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com for more notes, presentations, Project reports etc. Social Security and Labour Welfare in India: A review
Social security is one of the pillars on which the structure of a welfare state rests, and it constitutes the hard core of social policy in most countries. It is through social security measures that the state attempts to maintain every citizen at a certain prescribed level below which no one is allowed to fall. It is the security that society furnishes through appropriate organization, against certain risks to which its members are exposed (ILO, 1942). Social security system comprises health and unemployment insurance, family allowances, provident funds, pensions and gratuity schemes, and widows’ and survivors’ allowances. The essential characteristics of social insurance schemes include their compulsory and contributory nature; the members must first subscribe to a fund from which benefits could be drawn later. On the other hand, social assistance is a method according to which benefits are given to the needy persons, fulfilling the prescribed conditions, by the government out of its own resources. The present section reviews labour welfare activities in India with particular emphasis on the unorganized sector. Although provisions for workmen’s compensation in case of industrial accidents and maternity benefits for women workforce had existed for long, a major breakthrough in the field of social security came only after independence. The Constitution of India (Article 41) laid down that the State shall make effective provision for securing the right to public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of underserved want. The Government took several steps in compliance of the constitutional requirements. The Workmen’s Compensation Act (1926) was suitably revised and social insurance programmes were developed for industrial workers. Provident funds and gratuity schemes were introduced in most industries, and maternity legislation was overhauled. Subsequently, State governments instituted their own social assistance programmes. The provisions for old age comprise pension, provident fund, and gratuity schemes. All the three provisions are different forms of retirement

benefits. Gratuity is a lump sum payment made to a worker or to his/her heirs by the company on termination of his/her service due to retirement, invalidity, retrenchment or death (Vajpayee and Shanker, 1950).

Welfare is the provision and maintenance of the conditions of life for individuals by the community. Welfare has a positive and negative aspect. Negative welfare is the provision by the state or other institutions of a “safety net” or the distribution of benefits according to some criteria; so-called positive welfare is the provision of opportunities for people to “help themselves”. This contrast lies behind foreign-aid strategies which concentrate on providing skills or “seed capital” rather than food parcels, for example. The concept of positive and negative welfare is related to the concepts of positive and negative freedom. Marxists support both positive and negative welfare, but recognise that the market inevitably generates inequality and a class of people inevitably the recipients of welfare, who have nothing to sell but their labour power, alongside a class of people who live off the proceeds of exploitation, invariably the providers of welfare. Only by bringing the means of production under thorough going proletarian democracy can the very need for welfare be abolished.

Concept of labour welfare
The concept of labour welfare is flexible and elastic and differs widely with time, region, industry, social values and customs, degree of industrialization, the general socio-economic development of the people and the political ideologies prevailing at a particular time. It is also moulded according to the age-groups, socio-cultural background, marital and economic status and educational level of the workers in various industries

In its broad connotation, the term welfare refers to a state of living of an individual or group in a desirable relationship with total environment – ecological, economic, and social. Conceptually as well as operationally, labour welfare is a part of social welfare which, in turn, is closely linked to the concept and the role of the State. The concept of social welfare, in its narrow contours, has been equated with economic welfare. As these goals are not always be realised by individuals through their efforts alone, the government came into the picture and gradually began to take over the responsibility for the free and full development of human personality of its population. Labour welfare is an extension of the term Welfare and its application to labour. During the industrialisation process, the stress on labour productivity increased; and brought about changes in the thinking on labour welfare. An early study under the UN observed as follows “in our opinion most underdeveloped countries are in the situation that investment in people is likely to prove as productive, in the purely material sense, as any investment in material resources and in many cases, investment in people would lead to a greater increase of the flow of goods and services than would follow upon any comparable investment in material capital” (UN, 1951). The theory that welfare expenditure, especially expenditure on health and education, is productive investment has led to the view that workers could work more productively if they were given a fair deal both at the work place and in the community. The concept of labour welfare has received inspiration from the concepts of democracy and welfare state. Democracy does not simply denote a form of government; it is rather a way of life based on certain values such as equal rights and privileges for all. The operation of welfare services, in actual practice, brings to bear on it different reflections representing the broad cultural and social conditions. In short, labour welfare is the voluntary efforts of the employers to establish, within the existing industrial system, working and sometimes living and cultural conditions of the employees beyond what is required by law, the custom of the industry and the conditions of the market (A. J. Todd, 1933). The constituents of labour welfare included working hours, working conditions, safety, industrial health insurance, workmen’s compensation, provident funds, gratuity, pensions, protection against indebtedness, industrial housing, rest rooms, canteens, crèches, wash places,

” The ILO report refers to labour welfare as “such services. psychological and general well-being of the working population. at improving the working and living conditions of workers and their families. it deals with the provision of opportunities which enable the worker and his family to lead a good life. enjoyment of health. and scholarships and other help for education of employees’ children. family life and social life. Definitions: Labour welfare has been defined in various ways. excursions. cinemas. The word labour means any productive activity. On the positive side. However. though unfortunately no single definition has found universal acceptance. as well as help him to adjust social transition in his work life. therefore. music. social. co-operative stores. which may be established in. and amenities. lunches.toilet facilities. socially and personally. workers’ education. playgrounds. freedom from calamity. the basic characteristics of labour welfare work may be noted thus: . or should aim. labour welfare has both positive and negative sides associated to it. On the negative side it functions in order to nutralise the baneful effects of large scale industrialization and provide a counterbalance to the undesirable social consequences and labour problems which have evolved in the process of this transition. reading rooms. prosperity. holiday rooms. Welfare work in any industry aims. or in the vicinity of undertakings to enable persons employed therein to perform their work in healthy and congenial surroundings and provided with amenities conducive to good health and high morale”. the phrase labour welfare means the adoption of measures to promote the physical. Features: On the basis of the various definitions. theatres. facilities. In a broader sense. The Oxford Dictionary defines labour welfare as “efforts to make life worth living for worker” Chamber’s Dictionary defines welfare as “a state of faring or doing well.

moral. 5. The work generally includes those items of welfare which are over and above what the employees expect as a result of the contract of service from the employers.the employers.1. 4. It may be noted that not only intra-mural but also extra-mural. if they have the necessary funds for the purpose. cultural and intellectual development to make him a good worker. and social. Labour welfare is a very broad term. housing. psychological. undertaken by any of the three agencies. . or these may be undertaken by the government or trade unions. recreation. the term welfare refers to a state of living of an individual or group in a desirable relationship with total environment – ecological. Concept of labour welfare In its broad connotation. or statutory provisions may compel them to make these facilities available. both as a compensation for wear and tear that he undergoes as a part of the production process and also to enable him to sustain and improve upon the basic capacity of contribution to the processes of production. trade unions or the government. 6. economic. The purpose of providing welfare amenities is to bring about development of the whole personality of the worker -his social. crèches. It is the work which is usually undertaken within the premises or in the vicinity of the undertakings for the benefit of the benefit of the employees and the members of their families. arrangements for the transport of labour to and from the work place. economic. These facilities may be provided voluntarily by progressive and enlightened entrepreneurs at their own accord out of their realization of social responsibility towards labour. a good citizen and a good member of the family. “which are all the species of the longer family encompassed by the term ‘labour welfare’.for the physical and mental development of the worker. covering social security and such other activities as medical aid. 2. statutory as well as non-statutory activities. 3. canteens. adult education.

in turn. The theory that welfare expenditure. The operation of welfare services. the stress on labour productivity increased. 1951). As these goals may not always be realised by individuals through their efforts alone. in the purely material sense. labour welfare is a part of social welfare which. During the industrialisation process. in actual practice. health or interpersonal competence of some parts or all of a population” (Willensky and Labeaux. working and sometimes living and cultural conditions of the employees beyond what is required by law. brings to bear on it different reflections representing the broad cultural and social conditions. especially expenditure on health and education. social welfare alludes to “those formally organised and socially sponsored institutions. is closely linked to the concept and the role of the State. . Labour welfare is an extension of the term Welfare and its application to labour. 1962). The concept of labour welfare has received inspiration from the concepts of democracy and welfare state. within the existing industrial system. in its narrow contours. 1933). J. labour welfare is the voluntary efforts of the employers to establish. has been equated with economic welfare. the custom of the industry and the conditions of the market (A. investment in people would lead to a greater increase of the flow of goods and services than would follow upon any comparable investment in material capital” (UN. it is rather a way of life based on certain values such as equal rights and privileges for all. According to Willensky and Labeaux. is productive investment has led to the view that workers could work more productively if they were given a fair deal both at the work place and in the community. agencies and programmes which function to maintain or improve the economic conditions. 1918). Democracy does not simply denote a form of government. Todd. the government came into the picture and gradually began to take over the responsibility for the free and full development of human personality of its population. and brought about changes in the thinking on labour welfare. The concept of social welfare. An early study under the UN observed as follows “in our opinion most underdeveloped countries are in the situation that investment in people is likely to prove as productive. In short.Conceptually as well as operationally. as any investment in material resources and in many cases. Pigou defined it as “that part of general welfare which can be brought directly or indirectly into relations with the measuring rod of money” (Pigou.

During the Ninth Plan period. protection against indebtedness. canteens. 2. Employment generation in all the productive sectors is one of the basic objectives. productivity. lunches. workers’ education. . looking after labour welfare and providing of the necessary support measures for sorting out problem relating to employment of both men and women workers in different sectors will receive priority attention. reading rooms. provident funds. playgrounds. Manpower development to provide adequate labour force of appropriate skills and quality to different sectors essential for rapid socioeconomic development and elimination of the mismatch between skills required and skills available has been a major focus of human resource development activities during the last fifty years. excursions. skill upgradation through suitable training is of utmost importance. Enabling workers to live richer and more satisfactory lives. industrial housing.The constituents of labour welfare included working hours. theatres. Objective is also to eliminate bonded labour. To raise earnings of work force and achieve higher productivity. rest rooms. elimination of such undesirable practices as child labour. co-operative stores. employment opportunities and provide counseling and guidance to employment seekers. In this context. pensions. employment of children and women in hazardous industries. holiday rooms. raising living standard of labour force and social security. providing enabling environment for self employment has received special attention both in urban and rural areas. cinemas. gratuity. industrial health insurance. workmen’s compensation. safety. music. Contributing to the productivity of labour and efficiency of the enterprise. and minimize occupational health hazards. and scholarships and other help for education of employees’ children. ensuring workers’ safety and social security. working conditions. bonded labour. crèches. Labour and Labour Welfare Labour sector addresses multidimensional socio-economic aspects affecting labour welfare. It is also envisaged that the employment exchanges will be reoriented so that they become the source of labour related information. wash places. toilet facilities. All labour welfare measures have the following objectives: 1.

Principles of labour welfare Certain fundamental considerations are involved in the concept of labour welfare. 6.3. . Discharging social responsibilities. Based on an intelligent prediction of the future needs of the industrial workers. Enhancing the standard of living of workers by indirectly reducing the burden on their purse. 4. provide them security of employment. It is assumed that labour welfare is an expression of industry’s duty towards its employees. Enabling workers to live in tune and harmony with services for workers obtaining in the neighbourhood community where similar enterprises are situated. 5. it is an expression of the assumption by industry of its responsibility for its employees (Maurioce Bruce. rather. and to follow those lines of action which are desirable in terms of the objectives and values currently obtaining in the society. to take such decisions. The following are the more important among them. Industry is expected to win the cooperation of the workers. 1961). and 7. Fostering administratively viable and essentially developmental outlook among the workforce. Labour welfare is not embroidery on capitalism nor the external dressing of an exploitative management. designing policies to cushion off and absorb the shocks of industrialisation and urbanisation to workers. The values of the Indian community are enshrined in the constitution of the country. Social responsibility of industry This principle is based on the social conception of industry and its role in the society that is. Social responsibility means that the obligation of the industry to pursue those policies. the understanding that social responsibility of the state is manifested through industry. fair wage.

recreation and other measures designed after taking into consideration the workers’ interests go a long way in counteracting the effects of monotony. housing. It has been often mentioned that workers’ education and training. and that workers have a right of determining the manner in which these needs can be met and of participating in the administration of the mechanism of need gratification. 1950). that industry has an obligation to render them help in gratifying those needs. it implies that labour welfare measures are not a substitute for wages. It will be wrong to argue that since workers are given a variety of labour welfare services. Right to adequate wage is beyond dispute. Democratic values The principle of democratic values of labour welfare concedes that workers may have certain unmet needs for no fault of their own. and diet are the three most important aspects of labour welfare. . Social and cultural programmes. and make welfare facilities available to them. and cheerlessness. Adequacy of wages The third principle of labour welfare is adequacy of wages. boredom. the goal of welfare in industry is the enrichment and growth of human personality. comfort. which always accentuate labour efficiency. The labour welfare movement seeks to bring cheer. Re-personalization Since industrial organisation is rigid and impersonal. Efficiency The fourth principle of labour welfare lays stress on the dictum that to cultivate welfare is to cultivate efficiency. they need be paid only low wages.and equal opportunity for personal growth and advancement. Even those who deny any social responsibility for industry do accept that an enterprise must introduce all such labour welfare measures which promote efficiency (Marshall. The underlying assumption to this approach is that the worker is a mature and rational individual who is capable of taking decisions for himself/herself. with quiet distinct needs and aspirations. and warmth in the human relationship by treating man as an individual.

