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Prepared by Tanoy Kahali department of power engg.(JU)
Flowing water in rivers, streams, ocean waves, tide has the tremendous kinetic energy.
Again when water is stored in reservoir by constructing dam at higher altitude, plenty of potential energy is available. The project developed to convert these two types of water energy into electrical energy with the help of hydraulic turbines, electric generators and some other components is called hydro-electric project.
The basic principle is: water energy is converted to mechanical energy by the turbines; turbines shafts are coupled with shafts of electrical generator to convert the mechanical energy into electricity.
hydraulic turbine is one of the main components of harnessing this existing hydro-potential
2. Hydropower Development in India and other countries
The greatest hydro-electric power
developments in the world have been taken place in Canada, the U.S.A., Russia, Australia, New Zealand, France, Germany, Switzerland, Portugal, Norway, Sweden, China and Scotland.
In India, total hydropower potential has been assessed at 84,044 MW at 60% load
factor against which present capacity developed is 29976 MW i.e. about 36% of the country’s total.
North Eastern Region (NER) which has about 38% of the country’s total, the pace of development is very dismal. The hydropower developed so far in NER is approximately 2% of the country’s total generation capacity.
Hydropower and Thermal power .3.
ordinary fuel and atomic fuel like uranium or thorium is known as thermal power. But when fuel like coal. Hence hydro-electric development is easy due to its eternal source. oil etc. water is plenty almost everywhere. Electric power generated in both cases of In India. is burnt to produce steam for steam turbine. and then power generated is called thermal power. Hydropower is a green power and is produced from perennial source. It is a renewable source of energy which is inexhaustible. .
Classification of Hydro-electric power Plant .4.
Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plant (a) Based on hydraulic characteristics i.e. on storage requirement as: (b) Based on head of water under which they operate as: (i) Storage or reservoir plant or scheme (ii) Run-off-river plant (iii) Pumped Storage Plant (c) Based on functional basis as: (i) Base Load Plant (ii) Peak Load Plant (I) High Head Hydro-electric Plant (Head > 60 m) (ii) Medium head Hydro-electric Plant (15m< Head < 60m) (iii) Low Head Hydro-electric Plant (Head<15m) (d) Based on location of power house as: (i) Undivided or concentrated plant (ii) Divided Hydro-electric Plant .
e.Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plant (a) (a) Based on hydraulic characteristics i. on storage requirement as: (i) Storage or reservoir plant or scheme (ii) Run-off-river plant (iii) Pumped Storage Plant .
Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plant (a) (i) Storage or reservoir plant or scheme SECTIONAL VIEW OF FIGURE 1 .
Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plant (a) (ii) Run-off-river plant .
Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plant (a) (iii) Pumped Storage Plant .
Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plant (b) (b) Based on head of water under which they operate as: (i) High Head Hydro-electric Plant (Head > 60 m) (ii) Medium head Hydro-electric Plant (15m< Head < 60m) (iii) Low Head Hydro-electric Plant (Head<15m) .
Pumped storage plants and run-off river plants with pondage. A peak load plant is one which is designed and constructed to provide peak load demand during peak hours of the day.Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plant (c) (c) Based on functional basis as: (i) Base Load Plant (ii) Peak Load Plant Base load plant runs continuously to provide the base load required throughout the year. . It may be run-off river plant in Perennial River or a storage plant.
power house is located just below or very close to the dam In divided plant power house and the storage are divided The power house may be installed few km downstream of the reservoir.Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plant (d) (d) Based on location of power house as: (i) Undivided or concentrated plant (ii) Divided Hydro-electric Plant In undivided plant. .
Undivided or concentrated plant
Divided Hydro-electric Plant
5. Components of Hydro-electric power Plant
Components of Hydro-electric Plant
(1) Reservoir for storage scheme (2) Barrier like dam for storage plant and weir or barrage for run-off scheme (3) Surge Tank (4) Intake Structures (5) Forebay (6) Penstock (7) Waterway or tunnel or power canal (8) Power house with turbines, generator and other accessories. (9) Tail race channel (10) Pondage
6. Hydraulic Turbines
Hydro-electric power has been developed by hydraulic turbines which are hydraulic machines that convert hydro-potential into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy developed by the turbines is used for running the electric generators directly coupled to the turbine generator shaft
Thus, by the use of hydraulic turbines, hydropower is finally converted into hydroelectric power. Greater efforts have been made for the use of hydraulic turbines for the development of hydroelectric projects in India and other countries.
7. History of Development of Hydraulic Turbines
Water turbines were developed in the nineteenth
Significant contributors are
Claude Bourdin Claude in 19th. century, a French engineer, Jean-Victor Poncelet in 1820 on inward flow turbine, Benoit Fourneyron in 1826 on outward flow turbine, U. A. Boyden in 1844 on outward flow reaction turbine, James B. Francis in 1849 on inward flow reaction turbine, Victor Kaplan in 1913, a propeller type reaction turbine, Samuel Knight in 1866, an impulse or tangential turbine, finally developed in 1879 into a double bucket impulse turbine by Lester A Pelton known as Pelton wheel, William Doble slightly developed the Pelton wheel in 1895 but he kept the name PELTON WHEEL in honour of L A PELTON.
8. Classification of Turbines
Classification of Turbines(1) (i) On the basis of hydraulic action or type of energy at the inlet: (a) Impulse turbine (Pelton wheel or turbine) (b) Reaction turbine (Francis turbine) (ii) On the basis of the direction of flow through the runner: (a) Tangential flow turbine (Pelton wheel) (b) Radial flow turbine (Francis turbine. Thomson and Girard turbines) (c) Axial flow turbine (Kaplan turbine) (d) Mixed flow turbine (Modern Francis turbine) .
