INTRODUCTION TO PNEUMATICS

PNEUMATICS
• Technology of Pneumatics deals with the study of the behavior and application of compressed air • Science of air is known to man for centuries • Not used in industry before the beginning of the Second World war (1939-44) • Many industries all over the developed western countries started switching over to more & more automatic equipment and machineries • Origin of Pneumatics – Manufacturing & other activities to meet the sudden need of enhanced production of war commodities under the tremendous shortage of skilled manpower (concept of automation) • Cheaper medium of Industrial automation • Maximum application of pneumatics – Construction (power hammers, drills, riveting hammers, pneumatic cranes, air brakes, printing presses etc.)

PNEUMATICS – Notable Features
• Wide availability of air • Compressibility of air • Easy transportability • Explosion proof characteristics of the medium • Simple construction of pneumatic elements and easy handling • High degree of controllability of pressure, speed and force • Possibility of easy but reasonably reliable remote controlling • Easier maintenance • Comparatively cheaper in cost than other systems

.Oxygen : 21 % .Carbon dioxide & other gases : 1% • Air which is a mixture of various chemical elements follows the gas laws.PNEUMATICS – Physical Principles • Earth is surrounded by air up to a height of approximately 1600 km above the top surface of the earth • Gaseous layer of air around the earth is known as atmosphere • Main constituents of air by volume – .Nitrogen : 78% .

GAS LAWS .

GAS LAWS .

Switching of actuators by means of final control elements .Carrying out work (actuators) • Interaction of all the above governs installation and control of machinery .To determine status of the processor (sensor) .Information processing (processors) .PNEUMATICS REVIEW • Played an important role as a Technology in the performance of Mechanical Work • In the majority of applications compressed Air is used for one or more of the following functions .

PNEUMATICS REVIEW .

PNEUMATICS REVIEW .

APPLICATIONS .

APPLICATIONS .

APPLICATIONS Pneumatic Bending device .

USAGE OF PNEUMATICS .

ADVANTAGES & CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPRESSED AIR .

DISADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATICS .

GENERAL FACTORS FOR COMPARING OTHER FORMS OF ENERGY .

CRITERIA FOR WORKING MEDIA • Power requirements • Temperature variations .

CRITERIA FOR CONTROL MEDIA .

PNEUMATICS & CONTROL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT .

STRUCTURE & SIGNAL FLOW OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS .

STRUCTURE & SIGNAL FLOW OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS .

PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM .

BREAKDOWN OF CONTROL CHAIN .

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & PNEUMATIC ELE. .

5.BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR INTRODUCING PNEUMATICS IN A PLANT 1. 3. 2. 4. Compressor plant Pipeline Control valves Air actuator Auxiliary appliances .

COMPONENTS – PNEUMATIC SYSTEM .

COMPARISION .

COMPARISION .

COMPARISION .

COMPARISION .

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS .

Diaphragm cylinders . Turn cylinder.Ram cylinders .Double acting (Normal.Rotary cylinder type actuator .Rack & pinion type actuator .Rolling diaphragm cylinder • Rotary actuators ( air motors) . Tandem cylinder. Multi-position cylinder) .Vane type Semi-rotary actuator .Single rod .Single acting .PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS • Similar to Hydraulic actuators • Converts air pressure into linear or rotary motion • Used for variety of applications such as Gripping.Rod-less cylinders . Pulling or pushing of objects CLSSIFICATION • Linear actuators ( air cylinders) . Double rod.

SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER .

SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER .

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS .

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS .

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS .

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS .

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS .

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS DOUBLR ROD NON-ROTATING CYLINDER .

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS ROTARY CYLINDER .

Band or cable cylinder .Cylinder with magnetic coupling SEALING BAND CYLINDER .ROD-LESS CYLINDERS • Three different operational principles used for construction of rodless cylinders are .Sealing band cylinder .

ROD-LESS CYLINDERS BAND or CABLE CYLINDER .

ROD-LESS CYLINDERS CYLINDER WITH MAGNETIC COUPLING .

ROTARY CYLINDER TYPE ACTUATOR .

4. 5. Size Speed Environmental protection Maintenance Direction reversal . 3. 2.SELECTION 1.DESIGN PARAMETER .

Previously Discussed Bits….. • End position cushioning • Seals • Mounting arrangements .

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES .

Non-return valves 3. FCV 4. PCV .PNEUMATIC CONTROLS PURPOSE OF VALVE • For controlling the to and fro motion of a pneumatic cylinder. controlled and reversed with a predetermined sequence in a pneumatic system • Control of pressure and flow VALVE DEFINATION • Fluid power elements used for controlling and regulating the working medium VALVE USAGE • To start & stop pneumatic energy • Control the direction of flow of compressed air • Control the flow rate of the compressed air • Control the pressure rating of the compressed air VALVE TYPES 1. DCV 2. the air energy has to be regulated.

stop and regulate the direction of air flow and help distribution of air in the desired line • DCV’s has generally 2.DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES • Used mainly to direct the flow of the pressure fluid in the desired direction • Main function – To start.Spool or sliding valves .Seat or poppet valves . or 5 ports / openings / ways • Ways are designated by letters or alphabets such as : P = Compressor line port R = Exhaust port A&B = working ports to cylinders or motors • DCV’s are basically classified as . 3. 4.

SEAT Vs SPOOL VALVES .

SEAT / POPPET TYPE VALVES .

3/2 SEAT TYPE VALVE .

4/2 SEAT TYPE .

SPOOL / SLIDING TYPE VALVES .

2/2 SPOOL VALVE .

3/2 SPOOL VALVE .

4/2 SPOOL VALVE .

5/2 DCV .

5/2 PILOT OPERATED DCV .

5/3 WAY VALVE .

SUSPENDED SEAT TYPE VALVE .

CONTROL .

ACTUATION OF VALVES .

SPEED REGULATORS .

FIXED TYPE FCV .

NON-RETURN TYPE FCV .

CHECK VALVE .

TWIN PRESSURE VALVE .

TWIN PRESSURE VALVE .USAGE .

SOLENOID OPERATED VALVE (3 WAY) .

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SIMPLE PNEUMATIC CONTROL .

ISO SYMBOLS FOR FLUID CIRCUITS .

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ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS USED IN PNEUMATIC CIRCUITS .

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PNEUMATIC CIRCUITS .

DIRECT CONTROL .

DIRECT ACTUATION .

INDIRECT ACTUATION .

.PILOT CONTROL OF A SINGLE ACTING CYL.

PILOT CONTROL OF A DOUBLE ACTING CYL. .

.SPEED CONTROL – SINGLE ACTING CYL.

SPEED CONTROL – DOUBLE ACTING CYL. .

.AIR PILOT CONTROL – DOUBLE ACTING CYL.

SEMI AUTOMATIC CONTROL – DOUBLE ACTING .

TWO STEP SPEED CONTROL OF A CYLINDER .

ACTUATION OF A PNEUMATIC MOTOR .

AUTOMATIC TO & FRO MOTION OF A DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER .

SEQUENCING CIRCUIT .

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MEMORY VALVE .

FLOW CONTROL VALVE .

FLOW CONTROL VALVE .

FLOW CONTROL VALVE .

SUPPLY AIR THROTLLING .

EXHAUST AIR THROTLLING .

QUICK EXHAUST VALVE .

QUICK EXHAUST VALVE .

QUICK EXHAUST VALVE .

QUICK EXHAUST VALVE .

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SIGNAL PROCESSING ELEMENTS .

SYNOPSIS • Non-moving logic elements find a prominent place in Finer Control Engineering • Characteristics offered by fluidic elements proves them to be at par with electronic controls • Development of various fluidic elements conforms the need of logic functions in Industrial Automation • Tesla’s fluid-diode & Theory of “Wall-attachment” – Canada forms the basic principle • Better control & feedback to the Pneumatic systems – Use Logic Gates along with power pneumatic circuits • Major area of application – Field of Sensors .

heat. electromagnetic interference etc. Mode of energy feeding is very simple. Smaller in size.FLUIDICS • Susceptibility to wear & tear of mechanical parts – Major problem in Hydraulics and Pneumatics • Challenge – Development of reliable control system without turning towards Electronics • Specific need of control engineering forced engineers for a solution within the fluid power system – Development of new types of fluid power elements in early 60’s – FLUIDIC ELEMENTS or FLUID LOGIC ELEMENTS • Biggest advantage – Minimum number of mechanical moving parts (no wear & tear) – NON-MOVING LOGIC CONTROLLERS • Much more reliable under adverse environmental conditions (vibration. radiation. shock.) • Simpler in construction. Very little space to mount • Mostly employ working medium as AIR • Easily adoptable to Logic Functions .

FLUIDICS It is the study of the performance and response characteristics of control systems. computing devices and logical switchgears based on fluidic elements OR The subject which deals with the area of fluid logics is called fluidics .

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • Tesla invented a conduit in 1916 for fluids • Easy & Difficult floe direction owing to the interference caused by the divided branch flow opposing the intended flow direction • Strong influence of electronics in this era accounts for the terminology “fluid-diode” used to describe Tesla’s valved conduit • Real Development – CONANDA EFFECT – Named after Henri Conanda – Observed and reported WALL-ATTACHMENT phenomenon .