namely. amusement and sports. labour welfare work has been classified by Broughton in two specific categories. continuity of . • The nature of amenities such as those concerned conditions of employment and • The welfare activities termed as ‘statutory’. housing accommodation. where these amenities are provided. rest intervals. Approaches The issue of labour welfare may be studied from different angles. sufficient lighting. (a)intramural(b)extra-mural (a)Intra-mural activities: consist of such welfare schemes provided within the factories as medical facilities. • On the basis of location of welfare activities. these amenities. educational facilities for adults and children. good lay-out of machinery and plant. recruitment and discipline and provision of provident fund and gratuity.Co-responsibility The sixth principle of labour welfare recognises that the responsibility for labour welfare lies on both employers and workers and not on employers alone (Moorthy. provision of safety measures such as fencing and covering of machines. sanitation. provision of crèches. ‘voluntary’ and ‘mutual’. such as: • The location. within and outside the industrial undertakings. indoor and outdoor recreation facilities. • The agencies which provide living conditions of work people. In the welfare activities concerned with conditions of employment are included activities for the management of problems arising out of hours of work. washing and bathing facilities. and accepted by all levels of functionaries in the enterprise. and canteens. 1958). supply of drinking water. (b)Extra-mural activities: cover the services and facilities provided outside the factory such as. wages. provision of libraries and reading rooms. activities relating to improving conditions of employment. holidays with pay.etc. in particular the quality of responsibility at the attitudinal and organisational level. first-aid appliances. maternity benefits. Totality of welfare The final principle of labour welfare is that the concept of labour welfare must permeate throughout the hierarchy of an organisation. Labour welfare measures are likely to be of little success unless mutuality of interest and responsibilities are accepted and understood by both the parties.

provisions for conciliation and arbitration. Scope of labour welfare work . savings banks.etc. kinder gardens.. crèche. ventilation. are gymnasiums . disability and unemployment funds. voluntary or mutual. storing. legal and medical aid. control over the recruitment of female and juvenile labour. schools. and housing are included in the category of activities concerned with conditions of workers. latrines and urinals (2)those which are to be provided subject to the employment of a specified number of persons. maximum hours. It is voluntary when the activities are undertaken at their own accord by the employers or some philanthropic bodies or when a labour organisation undertakes such activities for the welfare of their members. rest room. vacation with pay. first-aid.etc. It is mutual. lunch room. drying the clothing. The National Commission on labour has classified various labour welfare measures under two distinct classes: (1)those which have to be provided. day nurseries. (c)those designed to improve community conditions. stockownership. play grounds. such as housing. drinking water. accident and occupational disease prevention. lectures on domestic sciences. dancing. rooms. arranging athletic contests and picnics and summer camps. house organs. ambulance. music. mutual aid societies. libraries. dispensary and dental service screening of motion pictures. minimum wages. while all such schemes of benefits as co-operative societies.employment. (b)those concerned with less immediate working conditions and group interests. irrespective of the size of the establishment or the number of the persons employed therein such as facilities relating to washing. when all parties join hands to bring about the social and economic uplift of the workers. rest shelter. gardens. toilet facilities. It is statutory when such activities have to be undertaken in furtherance of the legislation adopted by the government. Labour welfare work may be statutory. retail stores. According to the Encyclopedia of social sciences. shop committees and workers councils. profit-sharing. such as canteen. “industrial welfare work ”has taken numerous forms such as: (a)those dealing with immediate working conditions are special provisions for adequate light. pensions.

interview and vocational testing. workers recreation facilities. . workmen’s arbitration council. distribution of work hours and provision for rest times. co-operative credit society. especially because of the fact that labour class is composed of dynamic individuals with complex needs. breaks and workmen’s safety measures. An able welfare officer would . directly or indirectly. physical or mental of the worker and restores to him the peace and joy of living the welfare work embraces the worker and his family The following list. lighting. etc. medical examination of workers. convenience and comfort during work.It is somewhat difficult to accurately lay down the scope of labour welfare work. smoke. employment bureau. ventilation. include in his welfare programme the activities that would be conducive to the well-being of the worker and his family. In a world of changing values. (4)Labour’s Economic welfare programme: These should include co-operatives or fair price shops for consumer necessities. etc. therefore. (3)Labour welfare programme: These should cover factory council consisting of representatives of labour and employers. fumes and gases. where ideologies are rapidly undergoing transformation. factory dispensary and clinic for general treatment. operative postures. education. The test of the welfare activity is that it removes. women’s general education. follow-up. social welfare departments. humidity. gives the items under which welfare work should be conducted inside and outside the work place: (1)Conditions of work environment: The workshop sanitation and cleanliness. infant welfare. elimination of dust. Labour welfare work is increasing with the growing knowledge and experience of techniques. thrift schemes and savings bank. any hindrance. sitting arrangements etc. research bureau. which is by no means exhaustive. rigid statements about the field of labour welfare need to be revised. health insurance. employment. (5)General welfare work: This should relate to housing and family care. These should include factory health centre. (2)Workers health services.

ii. Applied research on vocational training problems is carried out. Preparation and development of instructional material is another area where appropriate attention is being paid. iv. Craftsmen Training scheme and Apprenticeship Training scheme. Vocational Training/Skill Development Training The primary purpose of vocational training is to prepare individuals. Training of Women as a special target group. form the core of the vocational training schemes. enjoy a fairly high crediability. Training of Supervisors and Foremen. . The main vocational training schemes comprise of Craftsmen Training scheme. Training of Skilled Workers. Other vocational training schemes. These are not discussed here because they fall under the purview of respective sectoral programmes of the plan. iii. especially the youth in the age group of 15-25 years. which are adequately dovetailed and meant to bring maximum benefit to the youth in their formative years. In spite of difficulties and shortcomings.Central Sector There are Four types of initiatives through the Plan for the Labour and Labour Welfare Sector. Training of Craft Instructors. Training for skills development Services to job seekers Welfare of Labour Administration of Labour regulations Many initiatives are taken for the benefit of workers through the plans of a number of Labour Intensive Sectors. the vocational training schemes have continued to make progress specially in term of being the primary source of manpower for industry. though smaller in magnitude. They are: i. for the world of work and make them employable for a broad group of occupations. Apprenticeship Training scheme. The schemes being well standardized and having national coverage. also serve a very useful and essential purpose in the overall sphere of vocational training.

The Central Government mainly concentrates on laying down the policies.1998 (State-wise details presented in Annexure 5. the Central Government is advised by two advisory tripartite bodies namely. National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) and the Central Apprenticeship Council (CAC). Two major resources for such training are the Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and the 25000 industrial establishments that take part in Apprentice Training. The existing training institutions have. are not handled by DGE&T. a Centrally Sponsored Scheme "Establishment of new ITIs in the North Eastern States and in Jammu and Kashmir" is proposed. Training is imparted mainly in engineering trades. however. It.59 lakh under the Trade Apprentice Scheme. A women's cell under the office of DGE&T is also coordinating with the states in the matter of vocational training for women. There has been a significant growth and expansion in the network of ITIs which have grown to 4086 in the public and private sector with a seating capacity of 6. A few trades out side the engineering field are also covered but the bulk of the services sector and other needs of industries other than manufacturing.12. Craftsmen Training Scheme Craftsmen Training Scheme(CTS)under the National Vocational Training System was introduced in 1950 for imparting skill training.3) and another 2. In the Ninth Plan. Both the councils have the Union Labour Minister as the Chairman. no doubt.7. In this process. been meeting a significant part of the requirements of the skilled manpower of the organised industry. Apprenticeship training scheme provides practical training in 135 designated trades to train apprentices in 97 subject fields in engineering and technology for graduates and diploma holders and 94 subject fields for technicians. seems necessary that the processes of restructuring and reorientation of their courses are made more dynamic with a view to quickly . The National Vocational Training Institute at NOIDA (UP) and the Regional vocational Training Institutes for Women in different parts of India impart basic and advance levels of vocational training to women.41 lakh as on 31. procedures and training standards while the administrative aspect of the Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) is taken care of by the concerned State Governments/UTs.

management and marketing. The function of identifying job seekers has been assumed now primarily by the organisations where jobs arise. This scheme is funded out of the National Revival fund (NRF). but also the soft skills of entrepreneurship. These Employment Exchanges continue to provide placement vocational guidance services to job seekers registered with them. the workers thus retrenched are not affected adversely. In the changed economic scenario. as part of the training courses.6. Since a sizeable proportion of employment would have to be self-employment the in the tiny and small units in various sectors. Services to job seekers To provide services to job seekers is another important initiative taken by the Labour and Labour Welfare Plan. where displacement of labour is inevitable and existing labour force is expected to get retrenched. Out of 165. by these cell. Under this scheme. The governments now reach the job seekers directly when a sizable job demand . A greater involvement of industry in planning and running the training system would also be necessary for this purpose.1998. For skill upgradation of the workers in the unorganised sector. During the period January . Special emphasis was laid on promotion of self employment by suitably motivating and guiding job seekers.98) Employment Exchanges spread throughout the country. the National Employment Service has been established.1 thousand have been placed in self employment up to December 1997. National Employment Service It consists of a network of 942 (as on 30. the training system should also gear up not only for providing hard skills for suitable trades.18 lakh placements (statewise details are in annexure 4). Employment Exchanges also handle Employment Market Information. the Employment Exchanges effected 1.June. To achieve this objective. Twenty three special cells have been set up for this purpose in selected District Employment exchanges. a special training scheme is also being implemented by the Ministry of labour.8 thousand applicants on the live registers of these 23 cells about 61. timing and location of training courses would need to be introduced. so that. Besides placement. flexibility in the duration. payment are made to the workers who are voluntarily retiring and also for retraining and redeployment of retrenched workers.respond to the labour market.

The planning process attempts to achieve these goals by monitoring working conditions and creation of industrial harmony through an infrastructure for healthy industrial relations. The Employment Service continued to pay special attention to the needs of the weaker section of society. Equal Remuneration Act & Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act to workers in the unorganised/informal sector. the scheme to provide facilities to SC/ST job seekers for practising shorthand and typing is in operation in CGCs. there are also plan schemes for modernisation and computerisation of employment exchanges. The Employment Services has now accepted its enhanced role and is paying greater attention to compilation and dissemination of comprehensive labour market information. Special drives for inspections under the Crash Programmes & Task Force inspections were organised during the year for extending coverage of labour laws like the Minimum Wages Act. In addition. "Occupational and Educational Pattern in India" etc.arises. Besides. The important reports generated by EMI are "The Quarterly Employment Review". Welfare of labour One of the major concerns of the Government has been the improvement of labour welfare with increasing productivity and provision of a reasonable level of social security. Vocational guidance and training in confidence building is provided to job seekers belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes at 22 coaching cum guidance centres. The centre at Vadodara caters exclusively to the needs of handicapped women. A comprehensive package of services to the handicapped is provided by 17 Vocational Rehaibilitation Centres for the Handicapped. A total of 1074(P) inspections under the above enactments were carried out during the year 1998 as a result of which 15938(P) irregularities and 489(P) cases of under payments/non payments were detected. The National Employment Service in the context of the newly emerging market scenario has to be reoriented. Payment of Wages Act.The number of jobs in public sector has reduced sharply with the reorientation of the role of economic planning. .

and provide computer facilities in all the CGITs in a phased manner. 1981 The fund created by these acts. The Beedi Workers' Welfare fund Act. is the appropriate authority. Child Labour .one each at Lucknow and Nagpur have been set-up. is used by the Central Government for the Welfare of Workers under these occupations. the funds have been and set up under the following Acts of Parliament: 1. The mica mines Labour Welfare Fund Act. Bhubaneswar and Chennai. Many enactments were extended to the include construction workers. Several measures have been taken to protect the interests of the agricultural workers.10. The very first legislation-the Minimum Wages Act. 2. cine and certain categories of non coal mine workers. 1946. These workers get employment for less then six months in a year and have to migrate to other ares for alternative employment. The Iron Ore. Labour Welfare Funds The Ministry of Labour is administering five welfare funds for beedi. The Limestone and Dolomite Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act. 4. Measures have also been taken to look into the interest of construction workers. Agriculture Workers Agriculture Workers constitute by far the largest segment of workers in the unorganised sector.There are at present 12 Industrial Tribunals cum Labour Courts constituted by Ministry of Labour dealing with industrial disputes in respect of which the Central Govt. The Cine Workers Welfare Fund Act.1998 was 331. The number of Industrial Tribunals and Labour Courts set up by the State Governments and the Administrations of the Union Territories as on 31. 1976 5. Two CGIT cum Labour Courts. 1948 is applied to the agriculture sector also. It is also proposed to open three new CGITs at Hyderabad. 3. Manganese Ore and Chrome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act 1976.

