# INDEX 1. 2. Query for retrieving N highest paid employees FROM each Department.

Query that will display the total no. of employees, and of that total the number who were hired in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. 3. Query for listing Deptno, ename, sal, SUM(sal in that dept). 4. Matrix query to display the job, the salary for that job based on department number, and the total salary for that job for all departments. 5. Nth Top Salary of all the employees. 6. Retrieving the Nth row FROM a table. 7. Tree Query. 8. Eliminate duplicates rows in a table. 9. Displaying EVERY Nth row in a table. 10. Top N rows FROM a table. 11. COUNT/SUM RANGES of data values in a column. 12. For equal size ranges it might be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range), 0, rate_0, 1, rate_1, ...). 13. Count different data values in a column. 14. Query to get the product of all the values of a column. 15. Query to display only the duplicate records in a table. 16. Query for getting the following output as many number of rows in the table. 17. Function for getting the Balance Value. 18. Function for getting the Element Value. 19. SELECT Query for counting No of words. 20. Function to check for a leap year. 21. Query for removing all non-numeric. 22. Query for translating a column values to INITCAP. 23. Function for displaying Rupees in Words. 24. Function for displaying Numbers in Words 25. Query for deleting alternate even rows FROM a table. 26. Query for deleting alternate odd rows FROM a table. 27. Procedure for sending Email. 28. Alternate Query for DECODE function. 29. Create table adding Constraint to a date field to SYSDATE or 3 months later. 30. Query to list all the suppliers who r supplying all the parts supplied by supplier 'S2'. 31. Query to get the last Sunday of any month. 32. Query to get all those who have no children themselves. 33. Query to SELECT last N rows FROM a table. 34. SELECT with variables. 35. Query to get the DB Name. 36. Getting the current default schema. 37. Query to get all the column names of a particular table. 38. Spool only the query result to a file in SQLPLUS. 39. Query for getting the current SessionID. 40. Query to display rows FROM m to n. 41. Query to count no. Of columns in a table. 42. Procedure to increase the buffer length. 43. Inserting an & symbol in a Varchar2 column. 44. Removing Trailing blanks in a spooled file. 45. Samples for executing Dynamic SQL Statements. 46. Differences between SQL and MS-Access. 47. Query to display all the children, sub children of a parent. 48. Procedure to read/write data from/to a text file. 49. Query to display random number between any two given numbers.

50. Time difference between two date columns. 51. Using INSTR and SUBSTR 52. View procedure code 53. To convert signed number to number in oracle 54. Columns of a table 55. Delete rows conditionally 56.CLOB to Char 57.Change Settings 58.Double quoting a Single quoted String 59.Time Conversion 60.Table comparison 61.Running Jobs 62.Switching Columns 63.Replace and Round 64.First date of the year 65.Create Sequence 66.Cursors 67.Current Week 68. Create Query to restrict the user to a single row. 69. Query to get the first inserted record FROM a table. 70. Concatenate a column value with multiple rows. 71. Query to delete all the tables at once. 72. SQL Query for getting Orphan Records.

1. The following query retrieves "2" highest paid employees FROM each Department : SELECT deptno, empno, sal FROM emp e WHERE 2 > ( SELECT COUNT(e1.sal) FROM emp e1 WHERE e.deptno = e1.deptno AND e.sal < e1.sal ) ORDER BY 1,3 DESC; Index 2. Query that will display the total no. of employees, and of that total the number who were hired in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. Give appropriate column headings. I am looking at the following output. We need to stick to this format. Total ----------14 1980 -----------1 1981 -----------10 1982 ------------2 1983 ----------1

SELECT COUNT (*), COUNT(DECODE(TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'),'1980', empno)) "1980", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1981', empno)) "1981", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1982', empno)) "1982", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1983', empno)) "1983"

FROM emp; Index 3. Query for listing Deptno, ename, sal, SUM(sal in that dept) : SELECT a.deptno, ename, sal, (SELECT SUM(sal) FROM emp b WHERE a.deptno = b.deptno) FROM emp a ORDER BY a.deptno; OUTPUT : ======= DEPTNO ========= 10 30 10 10 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 Index 4. Create a matrix query to display the job, the salary for that job based on department number, and the total salary for that job for all departments, giving each column an appropriate heading. The output is as follows - we need to stick to this format : Job ---------ANALYST CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN Dept 10 --------------1300 2450 5000 Dept 20 ------------6000 1900 2975 Dept 30 ------------950 2850 5600 Total --------6000 4150 8275 5000 5600

