 7 Pablo Cantero, page 399. 8 Hillgarth, page 158. 9 Hillgarth, page 158. 10 Hillgarth, page 437. 11 Davis, page 41. 12 Recio Morales, page 117.
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There is no doubt that the first three Irishmen to reach the southernmost latitudes of the New World arrived with Magellan in 1520, as part of the crew that first set eyes on the strait named after him during the voyage to circumnavigate the world. Little is known about them other than that they hailed from Galway in western Ireland (at the time a key trading port and frequent stopping point for passing Spanish ships)13 and were part of a cosmopolitan crew from the commonly-accepted total of 270.14. Two of them were known as ‘Guillermo’ (William) and ‘Juan’ (John).15
These hispanicisations of Irish names was very common throughout the Irish immigration to Chile. The first Irishman to settle, marry and have a family in Chile, was John Evans,16 locally known as ‘Juan Ibáñez’. He bore the title of Captain and arrived in the Chillán area in 1737 where he married into a local colonial family. He became successful in business and dedicated himself to trade and cattle-breeding, and amassed a significant amount of wealth with which he purchased a house, and later a large ranch and tracts of land including a mountain plot with thermal springs named Cajón de los Ibáñez (Evans’s Chest). He ended his days as landed gentry, fulfilling the dream which later enticed many Irish to South America. In the following century, the great-grandson of John Evans, Carlos Ibáñez, served twice as president of the Republic of Chile (1927-31 and 1952-8). During an endeavour to regenerate the city of Osorno, Chile received two contingents of Irish emigrants to boost the economy, mostly artisans17. In the first arrival (September 1797) were carpenters (Thomas Robertson, John Knitht,18 Carlos Bidder, Robert O’Keepe, Carlos Beaver), blacksmiths (John Green, James Glover, John Titson, Juan Onsby), tanners (John Watenson, John Wab), a cooper (Daniel Clohan), a cobbler (Peter Smith) and two boys (James Wakeman and John Lervis). In the next contingent of 28 in the same year were a mason (Tom Sullivan), a carpenter (Carlos Badder), a metalworker (Richard Mills), a shoemaker (George Johnson), weavers (William Conoly and William Waite), a tailor (William Nial), a cooper (Guillermo Nelegan), a farmer (Henry Graham) and carpenters (Thomas O’Donovan and Abraham Thorn). However, not all of these artisans were of benefit to the colony, as Ambrose Bernard O’Higgins told the government of Madrid, on 8 May 1800: …las comodidades de la vida que empezaron allí a disfrutar, les hicieron a poco tiempo flojos, perezosos y borrachos, y obligaron al Superintendente a devolverme la mitad de ellos por inútiles y aún perjudiciales19 Osorno remained in poor economic health until it was eventually regenerated by the later arrival of a wave of German immigrants. These Irish seem not to have integrated socially. There are for example only three Irish marrying in Osorno in the petriod 1797-1900: Timothy Cadegan (from Carlow) in 1797, Juan Onsby in 1799, and Patricio Goraldin in 1800. We might include Daniel Clogan (recorded as an English catholic) who married in 1820 in Osorno. According to a census taken by the Spanish Authorities in 1808-9, five more Irishmen were registered as living in Chile: These were Mark Lozet (a stonemason living in Santiago), William Iuns (a shoemaker in Talca), Charles O’Hega (a carpenter and navigator in Talcahuano), James Hogan (a soldier in the Valdivia Infantry Battalion) and Peter Smith (a shoemaker settled in Valdivia). 20 All of these men had arrived in Chile on Spanish or English frigates. At the time, Chiloé belonged to Perú. Late 18th and 19th Century Irish emigration can be seen as a logical and considered response to the economic conditions and opportunities which prevailed, and certainly the potato blight and the trauma of the Great Famine of 1845-52 were powerful factors in helping many make up their minds to
13 14 15
Marshall, page 83; Davis, page 41. Levinson, page 39. Morison, page 346. 16 Vicuña Mackenna, page 28. 17 Sanchez Aguilera. 18 This could be “Knight”. 19 ‘…the comforts of life they have begun to enjoy here, soon made the colonist loose, lazy, and drunken, and forced the superintendent to consider half of them as useless and even harmful.’ 20 Bravo Acevedo.