According to the 1991 Census, the number of working children in the country was of the order of 11.28 million (State wise details are available in annexure 5.7.5). The existence of child labour in hazardous industries is a great problem in India. Non availability of accurate, authentic and up to date data on child labour has been a major handicap in planned intervention for eradication of this social evil. Efforts are underway in the Ninth Plan, to modify and improve the existing National Child Labour Project. A major activity undertaken under this scheme is the establishment of special schools to provide non-formal education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition, stipend, health care etc. to children withdrawn from employment in hazardous industries. Under the existing scheme 76 National Child Labour Projects were sanctioned in the Child Labour endemic States to cover nearly 1.55 lakh children. According to the available information, about 1.05 lakh children have benefitted from the special schools. State wise coverage under National Child Labour Project is furnished at Annexure 5.7.6. The revised scheme approved by Govternment of India in January, 1999 provides for 100 National Child Labour Projects to cover more children.

Rehabilitation of Bonded Labour A Centrally Sponsored Scheme was launched by the Ministry of Labour in 1978-79 for the identification, release and rehabilitation of bonded labourers. The scheme envisages provision of rehabilitation grant up to a ceiling limit of Rs. 10,000/- per freed bonded labourer, half of which is given as central share. Women Labour The Ministry of Labour has set up a Women Labour Cell in 1975. The intention was to focus attention on the lot of working women with a view to improving it. An important activity of the Cell is to convene the meeting of the Central Advisory Committee which has been constituted under the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 and follow up the recommendations made by the Committee. Another important activity of the Women Cell is to examine and process project proposals to carry out studies on matters affecting women

workers and also to fund programmes aimed at improving their economic well being. Several projects aimed at improving the working conditions of women and raising their economic level were processed by the Women Cell of the Ministry of Labour during 1998-99. The Cell also give grants-in-aid to voluntary organisation to carry out research studies on problems of women workers, their employability and the extent of their displacement on account of technological and various other changes. This scheme was introduced with the intention of furthering Government’s policy of helping women workers to become aware of their rights and opportunities and also become economically independent. Occupational Safety and Health The Constitution of India contains specific provisions on Occupational Safety and Health of workers. The Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) and Directorate General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes(DGFASLI) strives to achieve occupational safety and health in mines factories and ports. The schemes relating to occupational safety concentrate on improvement of work environment, man-machinery interface, control and prevention of chemical hazards, development of protective gears and equipment, training in safety measures and development of safety and health information system. Directorate General of Factory Advise, Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) This organisation functions as the technical arm of the ministry in matters concerning with safety, health and welfare of workers in factories and ports/docks. Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) The Directorate General of Mines Safety which is a subordinate office of the Ministry of Labour is entrusted with the responsibility of enforcing the provisions of the Mines Act, 1952. With a view to ensuring enforcement of necessary safety measures in mines, inspections and enquiries are carried out by the inspecting officers. During the period April, 1998 to September 1998, 17 notices and 11 orders were issued to coal mines and 4 notices and 15 orders were issued to non-coal mines. The number of inspections and enquiries carried out during this period was 4181.

Labour Statistics The Labour Bureau is responsible for collection, compilation and publication of statistical and other information regarding employment, wages, earnings, industrial relations, working conditions etc. It also compiles and publishes the consumer Price Index Numbers for industrial and agricultural workers. The Bureau further renders necessary assistance to the States for conducting training programmes in Labour Statistics of State/District/Unit levels. Workers' Education The Central Board of Workers Education is dealing with schemes for training of workers in the techniques of trade unionism and in bringing about consciousness among workers about their rights, duties and responsibilities. The Board has also undertaken programmes for rural workers' education and functional adult education. Labour Research and Training The V.V. Giri National Labour Institute, a fully funded autonomous body of the Ministry of labour, conducts action oriented research and provides training to grass root level workers in the trade union movement, both in the urban and rural areas and also to officers dealing with industrial relations, personnel management, labour welfare etc. Social Security There are a variety of laws enacted and schemes established by the Central/State Governments with a view to provide for social security and welfare of specific categories of working people. The principal social security laws enacted centrally are the following: 1. The Workmen's compensation Act, 1923 (WC.Act.) 2. The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 (ESI Act) 3. The Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1953 (EPF & MP Act) 4. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 (MB Act) 5. The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 (PG Act)

This needs to be extended to the entire country. The Governments of Gujarat. extension and modernisation of employment services. welfare of rural and urban unorganised labour etc. the World Bank-assisted Vocational Training Project. by identifying them. Kerala and Tamil Nadu . The Government of Gujarat has attempted to utilise the employment service set-up at the Taluka level by bringing the job seekers and the job providers together in Bharti Melas. The cash benefits under the ESI Act are administered by the Central Government through the Employees State Insurance corporation (ESIC). The Maharashtra Government. Programmes of the State Sector Important programmes undertaken by the State Governments relate to diversification and expansion of the vocational training programme. plantations and other establishments. mines. whereas medical care under the ESI Act is being administered by the State Government and Union Territory Administration. strengthening of labour administration. and in the process has generated some information on the number of unemployed persons in the State. Karnataka. oil fields and the Railways and by the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations in all other cases. The West Bangal Government has provided unemployment allowance to those registered. Kerala. The Payment of Gratuity Act is administered by the Central Government in establishments under its control. Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh have insurance schemes for the landless agricultural labourers. in its programme of State-wide employment guarantee. intends to use the employment exchanges to identify the beneficiaries. improvement in the quality of training and extension of training opportunities for women. rehabilitation of bonded labour.The EPF and MP Act are administered exclusively by the Government of India through the EPFO. States have also introduced various social security schemes. Some of the State Governments have attempted to enhance the utility of the employment service set-up. In mines and circus industry. establishments having branches in more than one State. the provisions of the Maternity Benefit Act are being administered by the Central Government through the Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) and by the State Governments in factories. major ports. The provisions of the WC Act are being administered exclusively by State Governments.

There are various welfare schemes operated in some states. Agricultural Workers. disablement. Kerala Etta. maternity. Kerala State has introduced the 'Regulation of Employment d Conditions of Service Act' for building and other construction workers. sickness. through appropriate organisation. These risks are essentially contingencies against which the individual. therefore. . Thazha workers and Beedi and Cigar Workers. The State of Kerala has introduced many Welfare Fund Acts for unorganised workers and has schemes to implement them. orphanhood and unemployment. old age. cannot protect himself. Some form of social assistance is also given to the workers in the unorganised sector. Auto Rikshaw Workers. who has small means. industrial disease. Social security measures The concept of social security has been mentioned in the early Vedic hymn which wishes everyone to be happy. Many States and Union Territories have appointed competent authorities under the Equal Remuneration Act. enjoy a bright future and suffer no sorrow. a new name for an old aspiration. against certain risks to which its members are exposed”. free from ill. Abkari Workers. burial. The phrase social security is. Most of the States have strengthened their enforcement machinery to implement various labour laws. These contingencies include employment injury. widowhood. Tailoring Workers.demonstrated the viability and potential of the old age pension scheme. These Acts relate to Handloom Workers. The Assam Government has the Assam Tea Welfare Board to promote the welfare of plantation workers. 1976 and have also set-up Advisory Committees under the Act. The Assam Government has been implementing the Minimum Wages Act very meticulously. Kattuvalli. This could be considered by the other states. Today is based on the “ideals of human dignity and social justice”.health. Social security is defined as “the security that society furnishes.

these benefits. they provide some kind of cash payment to individuals to replace atleast a part of their lost income that our due to such contingencies as unemployment. on a compulsory basis. their three major characteristics are: they are established by law. Social insurance: The features of social insurance are: • It is financed entirely by or mainly from the common monetary contributions of workers. unemployment. Though social security programmes vary from country to country. to render help to the utmost extent possible to any individual during periods of physical distress inevitable on illness or injury and during economic distress consequent on reduction or loss of earnings due to illness. Social security thus provides a self-balancing social insurance or assistance from public funds or a combination of both. old age or death of working member”. within limits. social assistance or public services. • These benefits are so planned as to cover. work injury. maternity. • Social insurance reduces the suffering arising out of the contingencies faced by an individual –contingencies which he cannot prevent. for the latter is voluntary and is meant for the better paid section of the population. while the employees pay only a nominal amount. it offers protection only against individual risks and does not aim at providing a minimum standard of living. maternity. • Social insurance benefits are granted without an examination of an individual’s need and without any means test.Social security is also broadly defined as “the endeavour of the community. . all those who are sought to be covered. sickness. the benefits or services are provide in three major ways: social insurance. Social insurance is different from commercial insurance. old age and death. without affecting the sense of self respect of the beneficiary. ensure the maintenance of the beneficiary’s minimum standard of living. • The state and the employers make major contribution to this fund. as a whole. • When there is total or partial loss of income. and its benefits are in proportion to the premiums paid. employers and the state. invalidism. disablement.

old. They are financed directly by the government from their general revenues in the form of cash payment and services to every member of the community falling within the defined category. it is not always easy to draw a line of demarcation among them. in addition to hospitalisation. In many cases.Social assistance: Social assistance is provided as a supplement to social insurance for those needy person who cannot get social insurance payments. or is likely to contribute to his country’s welfare. In many countries trade union have their own sickness.age assistance. however. and is offered after a means test. The need for pre-natal and post-natal care. falls midway between the two. for it is financed by the stste as well as by the insured and their employers. should be given protection against certain hazards”. survivor’s pension to every widow or orphan. and its consequences and any disease which may lead to a morbid condition. Social assistance and social insurance go side by side. was . who has contributed. old-age.confinement. Apart from state there are many other agencies which provide se4curity against contingencies. and a family allowance to every family having a given number of children. sickness benefits and old-age pensions have also been provided by a large number of organisations to their employees. old-age pension.whereas social assistance is given gratis to the needy by the state or the community. The 1952 ILO convention on social security (minimum standard)divided social security into nine components: (a)Medical care: This should cover pregnancy. Public service: Public service programmes constitute the third main type of social security. two or even three programmes have common characteristics. Social security is the combination of social assistance and social insurance. Social assistance programmes cover such programmes as unemployment assistance. unemployment schemes.“ The underlying idea of social security measures is that a citizen. public assistance and national assistance. Although these social security programmes have different characteristics. Social insurance. The general revenues of the government provide the finance for social assistance payments. Saving funds. pension for invalidism. which is made available as a legal right to those workers who fulfil given conditions. This kind of public service is currently available in a number of countries in the form of national health service providing medical care for every person in the country.

provision of food. (c) Unemployment benefit:This should cover the loss of earning during a worker’s unemployment period. • Death of the breadwinner in the family. excluding the first seven days of the waiting period. provision of essential pharmaceuticals and hospitalization. Periodical payment. (d)Old-age benefit: This benefit provides for the payment-the quantum depending upon an individual’s working capacity during the period before retirement. This benefit may be limited to 13 weeks payment in a year. as a result of which family is deprived of financial support. (e)Employment injury benefit: This should cover the following contingencies resulting from accident or disease during employment: • Morbid condition • Inability to work following a morbid condition. A morbid condition may require general practitioner care. (b)Sickness benefit:This should cover incapacity to work following morbid condition resulting in loss of earnings.-of a certain amount beyond a prescribed age and continues till death. holidays or domestic help in respect of children should be provided to a needy family. • Total o0r partial loss of earning capacity which may become permanent. Medical care and periodical payment corresponding to an individual’s need should be available. The worker need not be paid for the first three days of suspension of earnings and the payment of benefit may be limited to 26 weeks in a year. leading to suspension of earning. When he is capable and available for work but remains unemployed because of lack of suitable employment. This calls for periodical payments based on the convention specification. .emphasized. (f)Family benefit: This should cover responsibility for the maintenance of children during an entire period of contingency. clothing. housing.

it has fixed the level of benefits fairly low. Social security schemes should be linked to economic security. confinement and their consequences resulting in the suspension of earnings. owing to pressures brought on the state and the society by the growing awareness within the unorganised sector. maternity. This benefit should continue till invalidism changes into old-age. establishing and financing various social security schemes. employment injury. post-natal care and hospitalization if necessary. and the provision of subsidies for families with children (ILO. and assets. However. so that the schemes may be practicable. when old age benefits would become payable. old age and death. in the form of periodical payments should cover the needs of workers who suffer from any. The growing demands of the unorganised labour force and their attempts to . against the economic and social distress that otherwise would be caused by the stoppage or substantial reduction in earnings resulting from sickness. including employment. The system of social security was started with the organised sector. (i) Survivor’s benefit: This should cover periodical payments to the family following the death of its breadwinner and should continue the entire period of contingency. in-come. through a series of public measures. unemployment. 1989). including pre-natal confinement. disability arising out of sickness or accident and who are unable to engage in any gainful activity. Provision should be for medical care. The ILO has suggested various methods of organizing. invalidity. There should be a convergence of the ways of reaching sustainability and of attaining expanded coverage. Periodical payment limited to 12 weeks should be made during the period of suspension of earnings. provision of medical care. concern is increasingly being expressed and attention given to expanding legislative and social security protection to the unorganised sector. (h) Invalidism benefit: This benefit.(g)Maternity benefit: This benefit should cover pregnancy. Social security and unorganised labour Social security is the protection which society provides for its members. For the benefit of the less developed countries.