ENAME SAL ======= ==== KING 5000 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 ALLEN 1600 TURNER 1500 JAMES 950 WARD 2750 SMITH 8000 SCOTT 3000 MILLER 20000

SUM (SAL) ========= 11725 10900 11725 11725 10900 10900 10900 10900 10900 33000 33000 33000

SELECT job "Job", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 10, sal)) "Dept 10", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 20, sal)) "Dept 20", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 30, sal)) "Dept 30", SUM (sal) "Total" FROM emp GROUP BY job ; Index th 5. 4 Top Salary of all the employees :

SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP A WHERE 3 = (SELECT COUNT(B.SAL) FROM EMP B WHERE A.SAL < B.SAL) ORDER BY SAL DESC; Index 6. Retrieving the 5th row FROM a table : SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP WHERE ROWID = (SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM <= 5 MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 5) Index 7. Tree Query : Name Null? Type ------------------------------------------------------------------SUB NOT NULL VARCHAR2(4) SUPER VARCHAR2(4) PRICE NUMBER(6,2)

SELECT sub, super FROM parts CONNECT BY PRIOR sub = super START WITH sub = 'p1'; Index 8. Eliminate duplicates rows in a table : DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE ROWID > ( SELECT min(ROWID) FROM table_name B WHERE A.col = B.col); Index 9. Displaying EVERY 4th row in a table : (If a table has 14 rows, 4,8,12 rows will be selected) SELECT * FROM emp WHERE (ROWID,0) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,4) FROM emp); Index 10. Top N rows FROM a table : (Displays top 9 salaried people) SELECT ename, deptno, sal

FROM (SELECT * FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC) WHERE ROWNUM < 10; Index 11. How does one count/sum RANGES of data values in a column? A value x will be between values y and z if GREATEST(x, y) = LEAST(x, z). SELECT f2, COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,59), least(f1,100), 1, 0)) "Range 60-100", COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,30), least(f1, 59), 1, 0)) "Range 30-59", COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,29), least(f1, 0), 1, 0)) "Range 00-29" FROM my_table GROUP BY f2; Index 12. For equal size ranges it migth be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range), 0, rate_0, 1, rate_1, ...). SELECT ename "Name", sal "Salary", DECODE( TRUNC(sal/1000, 0), 0, 0.0, 1, 0.1, 2, 0.2, 3, 0.3) "Tax rate" FROM emp; 13. How does one count different data values in a column? COL NAME DATATYPE ---------------------------------------DNO NUMBER SEX CHAR SELECT dno, SUM(DECODE(sex,'M',1,0)) MALE, SUM(DECODE(sex,'F',1,0)) FEMALE, COUNT(DECODE(sex,'M',1,'F',1)) TOTAL FROM t1 GROUP BY dno; Index 14. Query to get the product of all the values of a column : SELECT EXP(SUM(LN(col1))) FROM srinu; Index 15. Query to display only the duplicate records in a table: SELECT num FROM satyam GROUP BY num HAVING COUNT(*) > 1;

Index 16. Query for getting the following output as many number of rows in the table : * ** *** **** ***** SELECT RPAD(DECODE(temp,temp,'*'),ROWNUM,'*') FROM srinu1; Index 17. Function for getting the Balance Value : FUNCTION F_BALANCE_VALUE (p_business_group_id number, p_payroll_action_id number, p_balance_name varchar2, p_dimension_name varchar2) RETURN NUMBER IS l_bal number; l_defined_bal_id number; l_assignment_action_id number; BEGIN SELECT assignment_action_id INTO l_assignment_action_id FROM pay_assignment_actions WHERE assignment_id = :p_assignment_id AND payroll_action_id = p_payroll_action_id; SELECT defined_balance_id INTO l_defined_bal_id FROM pay_balance_types pbt, pay_defined_balances pdb, pay_balance_dimensions pbd WHERE pbt.business_group_id = p_business_group_id AND UPPER(pbt.balance_name) = UPPER(p_balance_name) AND pbt.business_group_id = pdb.business_group_id AND pbt.balance_type_id = pdb.balance_type_id AND UPPER(pbd.dimension_name) = UPPER(p_dimension_name) AND pdb.balance_dimension_id = pbd.balance_dimension_id; l_bal := pay_balance_pkg.get_value(l_defined_bal_id,l_assignment_action_id); RETURN (l_bal); exception