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emigrate. But the real incentive for the Irish to emigrate was a simple desire for a more secure life which offered hope for the future.21 Certainly this is the period of the most dramatic and frenetic exodus from Ireland,22 but it did not have a significant impact on Chiloé. Chilean records from 182050 registered seven marriages between Irishmen and Spanish American women in the south of the country (Hogan and Smith mentioned above, James Glover and John Mackenna, and three others named Timothy Cadagan, William Taylor and Charles Emanuel Weber). Immigrants from the Irish working classes who began arriving later, typically on either Spanish vessels or British boats, were counted as working for the ‘Informal British Empire’ (territories not controlled by Britain but within their sphere of influence through trade, construction and British emigration, examples of which included Valparaíso23 and Buenos Aires), or as part of a government-sponsored industrialisation program to recruit Irish tradesmen initiated by fellow Irishmen Ambrose Bernard O’Higgins,24 then Viceroy of Perú and John Mackenna,25 Governor of the city of Osorno. They included carpenters, masons, blacksmiths and shoemakers, and they settled down in many places in Chile. There were also other illustrious Irish in the history of Chile, for example: John O’Brian26 and Carlos María O’Carroll.27 Historically, the Irish in Chile have played a highly influential role in the country’s development. Indeed, perhaps the wave of Irish immigrants to Chile that would most shape the future nation was a group of young engineers who were at the time working for the Spanish crown (John Garland, Ambrose Bernard O’Higgins, John and Matthew Clark, etc.). Ambrose Bernard O’Higgins was born in Sligo in 1722, descended from the House of O’Neil,28 and first arrived in South America via Spain in 1756. He was named Captain of Dragons to defend the south from incursions by Araucanian Indian tribes (1770), Captain of Cavalry (1771), then quickly rose to Lieutenient-Colonel (1773), Field Marshal (1776), Colonel (1777), Brigadier (1783) and Provincial Governor of Concepción (1786). In 1788, he reached the positions of Governor and Captain General of Chile (1788-95), then was appointed Viceroy of Perú (1796-801). He died in 1801 in Lima.29 Despite his achievements in Chile, the definitive contribution of O’Higgins to Chilean history was actually in fathering a son out of wedlock with an Isabel Riquelme, whom at the time he did not acknowledge, yet who would later go on to become the hero of Chilean independence: Bernardo O’Higgins, one of the key military figures of the independence, as well as first head of state of the Republic of Chile (1817-23). The instructions written by him in his own hand and signed in the midst of the war (24 Nov 1817 in Concepción), reveal a sharp rise in political views to His Britannic Majesty and say, among other things:30 2.° Promoverá la emigración irlandesa por medio de los buques balleneros que directamente vengan al Pacífico, i se esforzará en que suceda lo propio con los suizos que hoi lo hacen en gran número a los Estados-Unidos. En esta emigración serán comprendidos los ingleses i cualquiera otra nación, sin serle obstáculo su opinión relijiosa31. Bernardo O’Higgins, also in his old age but no less visionary, gave a novel idea to do with the Irish settlement in Chile (1831), when he wrote:32
21 22 23
Marshall, page 82; Davis, page 39. Davis, page 39. Besides the Gunpowder Plot and Oliver Cromwell, Valparaíso was known as the Gibraltar of South America, and the sister of the patriotic Carrera brothers – the founders of Chilean Radicalism – was pitied as ‘the Anne Boleyn of Chile’ due to an unfortunate marriage and tragic death (Marshall, page 16). 24 Figueroa, page 167; Medina, page 592; Espejo, page 177. 25 Figueroa, page 130. 26 Figueroa, page 165. 27 Figueroa, page 166. 28 Espejo, pages 177 and 178. 29 Espejo, page 178. 30 Sanfuentes, page 148; Barros Arana 1858, page 240; Barros Arana 2003, page 189. 31 ‘2nd. Will promote Irish emigration by whaling vessels that directly come to the Pacific, and will strive to be the same as with the Swiss that today go in large numbers to the United States. In this migration will be understood English and any other nation, without religious opinion being an obstacle.’ 32 Bunster, pages 115-116.
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Chile sólo necesita alrededor de veinte mil trabajadores agrícolas irlandeses… para barrer la bandera de los Estados Unidos fuera del Pacífico. Esta inmigración irlandesa es lo único que Chile necesita para unirse a Gran Bretaña con los lazos más estrechos de mutuo interés y amistad y al mismo tiempo transformarse en la segunda potencia naval del mundo después de Gran Bretaña, cuya alta y dominante posición estaría de este momento garantizada para siempre.33 The number of Irish immigrants resident in Chile today is very small – 140 in the 2002 census.34
Chiloé was the most southerly Spanish colony in the Americans for many years, and enjoyed a strategic importance. The culture created there was very conservative and linked to the past, and Chiloé was the last and solitary place between the Sabine River and Cape Horn where the Spanish flag flew at the time of the independence of the colonies. For this article, original documents were read and compared with existing literature. The surnames are shown such as found in the original, but it is natural that many are fanciful or represent some unusual spellings today. The first recorded Irishman in Chiloé is Enrique O’Fallon. One of the many that joined the ‘wild geese’ on the continent first, and were then part of the hundreds transported to the West Indies, he belonged to the older Irish families not the 14 tribes of the Galway town, but of Galway County.35 He moved first to Spain and then on to Chiloé36 where he married about 1760 and had a daughter named Josefa O’Fallon who in turn married Tomás Valentín O’Shee, treated below. In addition to changes of names for reasons of phonetic assonance, some Irish surnames were transcribed literally, others were hispanicized as in cases of acquisition of the surname of the adoptive family (very common in the case of a minor), or carry as a surname the name of a military unit.37 Men with surnames ‘Espinosa’ and ‘Molinas’ are recorded as Irish emigrants in Chiloé, with marriages in 1796 and 1838 respectively. None of their surnames is of Irish origin, and this cannot be ascribed to a simple translation of their hypothetical Irish surnames. It is more reasonable to think that this Irish were adopted as minors in Spain, or even that some survivors from the Spanish Armada (1588) that were not killed or eventually escaped from Ireland, settled there38 and had family. An example is a group of Spanish soldiers that ended up serving as armed retainers to the Irish chiefs Brian O’Rourke39 and Hugh O’Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone,40 and probably Sorley Boy MacDonnell.41 These survivors had descendants extending at least two hundred years.