Welfare amenities stipulated in the Factories Act. These establishments are located in both urban and rural areas. and social security simultaneously. 1. 2. in the sense that such Acts are applicable to undertakings employing the minimum prescribed number of workers. The very nature of industry. one could take stock of the situation only in terms of opinions expressed by knowledgeable sources. Mines Act.organise themselves can be met by a decentralised participatory social security system. Extending social security to the unorganised sector is not merely a matter of extending existing organised sector schemes to new groups for the following reasons (Getupig. unorganised sector workers need employment security. where steady and regular employment is a given fact. It will lead to a release of the people’s creative energies and a rapid growth of social security for the organised sector. 3. Unlike the organised sector. ignorance and illiteracy. DEFINITION The first National Commission on Labour (1966-69) defined unorganised labour as those who have not been able to organise themselves in pursuit of common objectives on account of constraints like casual nature of employment. Plantations Labour Act. there are a large number of smallscale establishments. and retail trade. (Ghosh Subratesh.. which have no obligation. and are engaged mostly in processing primary products or in supplementing the existing large-scale industries in transportation. 1992). The precise estimate of their employment strength and their wage. Needs of the unorganised sector workers vary from those of the organised sector. Outside the realm of these Acts. et al. the frequent collusion between the employer and his workmen and place of work often being in the backyard of the employers’ dwelling are some of the social problems which stand in the way of bringing the real picture of labour conditions to light. In the absence of any reliable data necessary for policy recommendations. are employment-based. to provide welfare amenities to their workers. Unorganised sector is not a homogenous category. and 4. small and scattered size of establishments and position of power enjoyed by employers because of the nature of industry etc. construction. Identifying the employer in this sector is difficult. Nearly 20 years later the National Commission on Rural Labour . welfare and working conditions are not known. etc. income security. statutory or other-wise. 1996).

CATEGORIES OF UNORGANISED LABOUR Unorganised workers can be categorised broadly under the following four heads. migrant workers. may come in this category. In terms of specially distressed categories . In terms of nature of employment 3. in beedi rolling. namely – 1. salt workers. 91% of the total population) and this workforce is as yet not actively unionised. workers in saw mills. Attached agricultural labourers. 2. weavers. accounts for only 9% of the total work force. EXTENT OF UNORGANISED LABOUR The 1991 Census has classified workers in this country into two distinct categories as main workers and marginal workers. In terms of occupation Small and marginal farmers. oil mills etc. The data of the Census of India also shows that the bulk of the working population is in the unorganised sector (i. bonded labourers. The main workers are those workers who work for the major part of the year (296 days) and marginal workers are those who work for less that 6 months (183 days). which is generally extant around urban settlements. landless agricultural labourers. fishermen. Out of a total work force of 314 million in India. artisans.e. leather workers. building and other construction workers.(NCRL: 1987-91) visualised the same scenario and the same contributory factors leading to the present status of unorganised rural labour in India.e. 4.9%) were marginal workers.e. those engaged in animal husbandry. share croppers. about 91%) were main workers and about 28 million (i. beedi labelling and beedi packing. about 286 million (i. workers in brick kilns and stone quarries. The organised sector. contract and casual labourers come under this category.

T. In terms of service categories Midwives. 1984). medical care is provided largely by the public medical service. . newspaper vendors etc. medical care should be provided either through a social service medical care service. Social security measures in unorganised sector in India Social security comprises two types of measures. On the other hand. vegetable and fruit vendors. come under this category. In India.69. scavengers. whereas the Employees State Insurance Scheme is based on providing the service directly under an integrated arrangement in which the financing and the medical services vest with the same organisation. fishermen and women. by which persons are enabled to work and earn a livelihood.Toddy tappers. It requires that complete preventive and curative care be available. Promotional measures consist mainly of employment. and nutrition schemes. care which is rationally organised and coordinated with general health services. loaders and unloaders. Medical care According to ILO recommendation No. promotional and protective. and hospitals. 5. diagnostic centres. some of the public sector establishments provide service indirectly by entering into contract with doctors. and voluntary health associations. Both promotional and protective measures are necessary to provide adequate social security facilities. 1993). domestic workers. Some of the Welfare Funds in Kerala have adopted the reimbursement of the cost of medical care at standard rates or actual. carriers of head loads. or through a public medical service (ILO. and to a limited extent by social insurance schemes. training. welfare funds. protective measures consist of schemes by which the State provides the means of livelihood when a person is not able to work (Sankaran. to meet the requirements of people in need who are not covered by social insurance. by private doctors and hospitals. On the other hand. drivers of animal driven vehicles. ILO standards relating to social security are mainly protective and have been designed primarily for workers in the organised sector.S. belong to this category. barbers. with supplementary provisions by way of social assistance.

and the various State government schemes for social assistance. Maternity benefit is usually provided under a social insurance scheme along with medical care and sickness benefit. or in part. such as the construction industry. which results in temporary or permanent disability or death (ILO. the Beedi and Cigar (Conditions of Employment) Act. In India. The purpose of this Convention was to ensure that a woman worker would be able to sustain herself and her baby during the period immediately before and after her confinement. Beedi and Cigar Labour Welfare Fund Act. and not injury brought about deliberately.67 concern in income security. 1996). and such a stop in work usually entails reduction or stoppage of earnings. The National Social Assistance Programme also provides for payment of maternity benefits in lump sum. there is provision for payment of sickness benefit under the Employees State Insurance Scheme (Government of India. the lost earnings. the latter Act is applicable mainly to workers in the organised sector. Employment injury benefit Employment Injury Benefit is the most widely adopted branch of social security. According to ILO Recommendation No. or by serious and willful misconduct of the victim. Cash benefit is designed to replace in whole. In India. the contingency for which compensation for employment injury should be paid. While the former Act is applicable to some employment in the unorganised sector. This is a cash benefit but is often associated with medical care. In India maternity benefit is provided under the Maternity Benefit Act (as an employers’ liability) the Employees State Insurance Act (as a part of the health insurance scheme). or disease in the course of employment. . Employees of Central and State governments and some public and private sector establishments are entitled to medical leave on half-pay.Sickness benefit Sickness benefit is payable when an insured person has to stop work due to his poor health conditions. employment injury benefit is provided under the Workmen’s Compensation Act and the Employees State Insurance Act. and is also known as workmen’s compensation. Maternity benefit One of the earliest conventions adopted by ILO was the Maternity Protection Convention in 1919. 1984). is traumatic injury.

and who are not covered by the Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. Old age pension may be at a flat rate. (b) Employees’ pension scheme: Workers covered under the Employees Provident and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. Invalidity benefit Invalidity benefit is meant for people who have permanently lost their capacity to earn to the extent prescribed. and that there should be a lower age for persons engaged in arduous occupations. unless required by demographic. and survivors’ benefits are the main long-term social security benefits. In India. In India old-age benefit is provided as follows (Ministry of Labour. (a) Government employees: Paid by respective governments on the basis of employers’ liability. Survivors’ benefit . because of a chronic condition due to disease or injury. the Employees Pension Scheme introduced in 1995 provides for invalidity benefits. or because of the loss of a member or its proper functioning. The current trend appears to be toward building a multi-tiered system consisting of a basic minimum pension and one or more earningsrelated pensions. According to ILO Recommendation No. a part of which needs to be immediately preceding the invalidity. and social criteria. say five years. 1996).67 concerning income security.Old-age benefit Old age. But usually one requires only a few years’ insurance. which are of great importance in any social security scheme. or for workers employed on a casual. ILO conventions stipulate that the pensionable age should not be more than 65 years. invalidity. economic. (c) Destitutes and persons below the poverty line: Paid under national old age pension scheme and old age pension schemes of State governments. or be related to one’s past earnings. the contingency in which invalidity benefit is payable is the inability to engage in any substantially gainful activity. There exist no pension schemes for the self-employed. The relevant ILO convention specifies 15 years of contribution or employment or 10 years of insurance. temporary or intermittent basis who are not destitute.

67 says that society should co-operate with parents. However. According to ILO recommendations No. This benefit is intended to assist families in raising their children.67. through no fault of his. This benefit is provided under the Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act in case of the death of a member of the scheme for any reason. The National Family Benefit Scheme extends this benefit in case of the death of the breadwinner of a family which lies below the poverty line. a person who is capable of regular employment in some occupation and is searching for suitable employment or due to part time unemployment (Government of India. 1993). Although there are no family benefit schemes in India. in the discharge of their . Its main purpose is to deal with temporary unemployment of employed persons and not the extensive and prolonged unemployment and under-employment found in many developing countries. national legislation often recognises claims of other dependents provided there are no primary beneficiaries. survivors’ benefit is provided under the Employees State Insurance Act and Workman’s Compensation Act in case of death of a person engaged in any employment covered under these Acts. 1995-‘96). Insurance schemes of the Life Insurance Corporation and General Insurance Corporation also provide this benefit. and give general assistance designed to secure the wellbeing of children. Family benefit ILO Recommendation No. The payment of the benefits depends on satisfying the qualifying clause of covered employment. In India. at least for the necessities of life while he remains available for work. Unemployment benefit The underlying principle of unemployment benefit is that if a person. A widespread practice is to base the survivors’ pension on the rate of the old age pension the deceased was receiving or would have received (Sankaran. the contingency in which unemployment benefit should be paid is loss of earnings due to a state of unemployment of an insured person who is ordinarily employed. T. which provide for the payment of cash allowances to families for the maintenance of children.This benefit is meant primarily for widows and children of persons covered by Social Security Schemes who cease to have any financial support on the death of their breadwinner. he has a right to expect income support.S. minorities and other weaker sections of society. there exist many schemes which help families of Scheduled Castes/Tribes. and a waiting period may also be applied. is deprived of his income.

however. National Social Assistance Programme Of the various protective schemes in existence for workers in the unorganised sector. and the National Maternity Benefit Scheme respectively. GIC has introduced a Health Insurance Scheme. Strategies for social security in unorganised sector The majority of the Social security schemes implemented in the country were in the organised sector. and has been administering the comprehensive Group Insurance Scheme for the Central Government. which is akin to social insurance based on large numbers. A beginning has been made lately to provide social insurance for workers in the unorganised sector. Under the National Old Age Pension Scheme. and maternity through the National Old Age Pension Scheme. In addition. The schemes of the General Insurance Corporation provide invalidity benefits.responsibilities for education of their children. some also provide old-age pensions. or health insurance. It provides social assistance to poor households in the case of old age. and has the potential to provide social security to persons in the unorganised industrial and agricultural sectors. 1989). These schemes are administered by government agencies. keeping large numbers outside the realm of the Social security net (Berman. rickshaw pullers. and meeting funeral expenses. construction of houses. death of the breadwinner. marriage of their daughters. and a Solatium Fund. shop assistants. Central assistance is provided to States for payment of old age pension to persons who are of the age of 65 years or more. and fish farmers. a Hut Insurance Scheme. co-operatives or NGOs. with the help of the Central and the State governments. beedi workers. National Family Benefit Scheme. There exist now several other group insurance schemes for the unorganised sector workers such as milk producers. 1995). The schemes of the LIC provide mainly survivor benefits. The General Insurance Corporation (GIC) of India also administers a few social security schemes for poor families. or protection against loss of property. Insurance schemes The Life Insurance Corporation of India has developed group insurance. handloom weavers. In addition to the National Old Age . and are a combination of social assistance and social insurance. the most important is the National Social Assistance Programme introduced in 1955 (Wadhawan.

