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science vocabulary

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THE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA PUBLIC HEALTH BIOLOGY P.H.

117

THE SCIENTIFIC VOCABULARY
Theodore A. Olson, Ph.D

Reprinted by American Academy of Sanitarians www.sanitarians.org

Forward Dr. Theodore A. Olson’s “The Scientific Vocabulary” dictionary was a constant companion for the University of Minnesota’s environmental health graduate students during the 50’s, 60’s and 70’s. For those of us who survived the rigors of biometry, epidemiology, the “topics” course (which consisted of a series of formal presentations), three “Plan B” papers and a dissertation, a good scientific vocabulary was an absolute necessity. The faculty would inculcate us with a sense of exactness in the way we presented the spoken and written word. We were expected to read scientific journals from other disciplines as part of our instruction. With exposure to each new discipline, we had to learn and understand its own and unique scientific language. In a small but important way, Dr. Olson dictionary made our academic passage a bit less imposing. Little did we realize its value until the rigors of scholarship demanded that we learn word roots to help with our own reading comprehension and writing proficiency. We were each presented with a copy of the dictionary during our orientation in Dr. Olson’s environmental biology class. He also conveniently left copies of the dictionary in our break room for the benefit of the non-biology students as well. The original tome was mimeographed on fools cap paper; folded in half and stapled in the middle. It had 29 pages, exclusive of the front and back covers, and fit nicely into loose leaf binder pockets and book jackets. It presented Greek and Latin word roots in a logical manner and even provided some grammatical rules. My original copy is yellowed from age and quite smudged from use, but it remains a handy resource and has a place of honor on my reference shelf next to my desk. In spite of its age, the dictionary is timeless, and we wanted to share it with as many environmental health professionals as possible. Dr. Olson’s widow gladly gave us permission to reproduce it in its original form and Dr. Welford Roberts graciously volunteered to transcribe it into an electronic format. Our sincere thanks are extended to him in this undertaking. Please use The Scientific Vocabulary freely and share it with others. Robert W. Powitz, Ph.D.

As a testimony to the late Dr. Olson, the following are tributes from two of his students who are also current members of the Academy. “When I was a doctoral student at the University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, I had the good fortune to complete my dissertation under the tutelage of Dr. Theodore A. Olson. Dr. Olson was a strong advocate of the principles of scientific research and the necessity to communicate the findings in a cogent way.

He insisted that the results of his student’s research efforts had to be clearly and concisely written. This lead him early on in his academic career to author a paper titled, “The Scientific Vocabulary.” I found this paper to be very helpful and referred to it on many occasions. I remember many visits to his home when we sat in the living room at a card table and discussed various parts of my dissertation. We frequently would get into discussions about semantics and he always referred to the Oxford Dictionary that he had placed on the table. Much to my chagrin he would usually “win” any disagreement that we have about verbiage or the way to present a particular idea. I benefited greatly from his scholarly advice and my dissertation was better for his time and efforts. Dr. Olson was a scholar and made it a priority that his students understood what it meant to be educated. His paper, “The Scientific Vocabulary” was one of the tools that he provided for this endeavor.” John Conway, Ph.D.

“Dr. Theodore (Ted) Olson was an exemplary individual and a Gentleman in the best and truest sense. He was totally committed to the field of Public Health, and to his many students. A compassionate mentor, it was my privilege to be one of his students. “ Michael Adess, Ph.D.

Theodore A. Olson, Ph.D. Professor Public Health University of Minnesota 1904 – 2002

should be a basic and rapid development of such a vocabulary to enhance understanding and effective communication between the professional and the neophyte. Pelletier and Joseph B. words which are long. However. 117 THE SCIENTIFIC VOCABULARY Theodore A. Massachusetts. Following is a list of typical stems and roots which has been prepared to serve as a basis for word dissection and word building in Public Health Biology Recently in Turtox News there appeared an excellent article dealing with the scientific vocabulary. For example. Pierre J. Isaac. looked at squarely and with understanding. hard to pronounce and little used in everyday life activities are mysteries never meant for the prying eyes of ordinary mortals. 1 Asimov. will find that a large proportion of the scientific terms used by us or by the Russians are the same as theirs." The objective then. This paper by C. 1959. scientists are blessed with a vocabulary system which is still very largely international. Olson I. who derived it from the Greek words chloros meaning green. this area should be approached with caution since it will require a much more extensive knowledge of grammar and etymology. Hence today. Caventou. the scientific vocabulary. After good progress has been made in this activity the student who wishes to go further may be encouraged to build new words. This is a very happy situation. Isaac Asimov (1959) states "far from frightening people away from science.THE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA PUBLIC HEALTH BIOLOGY P. and phyllon meaning leaf. J. However. Words of Science Riverside Press. for the scientists in Scandinavia or Germany. and this tends to lower at least some of the barrier between our respective countries. Dennis entitled "The Language of Biology" is reproduced here as Appendix A by permission of the author and publishers. the parts used were Latin and Greek stems and roots. To these individuals. should be one of the most powerful attractions of science. It began very naturally when the early scientist of the sixteenth century wished to describe a new object or a new phenomenon. Introduction One reason so many persons entering the field of science become convinced that the subject matter is extremely difficult and far beyond their ability is that there is a scientific vocabulary which must be mastered. Since the scholar of that time could speak Latin and many could least read Greek. since the inertia typical of man has kept these Classic "dead" languages as a basis for scientific communication. In support of the great value of "Words of Science to everyone. especially as word building applies to the biological sciences.H. In most instances words are built up from smaller parts and usually these parts are taken from the Latin and Greek. . Cambridge. if these unhappy persons would only devote a small fraction of their time and energies to "positive thinking" they would soon discover that far from being a wall or a device for concealment the scientific vocabulary is actually a bridge by which one may enter the "new land. One method involves exposing the students to a selected list of basic Greek and Latin stems and roots and then encouraging them to break down each new word into its basic parts. take the word chlorophyll This term was coined by two French chemists. He simply "coined" words using the parts he had at hand. for instance."1 The problem of rapid vocabulary building may be approached in a number of ways.

Greek verbs may have more than one form. speak. Some Representative Greek Roots useful to persons who wish to dissect or build words are included in the following list: aesthalgacouarchbal. be born.(ton-.(gon) gnographkineleg. stop twist. 1955).(phor-) philphobphylacplastpne-(pno-) pragptorhe. as in the prefix bal (to throw) which may have the form bol.(rho-) schizsep. explain.(sap-) stastreptten. shape. Greek Prefixes These are elements added before verbs. Thus cata-he-ter becomes catheter (Agard and Howe. bear love fear guard form. (logos = ology = science) break down. feel feel pain hear begin throw build live poor burn break. produce know write." becomes par-acousia. adjectives or nouns to modify the meanings and are never used independently.(bol-) biochycauclasdodromgamgen. sorrow. To make new words pronounceable it is sometimes necessary to alter the root ending to fit in with the suffix especially if the root ends in a consonant and the suffix begins with a consonant. Thus para-acousia. hemi. curved stretch.(log-) lymermetrmneoedoppathperceive.(phaen-." Further if the part following the prefix begins with “h” it will be retained even though the prefix loses its final vowel. "abnormal hearing. In a sense this is equivalent to English verbs such as sing which may appear as sung the participle. Exceptions are amphi-. happen flow split rot stand. Greek and Latin Stems and Roots A. phas-) pher. Greek Verb Roots The number of roots in common use is relatively small but a surprising number of words can be synthesized through the proper use of prefixes and suffixes. but we use peri-osteum "around the bone" and pro-otic "in front of the ear. Also excepted are monosyllabic prefixes.-2- II. formed breathe do Fall.(trop-) trophzygzymdigest eat appear carry. ta-) tomtheraptretrep. dissolve divide measure remember swell see (ops the eye) suffer. perforate turn nourish join ferment B. . heal bore. smash give run Marry come into being. A vowel at the end of a prefix is usually dropped if the next portion of the word begins with a vowel. bent. for example a word whose vowel is e may show forms with o or a. record move say. extend cut help.and peri-. travail pepphagphan. or as the noun song.