END; Index

WHEN no_data_found THEN RETURN 0;

18. Function for getting the Element Value : FUNCTION f_element_value( p_classification_name in varchar2, p_element_name in varchar2, p_business_group_id in number, p_input_value_name in varchar2, p_payroll_action_id in number, p_assignment_id in number ) RETURN number IS l_element_value number(14,2) default 0; l_input_value_id pay_input_values_f.input_value_id%type; l_element_type_id pay_element_types_f.element_type_id%type; BEGIN SELECT DISTINCT element_type_id INTO l_element_type_id FROM pay_element_types_f pet, pay_element_classifications pec WHERE pet.classification_id = pec.classification_id AND upper(classification_name) = upper(p_classification_name) AND upper(element_name) = upper(p_element_name) AND pet.business_group_id = p_business_group_id; SELECT input_value_id INTO l_input_value_id FROM pay_input_values_f WHERE upper(name) = upper(p_input_value_name) AND element_type_id = l_element_type_id; SELECT NVL(prrv.result_value,0) INTO l_element_value FROM pay_run_result_values prrv, pay_run_results prr, pay_assignment_actions paa WHERE prrv.run_result_id = prr.run_result_id AND prr.assignment_ACTION_ID = paa.assignment_action_id AND paa.assignment_id = p_assignment_id AND input_value_id = l_input_value_id AND paa.payroll_action_id = p_payroll_action_id; RETURN (l_element_value); exception WHEN no_data_found THEN RETURN 0; END;

Index 19. SELECT Query for counting No of words : SELECT ename, NVL(LENGTH(REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY Z'' ',' @'),' ',''))+1,1) word_length FROM emp; Explanation : TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @') -- This will translate all the characters FROM A-Z including a single quote to a space. It will also translate a space to a @. REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @'),' ','') -- This will replace every space with nothing in the above result. LENGTH(REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @'),' ',''))+1 -- This will give u the count of @ characters in the above result. Index 20. Function to check for a leap year : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION is_leap_year (p_date IN DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS v_test DATE; BEGIN v_test := TO_DATE ('29-Feb-' || TO_CHAR (p_date,'YYYY'),'DD-Mon-YYYY'); RETURN 'Y'; EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN RETURN 'N'; END is_leap_year; SQL> SELECT hiredate, TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'Day') weekday FROM emp WHERE is_leap_year (hiredate) = 'Y'; Index 21. Query for removing all non-numeric : SELECT TRANSLATE(LOWER(ssn),'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz- ','') FROM DUAL; Index 22. Query for translating a column values to INITCAP : SELECT TRANSLATE(INITCAP(temp),

SUBSTR(temp, INSTR(temp,'''')+1,1), LOWER(SUBSTR(temp, INSTR(temp,'''')+1))) FROM srinu1; Index 23. Function for displaying Rupees in Words : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION RUPEES_IN_WORDS(amt IN NUMBER) RETURN CHAR IS amount NUMBER(10,2); v_length INTEGER := 0; v_num2 VARCHAR2 (50) := NULL; v_amount VARCHAR2 (50); v_word VARCHAR2 (4000) := NULL; v_word1 VARCHAR2 (4000) := NULL; TYPE myarray IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (255); v_str myarray := myarray (' thousand ', ' lakh ', ' crore ', ' arab ', ' kharab ', ' shankh '); BEGIN amount := amt; IF ((amount = 0) OR (amount IS NULL)) THEN v_word := 'zero'; ELSIF (TO_CHAR (amount) LIKE '%.%') THEN IF (SUBSTR (amount, INSTR (amount, '.') + 1) > 0) THEN v_num2 := SUBSTR (amount, INSTR (amount, '.') + 1); IF (LENGTH (v_num2) < 2) THEN v_num2 := v_num2 * 10; END IF; v_word1 := ' AND ' || (TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_num2, LENGTH (v_num2) - 1,2), 'J'), 'JSP' ))|| ' paise '; v_amount := SUBSTR(amount,1,INSTR (amount, '.')-1); v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_amount, LENGTH (v_amount) 2,3), 'J'), 'Jsp' ) || v_word; v_amount := SUBSTR (v_amount, 1, LENGTH (v_amount) - 3); FOR i in 1 .. v_str.COUNT LOOP EXIT WHEN (v_amount IS NULL); v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_amount, LENGTH (v_amount) - 1,2), 'J'), 'Jsp' ) || v_str (i) || v_word; v_amount := SUBSTR (v_amount, 1, LENGTH (v_amount) 2); END LOOP; END IF; ELSE v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (amount, LENGTH (amount) 2,3), 'J'), 'Jsp' ); amount := SUBSTR (amount, 1, LENGTH (amount) - 3); FOR i in 1 .. v_str.COUNT LOOP EXIT WHEN (amount IS NULL);