these funds are financed by cess levied on the production or export of specified goods. motor transport workers.1. construction workers. welfare funds of State government. cashew workers. There are mainly three types of social security models: employers’ liability. and Gujarat have pension schemes for agricultural workers.Pension Scheme. Welfare Funds Welfare funds represent one of the models tried in India for providing social security protection to workers in the unorganised sector. Many states have extended the old-age pension scheme benefits to destitute widows. housing and water supply. Existing models of social security and labour welfare Since India has committed to the welfare of the marginalized sections of the society the government has taken upon itself the delivery of all types of social services and social security. subsidised insurance schemes. all State governments and Union territories have their own old-age pension schemes. They provide mainly medical care. physically and mentally retarded persons. cine workers. There exist broadly two types of welfare funds– contributory and tax-based. and recreational facilities. Karnataka. coir workers. toddy workers. The beneficiaries of . freedom fighters and indigent artists. and artisans the majority of which are contributory. autorickshaw workers. This pattern is reflected in existing models of social security delivery as may be seen from Table 2. the States Kerala. under the National Maternity Benefit scheme assistance is given to pregnant women for the first two childbirths. and other forms of social assistance. beedi rollers. Under the Family Benefit scheme assistance is given to families below the poverty line on the death of their breadwinner. Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu. assistance for the education of children. Other pension schemes Apart from the old-age pension schemes already referred to. and some have also set up homes for destitute widows and deserted /divorced women. and workers in the building industry. head-load workers. The last category includes welfare funds of Central government. social insurance. Maharashtra. The Government of India has set up tax-based welfare funds for mine workers. There are nearly 20 Welfare Funds constituted by Government of Kerala for the benefit of different target groups such as agricultural workers. and social assistance.

and the National Maternity Benefit Scheme respectively. 2. whereas under social assistance the beneficiaries are both workers in the organised sector and workers in the informal sector.Gratuity 4. .Retrenchment comp. In addition to the National OldAge Pension Scheme. Beneficiaries Arrangement Workers in the Organized Sector Administrative/ Financial Employers manage . Central assistance is provided to States for payment of old age pension to persons who are of the age of 65 years or more. it is necessary to search for models of effective social security provision to all the unorganised sector workers.Maternity Benefit 3. Under the National Old Age Pension Scheme.1 Existing Models of Social Security Model Nature of Benefit 1. Breadwinner and maternity through the National Old Age Pension Scheme. all State governments and Union territories have their own old-age pension schemes. National Family Benefit Scheme.Employers’ 1. Liability Workermen’s comp.the first (employers’ liability) are mainly workers in the organised sector. Table 2. The latter belong in generally to the marginalised sectors. In the context of growing privatizations of services on the one hand and the growing awareness and organisation of the oppressed sections of workers on the other.

Maternity 4.Old-age Benefit 3. Mine workers 2.Social Insurance (A) 1. Administered by autonomous boards .Survivors’ Benefit 1.Medical Care 2.Social (a)Welfare Funds of Central Government (A) 1.Provident Fund 3.Education 2.Education 3. financed by contributions from employers.Water Supply Workers in the organized sector and some sections of the workers in organized sectors.Medical care 2.Housing 4. employees and central government.Old-age benefit 2. Administered Depart-mentally financed by special levies in the form of cesses.Survivors’ benefit 4. Building works Administered by Employees’ State Insurance Corporation financed out of contributions from employers.Sickness 3.Occupational Injury Workers in the Organised sector (B)1. Cine workers 4. 1. Beedi workers 3.Old-age Workers in the Benefit unorganised 2. employees and State Governments Administered by central Board of Trustees.2.Invalidity benefit 3. (b) Welfare Funds of state (B) 1.Medical Care sector.

OBCs. deserted.Old-age benefit 2. widows. The provision social security can itself be a means that would . SCs.. etc. orphans. STs. workers and others Administered by LIC and GIC. 1994).Maternity benefit 3. People remain weak and vulnerable partly because they are unorganised and hence isolated and powerless. Assistance for: employment training education etc. and divorced women. Social security for the unorganised workers cannot be reached by centralizing and standardizing schemes. destitutes. financed by contributors from employers. Persons outside the job market and below the poverty line. disabled persons.Surviovrs’ benefit 4.Survivors’ benefit 2. they can be reached by workers themselves to take initiative (Subramanya.Education 4.Government 3. Invalidity benefit (c) Subsidized Insurance such as handloom workers. financed by contributions from central and state Governments Administered Depart-mentally financial from general revenues (d) Other Forms of Social Assistance 1. housing etc. Vulnerable groups of workers such as agricultural workers and handloom workers. 1.Assistance for marriage.. . Coir Workers and Cashew Workers.

Maternity Benefit Act.  Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act. housing and child care. health care. Indian social security system SALIENT FEATURES OF VARIOUS ACTS FOR WHICH THE CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL RELATION MACHINERY IS THE ENFORCING AGENCY. 1948. is empowering for vulnerable unorganised sector workers and helps them to alter their bar-gaining positions in the market (Sen and Dreze. 1923. LEGISLATIVE PROTECTION The Government has taken various initiatives through enactment of legislations. spreading workers education and through supporting non-governmental organisations to bring this deprived class into the mainstream of our work force. while participatory and beneficiary-run systems lead the workers to organise themselves. Workmen’s Compensation Act. 1948. Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act. 1970.lead the unorganised sector workers to organise and become empowered. Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act. 1961 The Employees State Insurance Act. creation of welfare funds. 1976. Some of the important legislations which help unorganised workers are as under:      Minimum Wages Act. 1990). The Central Industrial Relation Machinery (CIRM) is the responsible for enforcing the following labour Laws in the industries and .Centralised non-participatory systems tend to be disempowering. 1979. Security of needs like food.

which have been approved by an appropriate authority and must not exceed an amount equal to three per cent of wages payable. The Central Government has fixed Minimum Wages under the Minimum Wages Act.  PAYMENT OF WAGES ACt 1936.  PAYMENT OF BONUS ACT 1965 : .  MINIMUM WAGES ACT. oilfields or major ports or any corporation established under the Central Act. and agricultural farms under the Ministries of Defence and Agriculture. It provides for review and revision of minimum wages already fixed after suitable intervals not exceeding five years. Air Transport and major ports. 1948 for 40 scheduled employment under the Central Sphere. Ministry of Defence etc.establishments for which the Central Government is the appropriate Government. Mines/oil-fields. Fines can be imposed for only those acts or omissions. Employers cannot withhold wages earned by workers nor can they make any unauthorised deduction. 1948 The Minimum Wages Act. State governments are the appropriate agencies in relation to other scheduled employment. empowers the Government to fix minimum wages for employees working in specified employments. workers or their trade unions can file a claim. If payment of wages is delayed or wrongful deductions are made. The Central Government is concerned to a limited extent with building and construction activities mostly carried on by Central Public Works Department. The Central Government is the Appropriate Government under the Act in respect of the establishments of Railways. Enforcement of Minimum wages in Central sphere is secured [through the Central Industrial Relations Machinery (CIRM). Central Government is the appropriate agency in relation to any scheduled employment carried on by or under its authority or in railway administration or in relation to mines. Payment must be made before expiry of a specified day after the last day of the wage period. Bulk of such employment fall in the state spheres and state governments are required to fix/revise wages and ensure their implementation in respect of scheduled employment within their spheres.

500 per month and the payment is subject to the stipulation that the bonus payable to employees drawing wages or salary between Rs2. It applies to all establishments 20 or more contract Labour and to all contractors who employer. 1970 has been enacted to regulate the employment of contract labour in certain establishments and to provide for its abolition in certain circumstances and for matters connected therewith. Food Corporation of India's godowns. 2. The Act provides for the constitution of Central and State Advisory Boards to advise the concerned governments on matters arising out of the administration of the Act. port trusts and . Central Government is the appropriate Govt.  CONTRACT LABOUR The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act. 20 or more Contract Labour. which employs twenty or more workmen. It applies to all establishments employing 20 or more contract labour and to all contractors who employs 20 or more contract labors. 1965 provides for a minimum bonus of 8. training and promotion etc.500 per month would be calculated as if their salary or wages is Rs.500 and Rs. The Central Government has issued a number of notifications prohibiting employment of Contract Labour in different categories of works. under the Industrial Disputes Act.The Act Applies to all Factories and every other establishments. 3. The Central Government is the Appropriate authority in respect of the industries /establishments for which it is appropriate Government under the industrial Disputes Act. job and process as in mines.  EQUAL REMUNERATION ACT 1979 : Equal Remuneration Act 1979 Provides for payment of equal wages for work of same and similar nature to male and female workers and for not making discrimination against female employees in the matters of transfers. 1947. The Payment of Bonus Act.500 per month.33 percent of wages. The salary limited fixed for eligibility purposes in Rs. in respect of industries/establishments for which it is appropriate Govt. 1947. 3.

One of the important directions of the Supreme Court relates to conduct of survey of Child Labour. The issue of conducting survey came up for discussion in the Conference of Labour Ministers. It applies to every industrial establishment wherein 100 (reduced to 50 by the Central Government in respect of the establishments for which it is the Appropriate Government) or more workmen are employed. After the deliberation in the conference guidelines to the State Governments for implementing the judgement of the Hon'ble Supreme Court have been issued by the Ministry of Labour.1.many other industries/ establishments for which it is the Appropriate Government. Central Government is the Appropriate Government in relation to an establishment under the Control of the Central Government or a railways administration or a major port or a mine or oilfield. And the Central Government is the . Labour Secretaries.1997 under the Chairmanship of the Union Labour Minister.  CERTIFICATION OF STANDING ORDERS: The Industrial Employment (standing orders) Act 1946 is an Act to require employers in industrial establishments to formally define conditions of employment under them. Labour Commissioner of all the States/UTs which was held in New Delhi on 22. Central Government is the Appropriate Government in respect of industries and establishments for which it is Appropriate Government under the industrial Disputes Act.12.465/86 has given certain directions regarding the manner in which children working in hazardous occupations are to be withdrawn and rehabilitated.1947  CHILD LABOUR (Prohibition and Regulation) Act.1996 in the Writ Petition (Civil) No.1986. The Central Advisory Contract Labour Board has also constituted a number of committees to enquire into the question of prohibition of contract labour system in different establishments. The Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act. The Hon'ble Supreme Court in their Judgement dated 10. 1986 prohibits employment of children in certain hazardous occupations and processes and regulates their employment in some other areas.

 MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT . CLC(C) and all Dy. The Act applies to mines. and to shops and other establishments. 1972 is applicable. oil fields. There is no wage limit for coverage under the Act. 1961 regulates employment of women in certain establishments for a certain period before and after child birth and provides for maternity and other benefits.appropriate Government in respect of establishments under the control of Central Government or a Railway Administration or in a major port. mines. companies. 1946. The Act provides for payment of gratuity at the rate of 15 days wages for each completed year of service subject to a maximum of Rs. Under the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act. motor transport undertakings. 1972 The Payment of Gratuity Act. The Hours of Employment Regulations are applicable to all railway servants excepting those governed by the Factories Act.CLCs(C) have been declared Appellate Authorities under the Act. . 1948. factories. Mines Act and the Indian Merchant. industry. Employing 10 or more workmen. workers aggrieved by classification can approach RLCs who is empowered to decide such cases. It can be extended to other establishments by the state governments. plantations. ports. continuos. plantation and shops and establishments employing ten or more persons. It regulates hours of work and periods of rest. 1961 The Maternity Benefit Act. circus. all RLCs(C) have been declared Certifying Officers to certify the standing orders in respect of the establishments falling in the Central Sphere. The Central Government is Appropriate Government in respect of the Circus Industry and Mines  GRATUITY ACT.  HOURS OF EMPLOYMENT REGULATIONS 1961. railways. Jt. CLC(C). except employees covered under the Employees State Insurance act. The Hours of Employment Regulation provides for classification of railways workers depending upon nature of duties as intensive. to factories. essentially intermittent and excluded. mine or oil field. Shipping Act as well as those specifically excluded.