scansscisculpsec-. emendo-. Also. factfiniferfissflect-. cursdictdeledomduc-. flexflu. Many Latin verbs with a in the stem may be found with i or e substituted for the a in the compound word. cascaed-. passpell-. For example the root cuss-. ductfac-. under. direct laugh gnaw burst climb know carve cut. seg-. pulsplec-. put carry be able seize scrape rule. do become end carry split bend flow parti-. amphoanaantiapocatadiadysec.(eco-) en-. behind beside . entoepiexowithout. fluxdrive. after. settle feel divide part break down. plexpon-. beyond. solutstratstring-. captced-. imperfection home (oikos) house.” ag-. divide sit. Thus we should have an added interest in these word building elements because they contribute to our everyday pursuits and are not limited to scientific' communication. feel drive fold place. abundant half. rasreg-. lower. dissolve flat. into inside. within upon. in front of together outside C. trouble. away down. around up. It is true that in many instances the words have come a long way and have been altered somewhat in form while making the transit but usually they are recognizable and can contribute much to our 'word power. auditamoblandcad-. more rarely in addition to towards against out. sesssent-. portatpotprehend-. both. prehensrad-. Latin verbs may produce compound words composed of either of two possible stems. hence both stems should be known. Similarly the root lect. not. away through. cess credocusscurr-. "lecture. do hear love flatter fall. also around. pull in . meaning “strike” will remind many persons of the word percussion. A you read these elements attempt to recall a word from your present vocabulary which contains the root in question. away from euhemihyperhypometamesoopisthparapenriprosym-. rosruptscand-. caes cantcap-. under. apart bad. deficient over. in excess beneath. positport-. difficulty.-3- Some useful Greek prefixes are presented in the following list: a-. rectrid-. anamphi-. The following list of Latin verb roots is representative but far from complete. between. near before. also out from in.will recall its compound. sectsed-. bring make. lacking. spread out draw. risrod-. strict suffer. sensseparsolv-. happen (cadaver = one who falls) cut sing take go believe strike run say destroy tame lead. actaudi-.accessory to. beyond changing middle backward. Latin Verb Roots As a part of ordinary speech rather than scientific terminology we have many more verbs which have come to us from Latin than from Greek. again against from. good. one-half above. synectotrue. well.

fugitgrad-. di e-. beyond in. jectjunctleg-. vorsvid-. on not below between intraintroiobperpostpreproreretrosubsuper supratrans-. in front back. pass move born stroke flutter give birth to stru-. away from to. held. go have. corn-. mansmeatmov-. tecttend-. facing. vectvert-. partbreak flee. To avoid unpronounceable words. trusvalveh-. tag-. motnasc-. the Latin prefix will alter or modify the meaning of the root to form a new word. into. structsuppltang-. again backward under over. read bind chew command remain go. into. Thus Ad.plus fer is not adferrent but afferent which means carrying to. volutvor build furnish touch cover stretch color twist pull. about apart out from equal outside. traultrauniwithin inward in. tens tingtorque-. have possession of throw join choose. near both before around together against from. mandatmane-. thoroughly after before. vers-. fractfug-. not toward. be willing turn eat D. gresshab-. the consonant at the end of a prefix may have to be changed to agree with the first consonant of the following root. down. ahead forward. torttracttrud-. natpalppalpitpar-. visvolvolv-. co contradedis-. Some common and useful Latin prefixes are presented in the following list: abadambiantecircumcon-. habit jac-.-4frag-. tactteg-. legatmandmanda-. keep. drag shove be strong carry turn see wish. lect lega-. exequiextrainininfrainterfrom. excessive above across beyond single . Latin Prefixes Like the Greek elements added before a root. chase walk. toward. against through.

bacterium Suffix . Suffixes Brown (1956) in his “Composition of Scientific Words. ellipsoid . entomologist conductor.ium Compound word containing suffix synthesize advocate. assessor. Some examples of endings which indicate Action or Agency are: .-5- E.” states that almost any variation or play upon an idea can be incorporated in a word by attaching the proper suffix to its base. trematode otitis. sympathetic turbid. colloid. filariasis trachoma flexible prehensile digital psychic.sia -sis -se -tion -y .trix in in in in cauterize. traumata (plural) system foramen foramina segment momentum fissure. commisure cambium.ize -lyze -or .ia .ote -ent . ornithosis.ible -ile -al -c -ous -ose -tic -id -oid Compound word containing suffix basidium embolus vacuole calculus molecule calculus ventricle cerebellum vertebra acetabulum vestibule crucible manubrium auditorium pepsin cestode. doctor aviatrix Some suffixes which produce diminutives are exemplified in the following: -ium -idum -ule -ella bacterium clostridium granule asterionella little stick little spindle little grain little star A partial listing of suffixes which may be useful in this course is given below. It includes examples of some of the most commonly used forms in the bio-medical field. precursor sphincter gamete diabetes zygote reagent anaesthesia dialysis synapse fraction anatomy mania sequence frequency tumor sulphite.cle -ellum -bra -bulum -bule -ble -brium -rium -in -ode -itis -osis -iasis -otna -.ist -or -ter -ete -etes . regulate industrialist. Mannonite acidity. Suffix -ize -ate .idium -olus -ole -ulus -ule -culus . stenosis amebiasis. alkalize plasmolyze director.ence -ency -or -ite -ity -ma -mata -m -men -mina -ment -mentum -ure . trauma stigmata. hepatitis tuberculosis. onchocerciasis. equality stigma. fluid ameboid. cardiac porous rhamnose. glucose faunistic.

an. monstrous bucca (L) bursa (L)(G byrsa) caecus calculus (L) calix (L) calvaria (L) cambio (L) campa (L) campus (L) cancer (L) canis (L) canthus (L) cantus (L) carchesium (L) cardio.(L) af. larva of trematodes tail brain.(G) ac. ab. sac or pocket pebble. pointed to. entry gold self armpit. chief bear.(L) anti-.(G) ante-. first cause. off. away. north joint bag. away. cavity purse (bag) blind.(G) andro.(L) alga (L) allelo. fringed . corner.(G) ater (L) atrium (L) aurum (L) autos (G) axilla (L) bacillum. diminutive is cerebellum beer neck tubercle.(G) arcto. below. bis-(L) bios (G) blastos (G) blatta (L) blepharis (G) brachium (L) branchos (G) broma (G) bu. separate water beginning. negative to sharp.(L) acutus (L) ad. about. twice life germ.(G) arthro. arche-. shoot cockroach. Alphabetical Listing of Selected Greek arid Latin Terms Useful to Public Health: (L=Latin.(G) caries (L) carina (L) caseus (L) cata-. on all sides circle curl. hail. tire of a wheel song cup. archo.(L) from.(L) a-.(G) asco. cat.(G) chryso-. hooked man. fin food large. plain crab dog edge.(G) chilios (G) chlamydo. after.(L) ala. huge. obtuse around. pitcher. hail. on both sides. flask jar flask. sleet goose thousand mantle green grit. double vessel.cath. anti. ringlet. cartilage membrane color gold pertaining to food eyelash. reciprocal blunt. without. (G) cibarius (L) cilium (L) circum (L) circus (L) cirrus (L) cirratus (L) cheek. barter caterpillar field. diminutive of stone cup skull exchange. against. under chain universal. chamber hundred head tailed. G=Greek) a-. bloodclot eyelash arm gill. bladder black vestibule. bacillus (L) bacterium (G) bathys (G) bdella (G) benthos (G) bi-.-6- III. off not. very beneath. grain of wheat.(G) ap. sprout.(G) amphi. archi-. toward wing seaweed one another. cato-(G) catena (L) catholicus (L) cauda (L) cell (L) centum (L) cephalo. ana.(G) cercaria (New L) cerco. bud. bin-. therefore.(G) chondros (G) chorion (G) chromato. without. general tail storeroom. crotch little stick little stick deep leech depth of the sea two.(L) apis (L) apo-(G) aqua (L) archae-. contracted in middle heart decay keel cheese down.(G) chloro. direction toward to. pimple.(G) cerebrum (L) cerevisia (L) cervix (L) chalaza (G) cheno. eyelid around. bottle bent.(G) amblys.(G) amphora (L) ampulla (L) ancylo. male before against. opposed to honeybee from. tendril curly.