v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (amount, LENGTH (amount) - 1,2), 'J'), 'Jsp' ) || v_str (i) || v_word; amount := SUBSTR (amount, 1, LENGTH (amount) - 2); END LOOP; END IF; v_word := v_word || ' ' || v_word1 || ' only '; v_word := REPLACE (RTRIM (v_word), ' ', ' '); v_word := REPLACE (RTRIM (v_word), '-', ' '); END; Index 24. Function for displaying Numbers in Words: SELECT TO_CHAR( TO_DATE( SUBSTR( TO_CHAR(5373484),1),'j'),'Jsp') FROM DUAL; Only up to integers from 1 to 5373484 Index 25. Query for deleting alternate even rows FROM a table : DELETE FROM srinu WHERE (ROWID,0) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,2) FROM srinu); Index 26. Query for deleting alternate odd rows FROM a table : DELETE FROM srinu WHERE (ROWID,1) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,2) FROM srinu); Index 27. Procedure for sending Email : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE Send_Mail IS sender VARCHAR2(50) := 'sender@something.com'; recipient VARCHAR2(50) := 'recipient@something.com'; subject VARCHAR2(100) := 'Test Message'; message VARCHAR2(1000) := 'This is a sample mail ....'; lv_mailhost VARCHAR2(30) := 'HOTNT002'; l_mail_conn utl_smtp.connection; lv_crlf VARCHAR2(2):= CHR( 13 ) || CHR( 10 ); BEGIN l_mail_conn := utl_smtp.open_connection (lv_mailhost, 80); utl_smtp.helo ( l_mail_conn, lv_mailhost); utl_smtp.mail ( l_mail_conn, sender); RETURN INITCAP (v_word);

utl_smtp.rcpt ( l_mail_conn, recipient); utl_smtp.open_data (l_mail_conn); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'FROM: ' || sender || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'To: ' || recipient || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'Subject:' || subject || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, lv_crlf || message); utl_smtp.close_data(l_mail_conn); utl_smtp.quit(l_mail_conn); EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Error'); END; / Index 28. Alternate Query for DECODE function : SELECT case WHEN sex = 'm' THEN 'male' WHEN sex = 'f' THEN 'female' ELSE 'unknown' END FROM mytable; Index 29. Create table adding Constraint to a date field to SYSDATE or 3 months later: CREATE TABLE srinu(dt1 date DEFAULT SYSDATE, dt2 date, CONSTRAINT check_dt2 CHECK ((dt2 >= dt1) AND (dt2 <= ADD_MONTHS(SYSDATE,3))); Index 30. Query to list all the suppliers who supply all the parts supplied by supplier 'S2' : SELECT DISTINCT a.SUPP FROM ORDERS a WHERE a.supp != 'S2' AND a.parts IN (SELECT DISTINCT PARTS FROM ORDERS WHERE supp = 'S2') GROUP BY a.SUPP HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT a.PARTS) >= (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT PARTS) FROM ORDERS WHERE supp = 'S2'); Table : orders SUPP PARTS -------------------- ------S1 P1 S1 P2 S1 P3

S1 S1 S1 S2 S2 S3 S4 S4 S4 Index

P4 P5 P6 P1 P2 P2 P2 P4 P5

31. Query to get the last Sunday of any month : SELECT NEXT_DAY(LAST_DAY(TO_DATE('26-10-2001','DD-MM-YYYY')) - 7,'sunday') FROM DUAL; Index 32. Query to get all those who have no children themselves : table data : id name parent_id ------------------------------1 a NULL - the top level entry 2 b 1 - a child of 1 3 c 1 4 d 2 - a child of 2 5 e 2 6 f 3 7 g 3 8 h 4 9 i 8 10 j 9 SELECT ID FROM MY_TABlE WHERE PARENT_ID IS NOT NULL MINUS SELECT PARENT_ID FROM MY_TABlE; Index 33. Query to SELECT last N rows FROM a table : SELECT empno FROM emp WHERE ROWID in (SELECT ROWID FROM emp MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM emp WHERE ROWNUM <= (SELECT COUNT(*)-5 FROM emp)); Index 34. SELECT with variables:

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE disp AS xTableName varchar2(25):='emp'; xFieldName varchar2(25):='ename'; xValue NUMBER; xQuery varchar2(100); name varchar2(10) := 'CLARK'; BEGIN xQuery := 'SELECT SAL FROM ' || xTableName || ' WHERE ' || xFieldName || ' = ''' || name || ''''; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(xQuery); EXECUTE IMMEDIATE xQuery INTO xValue; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(xValue); END; Index 35. Query to get the DB Name: SELECT name FROM v\$database; Index 36. Getting the current default schema : SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','CURRENT_SCHEMA') FROM DUAL; Index 37. Query to get all the column names of a particular table : SELECT column_name FROM all_tab_columns WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'ORDERS'; Index 38. How do I spool only the query result to a file in SQLPLUS : Place the following lines of code in a file and execute the file in SQLPLUS : set heading off set feedback off set colsep ' ' set termout off set verify off spool c:\srini.txt SELECT empno,ename FROM emp; /* Write your Query here */ spool off / Index

39. Query for getting the current SessionID : SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','SESSIONID') Session_ID FROM DUAL; Index 40. Query to display rows FROM m to n : To display rows 5 to 7 : SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP WHERE ROWID IN (SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM <= 7 MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 5); OR SELECT ename FROM emp GROUP BY ROWNUM, ename HAVING ROWNUM > 1 and ROWNUM < 3; Index 41. Query to count no. Of columns in a table: SELECT COUNT(column_name) FROM user_tab_columns WHERE table_name = 'MYTABLE'; Index 42. Procedure to increase the buffer length : dbms_output.enable(4000); /*allows the output buffer to be increased to the specified number of bytes */ DECLARE BEGIN dbms_output.enable(4000); FOR i IN 1..400 LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(i); END LOOP; END; / Index 43. Inserting an & symbol in a Varchar2 column :

Set the following to some other character. By default it is &. set define '~' Index

44. How do you remove

Trailing blanks in a spooled file :

Change the Environment Options Like this : set trimspool on set trimout on Index 45. Samples for executing Dynamic SQL Statements : Sample :1 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE CNT(P_TABLE_NAME IN VARCHAR2) AS SqlString VARCHAR2(200); tot number; BEGIN SqlString:='SELECT COUNT(*) FROM '|| P_TABLE_NAME; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE SqlString INTO tot; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Total No.Of Records In ' || P_TABLE_NAME || ' ARE=' || tot); END; Sample :2 DECLARE sql_stmt VARCHAR2(200); plsql_block VARCHAR2(500); emp_id NUMBER(4) := 7566; salary NUMBER(7,2); dept_id NUMBER(2) := 50; dept_name VARCHAR2(14) := ’PERSONNEL’; location VARCHAR2(13) := ’DALLAS’; emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE; BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'CREATE TABLE bonus (id NUMBER, amt NUMBER)'; sql_stmt := 'INSERT INTO dept VALUES (:1, :2, :3)'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING dept_id, dept_name, location; sql_stmt := 'SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno = :id'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt INTO emp_rec USING emp_id; plsql_block := 'BEGIN emp_pkg.raise_salary(:id, :amt); END;'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE plsql_block USING 7788, 500; sql_stmt := 'UPDATE emp SET sal = 2000 WHERE empno = :1 RETURNING sal INTO :2'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING emp_id RETURNING INTO salary;

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DELETE FROM dept WHERE deptno = :num' USING dept_id; END; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE ’ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE TRUE’;