Labour courts. work committees. Central Government is the Appropriate Government in relation to an establishment belonging to the or under the control of the Central Government or having branches in more than states or an establishment of a factory belonging to or under the control of Central Government or of a major port. functions and duties and also the procedure to be followed by them. 1947 The Industrial Disputes Act. It also enumerates the contingencies when a strike or lock-out can be lawfully resorted to. The central government is appropriate government for the industries which are carried on: (a) By or under the authority of Central Govt. defining their powers. Industrial Tribunals and national Tribunals. circumstances under which an industrial can be closed down and several other matters related to industrial employees and employers. conditions for laying off. when they can be declared illegal or unlawful. court of inquiry. It provides for a special machinery of conciliation officers. specified for this purpose : (d) In relation to certain industries enumerated in sec 2(a) of the act .  INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE ACT. oilfield railway or mine. The Act does not affect the right of an employee to receive better terms of gratuity under any award or agreement or contract with the employer. In the case of seasonal establishment. 1947 is an act to make provision for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes and for certain other purposes. gratuity is payable at the rate of seven days wages for each season. retrenching discharging or dismissing a workman. (b) By a railway company: (c) A controlled industry.two lakh.

The indirect method is known as the “Panel system”. The Provident Fund Act . mines other than coal mines and commercial establishment employing more than 20 workers. under which medical care is provided through private doctors selected by the State government with the approval of the ESI Corporation.1971. earning less than 3000 per month and employed in power run factories employing 20 or more persons are covered by this scheme. it does not cover workers employed by seasonal factories. The direct method is called the “service system” by which the ESI corporation provides medical care. All the workers earning not exceeding Rs 3. Interest on these securities accrues to the worker’s account.1952 was amended following with the Employee’s Family Pension Scheme has been enforced from March 1.500 are covered under this Act.Employees State Insurance Scheme: This scheme offers both direct and indirect medical care. 1952: The act applies to. . The benefits provided under the act are: • Sickness benefit • Maternity benefit • Disablement benefit • Dependents benefit • Funeral benefit and • Medical benefit All the workers. However. All accumulations of the Provident Fund are invested in Central and State Government securities and other government approved securities. either through its own Employee’s State Insurance hospital or through reservation of beds in State Government hospital. An insured person under ESI Scheme is not eligible for similar benefits under the Workmen’s Compensation Act and State Acts relating to Maternity benefits  Employees Provident Fund Act. with a view to protecting the family of the workers after his death.

Family covers wife or husband. is covered by this act. . 1951. Plantation Labour Act.  Employer’s Family Pension Scheme. Every tea. .117 hectares or more and employing atleast 30 workers. which has since been extended to the cardamom plantation in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. minor son and unmarried daughter of the member of the Family Pension Fund. The definition of the word. coffee. family pension means a regular monthly amount payable to the person belonging to the family of the member of the Pension Fund Scheme. 1971: This scheme was notified by the government of India under the Employee’s Provident Fund and Family Pension Act. In the event of his death during the period of reckonable service. workers covered under this act are eligible for cash benefit in sickness and maternity. The Act lays great emphasis on the medical care of the workers and their families. measuring 10. rubber and cinchona plantation. According to the rule prescribed by the State Government. Here.

List Of Acts Apprentices Act Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act Employee State Insurance Act Employee's Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act Employers Liability Act Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act Equal Remuneration Act Factories Act Fatal Accidents Act Industrial Disputes (Banking and Insurance Companies) Act Industrial Disputes Act Industrial Employment and Standing Orders Act Labour Laws (Exemption from Furnishing Returns and Maintaining Registers by Certain Establishments) Act Maternity Benefit Act Mines Act Minimum Wages Act Motor Transport Workers Act Payment of Bonus Act Payment of Gratuity Act Payment of Wages Act Plantations Labour Act The Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions Of Service) Act The Weekly Holidays Act Trade Unions Act Working Journalists (Fixation of Rates of Wages) Act Working Journalists and Other Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act Workmens Compensation Act Apprenticeship Rules Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Rules Employee State Insurance (Central) Rules Employee State Insurance (General Provident Fund) Rules Employee State Insurance (General) Regulations .

44) • First aid boxes and cupboards-one for every 150 workers and ambulance facilities if there are more than 500 workers. if employing more than 30 women (S.47) • Crèche. 1952 and the Mines Rule . 42) • Facilities for storing and dry clothing(S.48) • Welfare officer if employing 500 or more workers (S.49) The Mines Act. 1948 • The welfare amenities provided under the act are given below: • Welfare facilities (S.45) • Canteens if employing more than 250 workers (S.Employees Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme Employees Pension Scheme Employees Provident Fund Scheme Employment Exchanges Rules Equal Remuneration Rules Payment of Bonus Rules Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions of Service) Act Working Journalists (Conditions of Service) and Miscellaneous Provisions Rules Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Rules Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Central Rules Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Central Rules .43) • Sitting facilities for occasional rest for workers who are obliged to work standing(S. (S.Construction and Maintenance of Creches Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Central Rules Minimum Wages (Central) Rules Payment of Gratuity (Central) Rules The Industrial Disputes (Central) Rules Workmen's Compensation Rules Act-wise outline of welfare facilities A brief outline of various welfare facilities provided under different labour enactments is given below: The Factories Act.

• Maintenance of first aid boxes and first aid room in mines employing more than 150 workers.12) • Recreational facilities for their workers and their children(S. 1961 The motor transport undertakings are required to provide certain welfare and health measures as given below. blankets.15 and 16) • The state government may make rules requiring every plantation employer to provide the workers with such number and types of umbrellas. raincoats or other like amenities for the protection of the workers from rain and cold as may be prescribed(S.11) • Creches in plantations employing 50 or more women workers (S.The standard and specialization of the accommodation. The Motor Transport Workers Act. • Provision in coal mines of (1)pit head baths equipped with shower bath(2)sanitary latrines and (3)lockers.The main obligation of the mine owners regarding health and welfare of their workers are as follow: • Maintenance of crèches where 50 women workers are employed • Provision of shelters for taking food and rest if 150 or more persons are employed.13) • Educational facilities in the estate for the children of workers. procedure of allotment and rent chargable from workers. where there are 25 workers children between the age of 6 and 12(S. • Appointment of a welfare officer in mines employing more than 500 persons to look after the matters relating to the welfare of the workers.14) • Housing facilities for every worker and his family residing in the plantation. 1951 The following welfare measures are to be provided to plantation workers • Canteens in plantations employing 150 or more workers(S. separately for men and women workers.17) • Appointment of welfare officer in plantation employing 300 or more workers(S. are to be prescribed in the rules by the state governments(S. .18) The exact standards of these facilities have been prescribed under the rule framed by the state governments. • Provision of a canteen in mines employing 250 or more workers. The Plantation Labour Act.

towels. conductors and line checking staff for protection against rain and cold.• Canteen of prescribed standard. • Uniforms.10) • Medical facilities are to be provided to the motor transport workers at the operating centres and at halting stations as may be prescribed by the stste governments. 1961 . club. 1958 Provisions in the act relating to health and welfare cover: • Crew accommodation • Supply of sufficient drinking water • Supply of necessities like beddings. health and welfare)scheme.(S. A prescribed amount of washing allowances is to be given to the above mentioned categories of staff(S. ventilated. well-lighted and comfortable rest rooms at every place wherein motor transport workers are required to halt every night. if employing 100 or more workers(S. inter alia. Dock Workers(safety.11) • First aid facilitiesequipped with the prescribed contents are to be provided in every transport vehicle(S.12) The Merchant Shipping Act. including the crew. mess utensils • Supply of medicines.8) • Clean. raincoats to drivers. • Provision of medical treatment and hospitals • Provision of educational facilities. canteens and libraries. medical stores and provision for surgical and medical advice • Maintenance of proper weights and measures on boards and grant of relief to distressed seamen aboard a ship • Every foreign-going ship carrying more than the prescribed number of persons. is required to have on board as part of her complement a qualified medical officer • Appointment of a Seamen’s welfare officer at such ports in and outside India as the government consider necessary • Establishment of hostels. for the levy of fees payable by owners of ships at prescribed rates for the purpose of providing amenities to seamen and for taking other measures for their welfare. The governments has been authorized to frame rule.

The International Organisation (ILO) was set up in 1919 as a part of the League of Nations for the promotion of . (8) Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation and Employment and (Conditions of Service)Act. c. c. (7) The Contract labour (Regulation and Abolition Act.A comprehensive Dock workers scheme. free of charge.amenities provided in the port premises includes the provision of(1)urinals and latrines(2)drinking water(3)washing facilities(4)bathing facilities (5)canteens(6)rest shelters(7)call stands(8)first aid arrangements Other welfare measures provided are (1)housing(2)schools(3)educational facilities(4)grant of scholarships(5)sports and recreations(6)fair price shops (7)co-operative societies. employing inter-state migrant workmen.It is framed under the Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment)Act.1970 This Act provides that the following amenities shall be made available by contractors for their employees: a. if employing 100 or more workers. has been framed for all major ports and is administered by the Chief Advisor. Suitable condition of work. Cost of amenities. First-aid box equipped with prescribed contents. Medical facilities for workmen. d. 1948. 1979 Every contractor. Canteen. Washing facilities. Factories(Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes). b. Such protective clothing as may be prescribed. Rest room or other suitable alternative accommodation where contract labour is required to halt at connection with the work of the establishment. 1961. welfare and health measures and recreation facilities for registered workers shall be met from a separate fund called the Dock workers welfare fund which shall be maintained by the board. The Board shall frame rules for the contributions for the maintenance and operation of the fund. Suitable residential accommodation to workers during the period of their employment. Contributions to this fund shall be made by all registered employers at such rate as may be prescribed by the Board. shall provide: a. b.

protection of the interest of migrant workers.The contribution made by each member state is determined as a percentage of the total expenditure. recognition to the principles of association and also states that the failure of any nation to adopt human conditions of labour is an obstacle in the way of other nations desiring to improve labour conditions in their own countries. protection of workers against sickness. provision of adequate living of children. hardships to a large number of people and declares that improvement in these conditions is urgently required through such means as the regulation of hours of work . The International Labourv Conference is the supreme deliberative body of the Ilo and acts as the legislative wing ofr the organization.namely – the International Labour Conference. adopted in 1944. disease and injury arising out of employment. and formally appended to the constitution in 1946. The International Labour Conference elect . the Governing body and the International Labour Office. draws attention to the existence of conditions of the labour involving injustice.universal peace through social justice. It became the first specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946 in accordance with the agreement entered into two organizations. young persons and women.The Preamble affirms that universal peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice. annually.. STRUCTURE The ILO consists of three principle organs . the League of Nations.The ILO was the only international organization that survived the second world war even after the dissolution of parent body. The aims and purposes of the ILO are set up in the Preamble to its Constitution nand in the Declaration of Philadelphia.prevention of unemployment. The Organisation is financed by contributions paid by the governments of the member nations.

The ILO manpower experts have been made available to developing countries seeking help in assessing their manpower needs and in organizing vocational training programmes for meeting skill shortage. The International Labour office.The Governing Body appoints DirectorGeneral and prepares the agenda for the conference. whose headquarters are located in Geneva. 14 employers and 14 workers.the governing body and adopts international labour standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations collectively known as the International Labour Code and provide a forum for discussion on social and labour questions. Some of the important areas of ILO activities and field operations are1. The Governing Body functions as the executive wing of the organization. and the Governing Body. provides the secretariat for all conferences and other meeting and is responsible for day-to-day implementation of the administrative and other decisions of the conference. 2.Migrant workers-Migrant workers make an important contribution to the economic development of their host .Manpower Organisation and Vocational Training-The ILO as well as the United Nations made concerted efforts in the post second world war period in the manpower field to stimulate the most effective and productive use of human resources in the whole process of economic and social development.It consists of 56 members. 28 representing governments.

the same trade union rights as that of men. g.The ILO Constitution specifically provides for the protection of women workers. e.1948).The international Labour Conference adopted a resolution in June 1971 on the need to promote equality of migrant workers in all social and labour matters. 3. equal pay for equal work. yet they may suffer from many forms of discrimination.Women workers. adopted international standards protecting expectant mothers and limiting the amount of night work by women. a. better conditions for finding employment. the guarantee of all civil and political rights. c. d.The first session of the International Labour Conference held in Washington in October 1919.In 1937. regulating the minimum age for working and the recruitment of youngsters into unhealthy or dangerous jobs.The theme of the Director-General’s report at the 69th session of the International Labour Conference(1983)was on child labour.Child Workers:The Ilo has been concerned with the problem of child employment since its inception. 4.1951. b.the Underground work(women)1953 and the Equal Remuneration. .countries. f.1919(revised in 1948).the Night work (women)1919(revised in 1934. The main conventions adopted by the ILO with regard to women workers are :Maternity Protection .namely. legal protection against dangerous working conditions.It has played a key role in the fight against exploitation of children by setting standards. full opportunities to improve their education. legal maternity protection. the conference set down the ILO’s aims in regard to women workers.