‘Chile only needs about twenty thousand Irish agricultural workers to sweep the flag from the United States outside the Pacific. This Irish immigration is the only one that Chile needs to join Britain in the closest ties of friendship and mutual interest, becoming at the same time the second naval power in the world after Britain, whose dominant position would now be guaranteed.’ 34 INE. 35 O’Laughlin, page 13. 36 Roa y Ursúa, page 939, Nº 3902. 37 Recio Morales, pages 104 and 105. 38 An example could be Pedro Blanco, who had escaped from the wreck of the Juliana at Streedagh, who rose to become the earl’s personal bodyguard. In 1607, when after the revolt´s collapse his master fled to Flanders and thence to Rome, Blanco went with him. Just before Tyrone died in 1616 he wrote a glowing testimonial for a servant who had become a loyal friend, who had ‘fought so valiantly that I never wanted to be parted from him’. Then he was old, and Tyrone begged king Felipe III to bestow some reward on this faithful adherent of the Habsburg cause. (Martin and Parker, page 228). 39 In November 1591, O’Rourke was tried for treason in Westminster Hall, on charges of denying the queen’s sovereignty, assisting the survivors of the Spanish Armada and attacking his neighbours. After refusing to stand trial, O’Rourke was convicted solely on the charges contained in his indictment. He was hanged at Tyburn. (Morgan, page 71). 40 Hugh O’Neill’s dealings with foreigners were noted: his reciprocal alliance with Angus MacDonald and his assistance Don Antonio Manrique, a survivor of the Armada. (Morgan, page 109). 41 He probably retained a few survivors, along with guns and other spoils from the famous Girona, at his castles in Dunluce and Glenarm (Martin and Parker, page 228).
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D.n Diego Calbert42 is recorded as a merchant, connected with the port of Valparaíso. There is nothing strange in this, as cargoes from Europe were then trans-shipped ‘to the different ports upon the coast of Chile, Bolivia and Perú’, while shipments from coastal trade were loaded in Valparaíso for foreign ports – Valparaíso was then more than just the principal port of a small country, and the concentration of foreigners there (British among them) reflected its importance43. In Chiloé there were others of Irish origin, such as Smith (descended from the shoemaker Peter Smith) and O’Shee. Edmundo O’Shee (Edmund O’Shea in Ireland) was a Dublin-born refugee from an Irish nobile family all but wiped out by war and the penal laws. His son Tomás Valentín O’Shee deserves a few lines, despite not being an Irish-born but being recorded in Chiloé.44 He was born in San Sebastián; and began his military career as a cadet in the infantry regiment from Ireland in Spain (1744). He travelled thence to the war in Italy, where he assisted in the siege and taking of Tortona Square. He was finally made Lieutenant of Grenadiers (1752) and then promoted to Lieutenant (1753). He was taken prisoner during the bombardment of Placencia, rescued, and arrived in Barcelona where he studied mathematics in the Military Academy. He left for Ceuta which was threatened by the Moroccan Emperor and there he remained (until 1759). He was made Captain (1767) and saw action in the wars against Portugal. O’Shee then travelled to Perú where he was named Corregidor for Yauyos (1770), a position he held for seven years. Due to his actions during the English manoeuvres in the South Seas, he went to the Viceroy in Lima, who sent him to the islands of the Chiloé archipelago in the capacity of Commander (1779). He served until February 1784 and became Lieutenant Colonel (1788), Subinspector of the Coquimbo Militia (1789) and resident there, until he requested the government of Coquimbo and of La Serena, where he then lived (1790). Ambrose Bernard O’Higgins recommended the request (1792). He asked the court to promote him to army Colonel on the grounds of seniority, stating that he had served for a long time and that he was seventytwo years of age, married and with nine children (1797). He died in 1801. The presence of the Irish migrants can be shown as follows:
A great debt is owed to all Irish emigrants who have contributed so much to the growth of the country of their birth. The Irish were also present in Chiloé, and their origins and presence will be recorded here.
Throughout this article, D.n = Don and D.a = Doña Marshall, pages 184 and 185. 44 Roa y Ursúa, pages 951 and 952, Nº 3993.