Sample 3 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE DEPARTMENTS(NO IN DEPT.DEPTNO%TYPE) AS v_cursor integer; v_dname char(20); v_rows integer; BEGIN v_cursor := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; DBMS_SQL.PARSE(v_cursor, 'select dname from dept where deptno > :x', DBMS_SQL.V7); DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE(v_cursor, ':x', no); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN_CHAR(v_cursor, 1, v_dname, 20); v_rows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE(v_cursor); LOOP IF DBMS_SQL.FETCH_ROWS(v_cursor) = 0 THEN EXIT; END IF; DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE_CHAR(v_cursor, 1, v_dname); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Deptartment name: '||v_dname); END LOOP; DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR(v_cursor); EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR(v_cursor); raise_application_error(-20000, 'Unknown Exception Raised: '||sqlcode||' '|| sqlerrm); END; Index 46.Differences between SQL and MS-Access : Difference 1: Oracle : select name from table1 where name like 'k%'; Access: select name from table1 where name like 'k*'; Difference 2: Access: SELECT TOP 2 name FROM Table1; Oracle : will not work there is no such TOP key word. Index 47. Query to display all the children, sub children of a parent : SELECT organization_id,name FROM hr_all_organization_units WHERE organization_id in ( SELECT ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD FROM PER_ORG_STRUCTURE_ELEMENTS CONNECT BY PRIOR

ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD = ORGANIZATION_ID_PARENT START WITH ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD = (SELECT organization_id FROM hr_all_organization_units WHERE name = 'EBG Corporate Group')); Index 48. Procedure to read/write data from a text file : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE read_data AS c_path varchar2(100) := '/usr/tmp'; c_file_name varchar2(20) := 'EKGSEP01.CSV'; v_file_id utl_file.file_type; v_buffer varchar2(1022) := This is a sample text’; BEGIN v_file_id := UTL_FILE.FOPEN(c_path,c_file_name,'w'); UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE(v_file_id, v_buffer); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(v_file_id); v_file_id := UTL_FILE.FOPEN(c_path,c_file_name,'r'); UTL_FILE.GET_LINE(v_file_id, v_buffer); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v_buffer); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(v_file_id); END; / Index 49. Query to display random number between any two given numbers : SELECT DBMS_RANDOM.VALUE (1,2) FROM DUAL; Index 50. How can I get the time difference between two date columns : SELECT FLOOR((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600) || ' HOURS ' || FLOOR((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60) || ' MINUTES ' || ROUND((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600 (FLOOR((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60)*60))) || ' SECS ' time_difference FROM my_table; Index

51. Using INSTR and SUBSTR I have this string in a column named location LOT 8 CONC3 RR Using instr and substr, I want to take whatever value follows LOT and put it into a different column and whatever value follows CONC and put it into a different column select substr('LOT 8 CONC3 RR',4,instr('LOT 8 CONC3 RR','CONC')-4) from dual; select substr('LOT 8 CONC3 RR',-(length('LOT 8 CONC3 RR')-(instr('LOT 8 CONC3 RR','CONC')+3))) from dual Index 52. View procedure code select text from all_source where name = 'X' order by line; select text from user_source where name = 'X' select text from user_source where type = 'procedure' and name='procedure_name'; select name,text from dba_source where name='ur_procedure' and owner='scott'; Index 53. To convert signed number to number in oracle select to_number('-999,999.99', 's999,999.99') from dual; select to_number('+0,123.45', 's999,999,999.99') from dual; select to_number('+999,999.99', 's999,999.99') from dual; Index 54. Columns of a table -999,999.99 123.45 999,999.99

select select select select Index

column_name column_name column_name column_name

from from from from

user_tab_columns where TABLE_NAME = 'EMP' all_tab_columns where TABLE_NAME = 'EMP' dba_tab_columns where TABLE_NAME = 'EMP' cols where TABLE_NAME = 'EMP'

55. Delete rows conditionally I have a table have a,b,c field, a,b should be unique, and leave max(c) row in. How can I delete other rows? delete from 'table' where (a,b,c) not in (select a,b,max(c) from 'table' group by a,b); Index 56.CLOB to Char 1) This function helps if your clob column value not exceed 4000 bytes (varchar2 limit).if clob column's data exceeds 4000 limit, you have to follow different approach. create or replace function lob_to_char(clob_col clob) return varchar2 IS buffer varchar2(4000); amt BINARY_INTEGER := 4000; pos INTEGER := 1; l clob; bfils bfile; l_var varchar2(4000):=''; begin LOOP if dbms_lob.getlength(clob_col)<=4000 THEN dbms_lob.read (clob_col, amt, pos, buffer); l_var := l_var||buffer; pos:=pos+amt; ELSE l_var:= 'Cannot convert to varchar2..Exceeding varchar2 field limit'; exit; END IF; END LOOP; return l_var; EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN return l_var; END;