6.1952.Health. the ILO has undertaken projects to establish co-operatives. both of producers and consumers. the organisation’s main object is to extend social security to agriculture and plantation workers. the organisation did much to bring about the standardisation of industrial injury and occupational disease statistics and the systematic collection of data on accident frequency. (b)weekly rest. maternity protection and general aspects of sociall security.(c)holidays with pay.Conventions and Recommendations in these fields suggest general principles concerning the prevention of accidents and protection of health of the workers and also indicate the special requirements of particular industries and processes. and co-operative legislation to develop specific types of co-operatives and train personnel in co-operative methods.Conditions of work-The ILO has devoted considerable attention to the conditions of work of labour at work places including(a)hours of work. The ILO has emphasized on protection against sickness. unemployment provisions. and survivor’s insurance .5. technical monographs on dangerous machinery and assistance to governments in drafting regulations. disease and protection against and welfare-In promoting the interests of labour in the fields of regulations. 8.Currently .One of the most important instruments adopted by the ILOis the social security(Minimum Standards) conventions. (d)principles and methods of wage regulation and(e)labour administration and inspection.Moreover. old-age. A number of Recommendations and Conventions deal with workmen’s compensation. A large number of Recommendations and Conventions covering conditions of work of labour have been adopted by the International Labour Conference. disease and injury arising out of employment and stressed on occupational health service and environmental protection.e. 7. invalidity.Social Security-The ILO has done the pioneering work in the field of social security. model and welfare. .g.Co-operatives-Since co-operative organizations of all types proved to be ideal for the developing countries. the ILO has had recourse to a variety of methods.sickness insurance.

Conclusion The international Labour Organisation did much to improve working and living condition of people throughout the world. Our country is greatly benefited by the ILO standards which helped in improving the working class. humanitarian and missionary influence. LABOUR WELFARE OFFICER. n essence. All these basic document are based on the principles of freedom. It has brought about international co-operation. trade unionism and industrial relations of our country. . Other Activities-(a)promotion of handicrafts and small industries (b)Encouragement and reinforcement of workers education programmes undertaken by worker’s organizations and other interested parties (c)Adoption of number of Conventions and Recommendations dealing exclusively with various aspects of conditions of employment and welfare of seafarers. Its Conventions have been greatly appreciated by the working class all over the world for their beneficient. individual dignity and social justice. labour welfare. They are considered as the embodiment of social justice by the under-privileged. employers and workers. It has greatly influenced labour legislation. the principle of tripartite consultation has been successfully adopted by the Government of India in the formulation of labour policy on the Government of India in the formulation of labour policy on the basis of consensus. It is shown itself to be an efficiency tool in the service of social justice in all parts of the world. there is a close resemblance between the ILO Philadelphia Charter of 1944 and the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy under the Indian Constution.9. Following ILO traditional. unity and understanding and helped in the elimination of poverty and injustice. The very law making process in our country in the field of labour has been considerably influenced by its standard-setting process. It has rendering exemplary service to all the three elements composing it –government.

states: “For every mine wherein 500 or more persons are employed the owner. the agent or manager shall appoint a suitably qualified welfare officer. to act as generally as a spokesman of labour and to promote amicable relations between workers and the management. The state is authorized to prescribe the duties. • Develop and improve labour administration. The National Commission on labour has stated: “Laws were made to ensure that the managements appointed a person exclusively to look after the welfare of their workers and help them in discharging their statutory .” In every plantation wherein 300 or more workers are employed. the employer shall employ in the factory such number of welfare officers as may be prescribed. The state is authorized to prescribe the duties. The post of the labour officer was instituted initially to: • Eliminate the evils and malpractices of the jobbery system in the recruitment of the labour. The Legislative provision for the appointment of welfare officers under the factories act was made in 1948(1) (2) of the act provides that:”In every factory. mines. 1952. or plantations are situated. • Serve as a liaison with State Labour Commissioner.” According to the Plantation Labour Act. wherein 500 or more workers are ordinarily employed.” Qualifications of labour welfare officer A welfare officer to be appointed should have: • A university degree • Degree or diploma in social sciences or social work or social welfare from any recognized institution.” Section 58 of the Mines Act. including the maintenance of the law and order in an organisation. qualifications and conditions of service of such officer. when the Royal Commission on Labour recommended that their appointment in order to protect the workers from the evils of jobbery and indebtedness. • Adequate knowledge of the language spoken by majority of the workers in the area where factories. the employer shall employ in the factory such number of welfare officers as may be prescribed.Importance The importance of labour officers in Indian industry was realised as early as 1931. The labour officer was expected to discharge the functions of the policeman. qualifications and conditions of service of such officer.

public sector undertakings. grainshops.legislative provisions related to: • Health and safety • Working conditions • Sanitation and cleanliness • Recreation • Welfare amenities • Worker’s education • Service like coops. worker’s organisations and eminent persons in the field of industrial relations on the role and status of welfare officer. • Formation of welfare committees Labour administration Labour relations Functions These may cover: These may consist of • Organisational • Administration of discipline standing orders • Safety and • Settlement of medical grievances administration • Settlement of • Wage and salary disputes through administration statutory procedures • Administration of legislation • Trade unions and relating to union industrial management relations relations • Steps to increase the productive efficiency. and private employer’s organisations. The management should ensure that only such officers of the personnel department are designated to look after the welfare activities as are properly qualified to hold this post and has an aptitude for welfare work.obligations in respect of welfare measures. The welfare officer should not be called upon to handle labour disputes on behalf of the management. after going through the views expressed by the state government.” Labour welfare Labour welfare advice and assistance in implementing legislative and non. Therefore. housing co-ops. The committee on labour welfare. The welfare officers should form part of the administration so that they may discharge their responsibilities effectively. recommended that “The management should designate one of the existing officers of their personnel department as welfare officer to fulfill the purpose of the law. the eligibility of a welfare officer must be ensured before his appointment. . The management should ensure that only such officers of the personnel department as welfare officer to fulfill the purpose of law.

and again at the twelfth session of SLC. 1938). in its report to the Government of Bombay in 1937 (TLIC. autorikshaw workers. 1962). Manganese Ore And Chrome Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act. and transport workers. State-level funds are framed under the jurisdiction of State-level boundaries. A draft bill was prepared in the light of these discussions and submitted to the Indian Labour Conference (ILC) for consideration at its eleventh session. the Government of India promulgated through an ordinance the Coal Mines Labour Welfare Fund.V. agricultural workers. a number of labour welfare activities came to be established particularly during the Second World War period. In 1954. and Punjab. and Railways. In 1944. the Government of India wrote directly to several employers’ and workers’ organisations impressing upon them the need to institute Welfare Funds. plantations. and enterprise-level funds (Giri V. cashew workers. 1976. and building workers by the Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and . construction workers. and sugar industries. Mine workers by the Iron Ore. A Scheme to set up Labour Welfare Trust Funds formulated by the government was discussed at the eighth meeting of the Standing Labour Committee (SLC) held in March 1946. mica. Maharashtra. iron ore. Kerala has set up more than 20 Welfare Funds for the benefit of workers. The Welfare Funds have been set up by special Acts of Parliament. Industry-wise funds exist in coal.Labour Welfare Funds may be categorised into industrywise funds. Historical growth The need for organised welfare activities for industrial labour was forcefully brought out by the Textile Labour Enquiry Committee. The Scheme was also considered at the seventh and the ninth sessions of the Labour Ministers’ Conference. Beedi workers are covered by the Beedi Workers Welfare Fund Act of 1976. Ordnance Factories. such as Post and Telegraphs. State-level funds. The include funds for abkari workers. coir workers. and toddy tapping. Mean-while. For example. Enterprise-level funds exist in most under-takings of the Central Government. the States also instituted Funds for industrial welfare . gold-mining. As a result. Karnataka. Similar funds have been set up also in Gujarat. A statutory fund was created for financing welfare measures for plantation workers in Assam.• Housing • Implementation of welfare acts.

separate laws have been enacted for collecting cess. Wide variations are seen in the rate structure of the cess.10. The Cine Workers Welfare Production of a.Chrome ore 4. Annual Report. Beedi Workers Welfare cess Manufacture of 50 paise/ Act. whereas the duties on other commodities are at specific rates.50 to Rs 4 per metric tonne. Manganese ore and Production of Rs.1/MT Chrome ore mines labour Iron ore Chrome Rs.1). ranging from Rs 0. Lime Stone and Dolomite Production of 50 paise/ metric mines limestone.South Indian Rs 5000/ Film c. The Welfare funds set up by the Central Government are financed by levying a cess on specified goods (Table 3. Manganese Rs. Mica mines Labour Welfare Value of exports 4.1976 Beedis 1000 Beedis 5. Table 3. 1995-‘96 LABOUR WELFARE FUNDS: .1773 3.Other Films Rs2000/ Film 6. The duty on mica is on an ad valorem basis.5 percent Fund Act. Iron ore.Hindi films Cess Act.1 Financing of the Central Welfare Funds Sl. 1946 of mica 2.1976 ore. 4/MT ore . 1981 feature films Rs.Conditions of Service) Act of 1996. In addition. tonne Labour Welfare Fund dolomite Act. The Building and other Cost of 2 Percent Construction Workers Construction Welfare Cess Act Source: Ministry of Labour.000/Film b. 2/ MT Welfare Cess Act.Marathi& Bangali Rs 3000/ Film d.No. Name of the Act Cess Levied on Amount of cess 1.

Welfare Funds are broadly grouped into tax-based and contributory A contributory scheme is akin to social insurance.The Ministry of Labour is administering five Welfare Funds for beedi. cine and certain categories of non-coal mine workers. •The Iron Ore. •The Beedi Workers' Welfare Fund Act. 1981. 1972. •The Limestone and Dolomite Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act. 1976. The above Acts provide that the Fund may be applied by the Central Government to meet the expenditure incurred in connection with measures and facilities which are necessary to provide the welfare of such workers. Housing 5. Social Security 3. Health 2. 1946. Water Supply The Labour Welfare Organization which administers these Funds is headed by a Director General (Labour Welfare)/Joint Secretary. Education 4. various welfare schemes have been formulated and are under operation in the fields of: 1. Recreation 6. The Funds have been set up under the following Acts of Parliament for the welfare of these workers: •The Mica Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act. who supervises nine Regional Welfare Commissioners for the purpose of administration of these Funds in the States Benefits provided by Welfare Funds As mentioned earlier. Manganese Ore and Chrome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act. and •The Cine Workers' Welfare Fund Act. He is assisted by the Welfare Commissioner (Headquarters) of Director Rank. In India. 1976. In order to give effect to the above objectives laid down in the above Acts. .

by entering into agreement with the providers of the service. and educational facilities. tax-based schemes would appear to work better. the model of actual service provision has proved to be neither popular nor viable in the case of welfare funds (Desai. diet. The Central Welfare Funds have adopted the integrated model of health care and undertaken to provide medical services directly. improvement of standards of living. or providing the services indirectly. Table 3. subsistence allowance for those with mental disorders or leprosy.there is only one social insurance scheme. including hous-ing and nutrition. and provision and improvement of medical care. In Indian conditions. and transportation charges. water supplies and washing. reservation of beds in hospitals that treat tuberculosis and for domiciliary treatment for those with tuberculosis. 1988). The majority of Welfare Funds are used. Welfare funds are adopting the model of reimbursing expenditure. most of the expenditure from the Welfare Funds has been on health. 1996). amelioration of social conditions. Another thrust area has been the education of the workers children as it was felt that this would bring a qualitative improvement in their lives on . 1995-‘96).2 shows the number of workers covered under the welfare funds and the expenditure incurred on their health during the year. and family welfare including family planning. Owing to increasing specialisation of health care and rapid spread of private and public hospitals. The assistance and facilities provided for medical care include purchase of spectacles for persons with ophthalmic problems. reimbursement of actual expenditure for heart disorders. grant for treatment. prevention of disease. and other services (Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operation. Shelter is one of the basic needs of the people. education. namely the Employees Social Insurance Scheme. But considering the present costs of construction it is doubtful if the scale of assistance provided is adequate. The end-use of the Welfare Funds is prescribed in the laws or schemes concerned. from the practical point of view. and the supply of artificial limbs for orthopaedic problems (Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment. In actual practice. the experience of which has not been encouraging. kidney transplants and cancer. for improvement of public health and sanitation. inter alia. Increasing difficulty is experienced in collecting contributions. confining their own function to the financing of the services. 1993-’94. and housing. provision of recreational facilities. Mineworkers and Beedi workers’ schemes include housing.