Vol. 13 No. 3 (2012) Studied lineages
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There are 13 Irish migrants in the period 1700 to 1900. They and their known data follow alphabetically. Adamson I. Juan Adamson. Married to María Millano. II. Andrés Adamson. Native of Ireland and domiciled in Quemchi. Married on 21 April 1884 in the chapelry of Lliuco45 to María Antonia Ojeda (native of the same chapelry and domiciled in Huite; legitimate daughter of Antonio Ojeda and Mercedes Yáñez). Ahern I. Esteban Ahern. Married to Elena Griffin. II. Guillermo Ahern. Native of Ireland and domiciled in Pailad at the time of his marriage. Married on 27 May 1889 in Queilen46 to María Natalia Vidal (native of and domiciled in the curacy of Queilen; legitimate daughter of Lorenzo Vidal and María Carolina Vargas). Brown I. Juan Bron. Married to María Guylson. II. Tomas Bron (variant: Tomas Brown). Native of ‘San Juan en Irlanda’. Married on 7 March 183847 to María Estefanía Aguilar (native of Achao; widow of Melchor Aguilar; legitimate daughter of José Antonio Aguilar and María Margarita Vidal). Calbert I. José Calbert. Married to María Hil. II. D.n Diego Calbert, also called Diego Calvet. Native of Dublin48, where he is born in 176349. Married on 7 August 1794 in the parish church of Castro50 to D.a Margarita Antonia Álvarez (native of Castro; legitimate daughter of D.n Eusebio Francisco Álvarez and D.a María Concepción de Cárcamo51). Neighbour of the port of San Carlos de Ancud, ‘del comercio dela Provincia’52; came as Captain and Master of the scooner Santo Cristo de Burgos (built in Chiloé) from the port of Valparaíso (according to a declaration of 19 July 180553). There is no documentary evidence found yet, but this marriage has necessarily to be the parents of at least three children, who were: i. D.n Antonio Calvert54, also called D.n Antonio Calvet55. Witness to marriage beside her aunt D.a María Teresa Álvarez (3 November 1815 in the parish church from Castro56); as well as beside to D.a Rosario Calvert, on several times (1816 in the mother church of Castro57). ii. D.a Rosario Calvet. Witness to marriage of D.a María Teresa Álvarez, beside to D.n Basilio, without any mention of surname (25 June 1816 in the mother church of Castro58); beside D.n Francisco Álvarez (21 July 1816 in the mother church of Castro59); and beside D.n Antonio Calvert, several times (1816 in the mother church of Castro60). iii. D.a Manuela Calvert. Witness of marriage beside Agustín Ruíz (25 February 1817 in the mother church of Castro61).
LMLl2, ff. 5-6, Nº 5. LMQei2, f. 277, Nº 701. 47 LMA2, f. 48v. 48 LMC6, f. 41v. 49 Archivo General de Indias,ESTADO,85,N.58, ‘Sobre dos embarcaciones varadas en Estrecho de Magallanes’, f. 3. 50 LMC6, f. 41v. 51 Pérez 2010, página 257. 52 From the comerce of the province. 53 Archivo General de Indias, ESTADO,85,N.58, ‘Sobre dos embarcaciones varadas en Estrecho de Magallanes’, f. 2v. 54 LMC8, ff. 15v, 16. 55 LMC8, f. 3. 56 LMC8, f. 3. 57 LMC8, ff. 9v, 15v, 16, 17v. 58 LMC8, f. 14. 59 LMC8, f. 15. 60 LMC8, ff. 9v, 15v, 16, 17v. 61 LMC8, f. 21.
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Callahan I. Miguel Callahan. Married to Dolores Ohiggins. II. Guillermo Callahan. Native of Ireland, domiciled in Dalcahue. Married on 22 May 1882 in the parish church of Santa María de Achao62 to Carmen Dolores Oyarzun (native of and domiciled in Curaco; legitimate daughter of Francisco Oyarzun and María Rosa Subiabre). Chatterton I. D.n Jorge Chatterton. Native of Ireland and domiciled in Castro at the moment of his marriage. He is the same Irish doctor that resides in the Department of Ancud in 186563, and he is still alive in 186864. He was designated 2nd doctor in the province of Chiloé (the 1st was Don Mariano Guzmán) since 22 December 1867, still working in 1871, and earning $ 600.65 Married on 25 September 1848 in the city and parish of Castro66 to D.a Juana Calisto (legitimate daughter of D.n José María Calisto and D.a Antonia Bórquez). D.n Jorge Chatterton must surely be the father of: i. D.n Enrique Chatterton. Native of Ancud; died in 1911. He replaced the founder of the newspaper, The Valdivian, liberal writer D.n José María Mújica67. Espinosa I. D.n Francisco Espinosa. Married to D.a Juana O’Brien. II. D.n José Espinosa. Native of Ireland. Married twice: firstly to Bartola Barrientos; and then, married on 3 May 1796 in the mother church of Castro68 to D.a María de los Ángeles Álvarez (native of Castro; legitimate daughter of D.n Eusebio Francisco Álvarez and D.a María Concepción Cárcamo).69 From his second marriage the following child is recorded: i. María Josefa Espinosa. Baptized on 7 May 1797 in the cathedral of Castro, being her godmother D.a Mercedes Venegas. Molinas I. Eduardo Molinas. Married to Rosa Norron. II. D.n Carlos Molinas. Native of the city of Dublin in Ireland. Married on 15 April 183870 to D.a Juana Rosa Bórquez71 (native of Curaco; legitimate daughter of Pedro María Bórquez and María Candelaria González). With four offspring, who follow: i. D.a María del Rosario Molina. Native of Curaco. Married on 9 February 1854 in the parish church of Achao72 to D.n Juan Francisco Oyarzun (legitimate son of D.n Francisco Oyarzun and D.a María Encarnación Díaz). With legitimate offspring. ii. Francisco Molina, who follows the line. iii. Margarita Molina. Native of and domiciled in Curaco. Married on 6 November 1869 in the parish church of Achao73 to José del Carmen Díaz (native of Curaco; legitimate son of D.n Francisco Díaz and D.a Margarita Bórquez), dispensed in the second degree of consanguinity. iv. María del Carmen Molina. Natural and domiciled in Curaco. Married on 27 February 1871 in the parish church of Achao74 to Manuel de Reyes Muñoz (native of and domiciled in San Javier; legitimate son of Francisco Javier Muñoz and María Rosa Oyarzun).
