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U.N. - The Use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes

U.N. - The Use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes

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Published by Tyler E. West
U.N. Briefing analysis the patterns and scope of current trends in surveillance technology and exploiting the internet for terrorist purposes.
U.N. Briefing analysis the patterns and scope of current trends in surveillance technology and exploiting the internet for terrorist purposes.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Tyler E. West on Dec 21, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/30/2014

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The United Kingdom has pioneered legislation to counter use of the Internet for ter-
rorist purposes over the past decade; we have had considerable success in tackling online
terrorist activity within the country’s borders, while doing our utmost to uphold free-
doms and benefts that the Internet has brought to our citizens.

However, we recognize that the threat is transnational by its very nature. Only by tak-
ing action together can the international community hope to tackle terrorist use of the
Internet effectively.

The British Government therefore welcomes the opportunity to support UNODC in
producing the publication that you are about to read. We hope that it will rapidly
become a useful tool for legislators, law enforcement offcials and criminal justice
practitioners to develop and implement legal frameworks that will effectively disrupt
terrorists’ activities online. If so, it will make a valuable contribution to making our
communities—both real and virtual—safer places.

Simon Shercliff

Sue Hemming OBE

Head, Counter Terrorism (Ops)
Department Foreign and
Commonwealth Offce

Head of the Special Crime and Counter
Terrorism Division
Crown Prosecution Service

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Contents

Page

Foreword

v

Executive Director United Nations Offce on Drugs and Crime ............

v

Secretary-General’s Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force .......... vi

Government of the United Kingdom ................................. vii

Background

1

I Use of the Internet for terrorist purposes

3

A. Introduction ............................................

3

B. Means by which the Internet is utilized for terrorist purposes .....

3

C. Uses of the Internet for countering terrorist activity ............. 12

D. Rule-of-law considerations ................................. 13

II The international context 15

A. Introduction ............................................ 15

B. United Nations counter-terrorism resolutions .................. 16

C. Universal counter-terrorism legal instruments .................. 17

D. International human rights law ............................. 19

E. Regional and subregional counter-terrorism legal instruments ..... 20

F. Model legislation ........................................ 23

III Policy and legislative frameworks 27

A. Introduction ............................................ 27

B. Policy ................................................. 27

C. Legislation ............................................. 31

IV Investigations and intelligence-gathering 53

A. Tools in the commission of terrorist offences involving the Internet . 53

B. Investigations of terrorist cases involving the Internet ............ 60

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Page

C. Forensic data preservation and recovery ...................... 64

D. Supporting the authentication of digital evidence ............... 67

E. Operational cybercrime units ............................... 68

F. Intelligence-gathering ..................................... 70

G. Training ............................................... 72

V International cooperation 73

A. Introduction ............................................ 73

B. Instruments and arrangements relating to international cooperation . 73

C. National legislative frameworks ............................. 82

D. Non-legislative measures .................................. 83

E. Formal versus informal cooperation .......................... 89

F. Challenges and issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

VI Prosecutions 101

A. Introduction ............................................ 101

B. A rule-of-law approach to criminal prosecutions ................ 101

C. Role of prosecutors in terrorism cases ........................ 102

D. The investigative phase ................................... 103

E. International cooperation .................................. 106

F. The charging phase ...................................... 106

G. The trial phase: evidential issues ............................ 107

H. Other issues ............................................ 120

VII Private sector cooperation 123

A. The role of private sector stakeholders ....................... 123

B. Public-private partnerships ................................. 130

VIII Conclusion 133

A. Use of the Internet for terrorist purposes ..................... 133

B. The international context .................................. 133

C. Policy and legislative frameworks ............................ 134

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Page

D. Investigations and intelligence-gathering ...................... 136

E. International cooperation .................................. 136

F. Prosecutions ............................................ 139

G. Private sector cooperation ................................. 141

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