(Francis turbine. H< 60 m) (iv) On the basis of specific speed NS the turbine (a) Low specific speed turbine. 60 m <H<250 m) (c) Low head turbine (Kaplan turbine. Ns: 300 to 1000) . H>250 m) (b) Medium head turbine (Modern Francis turbine. (Kaplan turbine. Ns: 10 to 35) (b) Medium specific turbine. (Pelton wheel.Classification of Turbines(2) (iii) On the basis of the head of water (H): (a) High head turbine (Pelton wheel. Ns: 60 to 400) (c) High specific speed turbine.
9. Choice of Kinds of Turbines for different Hydro-projects .
Choice of kinds of turbines for different hydro-projects (a) Choice based on discharge and head (b) Choice based on specific speed (c ) On Part Load Operation (d) Choice for some Additional Points .
Choice of kinds of turbines for different hydro-projects (a)
a) Choice based on discharge and head
(i) When discharge is more and head is low(less than 60 m) choice is for Kaplan turbine. (ii) When head varies from 60m to 250 m, modern Francis turbine is selected. (iii) If the head of hydro-project is high (i.e. >250 m), Pelton wheel is preferred.
Choice of kinds of turbines for different hydro-projects (b)
(b) Choice based on specific speed ( Ns )
It is preferable to select a turbine with highest permissible specific speed which will not only be cheapest also it is relatively of small size. But one disadvantage is that higher specific speed turbine is liable to cavitations.
Choice of kinds of turbines for different hydro-projects (b)
The following table shows the head H, types of turbine and specific speed.
Head (m) 300 or more 150 to 300 200 to 300 150 to 200 60 to 150 Less than 60 30 to 60 16 to 30 Less than 16
Specific speed (S.I. unit) 8.5 to 30 30 to 85 8.5 to 48 50 to 85 85 to 187 187 to 860 187 to 255 255 to 860 255 to 860
Type of Turbines Pelton Pelton or Francis Pelton with more jets Francis Francis Francis, Kaplan Francis Kaplan Kaplan
Choice of kinds of turbines for different hydro-projects (c)
Considerable load variation in the hydro plant takes place and the turbine has been required to work under such condition. Efficiency of the plant varies when load variation takes place. On part load, performance of Kaplan and Pelton turbines is better in combination of Francis and propeller turbines. The variation of load influences the choice of kinds of turbines. Pelton is better for variation of load under higher range of heads. For head below 30 m, choice is for a Kaplan turbine.
(c)On Part Load Operation
Choice of kinds of turbines for different hydro-projects (d)
(d) Choice for some Additional Points
In addition to above, some additional points are to be considered in the choice of turbine.
(i) Rotational speed of turbine should be such that it will give the synchronous speed of the generator. (ii) Selection is also governed by initial and running cost. (iii) Cavitations affect the reaction turbine (iv) The presence of sediment in water ruled out the Francis turbine since runner blades are not able to withstand the erosive action.
10. Pelton Wheel or Turbine
Pelton Wheel or Turbine
11. Reaction Turbine: Inward flow and outward flow
In reaction water enters the turbine casing under pressure and a part of the total head (or pressure) is converted into velocity head before it reaches the runner. Thus the pressure of water changes gradually as it passes through the runner. The most commonly used reaction turbines are: (i) Francis turbine developed by J B Francis, an American engineer (ii) Kaplan turbine, developed by V Kaplan, an Austrian engineer. Reaction turbine may radial flow or axial flow. Again radial flow may be inward flow or outward flow depending upon whether water at inlet flows inward or outward.
11. Reaction Turbine: Inward flow and outward flow
A Sketch of Radial flow turbine is shown with its main components
11.1 Inward Flow Reaction Turbine
11.2 Outward Flow Reaction Turbine
Water initially enters at the runner radially at its outer periphery and leaves axially. Francis Turbine J B Francis first designed this Francis reaction turbine in 1849 as the inward flow reaction turbine. . But modern Francis turbine is mixed flow turbine.12.
an Austrian engineer. the amount of discharge is high enough to produce larger power. 13. It is also a reaction turbine and thus it requires entirely a closed conduit from head race to tail race. The vanes are fixed on the hub and hence hub acts as runner.Kaplan turbine . It is an axial flow turbine that is relatively suitable for low head and therefore.Kaplan turbine is a propeller type turbine developed by Victor Kaplan.
Intakes or Intake Structures .14.
ice. logs of wood. its bell mouth entry allows smooth flow. its trash racks prevents entry of debris. river born trash materials.The structures that are required to construct at the entrance of water from reservoir through tunnels. pipes. It also provides air inlet to the tunnel or penstock. It controls the flow to the turbines by gate. heavy sediment load from entering into the water flow area. penstocks are intakes or intakes structures. canals. .
.Different intakes are: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Run-off-river intake Canal intake Dam intake Tower intake (both dry and wet) Simple submerged intake Shaft intake Intake of special design.
Location of intakes (different intakes) .
15. Surge Tanks .
The two main functions of surge are: (i) To supply initial flow to the turbine or power house (ii) To eliminate the excess water hammer pressure developed due to sudden closing or no demand condition. . installed near the penstock valve . conduit or tunnel is quite long.Surge tank is one of the most important components of hydro-project when head of water is very high. It is a small reservoir usually circular in cross-section.
Different types of Surge tank .
The main function of spillway is to dispose of the surplus flood water that cannot be stored safely in the reservoir.Spillways are some important auxiliary components of dam and reservoir of hydroelectric project . chute spillway. shaft spillway. siphon spillway. cascade spillway etc. spillways are called safety valve of dam and reservoir. There are various types of spillways like ogee spillway. Therefore. . tunnel spillway. over fall spillway. side channel spillways. saddle spillway. gated spillway.
Different types of SPILLWAY .