LMA5, f. 99v, Nº 29. Chile 1866, page 13. 64 Diary ‘El Chilote’ Nº VIII; Thursday, 22 October 1868. 65 Chile 1871, page 177 66 LMC10, f. 34v. 67 Silva Castro, page 274. 68 LMC6, ff. 74v-75. 69 Pérez 2010, page 258. 70 LMA2, f. 49. 71 D.a Juana Rosa Bórquez (widow of D.n Carlos Molinas) will marry José María Alarcón (legitimate son of D.n Agustín Alarcón and from D.a María Mercedes Triviño), on 21 June 1856 in Achao (LMA3, ff. 3-4). 72 LMA2, f. 173. 73 LMA4, f. 53. 74 LMA4, ff. 74-75.
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III. Francisco Molina. Native of Curaco. Married as half-charity on 3 February 1865 in the parish church of Achao75 to María Encarnación Muñoz (native of San Javier; legitimate daughter of Francisco Javier Muñoz and María Rosa Oyarzun). This marriage was revalidated in August 1872 for reasons of consanguinity76. Murray I. Samuel Murray. Married to Mariana Murray. II. Samuel 2.º Murray (variants: Samuel Mure77, Samuel More78, Samuel Mori79). Born in Ireland and domiciled in the parish church of Tenaún. Married on 25 June 1883 in the parish church of Tenaún80 to Filomena Sierpe81 (native of Castro and domiciled in Tenaún; widow of José Dolores González; legitimate daughter of Manuel Sierpe and María Francisca Mansilla). With at least these legitimate offspring: i. Samuel Maroi. Baptized by necessity at age of eleven months from the fiscal Juan Francisco Coñuecar, on 25 December 1886 in Tenaún, being his godfather Demetrio Gallardo82. ii. María Sofía Mori y Sierpe. Baptized at age of two months by the retired fiscal Elías Nahuelquién, on 16 July 1890 in the chapel of Choen, being his godfather Demetrio Gallardo83. Married on 13 December 1909 in Quemchi84. O’Fallon I. Enrique O’Fallon. Irish nobleman. The coat of arms of his family is recorded as: silver, sword garnished gules, with two climbing lions85. He passed from Spain to the War of Chile. Married about 1760 in Castro to María Martina Cárcamo. II. D.a Josefa O’Fallon86. Married about 1780 in San Carlos to Tomás Valentín O’Shee (legitimate son of Edmund O’Shee and Ana Catalina Ramery). With legitimate offspring. Peterson I. Pedro Peterson. Married to Berta Hansen. II. Pedro Peterson. Native of Ireland and domiciled in Ancud. Married on 17 April 1893 in the parish church of San Carlos de Ancud87 to Elvira López (native of the parish of Ancud and domiciled in Punta Arenas; legitimate daughter of Pedro López and Matilda Hernández). Randoll I. José Randoll. Married to Julia Morphei. II. José Randoll. Native of Irelanda and domiciled in the curacy of Ancud. Married on 5 December 1883 in the cathedral of Ancud88 to Isabel Miranda (native of Dalcahue; legitimate daughter of Valentín Miranda and Francisca Vargas). Tana I. Enrique Tana. Married to María Ysmen. II. Carlos Tana. Native of the city of Breton in Ireland, in the kingdom of England. Married on 29 April 183889 to D.a María Jesús Correa90 (legitimate daughter of D.n Joaquín José Correa and D.a María Brígida Andrade).