away from.(L) collo. without different. age upon.(L) cornu (L) corona (L. sea urchin. Ex.(G) dictyo.(L) digitus (L) dino. conceal comb together.(G) cyto. -ellum (L) elytron (G) em-. of weak half tree tooth skin. during in two net away from finger terrible.as suffixes = little sheath. stopper wedge in within. husk in. bar. ridge of hill gift two two bad. designer consequently. prickly house. asunder. inside a suffix denoting place.(G) cum (L) cyano. with together. peg. apart. over horse. rounded projection cross icy cold. head notch. from di-. escape from. egg. chill. fearful whirling. with dark blue circle mythical one-eyed giant wave bowl bladder.(G) dens (L) derma (G) des latticed. hard.(G) entome (G) eon (L) epi.(G) -ensis (L) enteron (G) ento. with snail. therefore . from out of. shell an aquatic plant nit.(G) dif. container. inside incision (en=in. hide under. with horn crown body bark rib. canal spindle shield cum together.(G) copro. temno=cut) lifetime. dung together.(G) da. vessel intensive prefix. very. from a swelling (with fluid) edible out of. into.(G) embolos (G) en. resemblance diminutives . hollow place.(G) endo. molt hedgehog. hence. between. G kóronos) corpus (L) cortex (L) costa (L) cranio (G) crena (L) crux (L) cryo.(G) edema (G) edulis (L) ef-.(G) -ellus. Ex. rotation twofold in two.(G) ecdysis (G) echinus (L) eco. within bolt.. from I. egg of a louse.-7- clathratus (L) clava (L) cloaca (L) clostero (G) clypeus (L) co (L) coccum (L) coelo. without. on. equinus=of horses suffix signifying agent. Canadensis intestine within. -ella. with glue together. cell cell.(L) ec. dis-(L) dia. myself from.(L) cyclo (G) Cyclops (L) cymato. not through. a large round goblet. graft sewer. sac.(L) debilis (L) demi (French from L) dendro. seed. screened club.(G) cor. grated.(G) ecto. drain. asunder.. (L) ego (L) eido.(G) diplodis (L) dispar (L) diurnus (L) dormio (L) dorsum (L) doron (G) duo (L) dyo (G) dys (G) e. with diffuculty out of.(G) cymba (L) cysti. home out of. away from. -es (L) ergo (L) two. cysto.(G) dicho.(G) cognitus (L) col. berry hollow know together.from. unequal of the day sleep back.(L) concha (L) conferva (L) conido.(G) de. frost hide.(G) crypto.(G) cteno. with grain. dif-. en. locality.(G kolla) com. ill. from a getting out of. dir-. very down. side skull.(L) con. unlucky.(G) equus (L) -er.

tendril.(G) glypho (G) gnathos (G) gnosis (G) gomphos (G) gonad (G) gongylos (G) gonio (G) gono (G) gracilis (L) grand (grandis) (L) granum (L) grapho (G) gravis (L) gregarius (L) gryllus (L) gula (L) gustus (L) gutta (L) gymno.primitive out of.(G) gyneco-. naked woman. responsible for true.kind jaw. lash leaf hole. round. chin earth glia (G) globus (L) gloeo (G) glomus (L) glossa (glotta)(G) glottis (G) gluco-. race. noble sublime. protuberant. easy. well.(G) eu. sprout humped. curl sun. stock. belly.(G) helio. humpbacked. female turn around (gyros = circle) dwell. socket of a joint. suck spiral.(G) galea (L) galla (L) gallus (L) gamba (L) gameto. peg. forming cheek beginning. hemato (G) . circle around sun or moon) hook single. producing. do cat carry. causing. cheek. (G) glycero-. great. corner seed offspring. engrave jaw wisdom nail. origin. salt (a round threshing floor.(G) glue ball a sticky substance ball tongue mouth of the windpipe must.(L) gena (L) genesis (G) genus (L) genys (G) geo. doll hamus (L) haplo.(G) helmintho-(G) (helmins) helos (G) hema-. marsh worm marsh blood -ger (L) geras (G) germen (L) gibber. sweet new wine sweet sweet carve. eye socket. smooth bluish-green or gray. grain. perform old age (geraios = aged) bud. origin. have possession of blood sea. pellet write heavy pertaining to a flock or herd. from out of. common cricket gullet.(G) haustus (L) helico.(G) gyro (L) habito (L) haemato. simple a drawing. -fic. eyeball. -feet. bear divided into parts thread diminutive of whip. congealed. good. carry. operture.(G) fac-. glycy. gyneo.(G) halo. opening ditch pit. precious stone be born.(G) red within causing. spherical angle. bald. throat taste drop. gibbus gigas (G) gingiva (L) glaber (L) glaucus (L) gleno. draught. thin large. original. whirl. very. birth birth. spot bare.(G) etio. (G) glyco-. magnificent seed. bent giant (large) gum hairless.(G) hali.(G) gaster (G) gelatus (L) geminus (L) gemma (L) gen. -fact. pitfall fork spindle milk helmet pathologic swelling or excresence on plants cock (gallina = hen) hoof spouse (wife = gamete husband = gametes) stomach. eddy.(G) bear.(G) ex. without make.womb frost. product slender. agreeable.(L) exo. -fy felix (L) -fer (L) -fid (L) filum (L) flagellum (L) folium (L) foramen (L) fossa (L) fovea (L) furca (L) fusus (L) galacto. kernel.-8- erythros (G) eso. sea colored pupil of eye. that which produces seed ball.-fex. bolt seed. coil. stiffened twin bud. weasand. salt sea. pauch.

hypero. capable of. tame half pertaining to the liver seven other. pine rust i. pertaining to having the nature of suffix denoting family of animals the same ones own. and masculine specific terms with personal names (pertaining to or of as in Trametes pini. flank diminutive suffix.G. start. -sectus = cut into) form. similar. intro-(L) inus.-9- hemero. tissue whole. stuff. stroke. gap. scar. over. spur. likeness.(L) ileum (L) -ilis (L) ilium (L) -illus (L) im.-ide (L) -idae (NL) idem (L) idio.) -iasis (G) -iatry (G) -ible (L) ichnos (G) ichthys (G) -icle (L) ictero.(G) hyper-. yellow blow. -inis (L) homo. -in (L) infra (L) ingluvies (L) inis (G) insect (L) instar (L) inter. not last part of intestine having the quality of groin.(L) immitis (L) -imus (L) -ina (L) -inae (L) incertus (L) inculco (L) incus (L) -ine. cram anvil denoting chemical terms. entire. all man same. among within.(G) hirsutus (L) hirudo (L) hirundo (L) hisco (L) hispidus (L) histos (G) holo. arouse garden of man on the ground. less than shrew. shaggy leech swallow open.(G) ictus (L) -icus (G) -id. (L) not (ex. mole hog after. uniform.(G) -idium (L) ido (G) il. maw son. having the quality of footprint. very. rough.(L) intra-. resemblance in. rough pertaining to. gape hairy. equal instigate. image between. sometimes as diminutive suffix for subfamilies of animals doubtful tread down. stab. track fish diminutive suffix. little in. bristly. having the quality.(L) -ia (L. drugs underneath. different six opening. little form. mark horse hairy.(p) hyraco. later forms second declension genitives. personal. snake water healthful wet membrane hog beyond. rough upright web-beam of a loom web. low earth.(G) homo. beneath. daughter (insectum <inseco. aperture winter bit. not harsh. irreplaceable) suffix denoting pertaining to a diseased condition treatment of disease. below crop.(G) hydra (G) hydro (G) hygiene (G) (hygieinos) hygro. little jaundice. inside pertaining to . individual diminutive suffix. a healing. ground of glass water water. trifle. figure.(G) hyman (G) hyo.(G) hepaticus (L) hepta (G) heteros (G) hexa (G) hiatus (L) hiems (L) hi1um (L) hippo.(G) hys (G) hysteros (u) -i (L) dry. of feminine suffix.(G) hemi.(G) hormone (G) (hormao) hortus (L) humanus (L) humilis (L) humus (L) hyalinus (L) hydato.(G) hypha (L) hyphos (G) hypo. sting belonging to. above web sleep under.

covertly bearer.(G) -is (L) -iscus (L) -ise (L) -isk (G) -ism (L) iso.(G) levis (L) levo (L) lexico. cavern pool. give. cleaned of the husks.(G) lordos (G) lorica (L) lucifugus (L) luna (L) lupus (L) luridus (L) luteus (L) lux (L) lychnos (G) lyco. suffix) having the nature of diminutive. little make. like very. sect equal. mangled. like. poison strongly. follower repeat denotes inflammation. lake. lingula (L) limno. ladle marsh. mask early stage of some animals from larvalis. disease. act of. lack and fat. -tion (L) particle having the nature of. brim milk torn. mightly in. raise pertaining to words abandoned. cut up soft. process of. thin. quality. nature of nature. to(adj. cause to be. leave.(G) lator (L) latrina (L) lavo (L) lazaros (G) lecitho. little denoting condition. fine. pain pertaining to. a superlative (adjectival) having nature of. plate larva (L) larynx (G) ghost. next to thousand pertaining to motion steal hidden very. prone to scale seizure pealed. -lepsy (G) leptos (G) -letes (G) leuco.(G) labium (L) labrum (L) lac (L) lacer (L) lachno. porposer bath. reason discourse from lego. appoint full of. delicate hidden white mild. wolly hair. storm left hand diminutive of lamina. light.(L) lictus (L) lingula.(G) -issimus (L) -istos (G) -ite. robe bent backward leather cuirass or corselet light-shunning moon wolf pale yellow. from lacus lake hurricane. act diminutive. mantle. fickle lift up.-10- ion (G) -ion. ites itero (L) -itis (G) -itus(L) -ium (L) -ive (L) -ize (G) jaundice (L) juncus (L) jus (L) (Juris) juvenis (L) juxta (L) kilo (G) kinetico (G) klepto (G) krypton (G) la. action yellowish rush.(G) secretly. having the nature of quality of. action make. not in. ghastly yellow light lamp wolf .(G) lego (L) -lentus (L) lepido. sedge law young near. comb. small. pool tongue smooth abandon.(G) lipo. -logue (G)(lego) logos (G) -logy (G) lopho-. choose speak. knowledge of. down lappet.(G) lepsis. tuft cloak.(L) is. -sion. lophio (G) lopo. forsaken little tongue. hollow.. quality.(G) locus (L) -log. dull red. intensive prefix lip lip. privy wash corpse yolk of an egg send. lighten. doctrine.-ion comparative ending diminutive suffix) arrow. science.(G) lingua (L) lio. study of mane.(G) lacinia (L) lacrima (lacryma) (L) lactis (L) lacuna (L) lacus (L) laelaps (L) laeva (L) lamella (L) lathro. from word lipos stone stone place gather. into. a superlative (adjectival) very.(G)(leipo) -lite (G) litho. crest. strap. fringe tear small intestine cavity. ghostly gullet ios (G) iphi (G) ir. descendants.

