Dr.

Spencer Kagan Miguel Kagan

KCL: BKCL

© 2009 Kagan Publishing This book is published by Kagan Publishing. All rights are reserved by Kagan Publishing. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from Kagan Publishing. The blackline masters may be duplicated only by classroom teachers who purchase the book and only for use in their own classrooms. To obtain additional copies of this book, other Kagan publications or information regarding professional development, contact Kagan. Kagan Publishing 981 Calle Amanecer San Clemente, CA 92673 1 (800) 933-2667 Fax: (949) 545-6301 www.KaganOnline.com ISBN: 978-1-879097-10-0

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Why Does Cooperative Learning Work?

Multiple Intelligences
Different cooperative learning structures respond to the needs of students strong in different intelligences. A sample of structures to engage and develop each of the intelligences is provided in the table below. Details of those structures and how they engage and develop the different intelligences is provided in our book on multiple intelligences.24

Learning Styles
The most extensively researched learning style model is that of Rita and Kenneth Dunn. They define learning style as the way in which each learner begins to concentrate on, process,

and retain information. They emphasize that because students differ in their learning style, the same teaching method will be effective for some students and ineffective for others.25 Some students prefer to work alone; others prefer to work with a partner or in a small group. This alone is a strong rationale for including cooperative learning in the mix of instructional strategies and may explain why inclusion of cooperative learning boosts achievement—it is the way many students prefer to learn. The Dunn and Dunn model, however, is quite comprehensive and provides additional reasons why inclusion of cooperative learning improves outcomes for many students. In the Dunn and

Structures Engage and Develop Multiple Intelligences
Ve r b a

l/L

ingu

i
sti

Verbal/Linguistic
• Debate • Dialogues • Discussion • Team Interview • Talking Chips
c

Bodil

y/

Kinest
he

Bodily/Kinesthetic
• Formations • Kinesthetic Symbols • Line-Ups • Take Off, Touch Down • Team Charades

tic

Logica

Visual

/S

In

patial

Visual/Spatial
• Draw It! • Formations • Guided Imagery • Mind Mapping • Same-Different • Visualization

Na t ura

l/

Mathe

Logical/Mathematical
• Blind Sequencing • Find My Rule • Jigsaw Problem Solving • Who Am I?

lis

t

Naturalist
• Categorizing • Look-Write-Discuss • Observe-Draw-RallyRobin • Same-Different
pers
on

Mu sic

al

/R hy th
mi

In

4.18 Kagan Publishing • 1 (800) 933-2667 • www.KaganOnline.com

Kagan Cooperative Learning • Dr. Spencer Kagan & Miguel Kagan

m

atical
c

ter

Interpersonal/Social
• Jigsaw • Numbered Heads Together • Paraphrase Passport • Pairs Check • Pairs Compare • Stir-the-Class • Team Statements • Three-Step Interview
al

Musical/Rhythmic
• Lyrical Lessons • Poems for Two Voices • Songs for Two Voices • Team Chants
tra

pers

Intrapersonal/Introspective
• Agreement Circles • Corners • Proactive Prioritizing • Timed Pair Share

on
al

4. Why Does Cooperative Learning Work?

Dunn model, there are five basic stimuli with 26 elements: 1. Environmental: sound; light; temperature; seating-design 2. Emotional: motivation; persistence; responsibility; conformity structure 3. Sociological: learning alone; with peers; team; adult 4. Physiological: perceptual: auditory, visual, tactile, kinesthetic; time-of-day, energy level, mobility 5. Psychological: global v. analytic; hemisphericity; impulsive v. reflective The use of a range of cooperative learning structures relates to a number of the elements in four dimensions of the Dunn’s model (see

table below). Inclusion of a range of cooperative learning structures ensures that the needs of more learners are met. In the table, a few of the many possible structures are listed to illustrate how different structures meet the needs of different learning styles. As we overview how the different cooperative learning methods respond to the needs of different learners, we can say with certainty that the teacher who uses a wide range of cooperative learning methods provides a greater number of students greater access to the curriculum through their preferred styles and intelligences. This explains in part why cooperative learning boosts achievement. In short: The more ways we teach, the more students we reach.

Learning Styles Served by Cooperative Structures
Motivation
Students from some cultures are motivated to work hard for the group, but not for individual achievement, so cooperative learning is culturally compatible for some cultural groups. Cooperative learning teaches students how to encourage each other in the face of difficulty, motivating persistence. Tutoring and support also motivate persistence. In some structures, students are responsible not just for their own outcomes, but also for their contribution to the team as well as the team’s contribution to the class: Co-op Co-op Conformity: Team Consensus Non-conformity: Debate High structure: RallyRobin Low structure: Team Projects Alone: Many structures include think time and solo write Pairs: Pairs Compare, Pairs Check, Timed Pair Share Teams: The defining characteristic of cooperative learning Classmates: Classbuilding structures: Corners, Circle-the-Sage Adult: Some structures include interaction with the teacher: Choral Practice, Show Me!, Numbered Heads Together. Structures free the teacher for more quality interaction time with individual students. Auditory: Listen Right!, Telephone Visual: Mind Mapping, Same-Different… Tactile: Team projects with manipulatives Kinesthetic: Kinesthetic Symbols, Formations High Energy: Team Charades Low Energy: Draw-What-I-Write Movement: Mix-Music-Meet Seat Work: RoundRobin Global: Formations Analytic: Same-Different Inductive: Find My Rule Deductive: Logic Line-Ups Right Hemisphere: Team Mind-Mapping Left Hemisphere: Sequencing Impulsive: RallyRobin Reflective: Timed Pair Share

Emotional Sociological Physiological Psychological

Persistence Responsibility Conformity Structure

Preferred Interaction Style

Perceptual

Energy Level Mobility Global v. Analytic Inductive v. Deductive Hemisphericity Impulsive v. Reflective

Kagan Cooperative Learning • Dr. Spencer Kagan & Miguel Kagan Kagan Publishing • 1 (800) 933-2667 • www.KaganOnline.com

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