75 76 77
LMA3, ff. 223-224. LMA3, f. 224. LBT7, f. 90. 78 LCT1, ff. 2v-3; LMT5, f. 80, Nº 687. 79 LBT9, f. 94. 80 LMT4, f. 53v, Nº 15. 81 Filomena Sierpe (widow of José Dolores González and from Samuel 2.º Murray) will marry Felipe Rogel (native of Castro and domiciled in Quemchi; widow of Filomena Pérez; legitimate son of Jacinto Rogel and Antonia Barría), on 18 December 1895 in the parish church of Tenaún (LMT5, f. 80, Nº 687). 82 LBT8, f. 100. 83 LBT9, f. 94. 84 LBT9, f. 94. 85 Roa y Ursúa, page 939, Nº 3902. 86 Roa y Ursúa, page 939, Nº 3902. 87 LMAn2, f. 166, Nº 37. 88 LMAn1, ff. 167-168, Nº 403. 89 LMA2, f. 49v. 90 D.a María Jesús Correa (widow of Carlos Tana) will marry Juan Manuel Subiabre (widow of D.ª María Leonor Bórquez; legitimate son of D.n Juan Felipe Subiabre and D.ª María Isidora Sánchez de Lezana), on 18 April 1845 (LMA2, f. 89).
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Archivo General de Indias, ESTADO, 85, N.58, Sobre dos embarcaciones varadas en Estrecho de Magallanes. LBT7: It unfortunately has nothing distinctive, but it is the book No. 7 from Baptisms from Tenaún (Chiloé), covering the years 1883 to 1885. LBT8: No front of book. On f. 1 it says: Libro nuevo en qe se asientan las partidas de / Bautizmos i oleos qese administran en esta Jgle / sia parroquial de Tenaun, qecomienza el primero de / mayo demil ochocientos ochenta i cinco. Book cover: ‘N.º 8. / Libro de bautismos / i / oleos desde el / [1.º de Ma]rzo 1885 al 14 Feb. 1889.’. Nothing on back of book. LBT9: Front of book: ‘1889-1892 / 6-3- 1889 á 10-12-1892- / ‘. On f. 1 it says: ‘Nº 9 / Libro nuevo en que se apuntan las partidas / de bautismos i oleos que se administran en es / ta iglesia parroquial de Tenaun, que principia / el seis de marzo de mil ochocientos ochenta / i nueve.’. Nothing on book cover, nor on the back of book. LCT1: Front of book: ‘Libro de / las confirmaciones / que han tenido / lugar desde el 22 / de Agosto hasta / fines de este año / 1884 en las doce / capillas de la / parroquia de / Tenaun durante / las misiones que se / dieron en este tiempo.’. Book cover: ‘Libro 1ºde / Confirmaciones’. LMA2: Front of book: ‘Jndice alfabetico del libro / de Matrimonio desde el año / de mil ochocientos tréinta el 19 de / Abril hasta el 27 de Abril del / año de mil ochocientos cincuenta / y seis. = (1830Á-1856.=) / Jndice confeccionado por el Cura Párroco / Pbro. D. Germán Ampuero en el año 1931. / [signed:] Germán Ampuero P. / Cura Párroco. / Contiene este Cuáderno 1987 partidas en Jndice. / [signed:] Germán Ampuero P. / CuraPárroco.’, and then a seal that says: ‘PARROQUIA de SANTA MARÍA DE ACHAO’. Book cover: ‘[Libro e]n que se Sient[an] las / partida[s] de Cas[a] [mien]tos / que empies[a] en 1º de [Mar]zo / 6 / viene [unreadable] / pres[ilegible]io de Quinchao’. Back of book, in a white paper, glued, and typed: ‘-A C H A O- / -M A T R I M O N I O S 5- 2 / 1830- 1856-’. There is a numbering error: f. 61 does not exist, only as number 64; after f. 103v, the numbering repeats ff. 102 y 102v (that are called bis), after which it continues with f. 104; and finally f. 119 does not exist, because it is called 120. LMA3: It says on the first page (part of an index from the 20th Century): ‘Jndice alfabético del / libro nº 3º de Ma- / trimonios de la Parro / quia de Achao; confeccio- / nado por el Señor Cura Párroco / Pbro. D. Germán Ampuero P. / en Abril de 1927- / [signed:] Germán Ampuero P. / Cura-Párroco. // Contiene 652 Partidas’; and the front of the book, on f. 1, says: ‘Libro en, que se asientan las / partidfas de los que se han ma- / trimoniando, el cual principia / el dia doce del mes de Mayo del / año de mil ochocientos sincuenta / i seis_ / [a la derecha:] Mes de Mayo de 1856’. Book cover: ‘Libro de / matrimonios / 1856. 1867 / 3 // Tiene Jndice hecho por D. Germán / Ampuero, en 27 de Abril de 1927 / [signed:] Germán Ampuero P.’. Back of book, in a white paper, glued, and typed: ‘* A C H A O * / MATRIMONIOS –N-3 / 1856 -1867’. LMA4: Front of book: ‘Libro en q.e se asientan las / Partidas de Casamientos q.e prin_ / cipia el siete de Noviembre de mil / ochocientos sesentaysiete.