(G) meatus (L) meco. very honey black better crescent mind table month denoting means. source. pith large. after. single necklace. great.(G) medulla (L) mega. alone. molyx.(G) myrio.(G) mitis (L) mitos (G) mitra (L) mnemo-. handle roughly. bare large. ham. reverseley implying change between. lytic (G) -lyze (G) macer (L) rnacero (L) matcro (G) mactans (L) macula (L) madaros (G) magnus (L) major. to do thin. femur pure. purse chewer whip mother matter mother. great greater jaw. mela-(G) melios. substance jawbone greatest not passage. dissolve.(L) mater (L) materia (L) matrix (L) maxilla (L) maximus (L) me. poor soften long. weak. stain.(L) mutus (L) myceto-. course length narrow. much soft hammer wool apple bad breast. embedding or enclosing.(G) micto. innermost part. over. melius (L) meniscus (L) mens (L) mensa (L) mensis (L) -ment (L) . -merous (G) meros (G) merus (L) loose.(G) metaxy (G) meter (G) metric (L) metridios (G) mezo. portion thigh. womb. -mero. shape death bitten dead mulberry mold. action or result of action chin share. sacrificing spot. mildew beat.(G) mille (L) minor (L) miso. foolish form.(G) mors (mortis) (L) morsus (L) mortuus (L) morus (L) mucor (L) mulco (L) multus (L) muria (L) murinus (L) murus (L) mus (L) musca (L) muscus (L) muto.(G) mnion (G) mola (L) mollis (L) molo (L) molys. single. melano-. mouse gray wall mouse fly moss change dumb.(G) middle between. unadulterated meso-(-G) meta. collar one. mother of measuring fruitful greater small. molygros (G) monas (L) monile (L) mono (G) -mony (L) mora (L) morbus (L) moros (G) morpho. part. large killing.(G) micro.(G) mel (L) (mellis) melan-. lean.(G) myio. myco (G) myelo. injure much brine pertaining to mice. among.(G) myo. break-up to make. spinal cord fly muscle numberless .-11- -lysis. middle measure.(G) mallues (L) mallos (G) malum (L) malus (L) mamma (L) -mancy (G) mandibula (L) mantissa (L) manubrium (L) manus (L) mare (L) marsupiuin (L) maseter (G) mastigo. alone action. or result of action delay sickness stupid.mentum (L) -mere -meri. silent fungus marrow. majus (L) mala (L) mala (G) malaco. unforgetting moss millstone soft grind soft. bag. haft hand sea pouch.-. genuine. near. mark bold. mnesi. pith. cheekbone very. teat pertaining to divination jaw a trifling addition handle. little mixed thousand less hate mild thread turban mindful. megalo. feeble a unit.

(G) of. nausi-. law. home. dispense new. destruction flattened at the poles of the west back part of the head eye eight eye swift.(G) -ode (G) -odes (G) odonto.(G) -ology olos (G) -olus (L) -oma (G) -ome (NL) omma (G) omnis (L) our. pierce puncture toward toward.(L) nops (G) nosos (G) mouse. fluid arising.(G) nomen (L) nomo-. fullness tooth song house. splendor shining.(G) novem (L) novus (L) nox (L) nubilis (L) nubilus (L) nucleus (L) nudus (L) nullus (L) nutrio (L) nux (L) nychos (G) nycterido.(G) nitella (L) nitidus (L) nivalis. elegant of snow. op-. quick. niveus (L) nocturnus (L) nodus (L) nomado.(L) nebula (L) necator( necatrix) (L) nacro.(L) ob-. scanty know mud diminutive. death downfall. upon fat a going down. nycto. place or condition for living not blind disease. neat. having the form of sheep few. corpse swimmer thread infallible graze.(G) octo (L) oculus ocy.-12- mys (G) mysis (G) mystaco. sting prick. noiy. mussel a closing of the eyes.(G) nephos (G) nephro-(G) neros (G) netos (G) neuro. our own mark back nine new night marriageable cloudy. etc. spur. tumor alone toward like. swelling roaming about for pasture. sinew. of-. nauti.-. upper lip. naked nothing. young.(G) navis (L) ne. ours. oc-. sickness noster (L) nota (L) noto.(G) nycti-. nivarius. resembling. gloomy kernel bare. -oides (G) ois (G) oligo. dwelling swelling.(G) myxa (G) myzo (G) nanus (L) naris (L) naros (G) nascens (L) nasus (L) natalis (L) natator (L) nau-. to. liquid heaped up nerve. recent scorpion cloud cloud kidney flowing.(G) non. roving name usage. tendon wink a winking nest black nothing rain cloud snow brightness.(G) necto. pasture.(G) neo (G) nepa (G) nephelo. sharp way likeness. little denoting tumor having nature of eye all . og.(L) nictus (L) nidus (L) niger (L) nihil (L) nimbus (L) nipho. snowy of the night knot.(L) -oid.(G) nygma (G) nysso (nytto) (G) o. muscle.(G)(nektes) nemato. oeci (G) oedema (edema) (G) oeo. beginning nose of birth swimmer ship ship not mist killer a dead body. o-. nobody nourish nut night bat night puncture. os. odon (G) -ody (G) oeco-. slime suck dwarf nostril liquid.(L) obesus (L) obitus (L) oblatus (L) occidentalis (L) occiput (L) occo.(G) nemertes (G) nemo. pores.(G) nicto. the hair upon it mucus.

actor. -osity (L) suffix which augments the force or meaning. enduring fatherland. barb being. little little. guest. shepherd small. quality of. teat.(G) pallidus (L) palpito (L) palpo (L) paludosus (L) paluster (L) pam.(L) oscillo (L) -ose. tent nipple. -ose.-13- -on. swampy all all. rich fare sight work one who. odor bone bone door.(G) onycho. suffering suffering. marshy marshy. right. -opy (G) opso (G) optico. native country father few. bud pustule. kneepan open. condition. denoting production virgin given birth to.(G) -opia (G) opora (G) -opsis. lid serpent.(G) pan-. few little peace -osis (G) osme (G) osseus (L) osteo. sponger paralysis. osity (L) ovis (L) ovo (L) ovum (L) oxys (C) ozo (G) parthenos (G) partus. pathy. or quality of. old ashen. quick.(G) pandus (L) panis (L) panto. region circle testicle secret rite place where. paritus (L) parvus (L) pasi (G) passalos (G) pastor (L) patella (L) patens (L) pater (L) patera (L) patho-. wan tremble.(G) -onym (G) oön (G) op. feel boggy. parietarius -parous (G) food. pant touch. dish.(G) paucus (L) pauros (G) paulus (L) pax (L) . rejoice egg sharp. sheep exult.(G) -otus (L) -ous. border. coast. sour. panto. pan. claw hoof name egg toward cover. pimple equal beside. beat. etc.(G) pal.(G) opus (L) -or (L) ora (L) orbis (L) orchis (G) orgy (G) -orium (L) ornitho (G) ortho. exposed father saucer denoting disease. abundance quality nature wound. disease smell. talon. slackening of walls giving birth to.(G) papas (G) papilio (L) papilla (L) papula (L) par (L) para (G) parasite (L) paresis (G) parietalis. crooked. keen. correct. fodder frost thick child frost all ancient. place for bird straight. loaf all father butterfly. that which has existence fingernail.(G) oryza (G) os. osto (G) ostium (L) ostraco. potsherd oyster nature of. the whole. every bent.(G) ostrea (L) -osus (L) -otes (G) otilo (G) oto. pale. usually means fullness or abundance morbid condition. margin. direct rice toward swing having the nature of. oxygen compounds smell pabulum (L) pachne (G) pachys (G) paedo. sore ear quality of. produced little all peg herdsman.(L) operculum (L) ophio.(G) onto. curved bread. state edge. acute. normal. letting go. agent. acid. entrance shell.(G) pageto. thing. -oon (L) onco. reptile eye autumn relating to sight and appearance meat.(G) paleo-. stroke. very hook. near by.(G) patiens (L) patria (L) patro. near one who eats at the table of another. pertaining to having nature of. zone. palaeo. throb.