05 to 0. even after the pushing control jet is removed (1933) He noted that entrainment of the trapped air next to the surface of the body over which it is moving creates a partial vacuum and the atmospheric air forces the fluid stream to cling to the surface of the solid over which the fluid is to travel • Existence of fluidic devices – 60’s .HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • WALL-ATTACHMENT When a jet of fluid is pushed into an inclined wall.termed as fluid amplifier • Working pressure used for pneumatic fluidic devices is very less – within 0 to 0. it will stay there.1 bar .

WHAT MAKES IT WORK? .

BI-STABLE FLIP-FLOP .

PNEUMATIC SIGNAL PROCESSING • Involves use of Pneumatic Logic Elements • Uses of air valves & other devices for control actions • Application of control actions to power systems to obtain the required actuation • Conversion of minimum force to signals to operate high pressure control valves LOGICS IN PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT DESIGN • Logic Controls – Design of control system based on reasoning arising out of deductive principle • Famous Greek philosopher ARISTOTLE (384 – 322 BC) – Father of deductive logic .

LOGIC FUNCTIONS • Pneumatic Shuttle valve and Dual pressure valve have logic functions • Both have two inputs and two outputs each • Shuttle valve characteristic – OR function • Dual pressure valve characteristic – AND function .

COMMON LOGIC FUNCTIONS Memory .

COMMON LOGIC FUNCTIONS .

COMMON LOGIC FUNCTIONS Time Dependent Limited Memory .

COMMON LOGIC FUNCTIONS AND Function .

LOGIC FUNCTIONS & BOOLEAN ALGEBRA .

LOGIC AND FUNCTION Logic Symbol Truth Table Logic Equation .

LOGIC AND FUNCTION Pneumatic Symbol PROBLEM .1 .

LOGIC AND FUNCTION .

SOLUTION .

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION .

PROBLEM - 2

POSITIONAL SKETCH

LOGIC OR FUNCTION
Logic Symbol Truth Table

Logic Equation

LOGIC OR FUNCTION Pneumatic Symbol .

LOGIC OR FUNCTION PROBLEM .3 SOLUTION .

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LOGIC OR FUNCTION PROBLEM .4 SOLUTION .

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5 .PROBLEM .

POSITIONAL SKETCH .

PRESSURE DEPENDENT CONTROL PROBLEM .6 SOLUTION .

POSITIONAL SKETCH .

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PRESSURE DEPENDENT CONTROL .

PRESSURE DEPENDENT CONTROL – EMBOSSING OF PLASTIC COMPONENTS PROBLEM .7 .

POSITIONAL SKETCH .

the cylinder may have to be retained in its extended position for a particular time • Automated Adhesive bonding operation • Usage of TIME DELAY VALVE .TIME DEPENDENT CONTROL • In certain applications.

TIME DELAY VALVE .

TIME DELAY VALVE .Symbol .

8 SOLUTION .TIME DELAY VALVE PROBLEM .

POSITIONAL SKETCH .

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PROBLEM .9 .

POSITIONAL SKETCH

MULTICYLINDER APPLICATIONS

INTRODUCTION

MOVEMENT DIAGRAM

TRAVEL TIME DIAGRAM

POSITION STEP DIAGRAM / MOTION CONTROL DIAGRAM

POSITION STEP DIAGRAM OF A PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT WITH TWO CYLINDERS .

PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT AS PER POSITION STEP DIAGRAM .

POSITIONAL SKETCH .

STEP DIAGRAM .DISPLACEMENT .

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM – INITIAL POSITION .

SOLUTION Continued…. ..

SOLUTION Continued….. .

1 .REPRESENTATION OF STEP .

REPRESENTATION OF STEP .2 .

REPRESENTATION OF STEP .3 .

4 .REPRESENTATION OF STEP .

5 .REPRESENTATION OF STEP .

CASCADE SYSTEM OF PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT DESIGN

PRINCIPLE & PROCEDURE

PRINCIPLE & PROCEDURE

Continued…..

FLOW LINES IN CASCADE SYSTEM

FIG. 10.6

PRINCIPLE & PROCEDURE Continued…. ..

POSITION STEP DIAGRAM FOR A 3 CYLINDER PNEUMATIC SYSTEM FIG.7 . 10.

PRINCIPLE & PROCEDURE Continued…. ..

FIG.8 . 10.

1 SOLUTION .CO-ORDINATED MOTION PROBLEM .

SEQUENTIAL MOTION CONTROL INEFFECTIVE WAY .

POSITION STEP DIAGRAM / MOTION CONTROL DIAGRAM .

LIMIT SWITCHES .

EFFECTIVE WAY .

POSITION STEP DIAGRAM / MOTION CONTROL DIAGRAM .

2 .SIGNAL ELIMINATION BY REVERSING VALVES PROBLEM .

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SOLUTION .

SOLUTION Continued….3 . PROBLEM ..

POSITIONAL SKETCH .

DISPLACEMENT STEP DIAGRAM .

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