———— // Certifico: que el presente libro le confeccioné su / respectivo Jndice Alfabetico, en Cuaderno / aparte que queda incluido en el mismo libro / Achao, 23 de Abril de 1927. / [signed:] Germán Ampuero P.. / Cura Párroco. / [sello que dice:] PARROQUIA de SANTA MARÍA DE ACHAO / 1867-76-’. Book cover: ‘Libro de / matrimonios N 3 / 7 de nobre de 1867-1876 // 4 / Tiene Jndice’. Back of book, in a white paper, glued, and typed: ‘* A C H A O * / MATRIMONIOS –N-4 / 1908 -1920’. Foja 101 is numbered by error as 111. LMA5: Front of book: ‘Libro en que se escriben / las partidas matrimoni_ / ales que se celebran en es_ / ta parroquia de Santa / M.a de Achao; que [en superíndice: ‘principia’] el 6 / de mayo del año de 1876’. Back of book: ‘* A C H AO * / MATRIMONIOS –N$$4 / 1876 –1884-’. LMAn1: Book without any front nor titles; that says in the back: ‘MATRIMO / NIO / L. / I / 1879 / a / 1888’. It has index, and covers the marriages from Ancud. LMAn2: Front of book: ‘Libro nuevo en que se escriben las partidas de / Matrimonios que se administran en esta / iglesia parroquial del Sagrario desan / Carlos de Ancud; .. el cual comienza a correr / el dia dies y seis del mes de Marzo del año / de mil ochocientos ochenta y ocho. [signed:] Juan Cárdenas. / C. R. // LIBRO II MATRIMONIO / 1888 – 1901. //’; with a seal that says: ‘PARROQUIA DEL SAG.RIO DE S.N CARLOS DE ANCUD’. Back of the book: ‘MATRIMO / NIOS / 235
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MAT / II / 1888 / a / 1901’. It has index. There are two error numberings: after f. 129 come the 128 (bis) and 129 (bis), before going on with the 130; and there also exist two ff. 296 and 297 (called bis), before the book continues with f. 298. LMC6: Back of the book: ‘Libro de Casamientos / del Año. de / 1791.’; and on a piece of paper held with handwriting: ‘Libro de / Casamientos. / 1791-1803’, and ‘6’ top right. There are two important error numberings: the ff. are not numbered at the beginning from the book until number 103, (and this is why f. 1 is really f. 10); and then, f. 170 appears like f. 270, changing all the rest of the ff.. LMC8: Front of the book: ‘LIBRO / PAROquial de Santiago de / Castro de los Casamientos que se van / apuntando desde veinte,ytres de Septi- / embre del año de 1815~~~~~~~~~~~~’, after that is written, on a white piece of paper glued in the centre, and with handwriting: ‘[on top right:] N.º 8 // Libro de / Casamientos. / 1815_1826’. Back of the book without anything. There is a numbering error: after f. 129v, there is a second one (called ‘129 bis’), then comes f. 129v bis; after which the numbering continues on 130. LMC10: Front of the book: ‘Libro de Matrimonios nuevo en que / se sientan las partidas de Casamientos que / se administran en esta Jglesia parroquial / de Santiago de Castro, el cual comienza a cor- / rer el dia 1º de Enero del Año de 1826=‘. Book cover: ‘Libro de Matrimonios / 1846 a 1849. / N.º 10 II’. Back of the book: ‘Libro nº X / Matrimonio -’. LMLl2: Front of the book: ‘Libro nuevo en que / se asientan las partidas de / Matrimonios, de esta Vice / parroquia de Lliuco, el / que principia en el mes de / Mayo de = 1883.’. Book cover: ‘Libro nº 2 / de / Matrimonio’. Back of the book: ‘N. / II’. LMQei2: This books covers the marriages celebrated in Queilen, and says on the book cover: ‘Nº.2— / Matrimonios—’. At the back of the book: ‘III / Mtrnios’. LMT4: Front of the book: ‘Libro en que se asientan las partidas de matri- / monios de esta iglesia parroquial de Tenaun que da / principio el día siete de Enero de mil ochocientos / setenta i seis años.’ Book cover: ‘[Li]bro de matrimonios / de la parroquia de [Te]n[aún] / 4. 1876-’. LMT5: Front of the book: ‘Libro en que se asientan / las partidas dematrimonios / de ésta Jglesia parroquial de / Tenaun que da principio el 18 / de Julio de 1892 años. // Libro 5º’, with a seal that says: ‘PARROQUIA DE N. S. DEL PATROCINIO TENAUN’. Book cover: ‘1892 / 5º / Matrimonios’. Back of the book: ‘Lib[ro] 5º / Matrimonios’.