regard with affection vein bark fear sound.(G) pisum (L) pithecus (L) placenta (L) placo. everlasting. pedi-.(G) phylo (G) phyo. solid through sea helmet ax. philo(G) phlebo.(G) picro. phago. shine bear. exotic perpetual. torch image. appearance throat appearance. ball.(G) line. tampon plague scab.(G) phthirio-. eruption little foot.(G) phormio (L) photino (G) photo. escape. make grow bellows. little pea (bean) faithful. (G) phor (G) phore. pedo.(L) pelagos (G) peleco. transparent clay.(G) phloeo. squalor small. pen hanging mantle want. affording. filth.(L) pecten (L) pecto.(G) phyco. compacted breast. voice thief bearer. stream.(G) -phage. passage foot skin.(L) peregrinus (L) perennis (L) peri (G) peredineo (G) perisso. tuft phalanx (L) phalaros (G) phaneros (G) phano-. alga louse flight. penicillus (L) penna. race produce. hide. mained open. win bellows plant bitter ball grown hairy hair. skin.(G) pellis (L) pello (L) pellucidum (L) pelo (G) pendens. wing.(G) phyto.(G) pero-. specter appear. battle array. through the years around whirl around extraordinary. bone of finger or toe having a white spot or patch visible.(G) plaesio. phihiro. ball feather.(G) pectus (L) ped-. chest child rudder little foot water. evident light.(G) pila (L) pilatus (L) pilo. drive. by.(G) pisto. foreign. push clear. felt cap hair. rind plug. leaflet dirt. bright light seaweed.(G phobia (G) phono-. rug shining. penna (L) pinos (G) pisinnus (L) piso. -phor (G) phil-. hatchet how large. phantasma (G) pharynx (G) phase (G) phasma (G) pheno. how great. (G) phantasia. congealed. apparition.(G) -pher. carry love as a friend. look.(G) phaeo. stalk. fin pen. pinna (L) pensilis (L) penula (L) penuria (L) peptos (G) per. spring tear strong. (G) pervius (L) pes (pedis) (L) pesco (G) pessum (L) pestis (L) petigo (L) petiolus (L) petro. mud hanging painters brush. state apparition. of what age skin beat. very traveling about. peda. bright. phoro. hurt. arrow. beyond regular number or size disabled. pencil. beget. brown to eat .(G) pedalion (G) pedicel (L) pege (G) pegos (G) pel. bubble. felt.(G) pelecy. avoidance leaf tribe. figure or form feather. genuine pea (bean) ape cake anything flat and wide oblong body. pendulus (L) penicillum. phyteuo (G) physa (G) physo. rind comb fixed. stem rock dusky.(G) phygo. sin hide.(G) phyllo.(G) pelico. strange. wing.(G) err. cap. poor cooked through.-.-14- pecco (L) peco. carrier mat.(G) pilus (L) pinna.

former before. feather.(G) poma (G) pomphos (G) pomum (L) pons (pontis) populus (L) por. pelvis fist dwarf rump. tablet the common people plaited. thick socket. deformed. fine flour thumb defiled . leaf.(G) prae (L) oblique wandering . excellent. extraordinary implying motion from. leaf that which has fallen. clap the hands in praise plate. upright rectum. life.-15- plagios (G) plancto. spit fold. fundament tail. sail crowd.(G) puber (L) puicher (L) pulmo (L) pulvinus (L) pulvis (L) pupa (L) putor (L) pycno (G) pyelis (o) pyelos (G) pygmo (G) pygmy (L) pygo. wide. smooth itch scurvy. haven. pied. lid.(L) poro. fullness side interwoven. entrance hole. buttocks gate. roaming substance . level. feather. effective before pragma (G) pravus (L) pre. wing. toward first itch. layer. fruit bridge people before hole. pad. forward. spotted of a given kind. braided more clap.(G) act. prius (L) pro. flat strike. setting trough.(G) pylo. fact. nature quality beard gray city dust.(G) plasma (G) platys (G) plaudo (L) plax (G) plebs (L) plecto (G) -plegia (G) pleistos (G) pleo-. passage after.(G) pluvius (L) pneuxno. on or to the side.(G) podium (L) podo-. deed. wonderful. mind. perverse. frigid flea feathered.(G) psychros (G) psylla (G) ptenos (G) ptero. false bare. plate downy. spirit. plaited. behind river drink active. passage gate. vast. strike rich rainy wind. rottenness dense. fin down. throng. bad before.(G) prodigiosus (L) pros (G) protos (G) prurio (L) psammos (G) pseudo(G) psilo (G) psoro (G) psycho. annus strange. busy. multitude. podi. doll stench. ripe beautiful lung cushion.(G) plexus (L) plio.(G) pyon (G) pyro. scabby.(G) pludo (L) pluto. corpse saliva. that which is formed or molded broad. door harbor. (G) pletho. or long for sand lie.(L) preda (L) prehendo (L) primus (L) prior. air. powder girl. butterfly cold. orifice pus fire . very cover. twisted stroke. winged wing. strike most swim. blister apple. beside.(G) ptilo (G) ptoma (G) ptyalon (G) psycho.(G) pleuro. near. balcony foot varicolored. poda. matter crooked. mottled. able.(L) probo (L) probus (L) procto. in front of test good.(G) porta (L) portus (L) porus (L) post (L) potamo (G) poto (L) practico.(G) poecilo (G) -poeus (G) pogon (G) polios (G) polis (G) pollen (L) pollex (L) pollutus (L) poly. mangy breath. soul. unchaste many. pillow dust. very prey seize first earlier. breath platform. tub. bathtub.

ask learned box four how many.(G) sartor.(G) rhus (L) rhyaco. stick. soundness of mind sound. remnant. ridge. quid (L) quinque (L) rabidus (L) radius (L) radix (L) radula (L) ramus (L) rana (L) rapina (L) rapum (L) rasor (L) rattus (ML) raucu (L) re-. snout. reddish wrinkle. measure. staff spine. pillage turnip scraper rat hoarse retro. reptile rough. current orator. down. fragment thaw ruler.(G) rhizo. beg dew beak. bill fan root rose. spoke root. hard darkness write small tray or platter shield apart. bill. radicle = little root scraper branch. divided splinter or chip of wood spark cut. aside. ranunculus dim. proper. simulating who. mangy climb stem. rent. staff dung split.(G) rhipido. antler frog. wise rotten package.(G) wheat. bundle. muzzle wheel red red. jump. bound.(G) rhago (G) rhaphido (G) rheos (G) rhetor (G) rhino. muzzle veil gnaw. split tough. floor seed . nibble at ask.(G) sella (L) selma (G) semen (L) nose. grain flame-colored. red-. scabby.-16- pyros (G) pyrrho (G) pysma (G) pystos (G) pyxis (L) quadri (L) quantus (L) quasi (L) qui. snout. red sumac stream. defendant king rod.(G) rhachjo. retro rectus (L) reduvja (L) regelo (L) regula (L) remus (L) ren (L) repens (L) repletus (L) res (L) reses (L) reus (L) rex (L) rhabdo. furious rod. sartrix (L) sauros (G) scaber (L) scando (L) scapus (L) scato.. stem grape. what five mad. very straight. slothful. pattern oar kidney creeping filled. separation slow. dance the open sea health blood health. teacher of oratory nose. patcher lizard. again. inactive accused person. crease rough bag holy thing. load flesh tailor. burden.(L) segnis (L) seleno. temple arrow salt leap. = tadpole robbery. right hangnail. idle.(G) rhodo. snout. torrent rhyncho(G) rica (L) rodent (L) rogo (L) ros (L) rostrum (L) rota (L) rober (L) rufus (L) ruga (L) ruidus (L) saccus (L) sacrum (L) sagitta (L) sal (L) salio (L) (saltus) salum (L) salus (L) sanquis (L) sanitas (L) sanus (L) sapiens (L) sapros (G) sarcina (L) sarco. healthy prudent. real yellowish-red. backbone. beak. upright. full thing remain sitting. tawny question. dilatory moon seat deck. berry needle stream. quod. ray.(G) schistos (G) schiza (G) scintilla (L) scissus (L) sclero (G scoto (G) scribo (L) scutella (L) scutum (L) se.(L) back. quis. which. how much appearing as if.

