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NC jagan

# NC jagan

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09/20/2015

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29

..... (2.48)

..... (2.49)

Fluid systems are those systems in which liquid or gas filled tanks are connected through pipes,
tubes, orifices, valves and other flow restricting devices. Compressibility of a fluid is an important
property which influences the perfonnance of fluid systems. If the velocity of sound in fluids is very
high, compared to the fluid velocity, the compressibility can be disregarded. Hence compressibility
effects are neglected in liquid systems. However compressibility plays an important role in gas systems.

The type offluid flow, laminar or turbulent, is another important parameter in fluid systems. If the
Reynolds number is greater than 4000, the flow is said to be turbulent and if the Reynolds number is
less than 2000, it is said to be laminar flow.

For turbulent flow through pipes, orifices, valves and other flow restricting devices, the flow is
found from Bernoulli's law and is given by

q =KA ~2g(hl -h2)

..... (2.50)

where

q ~ liquid flow rate, m3

/sec

K ~ a flow constant

A ~ area of restriction, m2

g is acceleration due to gravity, mlsec2

The turbulent resistance is found from

..... (2.51)

It can be seen that the flow resistance depends on hand q and therefore it is non linear. It has to
be linearised around the operating point and used over a small range around this point.

The laminar flow resistance is found from the Poisseuille -Hagen law "

128j..lL

hi -h2 = nyD4 q

..... (2.52)

where

L ~ length of the tube, m

D ~ inside diameter of the pipe, m

30

q ~ liquid flow rate, m3

/sec

m ~ absolute viscosity, kg-sec/m2

y ~ fluid density kg/m3

Control Systems

Since the flow is laminar, head is directly proportional to the flow rate and hence, laminar flow

resistance is given by

R = 128 ~ sec/m2

1tYD4

Liquid storage tanks are characterised by the capacitance and is defined by,

dv

C=-m2

dh

..... (2.53)

..... (2.54)

where v ~ volume of the liquid tank in m3

. Hence the capacitance ofa tank is given by its area

of cross section at a given liquid surface.

Gas systems consisting of pressure vessels, connecting pipes, valves etc. may be analysed by
using the fundamental law of flow of compressible gases. Again, we have to consider two types of
flow: turbulent and laminar flow. For turbulent flow through pipes, orifices, valves etc., we have

where

0)=KAY~2g (pl -P2)Y

0) ~ flow rate, kg/sec

K ~ flow constant

A ~ area of restriction, m2

y ~ gas density, kg/m3

p ~ pressure in kg/m2

Turbulent gas flow resistance is therefore given by

R= ~ sec/m2

dw

..... (2.55)

..... (2.56)

This is not easy to determine since the rational expansion factor depends on pressure. Usually the
resistance is determined from a plot of pressure against flow rate for a given device.

The laminar gas flow resistance is obtained using eqn. (2.50).

P_l~ ______ ~I~rl ________ P~2

resistance R

Fig. 2.19 Gas resistance and capacitance

The capacitance parameter for pressure vessels is defined as

dv
C =--
dp

Capacitance C

..... (2.57)

Mathematical Modelling 0/ Physical Systems

where

v -+ weight of gas in vessel, kg
p -+ pressure kg/m2

The flow rate and the gas pressure are related by the continuity law :

dp
C-=0)
dt
Where OJ is the flow rate in kg/sec.

31

..... (2.58)

Let us now consider some thennal and fluid systems and obtain their transfer functions.

Example 2.6

Find the transfer function C(s) of the thennal system shown in Fig. 2.20. Heat is supplied by
yes)
convection to a copper rod of diameter O.

Fig. 2.20 Thermal System

Solution:

u (temperature)

-..

Convection

Copper rod

C (temperature)

4+--

The Thennal resistance of the copper rod, from eqn. (2.45), is;

I

R=-

HA
Here A is the surface area of the rod.
Hence

A = 7t OL

where L is the length of the rod.

I

. .

R = 7t OL deg sec/J

The thennal capacitance of the rod, from eqn. (2.49), is given by :
C=WC

p

7t02

L
= -4-pCp

where, C

p is the specific heat of copper

and

p is the density of copper.
From eqn. (2.43), we have, q = HA (u -c) and from eqn. (2.48),

dc
C -=q
dt
Combining these two equations,

dc I
C -=-(u-c)
dt R

32

C dc +~=~
dt R R

dc
RC -+c=u
dt
where RC = T is the time constant of the system.

dc

T-+c=u

dt

1

1t02

L

T=RC= --x--pCp

1tDLH

4

But

= DpCp
4H
Thus the transfer function of the system is,

C(s)
--=--where
U(s) Ts+l

DpC

p

T=--

4H

Control Systems

Example 2.7

Obtain the transfer function C(s) for the system shown in Fig. 2.21. c is the displacement of the
U(s)

piston with mass M.

u, pressure

~

B,damping

f-M, mass

Gas

~:Area

Fig. 2.21 A fluid system

Solution: The system is a combination of mechanical system with mass M, damping B and a gas
system subjected to pressure.

The equilibrium equation is

Me +Bc=A[U-P

g]

..... (2.1)

Where P g is the upward pressure exerted by the compressed gas. For a small change in displacement
of mass, the pressure exerted is equal to,

P

P = -

Ac

g

V

where, P is the pressure exerted by the gas with a volume of gas under the piston to be V

But

PV= WRT

where, R is the gas constant.

Mathematical Modelling of Physical Systems

and T is the temperature of the gas.

WRT

p = ---v-

WRT

P = --Ac

g

y2

Substituting eqn. (2) in eqn. (1) we have,

WRT
Me + B c + --2-A 2c = A u
Y

The transfer function is,

C(s)

A

U(s) MS2 +Bs+K

WRT 2
where K = --P:.

y2

Example 2.8

Obtain the transfer function for the liquid level system shown in Fig. 2.22.

c

Fig. 2.22 Liquid level system

Solution: The capacitance of the vessel is C = A

where A is the area of cross section of the vessel.

The outflow q is equal to,

c

q= -

R

where R is the laminar flow resistance of the valve.

c

A c = (u -q) = u --

R

c

Ac + -= u

R

The transfer function is

C(s)

R

--=---

u(s) RAs+l

R

33

...... (2)

34

Control Systems

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