2) CREATE GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE temp_tab(id number,varchar_col varchar2(4000)); SQL> var r refcursor SQL> exec lobpkg.lob_to_char(:r); SQL> print r create or replace package lobpkg is type ref1 is ref cursor; n number:=0; PROCEDURE lob_to_char(rvar IN OUT lobpkg.ref1) ; end; / create or replace package body lobpkg is PROCEDURE lob_to_char(rvar IN OUT lobpkg.ref1) IS buffer varchar2(4000); amt BINARY_INTEGER := 4000; pos INTEGER := 1; l clob; r lobpkg.ref1; bfils bfile; l_var varchar2(4000):=''; CURSOR C1 IS SELECT * FROM clob_tab; -- change clob_tab to your_table_name begin n:=n+1; FOR crec IN c1 LOOP amt:=4000; pos:=1; BEGIN LOOP --change crec.clob_col to crec.your_column_name dbms_lob.read (crec.clob_col, amt, pos, buffer); --change next line if you create temporary table with different name insert into temp_tab values (n,buffer); pos:=pos+amt; END LOOP; EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN NULL; END; END LOOP; --change next line if you create temporary table with different name open rvar for select vchar from temp_tab where id=n;

END; END; Index

57. Change Settings Open file oracle_home\plus32\glogin.sql and add this set linesize 100 set pagewidth 20 and save the file and exit from sql and reload then it will set it. Index 58. Double quoting a Single quoted String declare -- we need one here to get a single quote into the variable v_str varchar2 (20) := 'O''reilly''s'; begin DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'original single quoted v_str= ' || v_str ); v_str := replace(v_str, '''', ''''''); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'after double quoted v_str= ' || v_str ); end; SQL> / original single quoted v_str= O'reilly's after double quoted v_str= O''reilly''s Index 59. Time Conversion CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION to_hms (i_days IN number) RETURN varchar2 IS BEGIN RETURN TO_CHAR (TRUNC (i_days)) &#124&#124 ' days ' &#124&#124 TO_CHAR (TRUNC (SYSDATE) + MOD (i_days, 1), 'HH24:MI:SS'); END to_hms; select to_hms(to_date('17-Jan-2002 13:20:20', 'dd-Mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss') to_date('11-Jan-2002 11:05:05', 'dd-Mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss')) from dual;

Index 60. Table comparison The table in both the schemas should have exactly the same structure. The data in it could be same or different a-b and b-a select * from a.a minus select * from b.a and select * from b.a minus select * from a.a Index 61.Running Jobs select * from user_jobs; exec dbms_job.remove(job_no); Index 62.Switching Columns Update tblname Set column1 = column2, Column2 = column1; Index 63.Replace and Round I have the number e.g. 63,9823874012983 and I want to round it to 63,98 and at the same time change the , to a . select round(replace('63,9823874012983',',','.'),2) from dual; Index 64.First date of the year select trunc(sysdate, 'y') from dual; 01-jan-2002 last year this month through a select statement select add_months(sysdate, -12) from dual; 05-APR-01 Index 65.Create Sequence create sequence sh increment by 1 start with 0; Index

66.Cursors cursor is someting like pointers in C language. u fetch the data using cursor.( wiz...store it somewhere temporarily). u can do any manipulation to the data that is fetched by the cursor. like trim, padd, concat or validate. all this are done in temporary areas called as context area or the cursor area. u can insert this data again in some other table or do anything u want!!...like setting up some flags etc. U can display the contents of cursor using the dbms_output only. U can create an anonymous plsql block or a stored procedure. the major advantage of cursors is that you can fetch more thatn one row and u can loop through the resultset and do the manupulations in a secure manner. set serveroutput on; declare cursor c1 is select * from emp; begin for var in c1 loop exit when c1%notfound; dbms_output.put_line('the employee' &#124&#124 var.ename &#124&#124'draws a salary of '&#124&#124 var.sal); end loop; end; Index 67.Current Week select next_day(sysdate-7,'SUNDAY'), next_day(sysdate,'SATURDAY') from dual; NEXT_DAY( NEXT_DAY( --------- --------07-APR-02 13-APR-02 Index 68.Create Query to restrict the user to a single row 69.Query to get the first inserted record FROM a table 70.How to concatenate a column value with multiple rows 71.Query to delete all the tables at once 72.SQL Query for getting Orphan Records : Index