throne. northern hedge. drop. tight. hurt. scarse beautiful. layer twisted furrow. whistle thus dry pod. string act of. band. location sun bottom of the foot. lethorgy agent sister heap sos. probably alone.(G) stalsis (G) stato. robe mouth cover. tattoo a long garment. recess. slow entrail zeal.(G) stilla (L) stilus (L) stizo (G) stola (L) stoma (G) stratum (L) streptos (G) stria (L) strictus (L) stridulus (L) striga (L) strigilis (L) stroina (G) strongylos (G) strophe (G) stylos (G) suavis (L) safe. injury pocket. column sweet . twist thick. channel. straight creaking. flesh sleep noisy wise sleep. bent tube cord. breast snore pebble punctured. contraction. spanos. signal. like without harm.(G) sinus (L) -sion (L) siphon (L)(G. grating swath.(G) sepsis (G) septem (L) septentrionalis (L) septum (L) sera (L) sermo (L) serra (L) serum (L) sessilis sesqui (L) seta (L) sialos (G) sibilo (L) sic (L) siccus (L) siliqua (L) silva (sylva) simia (L) similis (L) sine.(G) sphex (G) spiraculum (L) spiro. line drawn together. bag forest ape resembling. spotted.(G) stela (L) stella (L) stenos. sosi (G) spanios. bay act of.(G) stauro. rope. sole royal seat. showy seed hope ball wasp air hole. crowded. site. splendid cave. siphon) siro. bed. flag decay. placed. process of. pore.(L) sino.-17- semi. stupor. breathing. sparnos (G) speciosus (L) specus (L) spertna (G) spes (L) sphaero. conversation. restriction fixed.C(G) stego. upright stake roof pillar. mark. dappled stake. exertion compression. windrow scraper bed. grain place. brand. dense. puncture. putrefaction poisoning from bacterial action seven north. fence. blanket. hollow. bristle. -sy. pen prick. standing cross.(G) sterto (L) stia (G) sticto. partition bar for fastening doors talk. chair of state a kind of spider. rounded turning point pillar. damage.(L) semio.(G) -sis. vent coil. whey (curdled milk) sitting one and one-half bristle fat hiss. single body. discourse saw a thin watery fluid. -cy sitos (G) situs (L) sol (L) solea (L) solium (L) solpuga (L) solus (L) soma (G) somnus (L) sonax (L) sophos (G) sopor (L) -sor (L) soror (L) sorus (L) half sign. column star narrow herald with a loud voice dung chest.(G) spissus (L) splanchnon (G) spudo. process of food. sound rare. stenygros (G) stentor (G) stercus (L) sterno. having nature of pipe. mattress round.

envelope. grate. sheath god beast.(G) theros (G) thesaurus (L)(G) thigma (G) thio. slender. cobbler seam together. wonder cleansing back place where earth urn. teleios (G) tellus (L) telson (G) temna (G) temo (L) tempus (L) tendon (L) tenon (G) under. somewhat less than thin. sly. boundary cut. marvel. trail together. united associated. fillet punishment in kind for an injury experienced the like. from. sweep. bulge bow windpipe rough . body of algae and fungi case. extended thin agent. perfect earth end. wild animal heat summer treasure.(G) tegmen (L) tegula (L) tegumentum (L) tele (G) teleos. skull.(G) thermo. -tis. sign. classify. art. doer.(G) -tion (L) tiphos (G) tomentum (L) -tomy. -tra. slave hair lump. fiber stretch act. socket turn. flat surface. taxis taxo (G) techno.(G) tardus (L) tarsos (G) taurus (L) tax-. tongue time stretch sineu tensus (L) tenuis (L) -ter. chest brittle creature. sum-. -tria. fine. tome (G) topos (G) -tor (L) tormos (G) torno (L) torpidus (L) torus (L) toxo (G) trachea (L)(G) trachys (G) stretched. instrument monster.-18- sub. draw. tassel pertaining to shred. sup-. process. -trum terato. make round numb.-. tachinos (G) taenia (L) talio (L) talis (L) tany. acute under over. pole. container. brick. sprout.(L) subtilis (L) suc-. maker tool. stiff round elevation. flat of foot bull place arrange. result or state of standing water wolly hairs dissection.(G) thixix (G) thomos (G) thorax (G) thraustos (G) thremma (G) thrix (G) thrombos (G) thyra (G) thysanos (G) -tia (L) tilos (G) tino. craft c over roofing tile cover far having reached its end.(L) super (L) supo (L) supra (L) sur. hog sewer. -tris (G) -ter. taxia-. excision place agent hole. kind stretch out slow mat.(G) systole (G) tachys.(G) syrinx(ç) syro (G) sys. with contraction swift ribbon.(G) syn. complete.(L) -sura. sur. green branch. with pipe drag. finished. above throw above. with together condition. shell. with forest together. sug. cuirass. thero. -tura (L) surgo(L) sus (L) sutor (L) sutura (L) syl.(G) sylva (silva) (L) sym. storehouse chest touch sulfur touch heap breastplate. blood clot door fringe. slice beam. state. over under result of action rise pig. suf-.(G) -syna (L)(G) synaptos (G) synergos (G) syr. potsherd four sea shoot. partner together.(G) tergens (L) tergum (L) -terion (G) terra (L) testa (L) tetra (G) thalasso (G) thallus (L) theca (L) theos (G) therio-. quality joined. -teira. -test –tor.

disorder result of action inflated. little knob. shield shade. mallet impression. piece of timber kiln. trypema (G) tuber (L) tubus (L) -tude (L) tumidus (L) javelin goat warp. damp. callus. augmentation nail. toil hole a swelling. nature swollen tunica (L) turba (L) -ture (L) turgidus (L) turio (L) turpis (L) -tus (L) tussis (L) tutor (L) tutus (L) tycho. mark of a blow cheese not where (ubique = everywhere) hold. swollen shoot. the whole pertaining to heaven. vapor hammer. alarmed turn perforation perforated three trifle. bulb pipe state. baneful any.(G) ultra (L) -ulus (L) umbo (L) umbra (L) uncia (L) uncinus (L) -unculus (L) uncus (L) unda (L) -undus (L) unguis (L) unicus (L) unus (L) -unus (L) urano (G) urbs (L) garment tumult. elbow gum (surrounds teeth) beyond. trefoil threefold agent. base pertaining to. little full of moisture deadly. direction food memorial of victory. barb wave continuance. doer sad third well worn. wear out labor. -tria (G) tristis (L) tritos (G) tritus (L) -trix (L) trochanter (G) trochlea (L) trocho. luck mason's hammer created. sprout ugly. quivering tool. anyone forearm.(G) tyros (G) u. distinct across. singular one. typhlosis (G) typhos (G) typis (G) typo. claw. good fortune.(G) trocto. secure chance.(G) trientalis (L) trifidus (L) trifolium (L) triplex (L) -tris. figure. bear wet. talon only. humid diminutive.(G) troglo (G) tromos (G) -tron (G) trope. shape.(G) ullus (L) ulna (L) ulo. instrument a turn. on the other side diminutive. lump blow drum blind smoke. familiar.(G) tyco.(G) tycto. instrument maimed. hindrance hair third of a foot three cleft clover. foul. usually feminine segment of insect leg (the second) pulley anything round or circular gnawed. protector safe. barb diminutive hook. shadow the twelfth part hook. sky city . mark. grate wound hole feed. cut off hole rub. wrought knot.(G) trasia (G) trauma (G) trema (G) trepho (G) trepidus (L) trepo (G) tresis (G) tretos (G) tri. gnawer thrust tool. beyond.(L) trapheco. accident. weft clear. filthy. commonplace agent.(G) ubi (L) -uchus (NL) udus (L) -ule (L) uliginosus (L) ulio. tropos (G) trophe (G) trophy (L) trox (G) (trogos) trudo (L) -trum (L) truncus (L) tryma (G) tryo (G) tryos (G) trypa. way. nourish agitated. knob.(G) tymma (G) tympanum (L) (G) typhlos. eatable hole trembling. token nibbler.(L) trica (L) tricho. through beam. condition.(G) tylo. turning.-19- tragula (L) tragus (L) trama (L) tranos (G) trans. nature of cough watcher. sole.