Akenson, Donald H. 2006. An Irish history of civilization. Volumen I. McGill-Queen’s University Press. New York (U.S.A.). Barros Arana, Diego. 2003. Historia general de Chile. Tomo Undécimo. Editorial Universitaria. Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana. Imprenta Salesianos, S.A. Santiago (Chile). Barros Arana, Diego. 1858. Historia jeneral de la independencia de Chile, Tomo IV. Imprenta del Ferrocarril. Santiago (Chile). Bravo Acevedo, Guillermo (ed.). 1991. Expediente formado sobre averiguar los extranjeros que reciden en el reyno. Instituto O’higginiano. Santiago (Chile). Bunster, Enrique. 1977. Crónicas del Pacífico. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago (Chile). Chile. 1866. Censo jeneral de la República de Chile levantado el 19 de abril de 1865. 1866. Imprenta Nacional. Santiago (Chile). Chile. 1871. Anuario Estadístico de la República de Chile correspondiente a los años de 1870 i 1871, tomo XI. Imprenta Nacional. Santiago (Chile). Davis, Graham. 2002. Land!: Irish pioneers in Mexican and revolutionary Texas. Centennial series of the Association of Former Students, Texas A & M University Press. (U.S.A.). Espejo, Juan Luis. 1917. Nobiliario de la antigua capitanía general de Chile. Imprenta Universitaria. Santiago (Chile). Figueroa, Pedro Pablo. 1900. Diccionario biográfico de estranjeros en Chile. Imprenta Moderna. Santiago (Chile). Guarda, Gabriel O.S.B. 1979. La sociedad en Chile austral antes de la colonización alemana 16451845. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago (Chile). Hillgarth, J. N. 2003. The mirror of Spain, 1500-1700: the formation of a myth. University of Michigan Press (United States of America).
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INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas). 2002. Censo Nacional de la Población y Vivienda. Santiago (Chile). Levinson, Nancy Smiler. 2001. Magellan and the first voyage around the world. Clarion Books. New York (U.S.A.). Marshall, Oliver (Ed.). 2000. English-speaking communities in Latin America. Institute of Latin American Studies. Antony Rowe Ltd., Chippenham, Wiltshire (United Kingdom). Martin, Colin; Parker, Geoffrey. 1999. The Spanish Armada. Mandolin. Manchester University Press. Manchester (United Kingdom). Medina, José Toribio. 1906. Diccionario biográfico colonial de Chile. Imprenta Elzeviriana. Santiago (Chile). Morgan, Hiram. 1993. Tyrone's Rebellion: The Outbreak of the Nine Years War in Tudor Ireland. The Royal Historical Society. London (United Kingdom). Morison, Samuel Eliot. The European Discovery of America: The Southern Voyages, A.D. 1492-1616. Oxford University Press. (U.S.A.). Navarro García, Luis. 1983. América en el siglo XVIII. Los primeros Borbones. Ediciones Rialp, S.A. Madrid (España). O’Laughlin, Michael C. 2002. Families of County Galway, Ireland. Irish Genealogical Foundation. Kansas (U.S.A.). Pablo Cantero, Antonio de. 2000. Los ayuntamientos andaluces durante la Guerra de Sucesión, in: La Guerra de Sucesión en España y América. Actas de las X Jornadas Nacionales de Historia Militar, Cátedra General Castaños; pages 399-411. DEIMOS-Nuevo Siglo S.L. Madrid (España). Pérez, Pablo A. 2010. Álvarez en Chiloé, o una rama genealógica no filiada del linaje Bahamonde, in: Revista de Estudios Históricos, LIX, Nº 52; pages 215-276. Instituto Chileno de Investigaciones Genealógicas. Santiago (Chile). Recio Morales, Oscar. 2010. El lastre del apellido irlandés en la España del siglo XVIII. In: Salinero, Gregorio and Testón Núñez, Isabel (coord.). Un juego de engaños: movilidad, nombres y apellidos en los siglos XV a XVIII, pages 103-120. Casa de Velázquez. Barcelona (España). Roa y Ursúa, Luis de. 1945. El Reyno de Chile. 1535-1810. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; Instituto ‘Jerónimo Zurita’; Sección de Historia Moderna ‘Simancas’. Talleres Tipográficos ‘Cuesta’. Valladolid (España). Sánchez Aguilera, Víctor. 1948. El pasado de Osorno: la gran ciudad del porvenir. Impresión Cervantes. Santiago (Chile). Sanfuentes, Salvador. 1850. Chile desde la batalla de Chacabuco hasta la de Maipo. Imprenta de la República. Santiago (Chile). Silva Castro, Raúl. 1958. Prensa y periodismo en Chile (1812-1956). Editorial Del Pacífico. Santiago (Chile). Vicuña Mackenna, Benjamín. 1903. Los oríjenes de las familias chilenas. Tomo III. Librería, imprenta i encuadernación de Guillermo E. Miranda. Santiago (Chile).
THE LIBRARY OF THE IRISH GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH SOCIETY IS AT THE CHURCH OF SAINT MAGNUS THE MARTYR, LOWER THAMES STREET, EC3R 6DN IN THE CITY OF LONDON. Entrance through door at far left of the courtyard; press bell. There is no access to the church itself. Opening times: Saturdays only, 2 pm to 6 pm. Closed on the Saturday nearest to Christmas Day and on Easter Saturday. Seating space is restricted. The day visitor's fee is £10. Members free. No correspondence should be sent to the library at Saint Magnus nor phone calls made to the church. The IGRS official postal address is: 18 Stratford Avenue, Rainham, Kent, ME8 OEP, UK. For updates consult the society's website: www.igrsoc.org E-mail address for enquiries: email@example.com
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