and stationary have been provided. loans and advances for construction of houses.Such amendments were made to the Building and Construction Workers Welfare Fund. which provides the benefits of immediate assistance in case of accident. or they should provide incomerelated pensions as under the Employees Pension Scheme. Fifty percent of the premium is paid by the Welfare Fund. these Welfare Funds cannot be considered to be providing social security. scholarships. school uniforms. maternity benefit. In other words. which welfare funds need to include in the benefits they provide. payment of pension. financial assistance for the education of children. but they have the scope and the potential to become instruments of social security if suitable amendments are made to the laws . invalidity benefit. The Building and Other Construction Workers Act also envisages protection of workers under Group Insurance Schemes and paying the premium from the welfare funds. and provision and improvement of other welfare measures and facilities. textbooks. The benefits offered to members of Welfare funds have been extended by entering into Group Insurance Schemes. survivor benefit or unemployment benefit. payment of maternity benefit. and trade unions generally agree that the Labour Welfare Funds have gone a long way in ameliorating the conditions of labour outside their work premises and have brought a measure of cheer . payment of medical expenses for the treatment of major ailments. an important issue is whether only a basic minimum pension should be given leaving it to the individuals to make their own arrangement for supplementing it. Regarding old age pension. occupational injury benefit. the balance being subsidised by the LIC. employers. the funds themselves paying the premium for their members. Over one million beedi workers are covered by the LIC’s Group Insurance Scheme. Among other things. Limitations of Welfare Funds Other than medical care. Unification of Labour Welfare Funds The Government. payment of premiums for group insurance schemes. the Welfare Funds set up by the Central government have no provisions for meeting the expenditure on any of the well-recognised branches of social security such as sickness benefit. old age benefit.a lasting basis.

improve the standards of living and promote health. Corporate activities of social nature. A unified system of administering and financing extra-mural labour welfare schemes will also benefit workers employed in unorganised industrial sector or in such industries remain uncovered for obvious reasons. Games. At the same time. sports. 6. formal employee-employer relationship does not exist. Excursions. Community and social education centres including reading rooms and libraries. Funds are a way out to extend welfare measures to a large number of workers. they could be amalgamated into a common administrative set-up for economy and efficiency of operations. even in cases in which it workers’ lives. it is of a casual nature. and other programs of physical fitness. 7. Better still. In mining. 2. 5. family planning. Too much of bureaucracy is expensive and reduces the quantum of money available for developing welfare services for labour. 8. duplication has been found unavoidable. Infighting among workers for job opportunities is common. those employed in coal mines enjoy better civic conditions and more social services than their counterparts working in mines not covered by any welfare fund. Community necessities. For the vast majority of the workers. to secure for them better civic and social services and to bring a measure of cheer in their lives. Anarchical tendencies . 4. The existing pattern of operations of funds tends to create significant differentials in workers’ social conditions. and thus suffer more. it has been increasingly felt that various funds need to co-ordinate their activities more than what has been done. workers employed in different industries within the same State may enjoy unequal benefits from labour welfare funds. Despite genuine effort to co-ordinate activities. 1. in the opinion of the State Government. and holiday homes. and social conditions of labour. tours. The Committee on Labour Welfare (1969) suggested the following functions of the Labour Welfare Boards for the unification. 3. The primary purpose of the labour welfare funds is the socioeconomic upliftment of workers. Entertainment and other forms of recreations. Similarly. Labour relations in the unorganised sector are chaotic. Home industries and subsidiary occupations for women and unemployed workers. Such other activities as would.

and contribution to provident funds of the staff. monthly pension. The establishment expenses are borne out of the receipts of the respective Funds. Employers’ contributions were also received only irregularly. It means that the savings of the informal sector workers are used to finance the employment of government service personnel. The majority of Welfare Funds in the State expend a large chunk of their income for establishment charges. The basic objective of all Welfare Funds is to provide a measure of social security and insurance for workers who are vulnerable to risks and uncertainties and do not have any institutional protection arising from their employment status. unskilled and semi-skilled jobs involving hard physical labour and environmental hazards often get reserved for women workers. other routine administrative expenses. Welfare assistance consists of financial assistance for housing. the expenses include fees and allowances to Board members. . Skilled jobs in many sectors continue to be a male prerogative. and the Funds function like other government departments. education of children. and Government. Social insurance is in the form of an ex gratia payment in the event of disability or death and a modest payment in the event of treatment for illhealth. out of the 19 Welfare Funds formed in the State only 15 get government contribution. Functioning of Welfare Funds The administration of Welfare Funds is vested with the Government. The major social security benefits are provident funds given to workers on superannuation. Although the Boards of Directors are the ultimate body for deciding the policies and functioning of the Funds. salaries and other benefits to administrative staff. and marriage of daughters.worsen relations between workers and small-time employers. Institutions to give training and specialisation in different trades and vocations have not come into existence. and gratuity. The coverage ratio of Welfare Funds in Kerala is also dismal due to poor attractiveness of expected benefits. the concerned government department wields considerable powers. The government contribution and the contributions of workers to the Welfare Funds are seldom fixed on the basis of well-stated principles. The Government nominates board of Directors and more or less equal representation is given to workers’ unions.

and primary health care. In reality there takes place very little by way of welfare payments despite collection of contributions from the stakeholders. It has been suggested that the State should contribute large amounts only to those Funds in which the total contribution from the employers and the workers is found insufficient to meet the stipulated benefits . Structural characteristics of the State economy a low-income agrarian sector. in particular. The Welfare Funds which now cover workers in the informal sector. High costs of administration of the majority of the Welfare Boards raise basic questions on the rationale behind running of these Funds. Certain fundamental weaknesses have been observed which act as hurdles to the smooth functioning of the Welfare Funds in the State. The prescribed criteria for contributions and benefits show wide variations among different Funds. access to school education. there is need for uniformity. the State-assisted social security programmes in Kerala have imparted a sense of dignity and selfesteem to the workers in the informal sector The evolution of such a broadbased social security arrangement in the State has been the result of labour movements and the pro-poor state policies.The majority of the workers in the informal sector remain outside the coverage of Welfare Funds. low per capita income. It seems therefore essential to think in terms of administrative arrangements which would ensure participation of workers and employers and would be responsive to their specific needs and problems . Together with the general and basic social security programmes such as food security.The Welfare Fund model of social security is complementary to the basic social security provided by the state. These constraints can be tackled only through a higher rate of investment and structural transformation of the economy. Expenditure incurred on evaluating investments and making collections from and disbursements to members. However. A solution suggested to this problem is the setting up of a unified and common administrative body to cater to all the Welfare Funds. both in agricultural and nonagricultural occupations. and welfare albeit only in the minimalist sense. these weaknesses cannot be held as an excuse for all the laxity in the functioning of the Welfare Funds. and low industrial productivity persisting in the State act as constraints to the enhancement of the scope of social security arrangements in general and Welfare Funds. insurance. have sought to address the concerns of social security.

increased industrial activity in the country and growing responsibilities of the Organisation. Combining the former organizations of the Conciliation Officer (Railways) and Supervisor of Railway Labour and the Labour Welfare Advisor. Out of these. regional and unit level formations . Bombay.Gwahati. It is entrusted with the task of maintaining good industrial relations in the Central sphere.Dhanbad and Kanpur. CIRM has a complement of 25 officers who perform line and staff functions.THE ORAGANISATION OF CHIEF LABOUR COMMISSIONER (C) (CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS MACHINERY (CIRM)) • HISTORICAL PROSPECTIVE : 1. BROAD STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANISATION: CIRM is headed by the Chief Labour Commissioner (Central)[ CLC (C) ]. 3 Regional Labour Commissioners at Bombay. Presently there are 18 regions each headed by a Regional Labour Commissioner (C) with Headquarters at Ajmer . Cochin. it started with a small complement of staff comprising Chief Labour Commissioner (C)) at New Delhi. Jabalpur. 2. In the field. At the headquarters. Hyderabad. Calcutta. New Delhi. Madras. Asansol.enforcement of labour laws and to promote welfare of workers in the undertakings falling within the sphere of the Central Government. The Organisation of the Chief Labour Commissioner (C))known as Central Industrial Relations Machinery was set up in April.CLCs(C) and 4 regional offices are supervised directly by Headquarters office of CLC(C). Bhubaneshwar. Ahmedabad. Nagpur. Patna. the machinery has a complement of 253 officers and their establishments are spread over different parts of the country with zonal. Calcutta & Lahore and 8 Conciliation Officer and increased gradually consequent upon expanding labour legislation's in the Post-independence period. 14 regions have been placed under the supervision of three zonal Dy. 1945 in pursuance of the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Labour in India and was then charged mainly with duties of prevention and settlement of industrial disputes.Bangalore. Chandigarh.

1. * Defence of court cases and writ petitions arising out of Implementation of labour laws.3. in the Industries for which Central Govt. * Conduct of inquiries into the breaches of Code of Discipline. ASSISTANT LABOUR Commissioners(C) Asstt. * Verification of membership of Trade Unions. * Collection of statistical information. 3. 4. 2. Objectives of the CLC(C) Organisation.above. * Promotion of Works Committees and Workers' Participation in Management. is the `appropriate Government' under that Act. * Enforcement of Labour Laws. They are conciliation officers under the . is the appropriate Govt. except Equal remuneration Act and Payment of Gratuity Act. Promotion of peaceful and harmonious Industrial Relations in the Central Sphere through prevention & settlement of I. Verification of the Trade Union's Membership. SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS OF CIRM The CIRM administers the Labour Laws in the industries for which The Central Govt. Enforcement of labour laws in central sphere.ds. Labour Commissioners have been declared inspectors under all the enactments enumerated in column (4). * Enforcement of Awards and Settlements. Its functions therefore are: * Prevention and settlement of industrial disputes.

E (S.D. They are certifying officers. They intervene and prevent the industrial disputes and maintain harmonious Industrial Relations.3). A. As controlling authorities under the payment of Gratuity Act (sec. filed before them. statutory verification in Banks and ad-hoc verification in major ports). They decide cases of payment of wages less than minimum rate of wages fixed.O) Act. above. They have also been declared inspectors under all the enactments enumerated in column (4). As Registering and Licensing Officers under the Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act. They are the appellate authority under Payment of Gratuity Act and Equal remuneration Act. The Ministry and Hqrs also ask them. They are also Registering and Licensing officer under I. Authorities under the Equal remuneration Act (Sections 7) and Registering and Licensing Officers (Sections 6 and 11 respectively) under the Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition)Act. as provided under sec.L. they decide the claim cases filed before them under these acts. Registering officer under the Building & other construction workers (RE&CS)Act inspectors under other enactment's.W.Act. 20 of the M. submitted under the I. In addition ALCs(C) have to do verification of Trade Union Membership in the establishment wherever required (in respect of industries.W) Act.Cs(C) are also controlling authorities under the payment of Gratuity Act (sec. for certification of the Draft Standing Orders. office of the CLC(C) to conduct inquiries/investigations into complaints/representations references received from VIPs/Unions/individual workers etc. they grant licenses to the contractors and Registration certificate to the Principal Employers.I. and Authorities under the Equal remuneration Act (Sections 7).S(M.Act (Section 4). 3). including those of Conciliation Officer . under IE(SO) Act. The ALCs as Conciliation Officers intervene into the industrial disputes and maintain harmonious Industrial Relations. except Equal remuneration Act and Payment of Gratuity Act. The RLCs(C) being the head of the region is not only in charge of day-today administration but also has to discharge many statutory duties relating to enforcement and industrial relations. REGIONAL LABOUR COMMISSIONER RLC(C) are the Authority under Minimum Wages Act. which have accepted code of discipline.

CLC(C)s as appellate authority under IE(SOs) Act. Act etc. Visit hrmba. monitoring and supervising the activities of the regional offices. Dy. besides.S(M. CHIEF LABOUR COMMISSIONER(C) As the head of the organisation of the CLC(C) has an over all control over the functioning of the organisation. also handle important Industrial Disputes referred to or apprehended in the zone effectively. CLCs(C). DEPUTY CHIEF LABOUR COMMISSIONER(C) The Dy. Appellate officers under CL(R&A) Act.D. respectively. Jt. I.blogspot. CLC(C) handles important Industrial Disputes of all India nature. IE9SO) Act etc.CLCs(C) are authority for deciding cases of same or similar nature of work and condition of wages of contract labour under Rule 25 (2)(v)(a) and 25(2) (v) (b) of CL(R&A) (Central) mbafin. dispose off appeals arising out of certification of standing orders by RLC(C)s. The CLC(C) has been declared an inspector under some establishments such as M.W) Act and buildings & construction workers (RE&CS) Act. RLCs(C) also function as convener member of the subcommittee constituted by DG(LW) to investigate and report about the desirability to prohibit contract labour in . coordinating.blogspot.CHIEF LABOUR COMMISSIONER(C) The Jt. he has also been given certain special powers under enactment like CL(R&A) Act. The Dy.blogspot.. Act.under the I. He is also appellate authority under Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act.

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