-urn (L) uter (L) utriculus (L) -utus (L) uva (L) unidus (L) uvula (L) vacca (L) vacillo (L) vado (L) vadum (L) vagina (L) vagus (L) valde (L) valens (L) vara (L) vargus (L) varus (L) vas (L) ve. zygos (G) zyme (G) top. horse vagabond blotch. -urgo.(L) vicinus (L) victus (L) vietus (L) villus (L) vir (L) virgo (L) viridis (L) Virilis (L) virus (L) vis (L) viscum (L) vita (L) vitellus (L) vitrum (L) voco (L) volans (L) volva (L) vomica (L) vorax (L) vox (L) xanthos (G) xenos (G) xeros (G) xylo. purse. vernus (L) verro (L) versus (L) pitcher. shrunken wrinkled shaggy. call yellow stranger. springtime green bend. rider fleece. stinging denoting work tail bear masculine. diet shriveled. ulcer greedy. moist. very strong. guest dry wood animal pure. turn vertex (L) verto (L) verus (L) vescor (L) vesica (L) vesper (L) vespertilio (L) vesperugo (L) vestis. sound. pertaining to grape wet. poison force. conceal veil. oscillate near. line of poetry. rush shallow place. intensive carrier. -urgy (G) uro.(G) ursus (L) -us. small bag or bottle having nature of. one or the other. damp lobe of soft palate cow waver go. scabbard. curtain. pimple vessel.(L) vector (L) vellus (L) velo (L) velum (L) vena (L) venator (L) vendo (L) venio (L) venter (L) ver (L) verdant (L) (viridis) vergo (L) vermis (L) vernalis. balance yeast . clear away furrow. feminine. pelt cover. gluttonous voice. hair man maiden green manly slimy liquid. vestimentuin (L) veto (L) vetus (L) via (L) vibrissa (L) vibro.-20- urceus (L) urens (L) -urge. west bat bat garment forbid old way whisker shake. blister evening. -a. sail bloodvessel hunter sell come belly spring. vigorous trestle. case wandering exceedingly. surety without. passenger. tend toward worm of springtime sweep. shoal. pair. incline. neuter terminations bag.(G) zoon (G) zoros (G) zygon. other diminutive. boil. duct. sheer yoke. urn burning. utensil also bail. peak. eddy turn true eat bladder. ford sheath. strength sticky mistletoe life yolk of an egg glass call flying cup-shaped sheath sore. neighboring food.

Table 1 traces the origin and development of our modern English language as well as certain other related languages.-21- APPENDIX A “The Language of Biology” by Clifford J." "that part" and "this activity. 2." Below is a description of hitching horses written by Mark Twain without the use of technical terms. and hauls it aft. But could you hitch horses following this description? It is doubtful that you could. and then takes the slack of the thing which I mentioned a while ago. published in Turtox News Vol. You should realize that simply learning lists of words has very negligible value. most people probably could do a fairly satisfactory job of hitching up a team of horses. Dennis. pp. provided with the necessary wagon. Biological terminology is often a source of difficulty and frustration for students. Technical terms are necessary. and passes the thing that goes forward through a ring. 38. and takes another thing and wraps it around the thing I spoke of before. opposite to the first one. No. up hill. and hands the other things up to the driver to steer with. Now then. Since technical terminology is necessary. 2 / Mark Twain. Ph. descriptions and drawings of the materials used together with accurate instructions for hitching. February. function and behavior are designated by terms like "this thing. after crossing them and bringing the loose end back.28-29 .D. 1960. Not much progress can be made if such things as structure. Every field of human inquiry has its own terminology which is used to define. However. let us consider how words originate and how they are constructed. and puts the iron thing in his mouth for him to grit his teeth on. after buckling another one around under his neck to hold his head up. with broad flappers to it to keep the dust out of his eyes. "One of the advances man shows over lower forms of life is his ability to use an intelligible language. describe and analyze the subject matter of that field. and hitching another thing on a thing that goes over his shoulders to keep his head up when he is climbing a hill. Words are symbols used to represent things or ideas and are arranged in various ways to express more complex concepts. harness and horses and adequate names. and brings the ends of these things aft over his back. the material in this paper is presented with the aim of easing the pain of learning strange and apparently difficult words. “The man stands up the horses on each side of the thing that projects from the front end of the wagon. in A Tramp Abroad (New York: Harper and Brothers. and then buckles the other thing underneath the horse. 1905). This indicates in a humorous fashion the absurdity of avoiding technical words. and puts another thing over each horse's head. A person can not really understand much about any academic study unless he has a rather good grasp of the terminology which is employed. and then throws the tangled mess of gear on top of the horses..” 2 Perhaps this selection of Mark Twain's describes how a person would hitch a team of horses. particularly when a greater vocabulary is coupled with an understanding of words and concepts." An increase in vocabulary is one of the aims of education. and passes the other thing through the other ring and hauls it aft on the other side of the other horse. and fetches it aft and makes it fast to the thin that pulls the wagon. It would be a very rare biology teacher who has not listened to student complaints about learning all of those "hundred dollar words.

roots and suffixes. some are not subject to analysis of this sort and are called root words. and sometimes words have the same root but different meanings.C. the word cell can not be analyzed in this way. Parts of words especially have been borrowed by the sciences.will refer to life whenever it is used. study of animals. Zoo.comes from the Greek zoion. There was much borrowing from French and Latin. analysis of words will be very helpful. pronunciations and spellings with the passage of time. Anglo-Saxon. Word analysis will be a very useful tool because it will often give you a good idea of the meaning of words. animal. Word analysis involves a study of prefixes. Zoology literally means animal discourse or. Upon analysis the word zoology is broken down into zoo. discourse. Your dictionary will indicate spellings. the measurement of life or statistics as applied to life sciences and biota. the animals and plants of a region. But it will not always do so. Some of our words can be analyzed or broken down into parts. biometry. . Do not let these things discourage you. Italian. Modern English (1450-present) There has been much borrowing from Greek. WORD ANALYSIS You should learn to recognize word parts since they often give you a clue to the meaning of the word.-22- Table 1 Development of Modern English and Related Languages Hellenic Greek Latin French Spanish Italian Portuguese Indo-European (about 2500 B. -logy is derived from the Greek logos. Perhaps the main reason for this is that words generally tend to change their meanings.and -logy.) Germanic Celtic Danish Irish Swedish Welsh Norwegian Scots-Gaelic Icelandic Breton German Dutch Sanskrit Indian languages Old English (Anglo-Saxon – 450-1050 Germanic Tribes conquered the Britons who spoke Celtic. little room. The word form -bio. Middle English (1050-1450) William the Conqueror. syllables. French Norman. Make good use of it. Cell is derived from the Latin celia. origins and meanings of words. Spanish and from all over the world. overcame King Harold. Uncommon words may defy analysis. We have such words as biology. a we commonly say. More often than not. the study of life. On the other hand.

above across beyond forearm unconscious Examples asexual. abscess adduct. agglomerate bifocal circumflex commensal. systole abduct. difex-. to two around with down. conjugation depressed disarticulation. Prefix fore un-. meanings and examples. anamphi-. apart out.. For example. before. away from. extra.supratransultra- Meaning From Old English before. Prefixes A prefix is a short word form used at the beginning of a word which modifies the meaning of the second part of the word. af. within not between within over. separation away. the Latin prefix ad is changed so that instead of appendage we have appendage. before. efextrain-. occlusion postescutellum prenatal prophase regression.-23- A.agbicircumcom-. Often the spelling of a prefix is changed to make pronunciation easier. in front not From Greek without. Some of the most common prefixes used in biological terms. a-. which are derived from the Old English. immersion incapacitate internode intracellular obteted. suspend supersensitive. Pro syn-. sym. metamorphic parabasal perianth pronotum synapsis. change beside around for. suprarenal transpiration ultrasonic . diffusion extraction efferent extracellular inclusion. lacking on both sides up against down through over excessive under after. anaanticatadiaepihype r hypometapara peri-. away toward. toward after before for. sussuper.sysab-. ocpostpreproresemisub-. ref racture semicircular subcutaneous. from outside in. e listed below with some variations in spellings. conde dis-. in front of together From Latin from. sympetalous. anaerobic amphibian anatomy antiserum catabolism diaphragm epidermis hyperthyroidism hypothalamus metaphase. in front of back. again half under over. afferent. Greek and Latin. imininterintraob-. absad-.

Root Meaning From Greek Examples -anthrop-aster-auto-bio-chrom-chloro-cyto-derm-ecto-endo-gastro-hem-hetero-homo-hydr-leuco. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between prefixes and roots. -o-. Most of the roots used in biological terms are derived from Latin or Greek. If you know the meaning of the root or roots which are parts of a word you may often obtain a general idea of the meaning of that word. Scientists have made much use of both Greek and Latin roots to form combinations to produce new words for previously unknown phenomena. but a root is usually more important and may be found at various positions in words. Roots A root is a word form that can not be analyzed and has a relatively constant form and meaning. The root. meaning and examples are given. short connectives between word parts such as in the word chromosome which can be analyzed as -chrom-. the meaningless connective and -soma-. The following list contains some of the more common roots from Greek and Latin which are used as bases for biological terminology. color.mega-meso-micr-mon-morph-orth-phor-phot -plasmpodpoly-protopseudo-pter-som-tri-zo- man star self life color green cell skin outside within stomach blood different same water white large middle small one form straight bearing light a thing moulded foot many first false wing body three animal From Latin anthropomorphic Asteroidea autonomic biogenesis chromatin chloroplast cytology dermis ectoplasm endodermis gastrovascular hemolysis heterozygous homologous hydrobiology leucocyte megaspore mesoglea microscope mononucleate morphology Orthoptera Mastigophora photosynthesis endoplasm Gastropoda polymorphism protoplasm pseudopodium Hymenoptera somatic triploid zoology -ac-aqu-aud-brev-capit- sharp water hear short head acute aqueous auditory brevicernis capitulum .-24- B. body. There are often meaningless.

The same suffix can have several meanings. A suffix. suffixes are subject to much irregularity of formation. Suffixes A suffix is a modifying form at the end of a word. If in doubt. Suffixes are derived from many languages. -sect-spir-terr-uni-vac-vol-volv-. kind place sea many change name all foot out breathe land one empty wish roll. -cis-corp-dec-dent-duc-flor-gen-loc-mar-multi-mut-nomen. you should consult your dictionary. is often difficult to distinguish from a root. like a prefix. This word form is an illusive sort of thing. genus locus marine multiple mutation nomenclature omnivorous millipede segmental. all word endings certainly are not suffixes. voluflesh kill. excise corpuscle Decapoda dentate adduct flora gene. They function just like the -ness on compactness. dissection spiracle terrestrial unicellular vacuum voluntary Volvox. .omni-ped-seg-. cut body ten tooth lead flower origin. evolution C. Since there is nothing unusual about the suffixes of biological terms there seems to be little reason for listing any.-25-carn-cid-. turn carnivore insecticide.

but it can be done and is very much worthwhile. but certainly any college student can learn to spell. but some would use the English plural forms. For some it will be easy. 8. To do this you must really look at a word. not only of the more common words but of technical terms as well. but this will help you learn the letter order of the words. You will be amply repaid for your effort. Do not simply study prepared lists of words. 5. The formation of plurals of biological terms is a thorny problem. 1. some take the plural form of the language from which they were derived. English is a difficult language to spell. Make friends with your dictionary. especially with longer words. For example. Perhaps it is a rather superficial criterion. but a person's education is often evaluated to a great extent on the basis of his spelling ability. There is an area of disagreement among biologists concerning plural formations of terms derived from foreign languages. Some people have a greater facility with words than others. Assume the responsibility for your own improvement. You may not get the pronunciation and accent exactly right. In biological terms nearly all letters are sounded. 2. but if you will proceed as outlined below you can improve your spelling. Write the words over and over again to help fix them in your mind. You must recognize the fact that proper spelling is not only a social necessity but is also essential to accurate scientific expression. not merely glance at it. Most biologists prefer to use the foreign plurals.-26- Spelling and Formation of Plurals Spelling is a sore point with many students. 4. Some words take the usual English plurals. but it also is important. Realize that biological terms are really easier to spell than many more common words. It need not be. This is true because pronunciation is much more closely related to spelling than in other words. Do not hesitate to work at your spelling. 7. Learning plurals will require much memory work at best. Use the words in sentences so that you can gain a good conception of what the words mean and how they are used. Work on the words that trouble you . It is important to recognize the word as a whole. These are the most common singular and plural endings for foreign words. -ex -is Plural -i-ae -a -ices -es . Educated society expects good spelling. most biologists would use the Latin form. for others it will require considerable time and effort. Try to pronounce the words. to learn to break words into syllables. 3. antennae fr the plural of antenna. but some would use the English form antennas. 6. Singular -us -a -urn -ix.

but most biological terms can be defined rather simply. the classification and the differentiation. Genetics differs from the others in that it is. Definitions Science attempts to define its terms and concepts as precisely as possible. Genetics is the study of inheritance. . fission means splitting. The classification indicates the general class of item to be defined. Most biological terms can at least be defined in such a way that we can use them. Dictionaries record present usage and meaning. However. it may not accurately mirror present meanings or even contain many newer terms. a dictionary definition may fall far short of really delimiting words denoting more complex concepts. There has been thousands of words written by learned philosophers in an effort to define or describe the common word good. even in the sciences extreme precision is not always reached. The study of biology is concerned with life. You should develop the habit of trying to define words as accurately as possible. Also. There are many kinds of plant bodies. However. but the kind lacking roots. the study of inheritance. The easiest and simplest way to define anything is to use a synonym. stems. plant body is the classification. Dictionaries. that is. Accuracy in thought. the differentiation indicates how the item is different from related items. of course give several meanings for love. apterous means wingless. of inheritance is the differentiation. 2. For example.-27- These endings are added to the word stem to form the singular or plural. leaves and flowers is the differentiation. Some definitions must be rather complex. It would be very confusing. In this example the word defined is thallus. Stem nuclelamellpseudopodiappendvertbasSingular nucleus lamella pseudopodium appendix vertex basis Plural nuclei lamellae pseudopodia appendices vertices bases There are many more plural forms but to list them all would serve little useful purpose. A definition consists of two parts. Unicellular can be defined as one-celled. let us consider the word love. Unless a dictionary is a relatively modern one. of course. The word defined is genetics. There are. A thallus is a plant body lacking roots. He attempts only to present as clear a picture as possible of the meanings words have at the present time under various conditions. another word with the same meaning. but we can not define life in such a way as to express all of its ramifications. stems. the difficulties of defining terms need not concern us greatly. The dictionary writer does not try to force meanings on people. Definitions are subject to change. Here are some examples of what is meant by classification and differentiation 1. specifically. study is the classification. expression and understanding is our aim. stems. lacking roots. many different sorts of studies. We all realize that loves are of different kinds arid that the word means something different to everyone. There is no room for lazy mental processes in the study of biology. leaves and flowers is a thallus. leaves arid flowers. but they can not really define a human concept as complex as love.

This terminology can be learned and understood more easily if you will try to gain an understanding of how words are derived and constructed. 3. Educated society requires adequate usage and comprehension of English. 1. With scientific terms it is often necessary to use technical terms in definitions. To classify the deer as an animal is essentially correct but is not very helpful as a classification since there are a great many things that could be called animal. German and other languages. If we were to define an analgesic as "an anodyne" we would be correct. it is not a "where" of any kind. This is a very common mistake. It would be a much more useable definition if we simply defined an analgesic as a medicine that relieves pain. However. The other eight-legged arthropods do not have spinnerets. About the best we can do is define episternum as the most anterior pleurite of an insect segment. nests or cocoons. 4. is able to communicate with his fellows. if we indicate that the triceps brachii is a skeletal muscle which extends the elbow we have narrowed the differentiatic and produced a better definition. Summary Man. However. To say that a spider is "an eight-legged arthropod" does not exclude scorpions. undue technicality can be troublesome. In scientific expression particular terminology is a necessity. For example. If a choice must be made between simplicity and accuracy the choice must. excretion is not "when metabolic wastes are eliminated". It most often appears in calling a noun a "when" or a "where". To say that a deer is a ruminant animal would be a better and narrower classification. of course. French. Differentiation not accurate or complete enough. It would be a poor definition of biologist to say that a biologist is "a person who studies biology". Greek. Definition that is too technical or "bookish". This is not a common student error. But what is an anodyne? An anodyne is a medicine that relieves pain. hiding places. These errors and examples of them are listed below. Excretion is the elimination of metabolic wastes. Lack of the same grammatical structure in the word defined and the classification. Classification too wide. It does not define tree very well to state that a tree is "a tree-like plant". but a narrower classification would indicate that a butterfly is a Lepidopterous insect. To state that the triceps brachii is "a skeletal muscle concerned with body movement" does not exclude all of the other skeletal muscles which are also concerned with body movement. . Excretion is not "when" anything.-28- There are several common errors committed in the formation of definitions. be made in favor of accuracy. mites and daddy-long-legs which are also eight-legged arthropods. 2. ticks. 5. A butterfly is an insect. by the use of language. webs. A derivative of the word or the word itself in the definition. English is derived from the Germanic and contains many words from Latin. An ear is a bodily organ of hearing. It would be difficult to define episternum in non-technical terms. We would have a better definition if we were to define a spider as an eight-legged arthropod which has spinnerets at the end of its abdomen from which issues silk used in making snares. An ear is not "where you hear".

A knowledge of common prefixes. You can derive a great deal of personal satisfaction from increasing your word power and. your understanding of biological science. consequently. . roots and suffixes which are used in biological terms will greatly increase your ability to learn these words.-29- Word analysis is often useful in helping you gain a better understanding of words. Spelling ability can he increased by diligence and the app1icatin of proper study habits. Even though precise definition is not always obtainable we must strive for accuracy and clarity of definition. You should cultivate the habit of making liberal use of your dictionary. Accuracy in expression and definition are prime requisites in the study of biology.

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